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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Parablastomonas arctica gen. nov., sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from high Arctic glacial till.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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A pale yellow pigmented, aerobic bacterium, strain M0-2T, was isolated from a till sample. Its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphase approach. Cells are Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped and motile. Cells reproduce by budding or asymmetric cell division. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain M0-2T belonged to the family Sphingomonadaceae and was closely related to Novosphingobium species (96.4-92.0%), Blastomonas species (94.6%), Sphingopyxis witflariensis W-50T (94.0%), Sphingosinicella soli KSL-125T (93.6%) and Sphingomonas astaxanthinifaciens TDMA-17T (93.5%). Ubiquinone-10 (Q-10) was the predominant respiratory quinone. The major fatty acids were summed feature 8 (comprising C18:1 ?7c and/or C18:1 ?6c, 31.9%), summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1 ?7c and/or C16:1 ?6c, 19.8%) and C14:0 2-OH (8.9%). Sphingoglycolipid, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine were the major polar lipids. Spermidine was the major polyamine observed in the cell. The genomic DNA G+C content was 47.5 mol%. Based on the phylogenetic relationship, the low DNA G+C content compared with most other genera of the family Sphingomonadaceae and combined with phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data, strain M0-2T is considered to represent a novel species in a new genus in the family Sphingomonadaceae for which the name Parablastomonas arctica gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Parablastomonas arctica gen. nov., sp. nov. is M0-2T (=CCTCC AB 2012968 T = NRRL B-59110T).
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Acid-sensing ion channels promote the inflammation and migration of cultured rat microglia.
Glia
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2014
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Microglia, the major immune cells in central nervous system, act as the surveillance and scavenger of immune defense and inflammatory response. Previous studies suggest that there might be close relationship between acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) and inflammation, however, the exact role of ASICs in microglia during inflammation remains elusive. In the present study, we identified the existence of ASICs in the primary cultured rat microglia and explored their functions. By using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), western blotting, and immunofluorescence experiments, we demonstrated that ASIC1, ASIC2a, and ASIC3 were existed in cultured and in situ rat microglia. After lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, the expressions of microglial ASIC1 and ASIC2a were upregulated. Meanwhile, ASIC-like currents and acid-induced elevation of intracellular calcium were increased, which could be inhibited by the nonspecific ASICs antagonist amiloride and specific homomeric ASIC1a blocker PcTx1. In addition, both inhibitors reduced the expression of inflammatory cytokines, including inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2 stimulated by LPS. Furthermore, we also observed significant increase in the expression of ASIC1 and ASIC2a in scrape-stimulated microglial migration. Amiloride and PcTx1 prevented the migration by inhibiting ERK phosphorylation. Taken together, these results suggest that ASICs participate in neuroinflammatory response, which will provide a novel therapeutic strategy for controlling the inflammation-relevant neuronal diseases. GLIA 2014.
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Properties and fibroblast cellular response of soft and hard thermoplastic polyurethane electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds.
J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part B Appl. Biomater.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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Soft and hard thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and their blends were electrospun to fabricate nanofibrous scaffolds with various properties in order to investigate the substrate property effects on cellular response. The scaffolds were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, water contact angle tests, and protein absorption tests. It was found that the hard segment content in the scaffold increased with the hard TPU ratio, which resulted in improved hydrophobicity and decreased over all protein absorption. 3T3 fibroblasts were cultured on those scaffolds to investigate the cellular response. On soft TPU scaffolds, the cells formed were round in shape and aggregated into clusters. However, on hard TPU scaffolds, the cells exhibited a spindle shape and spread out on the scaffolds, indicating preferred cell-substrate interaction. The cell viability and proliferation of cells on hard scaffolds were higher than on soft scaffolds and on 50% hard/50% soft scaffolds. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2014.
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Preparation and characterization of monoclonal antibody against human B7-H4 molecule.
Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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B7-H4, a member of B7 family, is widely expressed in tumor tissues and plays an important role in the negative regulation of T cell immunity. In this study, we report on the establishment and characterization of a functional anti-human B7-H4 monoclonal antibody (MAb) 5G3 through hybridoma method. Flow cytometry analysis showed that MAb 5G3 specifically bound to B7-H4 molecule. Functional experiments indicated that MAb 5G3 could block the inhibitory role of B7-H4 molecule on A549 cells in and reduce the apoptosis of Jurkat cells, suggesting that MAb 5G3 is an antagonistic antibody and a useful tool for further studies of B7-H4 functions in cancers.
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Toxicological responses of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix exposed to excess dissolved iron or challenged by Vibrio parahaemolyticus.
Aquat. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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The responses of genes encoding defense components such as ferritin, the lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha factor (LITAF), the inhibitor of nuclear factor-?B (I?B), metallothionein, and glutathione peroxidase were assessed at the transcriptional level in order to investigate the toxicological and immune mechanism of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix (HCMM) following challenge with iron or a bacterium (Vibrio parahaemolyticus). Fe dissolved in natural seawater led to an increase of Fe content in both the hepatopancreas and gill tissue of HCMM between 4 and 15 days of exposure. The ferritin gene responded both transcriptionally as indicated by real-time quantitative PCR and translationally as shown by western blotting results to iron exposure and both transcriptional and translational ferritin expression in the hepatopancreas had a positive correlation with the concentration of dissolved iron in seawater. Both iron and V. parahaemolyticus exposure triggered immune responses with similar trends in clam tissues. There was a significant post-challenge mRNA expression of LITAF and I?B at 3h, ferritin at 24h, and metallothionein and glutathione peroxidase at 48h. This behavior might be linked to their specific functions in physiological processes. These results suggested that similar signaling pathways were triggered during both iron and V. parahaemolyticus challenges. Here, we indicated that the ferritin of Meretrix meretrix was an intermediate in the pathway of iron homeostasis and in its innate immune defense mechanism.
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Terrimonas arctica sp. nov., isolated from Arctic tundra soil.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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A novel, Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterium, designated R9-86(T), was isolated from tundra soil collected near Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard Archipelago, Norway (78° N). Growth occurred at 4-28 °C (optimum, 22-25 °C) and at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0). Flexirubin-type pigments were absent. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain R9-86(T) belonged to the genus Terrimonas in the family Chitinophagaceae. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between strain R9-86(T) and the type strains of species of the genus Terrimonas with validly published names ranged from 93.7 to 95.0?%. Strain R9-86(T) contained iso-C15?:?1-G (25.7?%), iso-C15?:?0 (24.5?%), iso-C17?:?0-3OH (18.3?%) and summed feature 3 (C16?:?1?7c and/or C16?:?1?6c, 8.7?%) as its major cellular fatty acids; phosphatidylethanolamine and an unknown polar lipid as its main polar lipids, and MK-7 as its predominant respiratory quinone. The DNA G+C content was 48.4 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain R9-86(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Terrimonas, for which the name Terrimonas arctica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is R9-86(T) (?=?CCTCC AB 2011004(T)?=?NRRL B-59114(T)).
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Attention Bias Modification training in individuals with depressive symptoms: A randomized controlled trial.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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Negative attentional biases are often considered to have a causal role in the onset and maintenance of depressive symptoms. This suggests that reduction of such biases may be a plausible strategy in the treatment of depressive symptoms. The present clinical randomized controlled trial examined long-term effects of a computerized attention bias modification (ABM) procedure on individuals with elevated depressive symptoms.
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Desertibacter xinjiangensis sp. nov., isolated from the soil of a Euphrates poplar forest, and emended description of the genus Desertibacter.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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A pale pink and strictly aerobic bacterium, designated strain M71(T), was isolated from the soil of a Euphrates poplar forest in Xingjiang, PR China. Cells of the strain were Gram-reaction-negative, rod-shaped and motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Growth occurred at 10-37 °C (optimum 30 °C), at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.0-8.0) and with 0-2.0?% NaCl (w/v, optimum 0?%). Phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, indicated that strain M71(T) belongs to the genus Desertibacter in the family Rhodospirillaceae. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of this strain showed 96.2?% sequence similarity with the type strain of Desertibacter roseus 2262(T). The respiratory quinone was Q-10 and the predominant cellular fatty acids were C18?:?1?7c (53.2?%), C16?:?1?5c (11.0?%), summed feature 3 (C16?:?1?7c and/or C16?:?1?6c, 10.2?%) and C16?:?0 (8.5?%). The DNA G+C content was 71.2 mol% (HPLC). The strain contained phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine as the predominant polar lipids. On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain M71(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Desertibacter, for which the name Desertibacter xinjiangensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is M71(T) (?=?CCTCC AB 209291(T)?=?CIP 110127(T)).
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A bridge between the aminoacylation and editing domains of leucyl-tRNA synthetase is crucial for its synthetic activity.
RNA
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Leucyl-tRNA synthetases (LeuRSs) catalyze the linkage of leucine with tRNA(Leu). LeuRS contains a catalysis domain (aminoacylation) and a CP1 domain (editing). CP1 is inserted 35 Å from the aminoacylation domain. Aminoacylation and editing require CP1 to swing to the coordinated conformation. The neck between the CP1 domain and the aminoacylation domain is defined as the CP1 hairpin. The location of the CP1 hairpin suggests a crucial role in the CP1 swing and domain-domain interaction. Here, the CP1 hairpin of Homo sapiens cytoplasmic LeuRS (hcLeuRS) was deleted or substituted by those from other representative species. Lack of a CP1 hairpin led to complete loss of aminoacylation, amino acid activation, and tRNA binding; however, the mutants retained post-transfer editing. Only the CP1 hairpin from Saccharomyces cerevisiae LeuRS (ScLeuRS) could partly rescue the hcLeuRS functions. Further site-directed mutagenesis indicated that the flexibility of small residues and the charge of polar residues in the CP1 hairpin are crucial for the function of LeuRS.
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Targeted metabolomic study indicating glycyrrhizin’s protection against acetaminophen-induced liver damage through reversing fatty acid metabolism.
Phytother Res
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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The present study aimed to give a short report on a possible mechanism of glycyrrhizin to acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity. Seven-day intraperitoneal administration of glycyrrhizin (400 mg/kg/day) to 2- to 3-month-old male C57BL/6N mice (mean weight 27 g) significantly prevents acetaminophen-induced liver damage, as indicated by the activity of alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase. Metabolomics analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) using ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled to triple time-of-flight mass spectrometer were performed. PCA separated well the control, glycyrrhizin-treated, acetaminophen-treated, and glycyrrhizin+acetaminophen-treated groups. Long-chain acylcarnitines were listed as the top ions that contribute to this good separation, which include oleoylcarnitine, palmitoylcarnitine, palmitoleoylcarnitine, and myristoylcarnitine. The treatment of glycyrrhizin significantly reversed the increased levels of long-chain acylcarnitines induced by acetaminophen administration. In conclusion, this metabolomic study indicates a significant glycyrrhizin protection effect against acetaminophen-induced liver damage through reversing fatty acid metabolism.
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[Cervical spondylosis of vertebral artery treated with thermosensitive moxibustion with different dosages: a randomized controlled trial].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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To compare the difference in the clinical efficacy on cervical spondylosis of vertebral artery type (CSA) treated with thermosensitive moxibustion at different dosages.
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Decreased white matter integrity in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: a machine learning approach.
Neuroreport
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Statistical analysis on diffusion tensor imaging has been used extensively in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) and most studies report decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA) in multiple white matter regions. However, these findings vary across studies and between regions. Therefore, in this study, we used tract-based spatial statistics along with machine learning approaches to investigate the whole-brain white matter changes between 17 left mTLE patients and 15 right mTLE patients and 34 matched healthy controls. The results showed that the three groups could be distinguished from each other with promising accuracy. Compared with controls, the FA value of the most discriminating voxels was decreased in the ipsilateral limbic system, corpus callosum, and temporal white matter in both patient groups. Compared with right mTLE, left mTLE had decreased FA in the left temporal white matter, whereas right mTLE had decreased FA in the right frontal and temporal white matter, and right posterior corona radiata. These findings not only provide useful information for lateralization of the seizure focus but can also be used as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis and treatment of the mTLE. This may be helpful in assessment of patients with mTLE when no lesion is detected on visual evaluation.
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An isomer of c60 cl10 free of skew-pentagonal-pyramidal c60 cl6 substructure.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Chlorination is an effective approach for understanding the feature of multiple additions on fullerene cages. The chlorofullerenes obtained are versatile synthons for further derivatization. However, chlorofullerenes used for chemical reaction studies are mainly based on the skew-pentagonal-pyramidal (SPP) C60 Cl6 . In this work, a new isomer of C60 Cl10 that does not contain an SPP-C60 Cl6 substructure was identified. Its electrochemical properties give it unexpected cyclic voltammetric behavior at more negative potentials relative to other chlorofullerenes. Friedel-Crafts arylation shows good reactivity of this compound. These new findings challenge opinions of fullerene addition patterns and will break the monopoly of C60 Cl6 as a precursor for fullerene modifications.
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Therapeutic effect and mechanism of electroacupuncture at Zusanli on plasticity of interstitial cells of Cajal: a study of rat ileum.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Electroacupuncture (EA) is one of the techniques of acupuncture and is believed to be an effective alternative and complementary treatment in many disorders. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects and mechanisms of EA at acupoint Zusanli (ST36) on the plasticity of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) in partial bowel obstruction.
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Three new phenylpropanoids from the roots of Piper taiwanense and their inhibitory activities on platelet aggregation and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Chem. Biodivers.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Bioassay-guided fractionation of the active AcOEt-soluble fraction from the roots of Piper taiwanense has led to the isolation of two new phenylpropanoids, taiwanensols A and B (1 and 2, resp.), a new natural product, taiwanensol C (3), and 3-acetoxy-4-hydroxy-1-allylbenzene (4). The compounds were obtained as two isomer mixtures (1/2 and 3/4, resp.). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses, including 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, and by the comparison of their NMR data with those of related compounds. Compounds 1-4 were evaluated for their antiplatelet and antitubercular activities. The mixtures 1/2 and 3/4 showed potent inhibitory activities against platelet aggregation induced by collagen, with IC50 values of 35.2 and 8.8 ?M, respectively. In addition, 1/2 and 3/4 showed antitubercular activities against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, with MIC values of 30.0 and 48.0 ?g/ml, respectively.
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Pseudomonas donghuensis sp. nov., exhibiting high-yields of siderophore.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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A strain giving high-yields of siderophores, designated HYS(T), was isolated from the water of East Lake (also called Donghu Lake) of Wuhan in China. Strain HYS(T) is Gram-stain negative, non-spore-forming and rod-shaped with polar flagella. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene and the other three housekeeping genes (gyrB, rpoD and rpoB) indicated that strain HYS(T) belongs to the genus Pseudomonas. Genomic DNA comparison experiments including DNA-DNA hybridization and whole-genome sequence similarities were performed between HYS(T) and its phylogenetically most closely related type strains, all of the relatedness values are lower than the threshold to ascribe strain HYS(T) to a known species. The major cellular fatty acids of strain HYS(T) are C16:0, C17:0 cyclo, Summed feature 3 (C16:1 ?7c or/and C16:1 ?6c) and Summed feature 8 (C18:1 ?7c or C18:1 ?6c). Its predominant isoprenoid quinone was identified as Q-9, and the minor isoprenoid quinone was Q-8. Phylogenetic analysis together with genomic DNA comparison, phenotypic metabolic tests and chemotaxonomic analysis justified the proposal of strain HYS(T) as a representative of a novel species, for which the name Pseudomonas donghuensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HYS(T) ( = CCTCC AB 2012141(T) = NRRL B-59108(T)).
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Asymmetric catalytic conjugate addition of acetaldehyde to nitrodienynes/nitroenynes: applications to the syntheses of (+)-?-lycorane and chiral ?-alkynyl acids.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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The catalytic enantioselective conjugate addition of acetaldehyde to polyconjugated substrates, nitrodienynes and nitroenynes, has been accomplished using organocatalysis. Various functionalized 1,3-enynes and propargylic compounds were obtained in moderate to good yields with high enantioselectivity. The synthetic utilities of the conjugate addition reactions have been highlighted in the concise total synthesis of (+)-?-lycorane and the metal-free synthesis of chiral ?-alkynyl acids.
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Is nationwide special campaign on antibiotic stewardship program effective on ameliorating irrational antibiotic use in China? Study on the antibiotic use of specialized hospitals in China in 2011-2012.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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With dwindling number of new antibiotics and inappropriate use of antibiotics, the emergence and spread of antibiotics resistance occurs commonly in healthcare institutions worldwide. In China, antibiotics are commonly over prescribed and misused. This study is to assess the effect of the nationwide special campaign on antibiotic stewardship program (ASP) at specialized hospitals in China by investigating prescription information from 2011 to 2012. Data on the hospital consumption and prescription of systemic antibiotics were obtained from four specialized hospitals, including maternity, children's, stomatological and cancer hospitals. Systematic random sampling was used to select outpatient prescriptions and inpatient cases. A total of 105 specialized hospitals in 2011 and 121 specialized hospitals in 2012 were analysed. The defined daily doses (DDDs) per 100 inpatient days, the percentage of antibiotic use in outpatient prescriptions, and the percentage of antibiotic use in inpatient cases were used as measurements of antibiotic use. The overall antibiotic use density in the selected hospitals decreased between 2011 and 2012 from 39.37 to 26.54 DDD/100 inpatient days (P<0.001). The percentage of antibiotic use in outpatient prescriptions (range: 24.12%-18.71%, P=0.109) and inpatient cases (64.85%-60.10%, P=0.006) also decreased within the two years. Significant changes were observed among regions and different hospitals within the two years. And antibiotic consumption was correlated with the type and size of specialized hospital in 2012, but not with the regions. This analysis of antibiotic consumption of specialized hospitals allows relevant comparisons for benchmarking and shows that national ASP has improved antibiotic rational use in China. The data will assist policymakers in formulating effective strategies to decrease antibiotic overuse and identify areas that require further work.
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Pedobacter huanghensis sp. nov. and Pedobacter glacialis sp. nov., isolated from Arctic glacier foreland.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Two psychrotolerant, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterial strains, designed M1-27(T) and 8-24(T), were subjected to polyphasic taxonomic studies. Strain M1-27(T) was isolated from the foreland of the Midtre Lovénbreen glacier, whereas strain 8-24(T) was isolated from the foreland of the Austre Lovénbreen glacier. Both were Arctic glacier forelands, near Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard Archipelago, Norway. Strains M1-27(T) and 8-24(T) exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 91.0-96.0% and 92.3-96.7%, respectively, to type strains of recognized species of the genus Pedobacter. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the two strains were grouped with members of the genus Pedobacter, but represented distinct taxa. Both strains contained MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone. The DNA G+C contents of strains M1-27(T) and 8-24(T) were 43.8% and 39.4%, respectively. The phenotypic characteristics, biochemical properties and polygenetic analysis, clearly indicated that strains M1-27(T) (?=?CCTCC AB 2012936(T)?= LMG 28205(T)) and 8-24(T) (?= CCTCC AB 2012941(T)?= NRRL B-59993(T)) represent two novel species of the genus Pedobacter, for which the names Pedobacter huanghensis sp. nov. and Pedobacter glacialis sp. nov., respectively, are proposed.
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Spirosoma arcticum sp. nov., isolated from high Arctic glacial till.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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A novel orange-pigmented strain, designated R2-35(T), was isolated from a glacier till near Ny-Alesund, Svalbard Archipelago, Norway. The cells were aerobic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped and sometimes filamentous. Growth occurred at 4-28 °C (optimum, 20 °C), at pH 7.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 8.0) and with 0-1% NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain R2-35(T) belonged to the genus Spirosoma with sequence similarity to related species ranging from 91.65 to 95.19%. Strain R2-35(T) contained C16 : 0 (10.7%), C18 : 0 (9.2%), C16 : 1?5c (16.5%) and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1?6c and/or C16 : 1?7c) (24.6%) as the major cellular fatty acids, MK-7 as the major respiratory quinone, and phosphatidylethanolamine as the main polar lipid. The DNA G+C content of strain R2-35(T) was 54.9 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic, physiological and chemotaxonomic data, strain R2-35(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Spirosoma, for which the name Spirosoma arcticum sp. nov., is proposed, The type strain is R2-35(T) (?= CCTCC AB 2012849(T)?= LMG 28141(T)).
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Hydrogen-rich water confers plant tolerance to mercury toxicity in alfalfa seedlings.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2014
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In this report, the effect of hydrogen-rich water (HRW), which was used to investigate the physiological roles of hydrogen gas (H2) in plants recently, on the regulation of plant adaptation to mercury (Hg) toxicity was studied. Firstly, we observed that the exposure of alfalfa seedlings to HgCl2 triggered production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), growth stunt and increased lipid peroxidation. However, such effects could be obviously blocked by HRW. Meanwhile, significant decreases in the relative ion leakage and Hg accumulation were observed. Hg-induced increases in total and isozymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly reversed by HRW. Further results suggested that HRW-induced the activities of guaiacol peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), two hydrogen peroxide-scavenging enzymes, was at transcriptional levels. Meanwhile, obvious increases of the ratios of reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH), homoglutathione (hGSH), and ascorbic acid (AsA) and corresponding gene expression were consistent with the decreased oxidative damage in seedling roots. In summary, the results of this investigation indicated that HRW was able to alleviate Hg toxicity in alfalfa seedlings by (i) alleviating growth stunt and reducing Hg accumulation, and (ii) avoidance of oxidative stress and reestablishment of redox homeostasis.
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Inhibition of acid-sensing ion channels by levo-tetrahydropalmatine in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.
J. Neurosci. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Levo-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP), a main bioactive Chinese herbal constituent from the genera Stephania and Corydalis, has been in use in clinical practice for years in China as a traditional analgesic agent. However, the mechanism underlying the analgesic action of l-THP is poorly understood. This study shows that l-THP can exert an inhibitory effect on the functional activity of native acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), which are believed to mediate pain caused by extracellular acidification. l-THP dose dependently decreased the amplitude of proton-gated currents mediated by ASICs in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. l-THP shifted the proton concentration-response curve downward, with a decrease of 40.93%?±?8.45% in the maximum current response to protons, with no significant change in the pH0.5 value. Moreover, l-THP can alter the membrane excitability of rat DRG neurons to acid stimuli. It significantly decreased the number of action potentials and the amplitude of the depolarization induced by an extracellular pH drop. Finally, peripherally administered l-THP inhibited the nociceptive response to intraplantar injection of acetic acid in rats. These results indicate that l-THP can inhibit the functional activity of ASICs in dissociated primary sensory neurons and relieve acidosis-evoked pain in vivo, which for the first time provides a novel peripheral mechanism underlying the analgesic action of l-THP. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Hymenobacter arcticus sp. nov., isolated from glacial till.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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A novel, red-pink-pigmented strain, designated R2-4(T), was isolated from a till sample near Ny-Alesund, Svalbard Archipelago, Norway. Cells were aerobic, Gram-stain-negative and rod-shaped. Growth occurred at 4-30 °C (optimum, 20-22 °C), at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and with 0-1% NaCl added to R2A agar. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain R2-4(T) belonged to the genus Hymenobacter. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain R2-4(T) and the type strains of related species of the genus ranged from 94.51 to 96.05%. Strain R2-4(T) contained iso-C(15?:?0), anteiso-C(15?:?0), summed feature 3 (C(16?:?1)?6c and/or C(16?:?1)?7c), summed feature 4 (C(17?:?1) anteiso B and/or iso I) and C(16?:?1)?5c as the major cellular fatty acids, MK-7 as the major respiratory quinone, and phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown aminophospholipids, unknown aminolipids and unknown lipids as the main polar lipids. The polyamine was sym-homospermidine. The DNA G+C content of strain R2-4(T) was 61.6 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic, physiological and chemotaxonomic data, strain R2-4(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Hymenobacter, for which the name Hymenobacter arcticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is R2-4(T) (?=?CCTCC AB 2012104(T)?=?KACC 16881(T)).
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Compact surface plasmon resonance imaging sensing system based on general optoelectronic components.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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We present a simple surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) sensing system based on some common optoelectronic devices in this paper. Using an optical fiber based SPR sensor as sensing element in our system, the SPRi system is dramatically compact. A small universal LED is used as the light source. The light intensity is record as images that can be captured by a simple web camera. A Microsoft Visual C++6.0 based Windows software program is written to process the image data which contain SPRi information. Experimental results show that the relationship between the relative intensity and RI is a linear relation in a RI range from 1.3396 to 1.3645. Using this SPRi device, we measure the specific binding between the Con A and RNase B, which demonstrates its capability for biomedical selective affinity monitoring. The proposed SPRi sensing system also has the capacity for biochemical multiple channel measurement with further investigation.
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Identification of the proteomic variations of invasive relative to non-invasive non-functional pituitary adenomas.
Electrophoresis
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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The incomplete surgery section of invasive non-functional pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) carries the increased risks of complications and requires adjuvant radiotherapy and medications. It is necessary to clarify the molecular mechanisms and markers of invasiveness to guide the management of NFPA patients. The study aimed to proteomic variations of invasive and non-invasive NFPAs and sought the protein markers for invasive NFPAs. Invasive (n = 4) and non-invasive (n = 4) NFPA tissues were analyzed (n = 3-5/each tissue) with 2DE and PDQuest software. Twenty-four high-resolution 2DE gels were quantitatively compared to determine differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) between invasive and non-invasive NFPAs. Approximately 1200 protein spots were detected in each 2DE map, and 103 differential spots (64 upregulated and 39 downregulated) were identified. Among those 103 differential spots, 57 DEPs (30 upregulated and 27 downregulated) were characterized with peptide mass fingerprint and MS/MS. Gene-ontology (GO) and ingenuity pathway analyses of those DEPs revealed pathway networks including mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling abnormality, TR/RXR activation, proteolysis abnormality, ketogenesis and ketolysis, cyclin-dependent kinase C signaling abnormality, and amyloid processing that were significantly associated with invasive characteristics of invasive NFPA. Those data demonstrate that proteomic variations exist between invasive and non-invasive NFPAs. 2DE-based comparative proteomics is an effective approach to identify proteomic variations and pathway network variations. Those findings will serve as a basis to understand the molecular mechanisms of invasive NFPAs and to discover protein markers to effectively manage patients with invasive NFPAs.
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Combined sildenafil with vacuum erection device therapy in the management of diabetic men with erectile dysfunction after failure of first-line sildenafil monotherapy.
Int. J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of combination therapy of sildenafil plus vacuum erection devices in men with type?2 diabetes mellitus with moderate to severe erectile dysfunction who are dissatisfied with the results of using sildenafil alone.
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Unusual compression behavior of nanocrystalline CeO?.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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The x-ray diffraction study of 12?nm CeO2 was carried out up to ~40?GPa using an angle dispersive synchrotron-radiation in a diamond-anvil cell with different pressure transmitting medium (PTM) (4:1 methanol: ethanol mixture, silicone oil and none) at room temperature. While the cubic fluorite-type structure CeO2 was retained to the highest pressure, there is progressive broadening and intensity reduction of the reflections with increasing pressure. At pressures above 12?GPa, an unusual change in the compression curve was detected in all experiments. Significantly, apparent negative volume compressibility was observed at P = 18-27?GPa with silicone oil as PTM, however it was not detected in other circumstances. The expansion of the unit cell volume of cubic CeO2 was about 1% at pressures of 15-27?GPa. To explain this abnormal phenomenon, a dual structure model (hard amorphous shell and relatively soft crystalline core) has been proposed.
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Synthesis of [60]fullerene-fused tetrahydrobenzooxepine and isochroman derivatives via hydroxyl-directed C-H activation/C-O cyclization.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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The palladium-catalyzed hydroxyl-directed C-H activation/C-O cyclization reaction of [60]fullerene with 2-phenylethyl alcohols and benzyl alcohols afforded [60]fullerene-fused tetrahydrobenzooxepine and isochroman derivatives in up to 43% yield. A plausible reaction mechanism is proposed, and the electrochemistry was also investigated.
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Depletion of canonical Wnt signaling components has a neuroprotective effect on midbrain dopaminergic neurons in an MPTP-induced mouse model of Parkinson's disease.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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The canonical Wnt signaling pathway is critical for the development of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons, and recent studies have suggested that disruption of this signaling cascade may underlie the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the exact role of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, including low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 and 6 (LRP5/6) and ?-catenin components, in a mouse model of PD remains unclear. In the present study, the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-Cre transgenic mouse line was used to generate mice with the specific knockout of LRP5, LRP6 or ?-catenin in DA neurons. Following inactivation of LRP5, LRP6 or ?-catenin, TH-immunohistochemical staining was performed. The results indicated that ?-catenin is required for the development or maintenance of these neurons; however, LRP5 and LRP6 were found to be dispensable. In 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mice, the depletion of LRP5, LRP6 or ?-catenin was found to be protective for the midbrain DA neurons to a certain extent. These in vivo results provide a novel perspective for the function of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in a mouse model of PD.
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Catalytic enantioselective and divergent total synthesis of (+)-10-oxocylindrocarpidine, (+)-cylindrocarpidine, (-)-N-acetylcylindrocarpinol, and (+)-aspidospermine.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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The catalytic enantioselective and divergent total syntheses of Aspidosperma alkaloids (+)-10-oxocylindrocarpidine 7, (+)-cylindrocarpidine 1, (-)-N-acetylcylindrocarpinol 6, and (+)-aspidospermine 8 have been accomplished in 11 steps from a common precursor (15) on the basis of a highly concise route. The route features three metal-catalyzed reactions, including the key Pd-catalyzed decarboxylative asymmetric allylation of carbazolones developed in our laboratory. Our syntheses, using a combination of C-H activation, enantioselective catalysis, and collective synthesis, represent the first total synthesis of 10-oxocylindrocarpidine and the first asymmetric total synthesis of cylindrocarpidine and N-acetylcylindrocarpinol.
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Psychroglaciecola arctica gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from Arctic glacial foreland soil.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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A novel pink-pigmented, facultatively methylotrophic strain, designated M6-76T, was isolated from glacial foreland soil near Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard Archipelago, Norway. Cells of strain M6-76T were rod-shaped (0.4-0.7×0.8-2.0 µm), Gram-stain-negative, aerobic and motile by a single polar flagellum. Growth occurred at 4-28 °C (optimum 18 °C) and at pH 5-8 (optimum pH 7). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain M6-76T belonged to the family Methylobacteriaceae. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the novel strain showed 94.6%, 94.0% and 93.9% sequence similarity to those of Methylobacterium salsuginis MRT, Methylobacterium organophilum ATCC 27886T and Microvirga subterranea FaiI4T, respectively. Cells could utilize methanol as the sole source of carbon and energy but not formate. The major respiratory quinone was Q-10. The polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and two unknown polar lipids. The predominant cellular fatty acids were summed feature 8 (C18:1?7c and/or C18:1?6c), summed feature 3 (C16:1?6c and/or C16:1?7c) and C16:0. The DNA G+C content was 67 mol%. The polyphasic data presented in this study indicated that the isolate should be classified as representing a novel species of a new genus within the family Methylobacteriaceae. The name Psychroglaciecola arctica gen. nov., sp. nov. is therefore proposed for the isolate. The type strain of the type species is M6-76T (=CCTCC AB 2013033T=KACC 17684T).
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Microjaponin, a new dihydroagarofuranoid sesquiterpene from the stem of Microtropis japonica with antituberculosis activity.
Chem. Biodivers.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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A new dihydroagarofuran-based sesquiterpene, microjaponin (1), was isolated from the stem of Microtropis japonica. Its structure was determined by in-depth spectroscopic and mass-spectrometric analyses. Microjaponin (1) exhibited potent in vitro antituberculosis activity, with an MIC value of 12.5 ?g/ml against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 Rv.
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Different risk factors between intracranial and extracranial atherosclerotic stenosis in Asian population: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Int. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Sex, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, age and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are major vascular risk factors for intracranial or extracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS or ECAS) in Asian population. Here, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the different influence of these factors on ICAS compared to ECAS in Asian population, by searching PUBMED, EMBASE and Web of Science databases. Sensitivity analysis was performed by repeating the fixed or random effects model meta-analysis with removing each study individually. All statistical analysis was conducted with Stata 11.0. Finally, 15 studies including 3787 patients were identified, 2661 patients in ICAS group and 1126 patients in ECAS group, respectively. Our results showed that female or the patients with MetS were more likely to suffer from ICAS than ECAS, which pooled ORs of ICAS versus ECAS were 2.16 (95% CI: 1.65-2.83, p < 0.0001) and 1.68 (95% CI: 1.32-2.12, p < 0.0001), respectively. Meanwhile, the smoker or the patients with dyslipidemia were more likely to suffer from ECAS than ICAS, which pooled ORs of ICAS versus ECAS were 0.71 (95% CI: 0.61-0.84, p < 0.0001) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.63-0.90, p = 0.002), respectively. However, age, hypertension and diabetes had not different influence on the location of atherosclerotic stenosis, and the pooled MD and ORs were -0.69 (95% CI: -1.52-0.15, p = 0.11), 1.08 (95% CI: 0.92-1.27, p = 0.34) and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.88-1.19, p = 0.76), respectively. Our results suggested that female sex and MetS were more associated with ICAS, while smoking and dyslipidemia were more associated with ECAS. There was no significant difference between ICAS and ECAS in terms of age, hypertension and diabetes.
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Coexistence of bacterial leucyl-tRNA synthetases with archaeal tRNA binding domains that distinguish tRNA(Leu) in the archaeal mode.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Leucyl-tRNA (transfer RNA) synthetase (LeuRS) is a multi-domain enzyme, which is divided into bacterial and archaeal/eukaryotic types. In general, one specific LeuRS, the domains of which are of the same type, exists in a single cell compartment. However, some species, such as the haloalkaliphile Natrialba magadii, encode two cytoplasmic LeuRSs, NmLeuRS1 and NmLeuRS2, which are the first examples of naturally occurring chimeric enzymes with different domains of bacterial and archaeal types. Furthermore, N. magadii encodes typical archaeal tRNA(Leu)s. The tRNA recognition mode, aminoacylation and translational quality control activities of these two LeuRSs are interesting questions to be addressed. Herein, active NmLeuRS1 and NmLeuRS2 were successfully purified after gene expression in Escherichia coli. Under the optimized aminoacylation conditions, we discovered that they distinguished cognate NmtRNA(Leu) in the archaeal mode, whereas the N-terminal region was of the bacterial type. However, NmLeuRS1 exhibited much higher aminoacylation and editing activity than NmLeuRS2, suggesting that NmLeuRS1 is more likely to generate Leu-tRNA(Leu) for protein biosynthesis. Moreover, using NmLeuRS1 as a model, we demonstrated misactivation of several non-cognate amino acids, and accuracy of protein synthesis was maintained mainly via post-transfer editing. This comprehensive study of the NmLeuRS/tRNA(Leu) system provides a detailed understanding of the coevolution of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and tRNA.
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Genetic environments of the transferable plasmid-mediated blaCTX-M-3 gene in Serratia marcescens isolates.
Jpn. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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In this study, genetic environments of the transferable plasmid-mediated blaCTX-M-3 gene were characterized among 14 isolates of cefotaxime-resistant Serratia marcescens using PCR and BLAST DNA sequence analysis. A total of 3 types of genetic architectures in the regions surrounding this blaCTX-M-3 gene were identified. Type I architecture was characterized by the presence of a complete insertion sequence of tnpA-ISEcp1, identified as interrupting a reverse IS26 sequence in the upstream region of the blaCTX-M-3 gene. A reverse-directional orf477 fragment was located downstream of the blaCTX-M-3 gene, which was in the same direction of the mucA gene. A common region containing the orf513 element was located upstream of the mucA gene. Moreover, a copy of the 3'-CS2 element was located immediately upstream of the orf513 element. A novel complex class 1 integron was characterized by the presence of the dfrA19 gene, which was flanked by two copies of class 1 integrons. This is the first report to describe the dfrA19 gene within a novel complex class 1 integron in S. marcescens isolates from Taiwan. This novel complex class 1 integron structure was located distantly upstream of the blaCTX-M-3 gene.
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Endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol protects primary cultured neurons against LPS-induced impairments in rat caudate nucleus.
J. Mol. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of many diseases in the central nervous system. Caudate nucleus (CN), the largest nucleus in the brain, is also implicated in many neurological disorders. 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), the most abundant endogenous cannabinoid and the true natural ligand for CB1 receptors, has been shown to exhibit neuroprotective effects through its anti-inflammatory action from proinflammatory stimuli in hippocampus. However, it is still not clear whether 2-AG is also able to protect CN neurons from proinflammation stimuli. In the present study, we discovered that 2-AG significantly protects CN neurons in culture against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response. 2-AG is capable of suppressing elevation of LPS-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression associated with ERK/p38MAPK/NF-?B signaling pathway in CB1 receptor-dependant manner in primary cultured CN neurons. Moreover, 2-AG inhibits LPS-induced increase in voltage-gated sodium channel currents and hyperpolarizing shift of activation curves through CB1 receptor-dependant pathway. Our study suggests the therapeutic potential of 2-AG for the treatment of some inflammation-induced neurological disorders and pain.
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Electrospinning of unidirectionally and orthogonally aligned thermoplastic polyurethane nanofibers: Fiber orientation and cell migration.
J Biomed Mater Res A
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Unidirectionally and orthogonally aligned thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) nanofibers were electrospun using a custom-built electrospinning device. The unidirectionally aligned fibers were collected using two parallel copper plates, and the orthogonally aligned fibers were collected using two orthogonal sets of parallel copper plates with alternate negative connections. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) were added to modify the polymer solution. It was found that both CNT and PAA were capable of increasing solution conductivity. The TPU/PAA fiber showed the highest degree of fiber orientation with more than 90% of the fibers having an orientation angle between -10° and 10° for unidirectionally aligned fibers, and for orthogonally aligned fibers, the orientation angle of 50% fibers located between -10° and 10° and 48% fibers located between 80° and 100°. Viability assessment of 3T3 fibroblasts cultured on TPU/PAA fibers suggested that the material was cytocompatible. The cells' orientation and migration direction closely matched the fibers' orientation. The cell migration velocity and distance were both enhanced with the guidance of fibers compared with cells cultured on random fibers and common tissue culture plastic. Controlling cell migration velocity and directionality may provide ways to influence differentiation and gene expression and systems that would allow further exploration of wound repair and metastatic cell behavior. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2014.
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Remediation of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soil by using a combination of ryegrass, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and earthworms.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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In this work, a laboratory experiment was performed to investigate the influences of inoculation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus caledoniun L. and/or epigeic earthworms (Eisenia foetida) on phytoremediation of a PCB-contaminated soil by ryegrass grown for 180d. Planting ryegrass, ryegrass inoculated with earthworms, ryegrass inoculated with AMF, and ryegrass co-inoculated with AMF and earthworms decreased significantly initial soil PCB contents by 58.4%, 62.6%, 74.3%, and 79.5%, respectively. Inoculation with AMF and/or earthworms increased the yield of plants, and the accumulation of PCBs in ryegrass. However, PCB uptake by ryegrass accounted for a negligible portion of soil PCB removal. The number of soil PCB-degrading populations increased when ryegrass was inoculated with AMF and/or earthworms. The data show that fungal inoculation may significantly increase the remedial potential of ryegrass for soil contaminated with PCBs.
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Thermoplastic polyurethane/hydroxyapatite electrospun scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: effects of polymer properties and particle size.
J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part B Appl. Biomater.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)/hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds were fabricated via electrospinning. The effects of TPU properties and HA particle size on scaffold physical properties and osteoblast-like cell performance were investigated. It was found that the addition of micro-HA (mHA), which was inlayed in the fiber, decreased the electrospun fiber diameter. On the contrary, nano-HA (nHA), which was either embedded or existed inside of the fiber, increased the fiber diameter for both soft and hard TPUs. The soft TPU had a much lower Young's modulus and higher strain-at-break than the hard TPU. The addition of both mHA and nHA decreased the tensile properties; this decrease was more significant with mHA. The cells on the hard scaffolds actively proliferated and migrated compared to those on the soft scaffolds. On the other hand, cells on the soft scaffolds more effectively induced osteogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) than those on the hard scaffolds. In addition, our data suggest that the soft scaffolds with supplementation of nHA further enhanced osteogenesis of hMSCs compared to those without nHA. The soft TPU scaffolds containing nano-HA have the potential to be used in bone tissue engineering applications.
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Epidemic factors and control of hepatic echinococcosis in Qinghai province.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Hepatic echinococcosis, also called echinococcosis, is a health-threatening disease commonly found in pasture, and belongs to parasitic zoonoses. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and the risk factors of echinococcosis in Qinghai province in order to provide fundamental data for prevention and control of echinococcosis in Qinghai province. A total of 23 445 people from 21 counties were enrolled in this study by multi-stage stratified random sampling. Echinococcosis was diagnosed by using B-mode ultrasonography and serological tests. The results showed that the prevalence of echinococcosis was 4.47% (95%CI: 4.21%-4.73%) and serum positive rate (seroprevalence) was 15.47% (95%CI: 14.92%-16.02%) in 2010. The distribution of echinococcosis differed in age, sex, ethnicity, occupation and regions in Qinghai (P<0.05). GLMM analysis revealed that gender (female vs. male), ethnicity (Tibetan vs. other ethnicities), profession (herders vs. other professions) and region (autonomous prefectures vs. cities) were significant risk factors for echinococcosis (P<0.05). It was concluded that the prevalence of echinococcosis in 2010 was about 4% in Qinghai province, and the distribution of echinococcosis in Qinghai was associated with age, sex, ethnicity and profession.
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Biological evaluation of secondary metabolites from the roots of Myrica adenophora.
Phytochemistry
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Bioassay-guided fractionation of the roots of Myrica adenophora led to isolation of 24 known compounds and hitherto unknown compounds, including three A-type proanthocyanidins [adenodimerins A-C], two esters of sucrose [myricadenins A and B ], and the phenolic glycoside 6'-O-galloyl orbicularin. Spectroscopic analyses were used to determine their structures. Adenodimerin A, myricananin C, and myricetin showed strong 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities, with SC50 values of 7.9, 16.3, and 15.9 ?M, respectively. Adenodimerin A, myricanone, myricananin C, (-)-myricanol, myricanol 11-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, and myricetin showed stronger 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activities than the positive control, with SC50 values of 7.5, 19.6, 12.0, 22.3, 19.6, and 15.6 ?M, respectively. 5-Deoxymyricanone, porson, 12-hydroxymyricanone (-)-myricanol, and (+)-galeon exhibited anti-tubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv in vitro and MICs values of 25.8, 40.0, 35.8, 30.0, and 15.0 ?g/mL, respectively. Myricadenin A, myricanone, myricananin C, and (-)-myricanol exhibited anti-inflammatory activities in the iNOS assay with EC50 values of 18.1, 1.00, 13.0, and 7.5 ?M, respectively.
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Orexin-A promotes cell migration in cultured rat astrocytes via Ca2+-dependent PKC? and ERK1/2 signals.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Orexin-A is an important neuropeptide involved in the regulation of feeding, arousal, energy consuming, and reward seeking in the body. The effects of orexin-A have widely studied in neurons but not in astrocytes. Here, we report that OX1R and OX2R are expressed in cultured rat astrocytes. Orexin-A stimulated the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and then induced the migration of astrocytes via its receptor OX1R but not OX2R. Orexin-A-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and astrocytes migration are Ca2+-dependent, since they could be inhibited by either chelating the extracellular Ca2+ or blocking the pathway of store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). Furthermore, both non-selective protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor and PKC? selective inhibitor, but not PKC? inhibitor, prevented the increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation and the migration of astrocytes, indicating that the Ca2+-dependent PKC? acts as the downstream of the OX1R activation and mediates the orexin-A-induced increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation and cell migration. In conclusion, these results suggest that orexin-A can stimulate ERK1/2 phosphorylation and then facilitate the migration of astrocytes via PLC-PKC? signal pathway, providing new knowledge about the functions of the OX1R in astrocytes.
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Estimated diversity of messenger RNAs in each murine spermatozoa and their potential function during early zygotic development.
Biol. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To study the diversity of mRNAs in murine spermatozoa and their potential function during zygotic development, total RNAs in murine spermatozoa were sequenced via RNA-Seq and analyzed through bioinformatics techniques. The delivery and translation of sperm-borne mRNA in fertilized oocyte were detected using RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction), Western blot, and immunofluorescence. A total of 35?288?825 reads matching 33?039 transcripts, including 27?310 coding transcripts, were obtained. Based on our analyses, we hypothesized that the transcripts with RPKM (reads per kilobase of exon model per million mapped reads) higher than six may exist in each sperm cell as consistently retained transcripts. There were 4885 consistent transcripts in each sperm, and the remainder were randomly retained. If the baseline RPKM increased, the remaining coding transcripts were more likely related to reproduction and development. The sperm-borne transcripts Wnt4 and Foxg1 were delivered into fertilized oocytes on fertilization. Furthermore, Wnt4 was translated into protein in zygotes, whereas Foxg1 was not translated. In conclusion, approximately 4885 mRNAs were present in each murine spermatozoon, and the spermatozoal mRNAs related to reproduction and development were more likely retained. The sperm-borne mRNA Wnt4 was delivered into the fertilized oocyte and translated, evidence of a paternal effect on zygotic development.
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[Multivariate detection limits of baicalin in qingkailing injection based on four NIR spectrometer types].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2013
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Multivariate detection limits (MDLs) of different types of near-infrared instruments were investigated to guide the selection of device type for TCM NIR analysis. In this paper, near-infrared spectroscopy of Qingkailing injection was performed in transmission mode on four near-infrared spectrometers named a, b, c and d, respectively. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used as the reference method to determine the content of baicalin in Qingkailing injection. Partial least squares (PLS) and interval partial least squares (iPLS) quantitative models of baicalin in Qingkailing injection were established and MDLs of quantitative models based on different types of instruments were calculated. The determination coefficient of prediction (R2(pre))and the root mean square errors of prediction (SEP) of PLS models of four different near-infrared spectrometers are 0.9762 and 230.4 microg x mL(-1) (a), 0.9561 and 246.4 microg x mL(-1) (b), 0.9662 and 264.4 microg x mL*-1) (c), 0.9985 and 71.5 microg x mL(-1) (d). And the model of instrument d shows a better prediction performance than the other three types. There are no remarkable superiorities in predictability in iPLS models of instruments a and b after variable selection, since the R2(pre) and SEP values for instruments a and b are 0.9771 and 218.4 microg x mL(-1), and 0.9754 and 219.4 microg x mL(-1), respectively. Models c and d show no results of variable selection. MDLs (delta(0.05, 0.05) of different instruments are all less than 250 microg x mL(-1), and the MDLs of instruments c and d reach to 58 and 2.9 microg x mL(-1) respectively. The results reveal that the predictability of models and corresponding MDLs are different for different detection equipments. This paper innovatively used the theory of MDL to investigate the detection performance of different types of NIR instruments. The results demonstrated the feasibility of the approach. And it is expected that in actual applications, choosing the right type of instrument should be based on the characteristics of the study carrier to ensure quantitative accuracy.
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A Tesla-type repetitive nanosecond pulse generator for solid dielectric breakdown research.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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A Tesla-type repetitive nanosecond pulse generator including a pair of electrode and a matched absorption resistor is established for the application of solid dielectric breakdown research. As major components, a built-in Tesla transformer and a gas-gap switch are designed to boost and shape the output pulse, respectively; the electrode is to form the anticipated electric field; the resistor is parallel to the electrode to absorb the reflected energy from the test sample. The parameters of the generator are a pulse width of 10 ns, a rise and fall time of 3 ns, and a maximum amplitude of 300 kV. By modifying the primary circuit of the Tesla transformer, the generator can produce both positive and negative pulses at a repetition rate of 1-50 Hz. In addition, a real-time measurement and control system is established based on the solid dielectric breakdown requirements for this generator. With this system, experiments on test samples made of common insulation materials in pulsed power systems are conducted. The preliminary experimental results show that the constructed generator is capable to research the solid dielectric breakdown phenomenon on a nanosecond time scale.
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Using speech for mode selection in control of multifunctional myoelectric prostheses.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Electromyogram (EMG) recorded from residual muscles of limbs is considered as suitable control information for motorized prostheses. However, in case of high-level amputations, the residual muscles are usually limited, which may not provide enough EMG for flexible control of myoelectric prostheses with multiple degrees of freedom of movements. Here, we proposed a control strategy, where the speech signals were used as additional information and combined with the EMG signals to realize more flexible control of multifunctional prostheses. By replacing the traditional "sequential mode-switching (joint-switching)", the speech signals were used to select a mode (joint) of the prosthetic arm, and then the EMG signals were applied to determine a motion class involved in the selected joint and to execute the motion. Preliminary results from three able-bodied subjects and one transhumeral amputee demonstrated the proposed strategy could achieve a high mode-selection rate and enhance the operation efficiency, suggesting the strategy may improve the control performance of commercial myoelectric prostheses.
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Motion recognition for simultaneous control of multifunctional transradial prostheses.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Electromyography (EMG) pattern-recognition based control strategies for multifunctional myoelectric prosthesis systems have been studied commonly in a controlled laboratory setting. Most previous efforts concentrated on evaluating the performance of EMG pattern-recognition algorithms in identifying one signal movement at a time. Therefore, the current motion classification methods would be limited with the difficulties in identifying the combined upper-limb motion classes that are commonly required in performing activities daily. In this paper, four improved classifier training schemes were proposed and investigated to address the difficulties mentioned above. Our preliminary results showed that three of the four proposed training schemes could improve the classification performance. The average classification accuracies of the three methods were 75.10% ± 9.71%, 76.95% ± 8.02%, and 77.56% ± 6.55% for the able-bodied subjects, and 63.38% ± 7.51%, 62.55% ± 9.06%, and 62.50% ± 9.36% for the transradial amputees, respectively. These results suggested that the proposed methods could provide better classification performance in identifying the combined motions than the current methods.
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[Preventive effect of ganlong capsule on chronic alcoholic hepatic injury in rats].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2013
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To study the preventive effect of Ganlong capsule on chronic alcoholic hepatic injury in rats and its mechanism.
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Murine esBAF chromatin remodeling complex subunits BAF250a and Brg1 are necessary to maintain and reprogram pluripotency-specific replication timing of select replication domains.
Epigenetics Chromatin
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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Cellular differentiation and reprogramming are accompanied by changes in replication timing and 3D organization of large-scale (400 to 800 Kb) chromosomal domains (replication domains), but few gene products have been identified whose disruption affects these properties.
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Aminoacylation and translational quality control strategy employed by leucyl-tRNA synthetase from a human pathogen with genetic code ambiguity.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases should ensure high accuracy in tRNA aminoacylation. However, the absence of significant structural differences between amino acids always poses a direct challenge for some aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, such as leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS), which require editing function to remove mis-activated amino acids. In the cytoplasm of the human pathogen Candida albicans, the CUG codon is translated as both Ser and Leu by a uniquely evolved CatRNA(Ser)(CAG). Its cytoplasmic LeuRS (CaLeuRS) is a crucial component for CUG codon ambiguity and harbors only one CUG codon at position 919. Comparison of the activity of CaLeuRS-Ser(919) and CaLeuRS-Leu(919) revealed yeast LeuRSs have a relaxed tRNA recognition capacity. We also studied the mis-activation and editing of non-cognate amino acids by CaLeuRS. Interestingly, we found that CaLeuRS is naturally deficient in tRNA-dependent pre-transfer editing for non-cognate norvaline while displaying a weak tRNA-dependent pre-transfer editing capacity for non-cognate ?-amino butyric acid. We also demonstrated that post-transfer editing of CaLeuRS is not tRNA(Leu) species-specific. In addition, other eukaryotic but not archaeal or bacterial LeuRSs were found to recognize CatRNA(Ser)(CAG). Overall, we systematically studied the aminoacylation and editing properties of CaLeuRS and established a characteristic LeuRS model with naturally deficient tRNA-dependent pre-transfer editing, which increases LeuRS types with unique editing patterns.
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Pontibacter soli sp. nov., isolated from the soil of a Populus rhizosphere in Xinjiang, China.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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A Gram-stain negative, rod-shaped, non-motile and pink-pigmented bacterial strain, designated strain HYL7-26(T), was isolated from a soil in the Desert Park of Huyang forest located in Xinjiang, China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain HYL7-26(T) belongs to the genus Pontibacter in the family Cytophagaceae. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain HYL7-26(T) and type strains of Pontibacter species ranged from 93.2 to 96.0 %. Strain HYL7-26(T) was found to contain iso-C15:0 (15.9 %), iso-C17:0 3-OH (9.5 %) and summed feature 4 (comprising anteiso-C17:1 B and/or iso-C17:1 I, 21.0 %, as defined by the MIDI system) as the major cellular fatty acids. The major respiratory quinone was identified as MK-7 and the DNA G+C content was determined to be 43.8 mol%. sym-Homospermidine was the major polyamine observed in the cells. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain HYL7-26(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Pontibacter, for which the name Pontibacter soli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HYL7-26(T) (=CCTCC AB 206240(T) = NRRL B-59490(T)).
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Diagnostic significance of DOG-1 and PKC-? expression and c-Kit/PDGFRA mutations in gastrointestinal stromal tumours.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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To investigate discovered on gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST)-1 (DOG-1) and protein kinase C-? (PKC-?) expression in a series of GISTs and determine the sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic value of these two antigens.
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The study of KBP of road construction workers of highway AIDS prevention project before and after intervention.
Asian Pac J Trop Med
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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To get scientific basis for further health education through the research of the road construction workers KBP before and after the interventions of highway AIDS prevention project.
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The tRNA recognition mechanism of the minimalist SPOUT methyltransferase, TrmL.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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Unlike other transfer RNAs (tRNA)-modifying enzymes from the SPOUT methyltransferase superfamily, the tRNA (Um34/Cm34) methyltransferase TrmL lacks the usual extension domain for tRNA binding and consists only of a SPOUT domain. Both the catalytic and tRNA recognition mechanisms of this enzyme remain elusive. By using tRNAs purified from an Escherichia coli strain with the TrmL gene deleted, we found that TrmL can independently catalyze the methyl transfer from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to and isoacceptors without the involvement of other tRNA-binding proteins. We have solved the crystal structures of TrmL in apo form and in complex with S-adenosyl-homocysteine and identified the cofactor binding site and a possible active site. Methyltransferase activity and tRNA-binding affinity of TrmL mutants were measured to identify residues important for tRNA binding of TrmL. Our results suggest that TrmL functions as a homodimer by using the conserved C-terminal half of the SPOUT domain for catalysis, whereas residues from the less-conserved N-terminal half of the other subunit participate in tRNA recognition.
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Characterization of thermoplastic polyurethane/polylactic acid (TPU/PLA) tissue engineering scaffolds fabricated by microcellular injection molding.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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Polylactic acid (PLA) and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) are two kinds of biocompatible and biodegradable polymers that can be used in biomedical applications. PLA has rigid mechanical properties while TPU possesses flexible mechanical properties. Blended TPU/PLA tissue engineering scaffolds at different ratios for tunable properties were fabricated via twin screw extrusion and microcellular injection molding techniques for the first time. Multiple test methods were used to characterize these materials. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the existence of the two components in the blends; differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) confirmed the immiscibility between the TPU and PLA. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images verified that, at the composition ratios studied, PLA was dispersed as spheres or islands inside the TPU matrix and that this phase morphology further influenced the scaffolds microstructure and surface roughness. The blends exhibited a large range of mechanical properties that covered several human tissue requirements. 3T3 fibroblast cell culture showed that the scaffolds supported cell proliferation and migration properly. Most importantly, this study demonstrated the feasibility of mass producing biocompatible PLA/TPU scaffolds with tunable microstructures, surface roughnesses, and mechanical properties that have the potential to be used as artificial scaffolds in multiple tissue engineering applications.
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Preparative separation of crocins and geniposide simultaneously from gardenia fruits using macroporous resin and reversed-phase chromatography.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Gardenia fruits contain valuable natural food colorants including crocins (gardenia yellow) and geniposide. In this study, a process for the enrichment of crocins and geniposide simultaneously from gardenia fruits was developed using macroporous resin and RP chromatography. The performance of eight different types of macroporous resins was evaluated. Static absorption/desorption experiments revealed that LX60 possessed optimal separating capacity. Further dynamic absorption/desorption experiments on LX60 columns were conducted to obtain the optimal parameters. After one run treatment with LX60, the content of crocin-1 in gardenia yellow reached 29.6%, while geniposide in another fraction reached 83.4%. An extract of crocins was obtained from gardenia yellow in a second-stage separation using RP medium-pressure LC, with its color value to be 756 and the content of crocin-1 reaching 60.8%. The separation process was highly efficient, low cost, and compact, which may be informative for purifications of other natural products from complex plant extracts.
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Discovery of a potent benzoxaborole-based anti-pneumococcal agent targeting leucyl-tRNA synthetase.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Streptococcus pneumoniae causes bacterial pneumonia with high mortality and morbidity. The emergency of multidrug-resistant bacteria threatens the treatment of the disease. Leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS) plays an essential role in cellular translation and is an attractive drug target for antimicrobial development. Here we report the compound ZCL039, a benzoxaborole-based derivative of AN2690, as a potent anti-pneumococcal agent that inhibits S. pneumoniae LeuRS (SpLeuRS) activity. We show using kinetic, biochemical analyses combined with the crystal structure of ZCL039-AMP in complex with the separated SpLeuRS editing domain, that ZCL039 binds to the LeuRS editing active site which requires the presence of tRNA(Leu), and employs an uncompetitive inhibition mechanism. Further docking models establish that ZCL039 clashes with the eukaryal/archaeal specific insertion I4ae helix within editing domains. These findings demonstrate the potential of benzoxaboroles as effective LeuRS inhibitors for pneumococcus infection therapy, and provide future structure-guided drug design and optimization.
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Chronic ceftriaxone treatment rescues hippocampal memory deficit in AQP4 knockout mice via activation of GLT-1.
Neuropharmacology
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the predominant water channel protein in the mammalian brain, and is mainly expressed in astrocytes. Besides its important role in water transport across the blood-brain barrier, our present study demonstrated that AQP4 deficiency impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and hippocampus-dependent memory formation, accompanied by the increase in extracellular glutamate concentration and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated currents in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) region. The impairment of LTP and memory formation of AQP4 knockout (KO) mice was mediated by the downregulation of glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) expression/function, since it can be rescued by ?-lactam antibiotic ceftriaxone (Cef), a potent GLT-1 stimulator. These results suggest that AQP4 functions as the modulator of synaptic plasticity and memory, and chronic Cef treatment rescues hippocampal memory deficit induced by AQP4 knockout.
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Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and Sp1 may contribute to the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 induced by transforming growth factor-?1 in human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells.
Cytotherapy
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) plays an important role in the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension. However, the molecular regulatory mechanisms of TIMP-1 in the pulmonary arteries are not fully understood, especially in human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (HPASMCs). We investigated the signaling pathway involved in the regulation of TIMP-1 in HPASMCs induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1.
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Multilevel functional and structural defects induced by two pathogenic mitochondrial tRNA mutations.
Biochem. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Point mutations in hmtRNAs (human mitochondrial tRNAs) can cause various disorders, such as CPEO (chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia) and MM (mitochondrial myopathy). Mitochondrial tRNALeu, especially the UUR codon isoacceptor, is recognized as a hot spot for pathogenic mtDNA point mutations. Thus far, 40 mutations have been reported in hmtRNAsLeu. In the present paper, we describe the wide range of effects of two substitutions found in the T?C arms of two hmtRNAsLeu isoacceptors. The G52A substitution, corresponding to the pathogenic G12315A mutation in tRNALeu(CUN), and G3283A in tRNALeu(UUR) exhibited structural changes in the outer corner of the tRNA shape as shown by RNase probing. These mutations also induced reductions in aminoacylation, 3-end processing and base modification processes. The main effects of the A57G substitution, corresponding to mutations A12320G in tRNALeu(CUN) and A3288G in tRNALeu(UUR), were observed on the aminoacylation activity and binding to hmEF-Tu (human mitochondrial elongation factor Tu). These observations suggest that the wide range of effects may amplify the deleterious impact on mitochondrial protein synthesis in vivo. The findings also emphasize that an exact understanding of tRNA dysfunction is critical for the future development of therapies for mitochondrial diseases.
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Liposarcoma of the retropharyngeal space with rapidly worsening dyspnea: A case report and review of the literature.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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Liposarcomas represent a significant proportion of soft-tissue sarcomas. However, their occurrence in the head and neck is infrequent and they are exceedingly rare in the retropharyngeal space. The present study reports the case of a 58-year-old patient with retropharyngeal liposarcoma. Uniquely, the patient presented with rapidly worsening dyspnea. The diagnosis of liposarcoma was established following retropharyngeal tumor excision, although biopsies were performed twice. Adjuvant radiotherapy was refused by the patient. However, during the post-operative follow-up period, no sign of either local tumor recurrence or distant metastasis was observed. Previously reported cases were also reviewed to analyze the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of this disease.
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Human papillomavirus infection a favorable prognostic factor in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma is associated with the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen.
Pak J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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Objective: It has been documented that human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA replication requires proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). However the association between them in tumors is still controversial. Up to now, the role of HPV in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) has not been clearly established, and the correlation between HPV and PCNA in LSCC remains poorly explored. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the clinicopathological features and follow-up data of 71 patients with LSCC. The lesions were examined for PCNA using immunohistochemistry, and for HPV using in situ hybridization. Results: 31 (43.7%) cases showed infection of HPV and 38 (53.5%) showed overexpression of PCNA. No significant difference of HPV status in clinicopathological features was found. While there was a significant difference of PCNA expression in histology grade but no significant difference of PCNA expression in other clinicopathological features could be detected, and the expression of PCNA is not a significant predictor of survival in LSCC patients. However, HPV infection is a favorable prognostic factor in LSCC patients. Moreover, HPV infection is associated with PCNA overexpression. Conclusion: Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is an indicator of better prognosis in LSCC and associated with the expression of PCNA.
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Involved-field radiotherapy versus elective nodal irradiation in combination with concurrent chemotherapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a prospective randomized study.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2013
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This prospective randomized study is to evaluate the locoregional failure and its impact on survival by comparing involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) with elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in combination with concurrent chemotherapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. It appears that higher dose could be delivered in IFRT arm than that in ENI arm, and IFRT did not increase the risk of initially uninvolved or isolated nodal failures. Both a tendency of improved locoregional progression-free survival and a significant increased overall survival rate are in favor of IFRT arm in this study.
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New pterosin sesquiterpenes and antitubercular constituents from Pteris ensiformis.
Chem. Biodivers.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2013
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Two new pterosin sesquiterpenes, (2S)-13-hydroxypterosin A (1) and (2S,3S)-12-hydroxypterosin Q (2), were isolated from the whole plants of Pteris ensiformis, together with six known compounds. The structures of 1 and 2 were determined through extensive 1D/2D-NMR and MS analyses. Compound 2 exhibited antitubercular activity (MIC 6.25??g/ml) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 Rv in vitro.
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Influence of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide on nutrient uptake and cell responses of Chlorella vulgaris.
Aquat. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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The removal of nutrients by algae is regarded as a vital process in wastewater treatment, however algal cell activity can be inhibited by some toxic chemicals during the biological process. This study investigated the uptake of ammonia nitrogen (NH??) and total phosphorus (TP) by a green alga (Chlorella vulgaris) and algal cell responses under the stress of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), a representative for quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs, cationic surfactants). When the concentration of CTAB increased from 0 to 0.6 mg/L, the uptake efficiencies of NH?? and TP decreased from 88% to 18% and from 96% to 15%, respectively. Algal cell responses showed a decline in photosynthesis activity as indicated by the increase of chlorophyll autofluorescence from 2.9 a.u. to 25.3 a.u.; and a decrease of cell viability from 88% to 51%; and also a drop in esterase activity as indicated by the decrease in fluorescence of fluorescein diacetate stained cells from 71.5 a.u. to 4.7 a.u. Additionally, a transcription and translation response was confirmed by an enhancement of PO peak and amide II peak in algal cellular macromolecular composition stimulated by CTAB. The results suggest that QACs in wastewater may inhibit nutrient uptake by algae significantly through declining algal cell activities.
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Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in Medicago sativa by hydrogen-rich water.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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Hydrogen gas (H?) induces plant tolerance to several abiotic stresses, including salinity and paraquat exposure. However, the role of H? in cadmium (Cd)-induced stress amelioration is largely unknown. Here, pretreatment with hydrogen-rich water (HRW) was used to characterize physiological roles and molecular mechanisms of H? in the alleviation of Cd toxicity in alfalfa plants. Our results showed that the addition of HRW at 10% saturation significantly decreased contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) caused by Cd, and inhibited the appearance of Cd toxicity symptoms, including the improvement of root elongation and seedling growth. These responses were related to a significant increase in the total or isozymatic activities of representative antioxidant enzymes, or their corresponding transcripts. In vivo imaging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the detection of lipid peroxidation and the loss of plasma membrane integrity provided further evidence for the ability of HRW to improve Cd tolerance significantly, which was consistent with a significant enhancement of the ratio of reduced/oxidized (homo)glutathione ((h)GSH). Additionally, plants pretreated with HRW accumulated less amounts of Cd. Together, this study suggested that the usage of HRW could be an effective approach for Cd detoxification and could be explored in agricultural production systems.
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Neolignans and phenylpropanoids from the roots of Piper taiwanense and their antiplatelet and antitubercular activities.
Phytochemistry
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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Bioassay-guided fractionation of roots from Piper taiwanense led to isolation of three neolignans, diallylcatechol (1) and neotaiwanensols A, B (2, 3), two diphenylpropanoid ethers, taiwandimerols A, B (4, 5), with one phenylpropanoid, 2,3-diacetoxy-1-methoxy-5-allylbenzene (6), previously unknown in nature, together with 18 known compounds (7-24). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic evidence. Among the isolates, hydroxychavicol acetate (7), and 4-allylcatechol (8) showed potent inhibitory activities against platelet aggregation induced by collagen, with IC50 values of 2.1, and 5.3 ?M, respectively. Hydroxychavicol acetate (7), 4-allylcatechol (8), and trans-caffeicaldehyde (9) showed antitubercular activities against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, with MIC values of 30.3, 27.6, and 25.5 ?g/mL, respectively.
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Efficiency assessment and pH effect in removing nitrogen and phosphorus by algae-bacteria combined system of Chlorella vulgaris and Bacillus licheniformis.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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To achieve better removal of NH4(+) and TP in wastewater, a new algae-bacteria combined system of Chlorella vulgaris and Bacillus licheniformis was investigated in a 6-d experiment. The results showed that 78% of NH4(+) could be removed in the combined system, while 29% in single algae system and only 1% in single bacteria system. Approximately 92% of TP was removed in the combined system, compared with 55% and 78% in single algae and bacteria system, respectively. B. licheniformis was proven to be a growth-promoting bacterium for C. vulgaris by comparing Chl a concentrations in the single and combined systems. In the removal process, pH of the combined system was observed to reduce significantly from 7.0 to 3.5. Whereas with pH regulated to 7.0, higher removal efficiencies of NH4(+) (86%) and TP (93%) were achieved along with the recovery of algal cells and the increase of Chl a. These results suggest that nutrients in wastewater can be removed efficiently by the algae-bacteria combined system and pH control is crucial in the process.
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IGF-I in human growth: lessons from defects in the GH-IGF-I axis.
Nestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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The IGF system plays a critical role in all phases of human growth, including intrauterine, childhood and pubertal. The importance of IGF-I for both in utero as well as postnatal human growth is highlighted by rare human homozygous IGF1 mutations, which are characterized by intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), microcephaly, mental retardation and severe postnatal growth failure. Clinical conditions of IGF-I resistance due to mutations in the IGF-I receptor (IGFIR) similarly lead to IUGR and postnatal growth retardation. Postnatal regulation of IGF-I production is predominantly GH dependent. Defects in the GH-IGF-I axis, including mutations in the GHR, STAT5B and IGFALS genes, lead to postnatal IGF deficiency and GH insensitivity. Patients are of normal birth size but present with severe postnatal growth failure, despite normal or elevated levels of GH. Other phenotypic features - immune deficiency for STAT5B defects and insulin insensitivity for IGFALS defects - are of note. Mutations identified have been predominantly recessive. The identification and assessment of genetic defects in the GH-IGF axis has greatly enhanced our understanding of the critical importance of IGF-I in human linear growth. Continued evaluations will facilitate better diagnosis and management of children presenting with abnormal growth and development.
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