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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Metallosphaera tengchongensis sp. nov., a novel species of acidothermophilic archaeon isolated from a hot spring.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Two novel acidothermophilic archaea, strain Ric-A(T) and Ric-F, were isolated from the muddy water samples of a sulfuric hot spring located at Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China. They were aerobic and facultatively chemolithoautotrophic. Both strains could oxidize S(0) and K2S4O6 for autotrophic growth, and also could use organic materials for heterotrophic growth. Growth was observed at 55-75 °C and pH 1.5-6.5. The strains could oxidize metal sulfide ores, showing their potential in bioleaching. The DNA G+C content of Ric-A(T) and Ric-F were 41.8 and 41.6 mol%, respectively. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the two strains share 99.8% sequence similarity to each other, but < 97% to the other known species of the genus Metallosphaera. DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that the isolates were different strains of a novel species of the genus Metallosphaera. Strains Ric-A(T) and Ric-F also shared a number of physiological and biochemical characteristics that distinguished them from the recognized species of the genus Metallosphaera. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic comparisons with their relatives, it was concluded that the strains Ric-A(T) and Ric-F represent a novel species of the genus Metallosphaera, for which the name Metallosphaera tengchongensis is proposed. The type strain is Ric-A(T) (=NBRC109472(T)=CGMCC1.12287(T)).
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[Differential expression of midkine and Ki67 in gastric carcinoma and the clinical implications].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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To investigate the expressions of midkine (MK) and Ki67 in gastric carcinoma (GC) and their relation with the clinicopathologic characteristics.
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Periodontal tissue regeneration using enzymatically cross-linked chitosan hydrogels with or without cell-loading.
Tissue Eng Part A
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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This study aimed to evaluate the in vivo biocompatibility and periodontal regenerative potential of enzymatically solidified chitosan hydrogels with or without incorporated periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs). To this end, chitosan hydrogels, with (n=8; CHIT+CELL) or without (n=8; CHIT) fluorescently-labeled PDLCs, were prepared and transplanted into rat intrabony periodontal defects; untreated defects were used as empty controls (n=8; EMPTY). After 4 weeks, maxillae were harvested, decalcified and used for histological, histomorphometrical and immunohistochemical assessments. The results showed that PDLCs remained viable upon encapsulation within chitosan hydrogels before transplantation. Histological analysis demonstrated that the chitosan hydrogels were largely degraded after 4 weeks of implantation, without any adverse reaction in the surrounding tissue. In terms of periodontal regeneration, alveolar bone height, alveolar bone area and epithelial downgrowth were comparable for CHIT, CHIT+CELL as well as EMPTY groups. In contrast, both CHIT and CHIT+CELL showed a significant increase in functional ligament length compared to EMPTY. From a cellular perspective, the contribution of chitosan hydrogel incorporated cells to the periodontal regeneration could not be ascertained, as no signal from transplanted PDLCs could be detected at 4 weeks post-transplantation. The results demonstrated that enzymatically solidified chitosan hydrogels are highly biocompatible and biodegradable. Moreover, chitosan hydrogels without cell loading can improve periodontal regeneration in terms of functional ligament length, indicating the great potential of this hydrogel in clinical applications. Further work on the use of chitosan hydrogels as cell carriers is required.
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[Effects of Shenxiong pill on infarct brain volumes and NF-kappaB expression in SD rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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To investigate the effects of Shenxiong Pill on the infarct volume and expression of NF-kappaB in brains of rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion.
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Optimal cut-off values of BMI, waist circumference and waist:height ratio for defining obesity in Chinese adults.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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It has not been established which specific measures of obesity might be most appropriate for predicting CVD risk in Asians. The objectives of the present study were to determine the associations of BMI, waist circumference (WC) and waist:height ratio (WHtR) with CVD risk factors and to evaluate the optimal cut-off values to define overweight or obesity in Chinese adults. Data collected from seven nationwide health examination centres during 2008 and 2009 were analysed. The BMI, WC and WHtR of 244 266 Chinese adults aged ? 20 years included in the study were measured. Logistic regression models were fit to evaluate the OR of each CVD risk factor according to various anthropometric indices. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted to assess the optimal cut-off values to predict the risk of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and the metabolic syndrome. WHtR had the largest areas under the ROC curve for all CVD risk factors in both sexes, followed by WC and BMI. The optimal cut-off values were approximately 24·0 and 23·0 kg/m2 for BMI, 85·0 and 75·0 cm for WC, and 0·50 and 0·48 for WHtR for men and women, respectively. According to well-established cut-off values, BMI was found to be a more sensitive indicator of hypertension in both men and women, while WC and WHtR were found to be better indicators of diabetes and dyslipidaemia. A combination of BMI and central obesity measures was found to be associated with greater OR of CVD risk factors than either of them alone in both sexes. The present study demonstrated that WHtR and WC may be better indicators of CVD risk factors for Chinese people than BMI.
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[Chemical constituents of Jasminum giraldii and their antioxidant activity].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Ten compounds were isolated from the barks of Jasminum giraldii by means of various of chromatographic techniques such as silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and Rp-HPLC. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic data analysis as (+)-medioresinol (1), (+) -syringaresinol (2), syringaresinol-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), oleanic acid (4), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-trans-cinnamaldehyde (5), trans-sinapaldehyde (6), syringaldehyde (7), 1-(4-methoxy -phenyl) -ethanol (8), trans-cinnamic acid (9), and 4-(1-methoxyethyl) -phenol (10). Among them, compounds 1-3, 5-8 and 10 were isolated from the J. genus for the first time and compounds 4 and 9 were obtained from J. giraldii for the first time. In the DPPH free radical scavenging assay, compound 1 exhibited significant activity (IC50 55.1 micromol x L(-1)), compared with vitamin C(IC50 59.9 micromol x L(-1)); and compound 2 showed moderate activity (IC50 79.0 micromol x L(-1)), compared with 2, 6-di-tert-butyl4-methylphenol (IC50 236 micromol x L(-1)).
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Prosurvival NMDA 2A receptor signaling mediates postconditioning neuroprotection in the hippocampus.
Hippocampus
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Ischemic postconditioning (Post C), which involves administration of a brief ischemia after the initial ischemic event, has been demonstrated to be strongly neuroprotective against global cerebral ischemia (GCI) and to improve cognitive outcome. To enhance understanding of the underlying mechanisms, the current study examined the role of NMDA receptors in mediating the beneficial effects of Post C (3 min ischemia) administered 2 days after GCI in adult male rats. The results revealed that Post C was strongly neuroprotective against GCI, and that this effect was blocked by administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. Further work revealed that the NR2A-type NMDA receptors mediate the Post C beneficial effects as administration of a NR2A-preferring antagonist (NVP-A) blocked Post C neuroprotection and cognitive enhancement, while administration of a NR2B-preferring antagonist (Ro25) was without effect. Post C significantly up-regulated NR2A levels and phosphorylation of NR2A in the hippocampal CA1 region after Post C. Post C also increased Ca(2+) influx and activation/phosphorylation of CamKII? at Thr(286) , effects that were NR2A mediated as they were blocked by NVP-A. Phosphorylation of ERK and CREB was also increased by Post C, as were two downstream CREB-dependent prosurvival factors, brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and Bcl2, effects that were blocked by the NR2A antagonist, NVP-A. Taken as a whole, the current study provides evidence that NR2A-activation and downstream prosurvival signaling is a critical mediator of Post C-induced neuroprotection and cognitive enhancement following GCI. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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[Discrimination of Minnan oolong tea varieties by NIR spectroscopy].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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The present paper presented a fast and non-destructive method for the discrimination of minnan oolong tea varieties by near-infrared spectroscopy technology. Two hundred ten samples including Tieguanyin, Huangjingui, Benshan, Maoxie and Meizhan were collected in different tea plantations of Minnan. NIR spectra of 1,100-1,300 nm and 1,640-2,498 nm were successfully obtained. Prediction model was built by principal component analysis (PCA), and the effects of multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) and standard normal variate (SNV) on the model were observed and compared. It was indicated that the effect of MSC on the model was superior for the effect of SNV because the classification accuracy of model for the calibration samples reached 96%, and this number to the prediction samples was about 90%. These results demonstrated that the near-infrared spectroscopy method established could be an efficient and accurate way for the discrimination of minnan oolong teas and would have a strong practical value.
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Initial 3-Weeks' Apixaban Versus Dual-Antiplatelet Therapy (Clopidogrel and Aspirin) Followed by Clopidogrel Alone in High-Risk Patients with Acute Non-Disabling Cerebrovascular Events (ADANCE): Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.
Clin Drug Investig
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Nondisabling cerebrovascular events represent the largest group of cerebrovascular disease with a high risk of recurrent stroke. A recent trial demonstrated that dual-antiplatelet therapy (clopidogrel and aspirin), compared with aspirin monotherapy, reduced the risk of recurrent stroke and was not associated with increased risk of hemorrhagic events. Apixaban, a new oral anticoagulant, has been proven to be as safe and effective as traditional anticoagulants while carrying significantly less risk of intracranial hemorrhage. Patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA)/minor stroke might benefit from apixaban treatment; therefore, an adequately powered randomized study is needed.
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Effect of CYP2C9-VKORC1 interaction on warfarin stable dosage and its predictive algorithm.
J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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This study aimed to identify the effect of CYP2C9-VKORC1 interaction on warfarin dosage requirement and its predictive algorithm by investigating four populations. Generalized linear model was used to evaluate the relationship between the interaction and warfarin stable dosage (WSD), whereas multiple linear regression analysis was applied to construct the WSD predictive algorithm. To evaluate the effect of CYP2C9-VKORC1 interaction on the predictive algorithms, we compared the algorithms with and without the interaction. The interaction was significantly associated with WSD in the Chinese and White cohorts (P values?
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[Comparative proteomic analysis on anti-fibrotic effect of N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline in rats with silicosis].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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To perform a comparative proteomic analysis for identification of pulmonary proteins related to the progression of silicosis and anti-fibrotic effect of N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP).
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[Anti-fibrotic role of AcSDKP through inhibition of P38MAPK pathway activity mediated transforming growth beta recepters in rat with silicosis].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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To investigate the distribution and expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) receptors I and II, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), and type I and type III collagen in the lungs of rats with silicosis and cultured pulmonary fibroblasts, and to investigate the relationship of the anti-fibrosis effect of N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (AcSDKP) with its inhibition of TGF-? receptor-mediated p38 MAPK pathway activity.
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TAp73 and ?Np73 have opposing roles in 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells.
Mol. Cells
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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The p73 gene contains an extrinsic P1 promoter and an intrinsic P2 promoter, controlling the transcription of the pro-apoptotic TAp73 isoform and the anti-apoptotic ??p73 isoform, respectively. The DNA methylation status of both promoters act equally in the epigenetic transcriptional regulation of their relevant isoforms. The aim of this study was to analyze the different effects of these p73 isoforms in 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC)-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells. We investigated the effects of the DNA demethylation agent, 5-aza-dC, on the T-47D breast cancer cell line, and evaluated the methylation status of the p73 promoters and expression of TAp73 and ?Np73. Furthermore, we assessed the expression of p53 and p73 isoforms in 5-aza-dC-treated T-47D cells and p53 knockout cells. 5-aza-dC induced significant anti-tumor effects in T-47D cells, including inhibition of cell viability, G1 phase arrest and apoptosis. This was associated with p73 promoter demethylation and a concomitant increase in TAp73 mRNA and protein expression. In contrast, the methylation status of promoter P2 was not associated with ?Np73 mRNA or protein levels. Furthermore, demethylation of P2 failed to inhibit the expression of ?Np73 with 5-aza-dC in the p53 knockdown cell model. Our study suggests that demethylation of the P1 and P2 promoters has opposite effects on the expression of p73 isoforms, namely up-regulation of TAp73 and down-regulation of ??p73. We also demonstrate that p53 likely contributes to 5-aza-dC-induced ?Np73 transcriptional inactivation in breast cancer cells.
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Global transcriptome-wide analysis of CIK cells identify distinct roles of IL-2 and IL-15 in acquisition of cytotoxic capacity against tumor.
BMC Med Genomics
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are an emerging approach of cancer treatment. Our previous study have shown that CIK cells stimulated with combination of IL-2 and IL-15 displayed improved proliferation capacity and tumor cytotoxicity. However, the mechanisms of CIK cell proliferation and acquisition of cytolytic function against tumor induced by IL-2 and IL-15 have not been well elucidated yet.
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Dense network of one-dimensional midgap metallic modes in monolayer MoSe2 and their spatial undulations.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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We report the observation of a dense triangular network of one-dimensional (1D) metallic modes in a continuous and uniform monolayer of MoSe(2) grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy studies show that these 1D modes are midgap states at inversion domain boundaries. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy measurements further reveal intensity undulations of the metallic modes, presumably arising from the superlattice potentials due to the moiré pattern and the quantum confinement effect. A dense network of the metallic modes with a high density of states is of great potential for heterocatalysis applications. The interconnection of such midgap 1D conducting channels may also imply new transport behaviors distinct from the 2D bulk.
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Gracilaria lemaneiformis polysaccharide as integrin-targeting surface decorator of selenium nanoparticles to achieve enhanced anticancer efficacy.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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The poor permeability of glioma parenchyma represents a major limit for antiglioblastoma drug delivery. Gracilaria lemaneiformis polysaccharide (GLP), which has a high binding affinity to ?v?3 integrin overexpressed in glioma cells, was employed in the present study to functionalize selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) to achieve antiglioblastoma efficacy. GLP-SeNPs showed satisfactory size distribution, high stability, and selectivity between cancer and normal cells. In U87 glioma cell membrane, which has a high integrin expression level, GLP-SeNPs exhibited significantly higher cellular uptake than unmodified SeNPs. As expected, U87 cells exhibited a greater uptake of GLP-SeNPs than C6 cells with low integrin expression level. Furthermore, the internalization of GLP-SeNPs was inhibited by cyclo-(Arg-Gly-Asp-Phe-Lys) peptides, suggesting that cellular uptake into U87 cells and C6 cells occurred via ?v?3 integrin-mediated endocytosis. For U87 cells, the cytotoxicity of SeNPs decorated by GLP was enhanced significantly because of the induction of various apoptosis signaling pathways. Internalized GLP-SeNPs triggered intracellular reactive oxygen species downregulation. Therefore, p53, MAPKs, and AKT pathways were activated to advance cell apoptosis. These findings suggest that surface decoration of nanomaterials with GLP could be an efficient strategy for design and preparation of glioblastoma targeting nanodrugs.
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Maslinic acid activates mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway in cardiac carcinoma.
Clin Invest Med
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Cardiac carcinoma is the most common subtype of gastric cancer and its incidence has increased in recent years. The current chemotherapeutic drugs exhibit limited effectiveness and significant side effects in patients. Maslinic acid (MA) exerts an anti-tumor activity on a wide range of cancers and has no significant side effect; however, the anti-tumor effect of MA on cardiac carcinoma has not yet been explored.
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Periodontal Cell Implantation Contributes to the Regeneration of the Periodontium in an Indirect Way.
Tissue Eng Part A
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Periodontitis is the most common human infectious disease. Regeneration of bone and soft tissue defects after periodontitis remains challenging, although the transplantation of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells seems a liable strategy. However, little is known about the function of PDL cells after transplantation. In the current study, a combination of in vitro coculture systems and in vivo immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to investigate the role of PDL cells in the regenerative process. First, a coculture method was used, in which mesenchymal cells (representing the host tissue) were brought into direct contact with PDL cells (representing the transplanted cell population). It was found that PDL cells significantly increased mineralized matrix formation and osteocalcin expression, whereas control cells did not. Similar results were obtained when a noncontact coculture system was applied separating PDL and mesenchymal cells. In an in vivo rat model, regeneration of alveolar bone and ligament was seen after PDL cell transplantation. Implanted PDL cells were found clustered along the newly formed tissues. IHC showed enhanced osteopontin expression and gap junction staining in areas neighboring implanted PDL cells. In conclusion, PDL cells enhance periodontal regeneration through a trophic factor stimulating the osteogenic activity of the surrounding host cells.
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Transcriptional regulation of the p73 gene by Nrf-2 and promoter CpG methylation in human breast cancer.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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To understand the transcriptional regulation of p73 by promoter methylation and Nrf-2 in breast carcinogenesis, ChIP assay indicated that Nrf-2 can bind to both promoters and can activate the transcription of TAp73 and ?Np73 in MCF-7 cell line, knockdown of Nrf-2 gene resulted in an abrogation of TAp73 and ?Np73 expression in the cells transfected with sh-Nrf-2 as well as Nrf-2 knock out mouse model. However, we found Nrf-2 induced ?Np73 expression was abolished with 5-aza-dC treatment, thus lead to a down-regulated ?Np73 and an up-regulated TAp73 expression in breast cancer cells lines. Consistent with this model, we detected decreased TAp73 and increased ?Np73 expression in breast cancer tissue, along with increased TAp73 but decreased ?Np73 expression in corresponding surrounding noncancerous tissues (NCTs) in a breast cancer tissue assay. A significant inverse correlation was found between TAp73 and ?Np73 expression in the above tissue-array (P = 0.047) and validated in another set consisting of 128 breast cancer tumor tissue (P = 0.034). Taken together, our findings suggest that Nrf-2 and promoter methylation cooperatively govern the transcriptional regulation of p73, and unbalanced expression of TAp73 and ?Np73 expression plays a critical role in breast cancer development.
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[Chemical constituents of leaf of Eucommia ulmoides].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Ten compounds were isolated from the leaf of Eucommia ulmoides by means of recrystallization and chromatographic techniques such as D-101 macroporous resin, MCI resin, ODS gel, Sephadex LH-20 and Rp-HPLC. Their structures were identified by NMR spectral analyses as kaempferide 3-O-beta-D-glucoside (1), quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside (2), quercetin (3), quercetin-3-O-beta-D-xylosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-galactoside (4), kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucoside (5), (2S,3S)-taxifolin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside (6) ,4-hydroxy cinnamic acid (7), (+)-cycloolivil (8), pinoresinol beta-D-glucoside (9), squalene (10). Among them compounds 1,5-7,10 were isolated from the Eucommia genus for the first time. In the DPPH free radical scavenging assay, compound 2 exhibited significant activity (IC50 13.7 micromol x L(-1)), compared with vitamin C (IC50 59.9 micromol x L(-1)); compounds 1, 3 and 9 showed moderate activity (IC50 161,137, 214 micromol x L(-1)), compared with 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (IC50 236 micromol x L(-1)); compound 4 and 6 showed weak activity (IC50 264, 299 micromol x L(-1)).
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Association between Hcy levels and the CBS844ins68 and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms with essential hypertension.
Biomed Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the homocysteine (Hcy) levels and polymorphisms of the CBS844ins68 and MTHFR C677T genes in essential hypertension (EH). The effects of the MTHFR C677T and CBS844ins68 haploid genotypes and the combined genotypes on EH and levels of Hcy were further explored. The polymorphisms of CBS844ins68 and MTHFR C677T genes in 200 EH and 200 normal tensive (NT) patients were detected using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and analysis of the distribution of genotypes. An automated biochemical analyzer was used to measure the plasma Hcy levels and the clinical biochemistry data. The plasma Hcy levels in EH were significantly higher than those of the NT group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between males and females. Two genotypes, deletion/deletion (DD) and deletion/insertion (DI), of the CBS844ins68 polymorphism were found in two groups with no clear differences in two genotypes and allele frequency distribution (P>0.05). There were significant differences in the three genotype frequencies (?(2)=6.658, ?(2)=4.410, P<0.05) for MTHFR C677T locus genotypes CC, CT and TT. The Hcy levels in genotypes DD and DI had no significant differences (P>0.05) and the CT and TT types were significantly higher compared to the CC genotype (P<0.05). The CC/DD combined genotype in the two groups was significantly different (P<0.05), and the odds ratio (OR), 0.569 showed that the CC/DD genotype may be a protective factor of hypertension. In the two groups, the Hcy levels for combined genotypes CC/DD, CT/DD, TT/DD and TT/DI were significantly different (P<0.05). The SHEsis software analysis linkage disequilibrium coefficient=0.216, indicates that there is probably a weak linkage for MTHFR C677T and CBS844ins68. Haplotype analysis suggested that the C-D haplotype was negatively correlated with EH (OR, 0.727) and that there was a positive correlation between T-D haplotype and EH (OR, 1.376). MTHFR C677T and CBS844ins68 polymorphisms were present in the populations studied and the CBS844ins68 homozygous mutation was not present. Therefore, there is a correlation between the polymorphisms of the MTHFR C677T gene and EH, and allele T may be one of the predisposing factors. MTHFR C677T and CBS844ins68 may exist with a certain linkage and the T-D haplotype may be a risk factor for EH.
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Prevalence of hypertension in China: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis of trends and regional differences.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Hypertension has become a growing public health concern in rapidly developing countries. We estimated trends of hypertension prevalence in adults in China over the past 10 years and identified demographical and geographical determinants of these trends. A systematic search was conducted for studies published between 2002 and 2012 using PubMed and China National Knowledge Infrastructure electronic databases. In total, 47 studies were selected out of 4512 hits. The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension increased by 1.4% per year. Hypertension prevalence in north China was 9.1% (95% confidence interval 4.1-14.1), which was higher than south China. After adjustments for survey year and region, the age-standardized prevalence of hypertension did not differ significantly between men and women (P?=?0.18). Our findings suggest a significant increase in the prevalence of hypertension in China over the period of 2002-2012 with considerable regional differences within China.
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Degeneration and Regeneration of GABAergic Interneurons in the Dentate Gyrus of Adult Mice in Experimental Models of Epilepsy.
CNS Neurosci Ther
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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Mounting evidence showed that GABAergic interneurons play an important role in the generation of seizures by regulating excitatory/inhibitory balance in the hippocampus; however, there is a continuous debate regarding the alteration in the number of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons during epileptogenesis. Here, we investigated the degeneration and regeneration of GABAergic interneurons in the dentate gyrus during epileptogenesis using glutamic acid decarboxylase-green fluorescence protein (GAD67-GFP) knock-in mice.
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Silencing RhoA inhibits migration and invasion through Wnt/?-catenin pathway and growth through cell cycle regulation in human tongue cancer.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA) has been identified as a critical regulator of tumor aggressive behavior. In this study, we assessed the role of RhoA in the mechanisms underlying growth, migration, and invasion of squamous cell carcinoma of tongue (TSCC). Stable RhoA knockdown of TSCC cell lines SCC-4 and CAL27 were achieved using Lentiviral transfection. The effects of RhoA depletion on cell migration, invasion, and cell proliferation were determined. The possible underlying mechanism of RhoA depletion on TSCC cell line was also evaluated by determining the expression of Galectin-3 (Gal-3), ?-catenin, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in vivo. Meanwhile, the underlying mechanism of TSCC growth was studied by analysis of cyclin D1/2, p21CIP1/WAF1, and p27Kip1 protein levels. Immunohistochemical assessments were performed to further prove the alteration of Gal-3 and ?-catenin expression. We found that, in mice injected with human TSCC cells in the tongue, RhoA levels were higher in primary tumors and metastasized lymph nodes compared with those in the normal tissues. Silencing of RhoA significantly reduced the tumor growth, decreased the levels of Gal-3, ?-catenin, MMP-9, and cyclin D1/2, and increased the levels of p21CIP1/WAF1 and p27Kip1. In vitro, RhoA knockdown also led to inhibition of cell migration, invasion, and proliferation. Our data suggest that RhoA plays a significant role in TSCC progression by regulating cell migration and invasion through Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway and cell proliferation through cell cycle regulation, respectively. RhoA might be a novel therapeutic target of TSCC.
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Ac-SDKP suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition in A549 cells via HSP27 signaling.
Exp. Mol. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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The synthetic tetrapeptide N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) has been shown to be a modulator of molecular aspects of the fibrosis pathway. This study reveals that Ac-SDKP exerts an anti-fibrotic effect on human type II alveolar epithelial cells (A549), which are a source of myofibroblasts once exposed to TGF-?1, by decreasing the expression of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27). We used A549 cells in vitro to detect morphological evidence of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by phase-contrast microscopy. Immunocytochemical and western blot analysis determined the distributions of cytokeratin 8 (CK8), ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), and SNAI1. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed a colocalization of HSP27 and SNAI1 on TGF-?1-induced A549 cells. These results also demonstrated that A549 cells became spindle-like when exposed to TGF-?1. Coincident with these morphological changes, expression levels of CK8 and E-cad decreased, while those of vimentin and ?-SMA increased. This process was accompanied by increases in levels of HSP27, SNAI1, and type I and type III collagen. In vitro transfection experiments demonstrated that the inhibition of HSP27 in cultured A549 cells could decrease the expression of SNAI1 and ?-SMA while increasing the expression of E-cad. A noticeable reduction in collagen types I and III was also evident. Our results found that Ac-SDKP inhibited the transition of cultured A549 cells to myofibroblasts and attenuated collagen synthesis through modulating the expression of HSP27.
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DCE-MRI assessment of the effect of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded latent membrane protein-1 targeted DNAzyme on tumor vasculature in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinomas.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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EBV-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (EBV-LMP1) is an important oncogenic protein for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and has been shown to engage a plethora of signaling pathways. Correspondingly, an LMP1-targeted DNAzyme was found to inhibit the growth of NPC cells both in vivo and in vitro by suppressing cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. However, it remains unknown whether an LMP1-targeted DNAzyme would affect the vasculature of NPC. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has been applied in the clinical trials of anti-angiogenic drugs for more than ten years, and Ktrans has been recommended as a primary endpoint. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to use DCE-MRI to longitudinally study the effect of an EBV-LMP1-targeted DNAzyme on the vasculature of patients with NPC.
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Quantitative analysis of dietary protein intake and stroke risk.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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To perform a meta-analysis of prospective studies to evaluate the relation between dietary protein intake and stroke risk.
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Development of porous polyurethane/strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite composites for bone regeneration.
J Biomed Mater Res A
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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Polyurethane (PU) has been widely used for the biomedical applications but its potential for bone regeneration is limited due to its lack of osteoconductive properties. Strontium substituted hydroxyapatite (SrHA) particles, on the other hand, are known to exhibit a positive effect on bone formation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to (i) develop porous polyurethane scaffolds containing strontium SrHA nanoparticles (PU/SrHA) and (ii) compare their in vitro biological performance for applications in bone regeneration to PU scaffolds. SrHA and HA was synthesized using a conventional wet-chemical neutralization reaction at temperatures of 25, 50, and 80°C. Chemical analysis was performed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Synthesizing temperatures at 25 and at 50°C were selected for the composite preparation (abbreviated as HA-25, SrHA-25, HA-50, and SrHA-50, respectively). PU was synthesized from isophorone diisocyanate, polytetramethylene ether glycol, and 1,4-butanediol. Composite scaffolds were prepared by addition of HA or SrHA nanoparticles into PU scaffolds during polymer preparation. The results showed that the Sr content in HA nanoparticles increased with increasing synthesis temperature. The addition of nanoparticles decreased the elongation-at-break and tensile strength, but significantly increased the surface wettability of the PU scaffolds. In vitro degradation tests demonstrated that release of cations was significantly higher from PU/SrHA-50 composite scaffolds. Cell culture tests indicated that PU composites containing either HA or SrHA nanoparticles increased proliferation of bone marrow stem cells as compared to plain PU scaffolds, whereas osteogenic differentiation was not affected by the incorporation of HA nanoparticles irrespective of the incorporation of Sr. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2014.
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The mRNA of human cytoplasmic arginyl-tRNA synthetase recruits prokaryotic ribosomes independently.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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There are two isoforms of cytoplasmic arginyl-tRNA synthetase (hcArgRS) in human cells. The long form is a component of the multiple aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex, and the other is an N-terminal truncated form (NhcArgRS), free in the cytoplasm. It has been shown that the two forms of ArgRS arise from alternative translational initiation in a single mRNA. The short form is produced from the initiation at a downstream, in-frame AUG start codon. Interestingly, our data suggest that the alternative translational initiation of hcArgRS mRNA also takes place in Escherichia coli transformants. When the gene encoding full-length hcArgRS was overexpressed in E. coli, two forms of hcArgRS were observed. The N-terminal sequencing experiment identified that the short form was identical to the NhcArgRS in human cytoplasm. By constructing a bicistronic system, our data support that the mRNA encoding the N-terminal extension of hcArgRS has the capacity of independently recruiting E. coli ribosomes. Furthermore, two critical elements for recruiting prokaryotic ribosomes were identified, the “AGGA” core of the Shine-Dalgarno sequence and the “A-rich” sequence located just proximal to the alternative in-frame initiation site. Although the mechanisms of prokaryotic and eukaryotic translational initiation are distinct, they share some common features. The ability of the hcArgRS mRNA to recruit the prokaryotic ribosome may provide clues for shedding light on the mechanism of alternative translational initiation of hcArgRS mRNA in eukaryotic cells.
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A novel GPR30 rs10235056 A>G polymorphism associated with post-transcriptional regulation in lymphoblastoid cell lines.
Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Considering the role of variants in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of GPR30 gene remains unclear, we analyzed the association between the variants at the GPR30 gene 3'UTR miRNA binding sites and their mRNA expression using the data from the HapMap online database. Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GPR30 gene 3'UTR had available minor allele frequency (MAF) values which were obtained. And the frequency distribution of all the selected GPR30 gene 3'UTR variants genotypes among the different populations and pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD) values were calculated. In addition, correlation analysis of the selected GPR30 variants genotypes and their mRNA expression in the lymphoblastoid cell lines was performed, which showed that only rs10235056 was significantly associated with GPR30 mRNA expression (p = 0.028), but rs4266553 (p = 0.304), rs3808353 (p = 0.900), rs3808354 (p = 0.739) and rs1133043 (p = 0.913) were insignificant. Taken together, the present study provides the first evidences that the GPR30 rs10235056 A > G polymorphism could be a putative variant mediating its post-transcriptional regulation, which might support its use as markers of cancer risk and individualized treatment.
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MiR-221 accentuates IFN?s anti-HCV effect by downregulating SOCS1 and SOCS3.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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MiR-221 was reported to be upregulated and play roles in tumorigenesis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the role of miR-221 in HCV infection remains unknown. In this study, it was found that miR-221 was upregulated in serum of HCV chronic hepatitis patients and Huh7.5.1 cells infected with HCVcc. Further studies indicated that miR-221 mimic could accentuate anti-HCV effect of IFN-? in HCVcc model, miR-221 mimic could further repressed 10% HCV RNA expression and 35-42% HCV core or NS5A protein expression in HCVcc infected Huh7.5.1 cells treated with 100IU/mL IFN-?, and miR-221 inhibitor resulted in the reverse effects. Furthermore, two members of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family, SOCS1 and SOCS3, which are well established inhibitory factors on IFN/JAK/STAT pathway, were identified as the targets of miR-221 and were involved in the effect of miR-221. In conclusion, miR-221 could accentuate IFN?s anti-HCV effect by targeting SOCS1 and SOCS3.
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Mitochondrial EF4 links respiratory dysfunction and cytoplasmic translation in Caenorhabditis elegans.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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How animals coordinate cellular bioenergetics in response to stress conditions is an essential question related to aging, obesity and cancer. Elongation factor 4 (EF4/LEPA) is a highly conserved protein that promotes protein synthesis under stress conditions, whereas its function in metazoans remains unknown. Here, we show that, in Caenorhabditis elegans, the mitochondria-localized CeEF4 (referred to as mtEF4) affects mitochondrial functions, especially at low temperature (15°C). At worms' optimum growing temperature (20°C), mtef4 deletion leads to self-brood size reduction, growth delay and mitochondrial dysfunction. Transcriptomic analyses show that mtef4 deletion induces retrograde pathways, including mitochondrial biogenesis and cytoplasmic translation reorganization. At low temperature (15°C), mtef4 deletion reduces mitochondrial translation and disrupts the assembly of respiratory chain supercomplexes containing complex IV. These observations are indicative of the important roles of mtEF4 in mitochondrial functions and adaptation to stressful conditions.
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Small nucleolar RNA 113-1 suppresses tumorigenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2014
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Emerging evidence suggests that small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are involved in tumorigenesis. The roles of small nucleolar RNA 113-1 (SNORD113-1) on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unknown.
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Poly[(?5-3-carboxybenzene-1,2-dicarboxylato)lead(II)]: a helical lead(II) coordination polymer.
Acta Crystallogr C Struct Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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In the title polymer, [Pb(C9H4O6)]n, the asymmetric unit contains a monomer of a Pb(II) cation with a doubly deprotonated 3-carboxybenzene-1,2-dicarboxylate dianion (1,2,3-Hbtc(2-)). Each Pb(II) centre is seven-coordinated by seven O atoms of bridging carboxy/carboxylate groups from five 1,2,3-Hbtc(2-) ligands, forming a distorted pentagonal bipyramid. The Pb(II) cations are bridged by 1,2,3-Hbtc(2-) anions, yielding two-dimensional chiral layers. The layers are stacked above each other to generate a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture via a combination of C-H···O interactions. The thermogravimetric and optical properties are also reported.
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Variation and prognostic value of serum plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 before and after chemotherapy in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer.
J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2014
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The purpose of the present study was to explore variation and prognostic significance of serum plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) before the first cycle of chemotherapy and after the sixth cycle of chemotherapy in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients who had undergone cytoreductive surgery.
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Biological evaluation of porous aliphatic polyurethane/hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.
J Biomed Mater Res A
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Biomaterial scaffolds meant to function as supporting structures to osteogenic cells play a pivotal role in bone tissue engineering. Recently, we synthesized an aliphatic polyurethane (PU) scaffold via a foaming method using non-toxic components. Through this procedure a uniform interconnected porous structure was created. Furthermore, hydroxyapatite (HA) particles were introduced into this process to increase the bioactivity of the PU matrix. To evaluate the biological performances of these PU-based scaffolds, their influence on in vitro cellular behavior and in vivo bone forming capacity of the engineered cell-scaffold constructs was investigated in this study. A simulated body fluid test demonstrated that the incorporation of 40 wt % HA particles significantly promoted the biomineralization ability of the PU scaffolds. Enhanced in vitro proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of the seeded mesenchymal stem cells were also observed on the PU/HA composite. Next, the cell-scaffold constructs were implanted subcutaneously in a nude mice model. After 8 weeks, a considerable amount of vascularized bone tissue with initial marrow stroma development was generated in both PU and PU/HA40 scaffold. In conclusion, the PU/HA composite is a potential scaffold for bone regeneration applications. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2014.
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Ritonavir binds to and downregulates estrogen receptors: molecular mechanism of promoting early atherosclerosis.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Estrogenic actions are closely related to cardiovascular disease. Ritonavir (RTV), a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor, induces atherosclerosis in an estrogen-related manner. However, how RTV induce pathological phenotypes through estrogen pathway remains unclear. In this study, we found that RTV increases thickness of coronary artery walls of Sprague Dawley rats and plasma free fatty acids (FFA) levels. In addition, RTV could induce foam cell formation, downregulate both estrogen receptor ? (ER?) and ER? expression, upregulate G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) expression, and all of them could be partially blocked by 17?-estradiol (E2), suggesting RTV acts as an antagonist for E2. Computational modeling shows a similar interaction with ER? between RTV and 2-aryl indoles, which are highly subtype-selective ligands for ER?. We also found that RTV directly bound to ER? and selectively inhibited the nuclear localization of ER?, and residue Leu536 in the hydrophobic core of ligand binding domain (LBD) was essential for the interaction with RTV. In addition, RTV did not change the secondary structure of ER?-LBD like E2, which explained how ER? lost the capacity of nuclear translocation under the treatment of RTV. All of the evidences suggest that ritonavir acts as an antagonist for 17?-estradiol in regulating ? subtype estrogen receptor function and early events of atherosclerosis.
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Expression and significance of MMP-9 and MDM2 in the oncogenesis of lung cancer in rats.
Asian Pac J Trop Med
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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To observe the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) in the oncogenesis of lung cancer in rats and to explore their clinical value.
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Effect of Saponin on the Phytoextraction of Pb, Cd and Zn from Soil Using Italian Ryegrass.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2014
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Chemically enhanced phytoextraction has been proposed as an effective approach to remove metals from contaminated soil through the Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). The bioconcentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF) are important determinants for phytoextraction of metals. In microcosm experiments, effects of saponin on the uptake of Pb, Zn and Cd by Italian ryegrass were studied. Results of BCF indicated that Italian ryegrass was the most efficient in Zn uptake, followed by Cd and Pb (Zn > Cd > Pb). TF results were identical to the BCF results. In addition, the effect of metal stress on antioxidative enzyme activity was studied. Results revealed that under the metal stress, saponin played an important role in the antioxidative activities of Italian ryegrass.
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Human periodontal ligament derived progenitor cells: effect of STRO-1 cell sorting and Wnt3a treatment on cell behavior.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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STRO-1 positive periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) and unsorted PDLCs have demonstrated potential for periodontal regeneration, but the comparison between unsorted cells and the expanded STRO-1 sorted cells has never been reported. Additionally, Wnt3a is involved in cell proliferation thus may benefit in vitro PDLC expansion. The aim was to evaluate the effect of STRO-1 cell sorting and Wnt3a treatment on cell behavior of human PDLCs (hPDLCs).
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Portal vein arterialization technique for liver transplantation patients.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Liver transplantations were performed on two patients with hepatic failure caused by liver cirrhosis. Hard obsolete thrombi and portal venous sclerosis were observed in the major portal veins of both patients. The arteria colica media of one recipient and the portal vein of the donor were anastomosed end-to-end. The hepatic artery of the first donor was anastomosed end-to end with the gastroduodenal artery of the first recipient; meanwhile, the portal vein of the second donor was simultaneously anastomosed end- to-end with the common hepatic artery of the second recipient. The blood flow of the portal vein, the perfusion of the donor liver and liver function were satisfactory after surgery. Portal vein arterialization might be an effective treatment for patients whose portal vein reconstruction was difficult.
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Physicochemical properties and in vitro mineralization of porous polymethylmethacrylate cement loaded with calcium phosphate particles.
J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part B Appl. Biomater.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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The main goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of incorporation of calcium phosphate (CaP) particles on the physicochemical properties and mineralization capacity of cements in vitro. Herein, two different types of CaP particles were loaded into polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cements exhibiting an interconnected porosity created by mixing with carboxymethylcellulose. The incorporation of CaP particles did not influence the maximum polymerization temperature of the porous PMMA, but reduced the porosity and the average pore size. Small CaP particles formed agglomerations within the PMMA pores, whereas big CaP particles were partially embedded in the PMMA matrix and partially exposed to the pores. Both types of CaP particles enhanced the mineralization capacity of PMMA cement without compromising their mechanical properties. The data presented herein suggest that porous PMMA/CaP cements hold strong promise for surgical application in bone reconstruction. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2014.
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Reprint of "GPR30 mediates estrogen rapid signaling and neuroprotection".
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor-30 (GPR30), also known as G-protein estrogen receptor-1 (GPER1), is a putative extranuclear estrogen receptor whose precise functions in the brain are poorly understood. Studies using exogenous administration of the GPR30 agonist, G1 suggests that GPR30 may have a neuroprotective role in cerebral ischemia. However, the physiological role of GPR30 in mediating estrogen (E2)-induced neuroprotection in cerebral ischemia remains unclear. Also unclear is whether GPR30 has a role in mediating rapid signaling by E2 after cerebral ischemia, which is thought to underlie its neuroprotective actions. To address these deficits in our knowledge, the current study examined the effect of antisense oligonucleotide (AS) knockdown of GPR30 in the hippocampal CA1 region upon E2-BSA-induced neuroprotection and rapid kinase signaling in a rat model of global cerebral ischemia (GCI). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that GPR30 is strongly expressed in the hippocampal CA1 region and dentate gyrus, with less expression in the CA3 region. E2-BSA exerted robust neuroprotection of hippocampal CA1 neurons against GCI, an effect abrogated by AS knockdown of GPR30. Missense control oligonucleotides had no effect upon E2-BSA-induced neuroprotection, indicating specificity of the effect. The GPR30 agonist, G1 also exerted significant neuroprotection against GCI. E2-BSA and G1 also rapidly enhanced activation of the prosurvival kinases, Akt and ERK, while decreasing proapototic JNK activation. Importantly, AS knockdown of GPR30 markedly attenuated these rapid kinase signaling effects of E2-BSA. As a whole, the studies provide evidence of an important role of GPR30 in mediating the rapid signaling and neuroprotective actions of E2 in the hippocampus.
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Indolent T-lymphblastic proliferation: report of a case involving the upper aerodigestive tract.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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T-lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBP) is a high-grade malignant lymphoma, which possesses the characteristic of high metastasis and high mortality without treatment. We are presenting a special T-lymphoblastic proliferation involving in the oropharynx, nasopharynx, sinus and trachea in a patient with local involved about 15-years without systemic dissemination. The immunophenotype of this case was similar to T-LBP. The proliferous cells were positive for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT), CD3, and appeared co-expression CD4 and CD8. No clonal rearrangements of TCR? and/or TCR? gene were detected. Indolent T-lymphoblastic proliferations rarely occurred or unusually could not be diagnosed, combing with the relevant literature and clinically indolent manifestation, we interpreted this case as indolent T-lymphoblastic proliferation (iT-LBPs). So far, the mechanism of the T-lymphoblastic proliferations is still uncertain and requires further study.
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Purification and in vitro antioxidant activities of tellurium-containing phycobiliproteins from tellurium-enriched Spirulina platensis.
Drug Des Devel Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Tellurium-containing phycocyanin (Te-PC) and allophycocyanin (Te-APC), two organic tellurium (Te) species, were purified from tellurium-enriched Spirulina platensis by a fast protein liquid chromatographic method. It was found that the incorporation of Te into the peptides enhanced the antioxidant activities of both phycobiliproteins. With fractionation by ammonium sulfate precipitation and hydroxylapatite chromatography, Te-PC and Te-APC could be effectively separated with high purity, and Te concentrations were 611.1 and 625.3 ?g g(-1) protein in Te-PC and Te-APC, respectively. The subunits in the proteins were identified by using MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. Te incorporation enhanced the antioxidant activities of both phycobiliproteins, as examined by 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid assay. Moreover, Te-PC and Te-APC showed dose-dependent protection on erythrocytes against the water-soluble free radical initiator 2,2'-azo(2-asmidinopropane)dihydrochloride-induced hemolysis. In the hepatoprotective model, apoptotic cell death and nuclear condensation induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in HepG2 cells was significantly attenuated by Te-PC and Te-APC. Taken together, these results suggest that Te-PC and Te-APC are promising Te-containing proteins with application potential for treatment of diseases related to oxidative stress.
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Serum amyloid A and clusterin as potential predictive biomarkers for severe hand, foot and mouth disease by 2D-DIGE proteomics analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) affects more than one million children, is responsible for several hundred child deaths every year in China and is the cause of widespread concerns in society. Only a small fraction of HFMD cases will develop further into severe HFMD with neurologic complications. A timely and accurate diagnosis of severe HFMD is essential for assessing the risk of progression and planning the appropriate treatment. Human serum can reflect the physiological or pathological states, which is expected to be an excellent source of disease-specific biomarkers. In the present study, a comparative serological proteome analysis between severe HFMD patients and healthy controls was performed via a two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) strategy. Fifteen proteins were identified as differentially expressed in the sera of the severe HFMD patients compared with the controls. The identified proteins were classified into different groups according to their molecular functions, biological processes, protein classes and physiological pathways by bioinformatics analysis. The up-regulations of two identified proteins, serum amyloid A (SAA) and clusterin (CLU), were confirmed in the sera of the HFMD patients by ELISA assay. This study not only increases our background knowledge about and scientific insight into the mechanisms of HFMD, but also reveals novel potential biomarkers for the clinical diagnosis of severe HFMD.
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[Retrospective analysis of 190 cases of hospitalized patients with psoriasis.]
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
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Objective: To determine the basic characteristics and clinical manifestations of hospitalized patients with psoriasis in Hunan, and to provide reasonable reference for the etiology and treatment of psoriasis. Methods: Totally 190 patients with psoriasis from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012 treated in the Department of Dermatology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Central South University were retrospectively analyzed. The data were analyzed by SPSS17.0. Results: The ratio of male to female inpatient numbers was 3.13:1, aged was between 40 and 70 years. The most common subtype of psoriasis was psoriasis vulgaris (64.73%), followed by psoriatic erythroderma (18.42%). The distribution of the subtype of psoriasis did not differ by gender. Nineteen patients recalled clearly the cause of proriasis, 5 of which were caused by medicine, and 4 by drinking. Totally 96 cases accompanied with other diseases, 24.21% of which accompanied with cardiovascular system disease. Conclusion: There is no season difference in the hospitalization of patients with psoriasis. there are more male than female inpatients. Treatment of psoriasis should consider clinical classification, drug adverse reactions, and individual factors for individual treatment.
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NrdH-redoxin enhances resistance to multiple oxidative stresses by acting as a peroxidase cofactor in Corynebacterium glutamicum.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2013
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NrdH-redoxins are small protein disulfide oxidoreductases behaving like thioredoxins but sharing a high amino acid sequence similarity to glutaredoxins. Although NrdH-redoxins are supposed to be another candidate in the antioxidant system, their physiological roles in oxidative stress remain unclear. In this study, we confirmed that the Corynebacterium glutamicum NrdH-redoxin catalytically reduces the disulfides in the class Ib RNR, insulin and DTNB, by exclusively receiving electrons from thioredoxin reductase. Overexpression of NrdH increased the resistance of C. glutamicum to multiple oxidative stresses by reducing ROS accumulation. Accordingly, elevated expression of the nrdH gene was observed when the C. glutamicum wild type strain was exposed to oxidative stress conditions. It was discovered that the NrdH-mediated resistance to oxidative stresses was largely dependent on the presence of the thiol peroxidase Prx, as the increased resistance to oxidative stresses mediated by overexpression of NrdH was largely abrogated in the prx mutant. Furthermore, we showed that NrdH facilitated the hydroperoxides reduction activity of Prx by directly targeting and serving as its electron donor. Thus, we present evidence that the NrdH redoxin can protect against the damaging effects of ROS induced by various exogenous oxidative stresses by acting as a peroxidase cofactor.
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Biomaterial Strategies for Stem Cell Maintenance During In Vitro Expansion.
Tissue Eng Part B Rev
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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Stem cells, having the potential for self-renewal and multilineage differentiation, are the building blocks for tissue/organ regeneration. Stem cells can be isolated from various sources but are, in general, available in too small numbers to be used directly for clinical purpose without intermediate expansion procedures in vitro. Although this in vitro expansion of undifferentiated stem cells is necessary, stem cells typically diminish their ability to self-renew and proliferate during passaging. Consequently, maintaining the stemness of stem cells has been recognized as a major challenge in stem cell-based research. This review focuses on the latest developments in maintaining the self-renewal ability of stem cells during in vitro expansion by biomaterial strategies. Further, this review highlights what should be the focus for future studies using stem cells for regenerative applications.
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Regulatory modules controlling maize inflorescence architecture.
Genome Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2013
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Genetic control of branching is a primary determinant of yield, regulating seed number and harvesting ability, yet little is known about the molecular networks that shape grain-bearing inflorescences of cereal crops. Here, we used the maize (Zea mays) inflorescence to investigate gene networks that modulate determinacy, specifically the decision to allow branch growth. We characterized developmental transitions by associating spatiotemporal expression profiles with morphological changes resulting from genetic perturbations that disrupt steps in a pathway controlling branching. Developmental dynamics of genes targeted in vivo by the transcription factor RAMOSA1, a key regulator of determinacy, revealed potential mechanisms for repressing branches in distinct stem cell populations, including interactions with KNOTTED1, a master regulator of stem cell maintenance. Our results uncover discrete developmental modules that function in determining grass-specific morphology and provide a basis for targeted crop improvement and translation to other cereal crops with comparable inflorescence architectures.
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Concise Review: Cell-Based Strategies in Bone Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine.
Stem Cells Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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Cellular strategies play an important role in bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (BTE/RM). Variability in cell culture procedures (e.g., cell types, cell isolation and expansion, cell seeding methods, and preculture conditions before in vivo implantation) may influence experimental outcome. Meanwhile, outcomes from initial clinical trials are far behind those of animal studies, which is suggested to be related to insufficient nutrient and oxygen supply inside the BTE/RM constructs as some complex clinical implementations require bone regeneration in too large quantity. Coculture strategies, in which angiogenic cells are introduced into osteogenic cell cultures, might provide a solution for improving vascularization and hence increasing bone formation for cell-based constructs. So far, preclinical studies have demonstrated that cell-based tissue-engineered constructs generally induce more bone formation compared with acellular constructs. Further, cocultures have been shown to enhance vascularization and bone formation compared with monocultures. However, translational efficacy from animal studies to clinical use requires improvement, and the role implanted cells play in clinical bone regeneration needs to be further elucidated. In view of this, the present review provides an overview of the critical procedures during in vitro and in vivo phases for cell-based strategies (both monoculture and coculture) in BTE/RM to achieve more standardized culture conditions for future studies, and hence enhance bone formation.
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[Status on knowledge, attitudes, behavior regarding nutrition and food safety among 4-6 grade students from Chinas two poverty-stricken counties].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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To investigating knowledge, attitudes, current behavior among primary school students on nutrition and food safety in two State-level poverty-stricken counties, and to explore the best educational model on nutrition and food safety.
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Brønsted Acid Catalyzed and NIS-Promoted Cyclization of Diynones: Selective Synthesis of 4-Pyrone, 4-Pyridone, and 3-Pyrrolone Derivatives.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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Brønsted acid catalyzed tandem cyclization was found to be highly effective for the preparation of a series of polysubstituted 4-pyrones from diynones (yield up to 99%). 4-Pyridone and 3-pyrrolone derivatives were also selectively synthesized by employing NIS and/or Brønsted acid. NIS as an electrophilic reagent could promote these reactions efficiently and rapidly under very mild reaction conditions.
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Divergent pathways to influence: Cognition and behavior differentially mediate the effects of optimism on physical and mental quality of life in Chinese university students.
J Health Psychol
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
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Previous research has indicated that both cognitive and behavioral variables mediate the positive effect of optimism on quality of life; yet few attempts have been made to accommodate these constructs into a single explanatory framework. Adopting Fredricksons broaden-and-build perspective, we examined the relationships between optimism, self-rated health, resilience, exercise, and quality of life in 365 Chinese university students using path analysis. For physical quality of life, a two-stage model, in which the effects of optimism were sequentially mediated by cognitive and behavioral variables, provided the best fit. A one-stage model, with full mediation by cognitive variables, provided the best fit for mental quality of life. This suggests that optimism influences physical and mental quality of life via different pathways.
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Hepcidin plays a negative role in liver regeneration.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Hepcidin is a key regulator of iron metabolism. The expression of hepcidin is significantly induced by iron overload, inflammation, and infection of pathogens. Recent studies have indicated that the expression of hepcidin in the liver is also regulated during liver regeneration. However, the mechanism of the regulation of hepcidin expression and its role in liver regeneration remain unclear. In this study, we found that the hepatocyte growth factor inhibited hepcidin expression in the liver during the late stage of liver regeneration. Meanwhile, we investigated the effect of hepcidin on liver regeneration. Mice overexpressing hepcidin-1 exhibited impaired hepatic regeneration after partial hepatectomy, as determined by immunohistochemical staining of the proliferation cell nuclear antigen. Our results demonstrated a negative role of hepcidin in modulating liver regeneration, and suggested that a sustained high iron level by the down-regulation of hepcidin at the late stage of liver regeneration is required for hepatocyte proliferation.
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[Effect of N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline on differentiation from pulmonary fibroblast to myofibroblast mediated by Rho-associated coiled-coilforming protein kinase pathway].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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To investigate whether N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) can inhibit the differentiation of pulmonary fibroblasts into myofibroblasts by regulating Rho-associated coiled-coil forming protein kinase (ROCK) pathway mediated by transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1).
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Media Exposure and Smoking Intention in Adolescents: A Moderated Mediation Analysis from a Cultivation Perspective.
J Health Psychol
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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The study tested a moderated mediation model to examine the mechanisms underlying the link between media exposure and adolescent smoking intention by utilizing a modification of cultivation theory. A total of 12,586 non-current smoker adolescents in California were included in the analysis. Results showed that media exposure was positively related to smoking intention via perceived prevalence of peer smoking when friend disapproval of cigarette use was low. This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanism regarding the media effects on smoking intention, but the findings should be interpreted with caution due to the small effect size.
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Erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition is related to overloaded plasma ferritin in Chinese males with angiographic coronary artery disease.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Not only is iron deficiency an abnormal iron status, but iron overload is also harmful for human health. It has been reported that overloaded iron stores are positively associated with increased coronary artery disease (CAD) risk, which is called the "iron-heart hypothesis". Previous studies evaluating the relationships between fatty acids (FAs) and body iron status only focused on participants with iron deficiency. However, whether FA composition is related to overloaded iron remains unclear. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the relationships between erythrocyte membrane FA (Ery-FA) composition and overloaded body iron status as measured by plasma ferritin levels in Chinese CAD patients. A total of 446 subjects with angiographically identified CAD (mean age 63.1 years, 76.9% males) were recruited in a hospital between 2009 and 2010. Ery-FAs were measured by gas chromatography and the activities of FA desaturases, which are involved in the de novo synthesis of unsaturated FAs, were evaluated by using FA product-to-precursor ratios. Results showed that the average iron status was a bit overloaded in the population (median ferritin levels of 234.1 ng mL(-1) and 40.4% males of overload). Moreover, in males, saturated FAs (SFAs) were positively correlated (22 : 0, r = 0.182, p = 0.001; 24 : 0, r = 0.214, p < 0.001), whereas monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) and n-6 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) were negatively correlated (18 : 1n-9, r = -0.120, p = 0.028; 18 : 2n-6, r = -0.216, p < 0.001) with plasma ferritin levels. A negative correlation (r < 0, p < 0.05) between stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) activity and ferritin levels was also found in males. However, all the significant associations above were not observed in females. In conclusion, the Ery-FA composition was related to overloaded plasma ferritin levels only in Chinese males with angiographic CAD, which might be linked to the change of SCD activity. The results may contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of the iron-heart hypothesis.
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MEIOB exhibits single-stranded DNA-binding and exonuclease activities and is essential for meiotic recombination.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Meiotic recombination enables the reciprocal exchange of genetic material between parental homologous chromosomes, and ensures faithful chromosome segregation during meiosis in sexually reproducing organisms. This process relies on the complex interaction of DNA repair factors and many steps remain poorly understood in mammals. Here we report the identification of MEIOB, a meiosis-specific protein, in a proteomics screen for novel meiotic chromatin-associated proteins in mice. MEIOB contains an OB domain with homology to one of the RPA1 OB folds. MEIOB binds to single-stranded DNA and exhibits 3-5 exonuclease activity. MEIOB forms a complex with RPA and with SPATA22, and these three proteins co-localize in foci that are associated with meiotic chromosomes. Strikingly, chromatin localization and stability of MEIOB depends on SPATA22 and vice versa. Meiob-null mouse mutants exhibit a failure in meiosis and sterility in both sexes. Our results suggest that MEIOB is required for meiotic recombination and chromosomal synapsis.
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Silver nanoparticle-embedded microbubble as a dual-mode ultrasound and optical imaging probe.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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Microbubbles (MBs) coupled with nanoparticles represent a new class of multifunctional probe for multiscale biomedical imaging and drug delivery. In this study, we describe the development of multifunctional, microscale microbubble probes that are composed of a nitrogen gas core and a biocompatible polymer shell harboring silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Ultrasound imaging studies show that the presence of AgNPs in the MB significantly improves the contrast of ultrasound images. The AgNPs within individual MB can be also imaged by using dark-field microscopy (DFM), which suggests that AgNPs in the polymer shell adopt multiple structural forms. AgNPs are released from the polymer shell following a brief exposure to an ultrasonic field and are subsequently taken up by living cells. AgNPs within labeled cells are imaged by DFM, while surface-enhanced Raman scattering is used to identify specific cytoplasmic biomolecules that bind to the surface of the AgNP. Collectively, these studies demonstrate the application of multifunctional MBs for micrometer scale contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging, as vehicles for the ultrasound-based delivery of optical probes and drugs to cells, and for imaging of chemical sensing of individual nanopartiles within cells and tissue.
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Analgesic treatment with pregabalin does not prevent persistent pain after peripheral nerve injury in the rat.
Pain
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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Reducing the risk of chronic postoperative pain through preventive analgesia is an attractive therapeutic concept. Because peripheral nerve lesions are a major cause of chronic pain after surgery, we tested in rats whether analgesic treatment with pregabalin (PGB) has the capacity to mitigate the development of persistent neuropathic pain-like behavior. Starting on the day of spared nerve injury or 1week later, we treated rats with a continuous intrathecal infusion of PGB (300 or 900?g/24hours) or vehicle for up to 28days. Rats receiving early PGB treatment had almost normal withdrawal thresholds for punctate mechanical stimuli and were clearly less sensitive to pinprick or cold stimulation. The responses to punctate mechanical and cold stimulation were still reduced for a brief period after the infusion was terminated, but the difference from vehicle-treated rats was minor. Essentially, the analgesic effect of PGB was limited to the duration of the infusion, whether analgesia started at the time of surgery or with a delay of 1week, independently of the length of the treatment. PGB did not suppress the activation of spinal microglia, indicating that analgesia alone does not eliminate certain pain mechanisms even if they depend, at least partially, on nociceptive input. Unexpectedly, intrathecal infusion of PGB did not inhibit the nerve injury-induced accumulation of its binding target, the voltage-gated calcium channel subunit ?2?1, at primary afferent terminals in the spinal cord. Interference with the synaptic trafficking of ?2?1 is not required to achieve analgesia with PGB.
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Histopathological changes in the liver of tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) persistently infected with hepatitis B virus.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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An animal model for HBV that more closely approximates the disease in humans is needed. The tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) is closely related to primates and susceptible to HBV. We previously established that neonatal tree shrews can be persistently infected with HBV in vivo, and here present a six year follow-up histopathological study of these animals.
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ALDH2 is associated to alcohol dependence and is the major genetic determinant of "daily maximum drinks" in a GWAS study of an isolated rural chinese sample.
Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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Alcohol dependence (AD) is a moderately heritable phenotype with a small number of known risk genes mapped via linkage or candidate gene studies. We considered 313 males from among 595 members of documented, extended pedigrees in which AD segregates collected in Northern Hunan Province, China. A joint analysis of both males and females could not be performed as the difference in alcohol consumption variance was too large. Genome-wide association analyses were performed for approximately 300,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Significant associations found in the ALDH2 region for AD (minimum P?=?4.73?×?10(-8) ) and two AD-related phenotypes: flushing response (minimum P?=?4.75?×?10(-26) ) and maximum drinks in a 24-hr period (minimum P?=?1.54?×?10(-16) ). Association of previous candidate SNP, rs10774610 in CCDC63, was confirmed but resulted from linkage disequilibrium with ALDH2. ALDH2 is strongly associated with flushing response, AD, and maximum drinks in males, with nonsynonymous SNP rs671 explaining 29.2%, 7.9%, and 22.9% of phenotypic variation, respectively, in this sample. When rs671 was considered as a candidate SNP in females, it explained 23.6% of the variation in flushing response, but alcohol consumption rates were too low among females-despite familial enrichment for AD-for an adequate test of association for either AD or maximum drinks. These results support a mediating effect of aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency on alcohol consumption in males and a secondary, culturally mediated limitation on alcohol consumption by females that should be appropriately modeled in future studies of alcohol consumption in populations where this may be a factor. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Metal-organic framework polymethyl methacrylate composites for open-tubular capillary electrochromatography.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are attractive as novel separation medium due to their distinguished properties including large surface area, accessible tunnels and diverse structures. Here, we report the incorporation of MOF CAU-1 (CAU=Christian-Albrechts-University) into polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) to produce a new composite (CAU-1@PMMA), and the fabrication of CAU-1@PMMA coated capillary for open tubular capillary electrochromatography (CEC). CAU-1 contains unprecedented [Al8(OH)4(OCH3)8](12+) clusters connected by twelve aminoterephthalic acid linkers, and is highly porous and stable in a variety of buffer solutions. The incorporation of CAU-1 into PMMA not only increases surface area, but also electroosmotic flow (EOF). As a result, the CAU-1@PMMA coated capillary column gives higher column efficiency, larger column capacity, and shorter separation time for baseline separation of two groups of aromatic carboxylic acids than the PMMA coated capillary column. Besides, the incorporation of CAU-1 also improves the resolution for the CEC separation of basic sulfa drugs and structurally related peptides. The run-to-run, day-to-day and column-to-column precision for the EOF of CAU-1@PMMA coated capillary column is 0.3%, 0.4%, and 2.2% (relative standard deviation), respectively. The results show that MOFs composites are promising stationary phases for CEC applications.
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Lignosulfonate-mediated cellulase adsorption: enhanced enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulose through weakening nonproductive binding to lignin.
Biotechnol Biofuels
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2013
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Thermochemical pretreatment of lignocellulose is crucial to bioconversion in the fields of biorefinery and biofuels. However, the enzyme inhibitors in pretreatment hydrolysate make solid substrate washing and hydrolysate detoxification indispensable prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. Sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL) is a relatively new process, but has demonstrated robust performance for sugar and biofuel production from woody biomass in terms of yield and energy efficiency. This study demonstrated the advantage of SPORL pretreatment whereby the presentation of lignosulfonate (LS) renders the hydrolysate non-inhibitory to cellulase (Cel) due to the formation of lignosulfonate-cellulase complexes (LCCs) which can mediate the Cel adsorption between lignin and cellulose, contrary to the conventional belief that pretreatment hydrolysate inhibits the enzymatic hydrolysis unless detoxified.
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Epileptic discharges specifically affect intrinsic connectivity networks during absence seizures.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2013
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Intrinsic connectivity network (ICN) technique provides a feasible way for evaluating cognitive impairments in epilepsy. This EEG-fMRI study aims to comprehensively assess the alterations of ICNs affected by generalized spike-and-wave discharge (GSWD) during absence seizure (AS). Twelve fMRI sessions with GSWD, and individually paired non-GSWD sessions were acquired from 16 patients with AS. Ten ICNs corresponding to seizure origination and cognitive processes were extracted using independent component analysis. Intra- and inter-network connectivity alterations of the ICNs were observed through comparisons between GSWD and non-GSWD sessions. Sequential correlation analysis between GSWD and the ICN time courses addressed the immediate effects of GSWD on ICNs during AS. GSWD-related increase of intra-network connectivity was found only in the thalamus, and extensive decreases were found in the ICNs corresponding to higher-order cognitive processes including the default-mode network, dorsal attention network, central executive network and salience network. The perceptive networks and motor network were less affected by GSWD. Sequential correlation analysis further demonstrated different responses of the ICNs to GSWD. In addition to GSWD-related functional excitation in the thalamus and functional suspension in the default-mode network, this study revealed extensive inhibitions in the other ICNs corresponding to higher-order cognitive processes, and spared perceptive and motor processes in AS. GSWD elevated synchronization of brain network activity and sequentially affected the ICNs.
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The correlation between ostomy knowledge and self-care ability with psychosocial adjustment in Chinese patients with a permanent colostomy: a descriptive study ?.
Ostomy Wound Manage
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2013
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A colostomy can have a negative impact on patient quality of life. Research suggests that psychosocial adaptation is positively associated with quality of life, but few reports address this adaptation and its related factors in patients with a permanent colostomy. A 4-month, descriptive study was conducted to assess the impact of ostomy knowledge and ability to self-care on the psychosocial adjustment of 54 Chinese outpatients (47 men, 14 participants 40 to 50 years old, 40 participants 50 to 70 years old) with a permanent colostomy to investigate the correlation between stoma knowledge, self-care ability, and psychosocial adjustment. Assessment instruments included a sociodemographic data questionnaire and a Chinese translation of the Ostomy Adjustment Inventory-23 that comprises 20 items in three domains (positive emotions, negative emotions, and social life). Participants rated statements on a scale from 0 (totally disagree) to 4 (totally agree); a score of 40 indicates a low level of psychosocial adjustment. Participants also completed the Stoma-related Knowledge Scale, comprising 14 5-point Likert scale questions where low scores indicate low knowledge, and they answered one question regarding self-care ability. Data were analyzed using statistical software for social science. The average stoma-related knowledge score suggested moderate levels of knowledge (45.112 ± 13.358). Twenty (20) participants managed all stoma care aspects independently, 30 required some assistance, and four (4) required care by someone else. The three domains of psychosocial adjustment scores (positive emotions, negative emotions, and social life) were 17.60 ± 4.093,12.92 ± 3.440, and 19.15 ± 6.316, respectively. Knowledge and the three domains of psychosocial adjustment were positively correlated with positive emotion (r = .610, P = 0.001), negative emotion (r = .696, P = 0.000), and social life adjustment (r = .617, P = 0.001). A significant difference in psychosocial adjustment scores was found between persons who did (57.37 ± 9.81) and those that did not (47.83 ± 8.18) independently care for their own stoma (P = 0.005). Persons with high levels of knowledge and independence had a high level of psychosocial adjustment. Providing knowledge and emphasizing/teaching self-care may help persons with a colostomy make the necessary daily and social life adaptations.
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Tissue kallikrein preventing the restenosis after stenting of symptomatic MCA atherosclerotic stenosis (KPRASS).
Int J Stroke
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Many recent studies suggest that the kallikrein-kinin system play a protective role in the impairment of vascular smooth muscle cells and vascular endothelial cell.
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Nanoassemblies containing a fluorouracil/zidovudine glyceryl prodrug with phospholipase A2-triggered drug release for cancer treatment.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), which is overexpressed in many tumors, cleaves ester bonds at the sn-2 position of phospholipids. A PLA2-sensitive amphiphilic prodrug, 1-O-octadecyl-2-(5-fluorouracil)-N-acetyl-3-zidovudine-phosphorylglycerol (OFZG), was synthesized and used to prepare nanoassemblies through the injection of a mixture of OFZG/cholesterol/Tween 80 (2:1:0.1, mol:mol:mol) into water. Cholesterol and Tween 80 was incorporated into the OFZG monolayers at the air/water interface to yield nanoassemblies. The resulting nanoassemblies exhibited a narrow size distribution with a mean size of 77.8nm and were stable due to their high surface charges. The in vitro experiments showed that PLA2 degraded OFZG. The nanoassemblies exhibited higher anticancer activity than the parent drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in COLO205, HT-28, and HCT-116 cells. The intravenous (i.v.) administration of the nanoassemblies into mice resulted in the rapid elimination of OFZG from the circulation and its distribution mainly in the liver, lung, spleen, and kidney. After their injection into tumor-bearing mice, the nanoassemblies exhibited anticancer efficiency comparable to that of 5-FU, even though the nanoassemblies contained concentrations of only 1/10 of the molar amount of 5-FU. The lessons learned from the study and methods for the design of PLA2-sensitive amphiphilic prodrugs are also discussed. Enzyme-sensitive amphiphilic combinatorial prodrugs and prodrug-loaded nanoassemblies may represent a new strategy for anticancer drug design.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.