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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Effect of maternal high-fat diet before and during pregnancy on bone growth of neonatal offspring rats.]
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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To explore the mechanism and effect of maternal high-fat diet before and during pregnancy on bone growth of neonatal offspring rats.
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Your Face Says It All: Closeness and Perception of Emotional Expressions Among Females.
J Soc Psychol
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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ABSTRACT The purpose of the present investigation was to assess whether interpersonal closeness facilitates earlier emotion detection as the emotional expression unfolds. Female undergraduate participants were either paired with a close friend or an acquaintance (n= 92 pairs). Participants viewed morphed movies of their partner and a stranger gradually shifting from a neutral to either a sad, angry, or happy expression. As predicted, findings indicate a closeness advantage. Close friends detected the onset of their partners' angry and sad expressions earlier than acquaintances. Additionally, close friends were more accurate than acquaintances in identifying angry and sad expressions at the onset, particularly in non-vignette conditions when these expressions were void of context. These findings suggest that closeness does indeed facilitate emotional perception, particularly in ambiguous situations for negative emotions.
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Tracing phosphate ions generated during DNA amplification and its simple use for visual detection of isothermal amplified products.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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A yes/no answer for DNA isothermal amplification can be visually obtained with this phosphate ion-based method described in this communication. An extremely rapid detection for cross-priming isothermal amplification was proved and the feasibility of this strategy was systematically studied.
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[Effects of plant-derived smoke water on accumulation of biomass and active substance of Salvia miltiorrhiza f. alba].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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To study the effect of plant-derived smoke water on the accumulation of biomass and active substance of Salvia miltiorrhiza f. alba, seedlings of S. miltiorrhiza were treated with different concentrations of smoke water (1:500, 1: 1 000, 1: 2 000). The fresh weight and dry weight of underground part, the number of split-root, maximum root diameter, average root diameter, average root length, the content of lipophilic components and water-soluble components were measured. Results showed that fresh weight and dry weight of underground part were respectively improved by 98.01%, 44.32% and 85.71%, 28.57% with significant difference by smoke water treatment with concentration of 1: 500 and 1: 1 000. Maximum root diameter and dry weight of underground part were respectively enhanced by 58.44% and 85.71% by smoke water with concentration of 1:500. The content of tanshinone I and tanshinone II(A) were improved by smoke water treatment, however there were no significantly difference on the content of cryptotanshinone and dihydrotan shinone. This study indicates that smoke water treatment could be used to improve the accumulation of biomass and active substance content of S. miltiorrhiza f. alba, which could provide new ideas for its green cultivating.
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Hollow Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework Nanospheres as Highly Efficient Cooperative Catalysts for [3+3] Cycloaddition Reactions.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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Herein we describe a novel, hollow-structured zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8-H) nanosphere as a highly efficient catalyst for [3+3] cycloaddition reactions. The programmed installation of acidic Zn(2+) species and basic imidazolate moieties creates a synergistic catalytic system. Appropriate positioning of these functionalities in the catalytic system makes it possible to bring two substrates into close proximity and activate them cooperatively. Moreover, the flexible shell and the surface mesopores of ZIF-8-H provide the capacity for favorable binding of various sized substrates, stabilizing intermediates via their multiple force networks and the increased accessibility of the active sites. These features render ZIF-8-H a more highly active promoter than its homogeneous precursors, bulk ZIF-8 and ZIF-8-N nanoparticles. Finally, the robust catalyst can be easily recovered and reused 10 times without loss of catalytic activity.
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Preparation of (Z)-?,?-disubstituted enamides via palladium-catalyzed addition of boronic acids to ynamides.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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A Pd-catalyzed, highly regio- and stereoselective addition of boronic acids to ynamides has been realized. This protocol generates (Z)-?,?-disubstituted enamides in high yields with excellent regio- and stereoselectivity under the mild reaction conditions, thereby providing a good complementary method for the diverse synthesis of multifunctional enamides. A wide collection of functional groups are found to be tolerated. It represents a straightforward and useful means to assemble stereodefined enamides from readily available starting materials.
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Cytotoxic and antiangiogenic paclitaxel solubilized and permeation-enhanced by natural product nanoparticles.
Anticancer Drugs
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Paclitaxel (PTX) is one of the most potent intravenous chemotherapeutic agents to date, yet an oral formulation has been problematic because of its low solubility and permeability. Using the recently discovered solubilizing properties of rubusoside (RUB), we investigated the unique PTX-RUB formulation. PTX was solubilized by RUB in water to levels of 1.6-6.3?mg/ml at 10-40% weight/volume. These nanomicellar PTX-RUB complexes were dried to a powder, which was subsequently reconstituted in physiologic solutions. After 2.5?h, 85-99% of PTX-RUB remained soluble in gastric fluid, whereas 79-96% remained soluble in intestinal fluid. The solubilization of PTX was mechanized by the formation of water-soluble spherical nanomicelles between PTX and RUB, with an average diameter of 6.6?nm. Compared with Taxol, PTX-RUB nanoparticles were nearly four times more permeable in Caco-2 cell monocultures. In a side-by-side comparison with dimethyl sulfoxide-solubilized PTX, PTX-RUB maintained the same level of cytotoxicity against three human cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 4 to 20?nmol/l. In addition, tubule formation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells were inhibited at levels as low as 5?nmol/l. These chemical and biological properties demonstrated by the PTX-RUB nanoparticles may improve oral bioavailability and enable further pharmacokinetic, toxicologic, and efficacy investigations.
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Fundus optic disc localization and segmentation method based on phase congruency.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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It has been demonstrated that shape, area and depth of the optic disc are relevant indices of diabetic retinopathy. In this paper, we present a new fundus optic disc localization and segmentation method based on phase congruency (PC). Firstly, in order to highlight the optic disc, channel images with the highest contrast between optic disc and background are selected in LAB, YUV, YIQ and HSV spaces respectively. Secondly, with the use of PC, features of four selected channel images can be extracted. Multiplication operation is then used to enhance PC detection results. Thirdly, window scanning and gray accumulating are utilized to locate the optic disc. Finally, iterative OTSU automatic threshold segmentation and Hough transform are performed on location images, before the final optic disc segmentation result can be obtained. The experimental results showed that the proposed method can effectively and accurately perform optic disc location and segmentation.
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Evaluation of the after-effects of cyanobacterial cell removal and lysis by photocatalysis using Ag/AgBr/TiO2.
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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This study aimed to evaluate the after-effects of cyanobacterial cell removal and lysis by photocatalysis in water. A low concentration of 50 mg/L Ag/AgBr/TiO2 was applied to inactivate Microcystis aeruginosa under visible light irradiation. Most of the M. aeruginosa was killed within 5 h while microcystins-LR (MC-LR) was released into water and accumulated to a high concentration of 100 ?g/L. Organic constituents released from cell damage led to 70 mg/L of total organic carbon (TOC) in water. The release of MC-LR and TOC would affect the biostability in the receiving water. Further, mineralization of cell lysis after photocatalysis over a long time resulted in the release of nutrients in water which would be a risk to cause cyanobacterial blooming again. Therefore, these after-effects should not be ignored when photochemical catalysis is applied to mitigate cyanobacterial blooming. Perhaps the best treatment is to remove intact cyanobacterial cells from water and then treat them off-site, for example by anaerobic digestion.
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Behavioral health services following implementation of screening in Massachusetts Medicaid children.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
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To determine the relationship of child behavioral health (BH) screening results to receipt of BH services in Massachusetts Medicaid (MassHealth) children.
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[Study of using digital photography to measure soil pH].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Soil saline-alkalization is one of the most important problems of land degradation and the basic environmental problem in arid and semi-arid regions. The digital photography technology can rapidly and timely provide the information about properties, geographical distribution and extent of soil saline-alkalization. For verifying use digital photography assess degrees of sodality promptly and accurately, based on the monitored data of soil pH and measured VIS-NIR reflectance and photographs on given spots, The correlation were analyzed between soil pH and color space model parameters, Partial least squares Regression (PISR) was employed to build predicting model of pH value and the different between two Kinds of data were compared. The results showed that most of parameters with significant correlation While the CIEL * a * b * color model was the best, and it is the best model to assess soil pH (R2 = 0.795, RMSEcv = 0. 084). Prediction set has also seen it was accurate and stability (R2 =0.781, RMSE p = 0.158). The prediction had no significant difference between the digital photography and VIS-NIR reflectance data. The digital image color analysis method showed the potential of being used in soil pH value assessing in the future.
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Brain-targeted delivery of trans-activating transcriptor-conjugated magnetic PLGA/lipid nanoparticles.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Magnetic poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)/lipid nanoparticles (MPLs) were fabricated from PLGA, L-?-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE), 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-amino (polyethylene glycol) (DSPE-PEG-NH2), and magnetic nanoparticles (NPs), and then conjugated to trans-activating transcriptor (TAT) peptide. The TAT-MPLs were designed to target the brain by magnetic guidance and TAT conjugation. The drugs hesperidin (HES), naringin (NAR), and glutathione (GSH) were encapsulated in MPLs with drug loading capacity (>10%) and drug encapsulation efficiency (>90%). The therapeutic efficacy of the drug-loaded TAT-MPLs in bEnd.3 cells was compared with that of drug-loaded MPLs. The cells accumulated higher levels of TAT-MPLs than MPLs. In addition, the accumulation of QD-loaded fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled TAT-MPLs in bEnd.3 cells was dose and time dependent. Our results show that TAT-conjugated MPLs may function as an effective drug delivery system that crosses the blood brain barrier to the brain.
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[Inflammasome and its role in immunological and inflammatory response at early stage of burns].
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Inflammasomes are large multi-protein complexes that serve as a platform for caspase-1 activation, and this process induces subsequent maturation and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1? and IL-18, as well as pyroptosis. As an important component of the innate immune system, early activation of inflammasomes in a variety of immune cell subsets can mediate inflammatory response and immunological conditions after burn injury. Here, we review the current knowledge of inflammasomes and its role in immunological and inflammatory response at the early stage of burn injury.
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[Using mixture design to optimize preparation technology of gankeshuangqing dispersible tablets].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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To study the preparation process and the best prescription of Gankeshuangqing dispersible tablets.
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[Effects of polymorphisms in XRCC1 and APE1 on vinyl chloride-induced chromosome damage].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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To evaluate the effects of polymorphisms in XRCC1 and APE1 genes on vinyl chloride (VC)-induced chromosomal damage in peripheral lymphocytes.
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The chemostat study of metabolic distribution in extreme-thermophilic (70 °C) mixed culture fermentation.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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The effects of pH, hydrogen partial pressure (PH2), and influent glucose concentration on the metabolic distribution in chemostat were investigated in this work in extreme-thermophilic mixed culture fermentation (MCF) process. The results showed that acetate, ethanol, and hydrogen were the main metabolites. A shift of ethanol to acetate and hydrogen was observed as pH increasing from 4.0 to 7.0 or PH2 decreasing from 0.64 to 0.05 atm. The maximum hydrogen yield was 3.16?±?0.16 mol/mol glucose at PH2 0.05 atm. Lactate was only accumulated at low pH or high influent glucose concentration, while others such as butyrate and formate were rather low. Thermodynamic analysis illustrated that a mixture of acetate, ethanol, and/or lactate was essential for hydrogen production in extreme-thermophilic MCF. The hydrogen-producing rate was also calculated, and the maximum value was 2.2?±?0.1 L/(L-reactor/day) at PH2 0.05 atm. Except hydrogen, other metabolites, such as liquid fatty acids and biofuels, could also be the producing targets in extreme-thermophilic MCF.
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National Trends and Disparities in Cervical Cancer Screening among Commercially Insured Women, 2001-2010.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Previous surveys reported declining cervical cancer screening rates from 2000 to 2010, but trends by key demographic and age groups are less clear.
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Persistent medication affordability problems among disabled medicare beneficiaries after part d, 2006-2011.
Med Care
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Disabled Americans who qualify for Medicare coverage typically have multiple chronic conditions, are highly dependent on effective drug therapy, and have limited financial resources, putting them at risk for cost-related medication nonadherence (CRN). Since 2006, the Part D benefit has helped Medicare beneficiaries afford medications.
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Characterizing Topological Patterns in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment by Quantitative Water Diffusivity.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Mean diffusivity (MD) derived from diffusion tensor imaging has shown its ability to assess the microscopic structural integrity damage of gray matter in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), a prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, little is known about the small world topology networks constructed by cortical MD in cognitive disease. In this work, we measured the cortical MD in the entire brain in patients with aMCI (n = 30) and AD (n = 30) compared with cognitive-normal (CNs) controls (n = 30), and then constructed the cortical diffusivity network by using graph-theoretical analysis. Compared with CNs, patients with aMCI and AD showed abnormal small-world property of cortical diffusivity networks (higher degree of clustering and longer path length), reflecting a less optimal topological organization. Moreover, the mean degree of connections of network in aMCI patients was characterized by lower than CNs but higher than AD. In addition, 11 hub regions were identified by negative correlations between MD and the score of Montreal Cognitive Assessment after multiple regression analysis, including bilateral hippocampi and related limbic system. Among those hub regions, the connectivity of the right olfactory cortex and middle orbital gyrus to the rest of brain regions were disrupted earlier than the other 9 regions in aMCI when compared to CN. In conclusion, the change of cortical diffusivity in topological network organization, mean degree of connections, and disrupted hub regions in aMCI may serve to identify patients in the prodromal stage of AD and reflect microstructural deterioration of neurodegeneration.
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[Comparison on surface ultrastructure characteristic and drought resistance of different Trichosanthes kirilowii strains].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Trichosanthes kirilowii has been widely cultivated as its medicinal use, health care and food value. Drought resistance of seedlings is an important feature in breeding. Seeds of two T. kirilowii strains were used to research the difference of surface ultrastructure characteristic and drought resistance. Scanning electron microscope was used to identify the surface ultrastructure characteristic of seeds and PEG was used to simulate drought stress. The seeds germination rate, MDA content, chlorophyll content and the antioxidant enzymes activity were measured under the drought stress. The results showed that the seed surface colour of KXY-001 was lighter than that of KXY-005. The testa cobwebbing of KXY-001 was more intensive than that of KXY-005. The germination rate of KXY-001 was higher than that of KXY-005 under drought stress. The MDA content was increased and the chlorophyll content was decreased with the increasing of drought degree. The SOD activity of KXY-001 was higher than that of KXY-005, while the activity of POD and CAT was also increased firstly and decreased later. Surface reticulate of seeds and hilar traits can be used as identification points to identify the investigated strains. SOD and POD are activated to resist drought in T. kirilowii seedlings and the drought resistance of KXY-001 is superior than that of KXY-005.
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Medication affordability gains following Medicare Part D are eroding among elderly with multiple chronic conditions.
Health Aff (Millwood)
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Elderly Americans, especially those with multiple chronic conditions, face difficulties paying for prescriptions, which results in worse adherence to and discontinuation of therapy, called cost-related medication nonadherence. Medicare Part D, implemented in January 2006, was supposed to address issues of affordability for prescriptions. We investigated whether the gains in medication affordability attributable to Part D persisted during the six years that followed its implementation. Overall, we found continued incremental improvements in medication affordability in the period 2007-09 that eroded during the period 2009-11. Among elderly beneficiaries with four or more chronic conditions, we observed an increase in the prevalence of cost-related nonadherence from 14.4 percent in 2009 to 17.0 percent in 2011, reversing previous downward trends. Similarly, the prevalence among the sickest elderly of forgoing basic needs to purchase medicines decreased from 8.7 percent in 2007 to 6.8 percent in 2009 but rose to 10.2 percent in 2011. Our findings highlight the need for targeted policy efforts to alleviate the persistent burden of drug treatment costs on this vulnerable population.
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Increased acyl ghrelin but decreased total ghrelin and unacyl ghrelin in Chinese Han people with impaired fasting glucose combined with impaired glucose tolerance.
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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We assessed the plasma acyl ghrelin (AG), unacyl ghrelin (UAG), and total ghrelin (TGhr) levels in Chinese adults with pre-diabetes and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus (NDDM) after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and abdominal subcutaneous fat area and visceral fat area (VFA) were measured. Fasting AG level was increased in the impaired fasting glucose (IFG) combined with impaired glucose tolerance (IFG+IGT) and NDDM groups. AG, UAG, and TGhr levels were significantly decreased post-OGTT, and the decrements of 30-min AG, UAG, and TGhr post-OGTT were not significantly different among groups. UAG and TGhr levels did not differ significantly among the normal glucose tolerance (NGT), IFG and NDDM groups, but they decreased obviously in the IFG+IGT and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) groups. The NDDM group had larger VFA than the NGT, IGT, and IFG+IGT groups, even after adjustment for height, it was still larger than the NGT group. The factors such as dyslipidemia and obesity which are prone to develop insulin resistance (IR) and decrease insulin sensitivity (IS) were negatively correlated with UAG and TGhr, positively with AG/UAG, while no correlations with AG. In terms of evaluating IS and IR, AG/UAG ratio may be superior in AG concentration. Our findings suggest that relative sufficiency of AG, the deficiency of TGhr and UAG are already present in IFG+IGT patients. We speculate that there is UAG resistance in severe hyperglycemia (diabetic state), which could produce elevated TGhr and UAG compared to IFG+IGT group. In the development of T2D, increase of VFA could be the initiating factor, leading elevated AG, reduced UAG, IR, decreased IS, and finally hyperglycemia.
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Long-term use of ciclosporin on kidney transplant recipients surviving more than 10 years.
Pharmazie
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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To evaluate the long-term use of ciclosporin on kidney transplant recipients who survived more than 10 years.
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[Study on process and principle of lactose grinding modification to decrease hygroscopic of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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In this paper, Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract,with high hygroscopic,was selected as research model, while lactose was selected as modifiers to study the effect of the grinding modification method on the hygroscopic. Subsequently, particle size distribution, scannin electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and surface properties were adopted for a phase analysis. The results showed that the modified extract, prepared by Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract grinding 5 min with the same amount of lactose UP2, which hygroscopic initial velocity, acceleration, and critical relative humidity moisture were less than that of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract and the mixture dramatically. In addition, compared with the mixture, the size distribution of modified extract was much less, the microstructure was also difference, while the infrared spectroscopy and surface properties were similar with that of lactose. It is the main principle that lactose particle adhered to the surface of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract after grinding mofication to decress the moisture obviously.
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Effect of massachusetts health reform on chronic disease outcomes.
Health Serv Res
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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To determine whether Massachusetts Health Reform improved health outcomes in uninsured patients with hyperlipidemia, diabetes, or hypertension.
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Methane production in microbial reverse-electrodialysis methanogenesis cells (MRMCs) using thermolytic solutions.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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The utilization of bioelectrochemical systems for methane production has attracted increasing attention, but producing methane in these systems requires additional voltage to overcome large cathode overpotentials. To eliminate the need for electrical grid energy, we constructed a microbial reverse-electrodialysis methanogenesis cell (MRMC) by placing a reverse electrodialysis (RED) stack between an anode with exoelectrogenic microorganisms and a methanogenic biocathode. In the MRMC, renewable salinity gradient energy was converted to electrical energy, thus providing the added potential needed for methane evolution from the cathode. The feasibility of the MRMC was examined using three different cathode materials (stainless steel mesh coated with platinum, SS/Pt; carbon cloth coated with carbon black, CC/CB; or a plain graphite fiber brush, GFB) and a thermolytic solution (ammonium bicarbonate) in the RED stack. A maximum methane yield of 0.60 ± 0.01 mol-CH4/mol-acetate was obtained using the SS/Pt biocathode, with a Coulombic recovery of 75 ± 2% and energy efficiency of 7.0 ± 0.3%. The CC/CB biocathode MRMC had a lower methane yield of 0.55 ± 0.02 mol-CH4/mol-acetate, which was twice that of the GFB biocathode MRMC. COD removals (89-91%) and Coulombic efficiencies (74-81%) were similar for all cathode materials. Linear sweep voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests demonstrated that cathodic microorganisms enhanced electron transfer from the cathode compared to abiotic controls. These results show that the MRMC has significant potential for production of nearly pure methane using low-grade waste heat and a source of waste organic matter at the anode.
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The Characteristic Structure of Anti-HIV Actinohivin in Complex with Three HMTG D1 Chains of HIV-gp120.
Chembiochem
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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The anti-HIV lectin actinohivin (AH) specifically interacts with HMTG (high-mannose-type glycan), which is attached to the glycoprotein gp120 of HIV-1 in a process in which the three branched mannotriose chains (D1, D2, and D3) of HMTG exhibit different binding affinities, it being estimated that that of D1 is the strongest, that of D3 is weaker, and that of D2 is undetectable. These properties have been ascribed to the stereochemical differences in linkages between the second and the third mannose residues of the three chains. In order to clarify the interaction geometry between AH and the major target D1, an X-ray determination of the crystal structure of AH in complex with D1-which is ?(1,2)mannotriose composed of three mannose (Man) residues linked together only by ?(1,2) bonding-has been performed. In each of the three D1-binding pockets of AH, two Man residues of D1 are accommodated at zones 1 and 2 in the pocket, in the same way as those found in the ?(1,2)mannobiose-bound AH crystals. However, an OMIT map shows poor densities at both ends of the two residues. This suggests the existence of positional disorder of D1 in the pocket: the two zones are each occupied by two Man residues in two different modes, with mode A involving the Man1 and Man2 residues and mode B the Man2 and Man3 residues. In each mode, D1 is stabilized by adopting a double-bracket-shaped conformation through C?H???O interactions. In mode B, however, the Man1 residue, which is the most sensitive residue to AH binding, protrudes wholly into the solvent region without contacts with AH. In mode A, in contrast, the Man3 residue interacts with the essential hydrophobic amino acid residues (Tyr and Leu conserved between the three pockets) of AH. Therefore, mode A is likely to be the one that occurs when whole HMTG is bound. In this mode, the two hydroxy groups (O3 and O4) of the Man2 residue are anchored in zone 2 by four hydrogen bonds with Asp, Asn, and Tyr residues of AH. In addition, it has been found that an isolated water molecule buried in the hydrophobic long loop bridges between Asp of AH and the hydroxy group of Man2 through hydrogen bonds. The most interesting feature is found in the interaction of the Man1 and Man3 residues with AH. All eight hydroxy groups of the two residues are completely exposed in the solvent region, whereas their hydrophobic parts make contacts with a Leu residue and two Tyr residues so that the shape of D1 and the surface of AH fit well over a wide area. These structural characteristics are potentially useful for development of AH to produce more effective antiretroviral drugs to suppress the infectious expansion of HIV/AIDS and to help expedite an end to the HIV/AIDS pandemic in the near future.
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Simultaneous enrichment of denitrifying methanotrophs and anammox bacteria.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Interaction between denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) processes may play an important role in global carbon and nitrogen cycles. In this study, a coculture of denitrifying methanotrophs (DAMO archaea and DAMO bacteria) and anammox bacteria, initially sourced from the environment, was enriched with a supply of methane, nitrate, and ammonium. After a 4.5-month enrichment, simultaneous oxidation of methane and ammonium and reduction of nitrate were observed. The highest rate of nitrate reduction in the suspended DAMO culture was 4.84 mmol/L/day, and simultaneously, the highest ammonium removal rate was 4.07 mmol/L/day. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed the coexistence of DAMO archaea, DAMO bacteria, and anammox bacteria. The development of anammox bacteria might reduce the enrichment time of DAMO microorganisms and promote the activity of DAMO archaea. The activity of the reactor fluctuated during the long-term operation, which might be caused by the formation of microbial clusters whereby DAMO archaea grew in aggregates that were surrounded by anammox and DAMO bacteria. This study is the first to demonstrate that it is feasible to establish a coculture of DAMO archaea, DAMO bacteria, and anammox bacteria from environmental inocula.
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Portable pH-inspired electrochemical detection of DNA amplification.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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A portable and label-free pH-mediated electrochemical method for the detection of DNA amplification is described. With protons released as readouts, DNA amplifications were detected in real-time or at the end-point.
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Changes in antidepressant use by young people and suicidal behavior after FDA warnings and media coverage: quasi-experimental study.
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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To investigate if the widely publicized warnings in 2003 from the US Food and Drug Administration about a possible increased risk of suicidality with antidepressant use in young people were associated with changes in antidepressant use, suicide attempts, and completed suicides among young people.
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Weight loss effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 mimetics on obese/overweight adults without diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
J Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) benefit weight maintenance for diabetic patients. We performed a systematic review to evaluate its weight loss effect on obese/overweight patients without diabetes in randomized controlled trials (RCTs).
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The tumor-stroma ratio is an independent predictor for survival in nasopharyngeal cancer.
Oncol Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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The tumor-stroma ratio (TSR) has been identified as a new and practicable prognostic histological characteristic of solid tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of the TSR in nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC).
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[MiR-192 confers cisplatin resistance by targeting Bim in lung cancer].
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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Cisplatin is the first-line drug for the chemotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but the acquired chemoresistance restricted the effect of its treatment. The aim of this study is to validate the miRNAs related to the Cisplatin resistance in lung cancer and elucidate the molecular mechanisms.
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[Expression and significance of IKBKB in pulmonary adenocarcinoma A549 cells and its cisplatin-resistant variant A549/DDP].
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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Cisplatin-resistance in Lung cancer cells is widespread in the clinical treatment, seriously affecting the effects of the treatment of lung cancer. Therefore, the research of mechanisms of cisplain-resistance has significant meaning for developing new chemotherapeutic drug and solving the cisplain-resistance in clinic treatment. IKBKB is one of the most important catalytic subunits of IKK complexes. It plays an important regulatory role in activation of NF-?B. The aim of this study is to investigate the differential expression of IKBKB gene in human lung adenocarcinoma cells line A549 and the cisplatin-resistant variant A549/DDP and the mechanisms of cisplain-resistance induced by IKBKB gene.
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Assessment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with magnetic resonance imaging.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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To determine the role of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and quantitative T2 value measurements in the assessment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN).
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Genome wide association study: searching for genes underlying body mass index in the Chinese.
Biomed. Environ. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Obesity is becoming a worldwide health problem. The genome wide association (GWA) study particularly for body mass index (BMI) has not been successfully conducted in the Chinese. In order to identify novel genes for BMI variation in the Chinese, an initial GWA study and a follow up replication study were performed.
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[Analysis and identification of Poria cocos peels harvested form different producing areas by FTIR and 2D-IR correlation spectroscopy].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Different geographical regions of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), its chemical composition is different, the accumulation of drug and medicinal properties is different. The accurate identification and analysis of different production area of medicinal herbs is critical for the quality control and pharmacological research of TCM. In this paper, a tri-step infrared spectroscopy (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with second derivative spectra and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-COS) were employed to identify and analyze the main components of Hubei (HB), Anhui (AH), Yun-nan (YN) genuine Poria Cocos peels. The emergence of several characteristic absorption peaks of carbohydrates including 1149, 1079 1036 cm(-1), peaks around 1619, 1315, 780 cm(-1) belonged to calcium oxalate suggested that HB and AH Poria Cocos peels contained calcium oxalate, but peaks around 797, 779, 537, 470 cm(-1) belonged to kaoline suggested that YN Poria Cocos peels contained kaoline. Their carbohydrates were different by comparing the second derivative infrared spectra in the range of 1640-450 cm(-1) and Yongping come from YN contains both calcium oxalate and kaoline. Furthermore, the above differences were visually validated by two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS). It was demonstrated that the Tri-step infrared spectroscopy were successfully applied to fast analyze and identify Poria Cocos peels from different geographical regions and subsequently would be applicable to explain the relevance of geographical regions and medicinal properties for the TCM.
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Lack of any prognostic value of body mass index for patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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The relationship between body mass index(BMI) and outcomes after chemoradiotherapy(CRT) has not been systematically addressed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of BMI on survival in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
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Integrative functional genomics of hepatitis C virus infection identifies host dependencies in complete viral replication cycle.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Recent functional genomics studies including genome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) screens demonstrated that hepatitis C virus (HCV) exploits an extensive network of host factors for productive infection and propagation. How these co-opted host functions interact with various steps of HCV replication cycle and exert pro- or antiviral effects on HCV infection remains largely undefined. Here we present an unbiased and systematic strategy to functionally interrogate HCV host dependencies uncovered from our previous infectious HCV (HCVcc) siRNA screen. Applying functional genomics approaches and various in vitro HCV model systems, including HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp), single-cycle infectious particles (HCVsc), subgenomic replicons, and HCV cell culture systems (HCVcc), we identified and characterized novel host factors or pathways required for each individual step of the HCV replication cycle. Particularly, we uncovered multiple HCV entry factors, including E-cadherin, choline kinase ?, NADPH oxidase CYBA, Rho GTPase RAC1 and SMAD family member 6. We also demonstrated that guanine nucleotide binding protein GNB2L1, E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBE2J1, and 39 other host factors are required for HCV RNA replication, while the deubiquitinating enzyme USP11 and multiple other cellular genes are specifically involved in HCV IRES-mediated translation. Families of antiviral factors that target HCV replication or translation were also identified. In addition, various virologic assays validated that 66 host factors are involved in HCV assembly or secretion. These genes included insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), a proviral factor, and N-Myc down regulated Gene 1 (NDRG1), an antiviral factor. Bioinformatics meta-analyses of our results integrated with literature mining of previously published HCV host factors allows the construction of an extensive roadmap of cellular networks and pathways involved in the complete HCV replication cycle. This comprehensive study of HCV host dependencies yields novel insights into viral infection, pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets.
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A retrospective study: the prevalence and prognostic value of anemia in patients undergoing radiotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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The relationship between anemia and outcomes after radiotherapy has not been systematically addressed. The study aimed to assess the prevalence and prognostic value of anemia in patients receiving primary radiotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
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Degradable Hyaluronic Acid/Protamine Sulfate Interpolyelectrolyte Complexes as miRNA-Delivery Nanocapsules for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Therapy.
Adv Healthc Mater
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2014
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Metastatic relapse is a leading cause of cancer-associated death and one of the major obstacles for effective therapy against triple-negative breast cancer. To address this problem, a miRNA-delivering nanocapsule technology based on hyaluronic acid (HA)/protamine sulfate (PS) interpolyelectrolyte complexes (HP-IPECs) is developed for efficient encapsulation and intracellular delivery microRNA-34a (miR-34a), which is a potent endogenous tumor suppressor of breast cancer. The nanocapsules are successfully generated through a self-assembly approach mediated by an electrostatic interaction. In vitro and in vivo experiments illustrate that miR-34a can be efficiently encapsulated into HP-IPECs and delivered into breast cancer cells or breast cancer tissues. Nanocomplex-assisted delivery of miR-34a induces cell apoptosis and suppresses migration, proliferation, and tumor growth of breast cancer cells via targeting CD44 and a Notch-1-signaling pathway. The obtained results suggest that HP-IPECs have a great potential as a biodegradable vector for microRNA-based therapy against triple-negative breast cancer.
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Impact of pharmaceutical policy interventions on utilization of antipsychotic medicines in Finland and Portugal in times of economic recession: interrupted time series analyses.
Int J Equity Health
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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To analyze the impacts of pharmaceutical sector policies implemented to contain country spending during the economic recession--a reference price system in Finland and a mix of policies including changes in reimbursement rates, a generic promotion campaign and discounts granted to the public payer in Portugal - on utilization of, as a proxy for access to, antipsychotic medicines.
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A nanospherical ordered mesoporous Lewis acid polymer for the direct glycosylation of unprotected and unactivated sugars in water.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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The design of robust solid catalysts which can selectively synthesize highly functionalized carbohydrate derivatives from unprotected and unactivated simple sugars in water is an outstanding challenge. Herein we describe the preparation of a novel nanospherical ordered mesoporous Lewis acid polymer (Sc(OTf)2-NSMP) by functionalizing the mesoporous phenol-formaldehyde polymer framework with scandium triflate groups. In the C-glycosylation reaction between D-glucose and dimedone with the Sc(OTf)2-NSMP catalyst, the conversion was 99% and the yield of xanthone-C-glucoside reached 92% after 2?days, which exceeded the previous best results. It was shown that other xanthone glycosides can be obtained from various sugars with moderate to good yields. Furthermore, the catalyst can be easily recovered and reused at least seven times without loss of catalytic activity.
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A novel particle separation method based on induced-charge electro-osmotic flow and polarizability of dielectric particles.
Electrophoresis
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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A new microfluidic method of particle separation was proposed and studied theoretically in this paper. This method is based on the induced charge electro-osmotic flow (ICEOF) and polarizability of dielectric particles. In this method, a pair of metal plates is embedded on the side channel walls to create a region of circulating flows under applied electric field. When a dielectric particle enters this region, the vortices produced by ICEOF around the particle will interact with the circulating flows produced by the metal plates. Such hydrodynamic interaction influences the particle's trajectory, and may result in the particle being trapped in the flow circulating zone or passing through this flow circulating zone. Because the hydrodynamic interaction is sensitive to the applied electric field, and the polarizability and the size of the particles, separation of different particles can be realized by controlling these parameters. Comparing with electrophoresis and dielectrophoresis methods, this strategy presented in this paper is simple and sensitive.
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Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of small molecular polyphenols as entry inhibitors against H(5)N(1).
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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To find novel compounds against H5N1, three series of known or novel small molecular polyphenols were synthesized and tested in vitro for anti-H5N1 activity. In addition, the preliminary structure-antiviral activity relationships were elaborated. The results showed that some small molecular polyphenols had better anti-H5N1 activity, and could serve as novel virus entry inhibitors against H5N1, likely targeting to HA2 protein. Noticeably, compound 4a showed the strongest activity against H5N1 among these compounds, and the molecular modeling analysis also suggested that this compound might target to HA2 protein. Therefore, compound 4a is well qualified to serve as a lead compound or scaffold for the further development of H5N1 entry inhibitor.
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Stable acetate production in extreme-thermophilic (70°C) mixed culture fermentation by selective enrichment of hydrogenotrophic methanogens.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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The control of metabolite production is difficult in mixed culture fermentation. This is particularly related to hydrogen inhibition. In this work, hydrogenotrophic methanogens were selectively enriched to reduce the hydrogen partial pressure and to realize efficient acetate production in extreme-thermophilic (70°C) mixed culture fermentation. The continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was stable operated during 100 days, in which acetate accounted for more than 90% of metabolites in liquid solutions. The yields of acetate, methane and biomass in CSTR were 1.5 ± 0.06, 1.0 ± 0.13 and 0.4 ± 0.05 mol/mol glucose, respectively, close to the theoretical expected values. The CSTR effluent was stable and no further conversion occurred when incubated for 14 days in a batch reactor. In fed-batch experiments, acetate could be produced up to 34.4 g/L, significantly higher than observed in common hydrogen producing fermentations. Acetate also accounted for more than 90% of soluble products formed in these fed-batch fermentations. The microbial community analysis revealed hydrogenotrophic methanogens (mainly Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus and Methanobacterium thermoaggregans) as 98% of Archaea, confirming that high temperature will select hydrogenotrophic methanogens over aceticlastic methanogens effectively. This work demonstrated a potential application to effectively produce acetate as a value chemical and methane as an energy gas together via mixed culture fermentation.
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Targeting signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 contributes to the solamargine-inhibited growth and -induced apoptosis of human lung cancer cells.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Solamargine (SM), a major steroidal alkaloid glycoside extracted from a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, Solanum nigrum L. (SNL), has been shown to inhibit growth and induce apoptosis of various cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this are poorly understood. In this study, we showed that SM inhibited growth and induced apoptosis of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. To further explore this, we found that SM increased phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) in a time-dependent fashion. SM also inhibited phosphorylation and protein expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3), a transcription factor, which was abrogated by the SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK. In addition, SM induced protein expression of p21, one of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, and this was not observed in cell overexpression of Stat3 or cells treated with SB203580. Finally, while silencing of Stat3 had no further effect, exogenous expression of Stat3 overcame the effect of SM on cell proliferation. Collectively, our results show that SM inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in lung cancer cells through p38 MAPK-mediated suppression of phosphorylation and protein expression of Stat3, followed by inducing Stat3 downstream effector p21. This unveils a potential new mechanism by which SM inhibits growth of human lung cancer cells.
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Suspected-target pesticide screening using gas chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry with high resolution deconvolution and retention index/mass spectrum library.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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A strategy for suspected-target screening of pesticide residues in complicated matrices was exploited using gas chromatography in combination with hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-QTOF MS). The screening workflow followed three key steps of, initial detection, preliminary identification, and final confirmation. The initial detection of components in a matrix was done by a high resolution mass spectrum deconvolution; the preliminary identification of suspected pesticides was based on a special retention index/mass spectrum (RI/MS) library that contained both the first-stage mass spectra (MS(1) spectra) and retention indices; and the final confirmation was accomplished by accurate mass measurements of representative ions with their response ratios from the MS(1) spectra or representative product ions from the second-stage mass spectra (MS(2) spectra). To evaluate the applicability of the workflow in real samples, three matrices of apple, spinach, and scallion, each spiked with 165 test pesticides in a set of concentrations, were selected as the models. The results showed that the use of high-resolution TOF enabled effective extractions of spectra from noisy chromatograms, which was based on a narrow mass window (5 mDa) and suspected-target compounds identified by the similarity match of deconvoluted full mass spectra and filtering of linear RIs. On average, over 74% of pesticides at 50 ng/mL could be identified using deconvolution and the RI/MS library. Over 80% of pesticides at 5 ng/mL or lower concentrations could be confirmed in each matrix using at least two representative ions with their response ratios from the MS(1) spectra. In addition, the application of product ion spectra was capable of confirming suspected pesticides with specificity for some pesticides in complicated matrices. In conclusion, GC-QTOF MS combined with the RI/MS library seems to be one of the most efficient tools for the analysis of suspected-target pesticide residues in complicated matrices.
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RNA interference (RNAi) mediated stable knockdown of protein casein kinase 2-alpha (CK2?) inhibits migration and invasion and enhances cisplatin-induced apoptosis in HEp-2 laryngeal carcinoma cells.
Acta Histochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Laryngeal carcinoma is a common malignant neoplasm occurring in the head and neck, threatening human health. Protein casein kinase 2-alpha (CK2?) has been indicated to participate in the pathogenesis of this cancer; however, the underlying mechanisms still need to be elucidated. In this study, short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) technology was utilized to inhibit the CK2? expression in HEp-2 laryngeal carcinoma cells. Results showed that both mRNA and protein expression levels of endogenous CK2? were markedly decreased in HEp-2 cells transfected with CK2? specific shRNA. Transwell assays revealed that stable knockdown of CK2? significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of HEp-2 cells. As compared with cells treated with negative control shRNA, epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) expression was increased, but snail, slug and vimentin were decreased in cells transfected with CK2? shRNA, indicating that inhibition of CK2? expression may suppress the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process of laryngeal carcinoma in vitro. Moreover, suppression of CK2? was found to enhance the apoptosis induced by cisplatin in laryngeal carcinoma cells, probably through inhibition of permeability glycoprotein (P-glycoprotein) and multidrug-resistance protein (MRP1). In conclusion, our study may provide a promising therapeutic strategy for human laryngeal carcinoma by targeting CK2?.
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Leukemia propagating cells rebuild an evolving niche in response to therapy.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Residence of cancer-propagating cells (CPCs) within preferential microenvironmental niches has a major part in evading therapy. However, the nature of niches involved and the mechanisms protecting CPCs remain largely unknown. We addressed these issues in mouse transplantation models of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). When the engrafted leukemic cells substantially damaged adjacent microenvironment in the bone marrow (BM), after chemotherapy small foci of CPCs were retained, surrounded by sheaths of supporting cells that comprise a protective niche. We investigated patients' BM biopsies and found evidence of a similar process in patients receiving induction therapy. The efficacy of chemotherapy was enhanced by interfering with the niche formation or function. We therefore identified a therapy-induced niche that protects CPCs.
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Engrafted human stem cell-derived hepatocytes establish an infectious HCV murine model.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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The demonstrated ability to differentiate both human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) holds great promise for both regenerative medicine and liver disease research. Here, we determined that, despite an immature phenotype, differentiated HLCs are permissive to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and mount an interferon response to HCV infection in vitro. HLCs differentiated from hESCs and hiPSCs could be engrafted in the liver parenchyma of immune-deficient transgenic mice carrying the urokinase-type plasminogen activator gene driven by the major urinary protein promoter. The HLCs were maintained for more than 3 months in the livers of chimeric mice, in which they underwent further maturation and proliferation. These engrafted and expanded human HLCs were permissive to in vivo infection with HCV-positive sera and supported long-term infection of multiple HCV genotypes. Our study demonstrates efficient engraftment and in vivo HCV infection of human stem cell-derived hepatocytes and provides a model to study chronic HCV infection in patient-derived hepatocytes, action of antiviral therapies, and the biology of HCV infection.
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Gas-phase fluorine migration reactions in the radical cations of pentafluorosulfanylbenzene (Aryl-SF?) and benzenesulfonyl fluoride (Aryl-SO?F) derivatives and in the 2,5-xylylfluoroiodonium ion.
J Mass Spectrom
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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The gas-phase reactions of Aryl-SF5(·+) and Aryl-SO2F(·+) have been studied with the electron ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Such reactions involve F-atom migration from the S-atom to the aryl group affording the product ion Aryl-F(·+) by subsequent expulsion of SF4 or SO2, respectively. Especially, the 4-pentafluorosulfanylphenyl cation 4-SF5C6H4(+) (m/z 203) from 4-NO2C6H4SF5(·+) by loss of ·NO2 could occur multiple F-atom migration reactions to the product ion C6H4F3(+) (m/z 133) by loss of SF2 in the MS/MS process. The gas-phase reactions of 2,5-xylylfluoroiodonium (pXyl-I(+)F, m/z 251) have also been studied using the electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, which involve a similar F-atom migration process from the I-atom to the aryl group giving the radical cation of 2-fluoro-p-xylene (or its isomer 4-fluoro-m-xylene, m/z 124) by reductive elimination of an iodine atom. All these gas-phase F-atom migration reactions from the heteroatom to the aryl group led to the aryl-F coupling product ions with a new formed C(Aryl)-F bond. Density functional theory calculations were performed to shed light on the mechanisms of these reactions.
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O?-carboxymethylguanine in DNA forms a sequence context-dependent wobble base-pair structure with thymine.
Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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N-Nitrosation of glycine and its derivatives generates potent alkylating agents that can lead to the formation of O(6)-carboxymethylguanine (O(6)-CMG) in DNA. O(6)-CMG has been identified in DNA derived from human colon tissue and its occurrence has been linked to diets high in red and processed meats, implying an association with the induction of colorectal cancer. By analogy to O(6)-methylguanine, O(6)-CMG is expected to be mutagenic, inducing G-to-A mutations that may be the molecular basis of increased cancer risk. Previously, the crystal structure of the DNA dodecamer d(CGCG[O(6)-CMG]ATTCGCG) has been reported, in which O(6)-CMG forms a Watson-Crick-type pair with thymine similar to the canonical A:T pair. In order to further investigate the versatility of O(6)-CMG in base-pair formation, the structure of the DNA dodecamer d(CGC[O(6)-CMG]AATTTGCG) containing O(6)-CMG at a different position has been determined by X-ray crystallography using four crystal forms obtained under conditions containing different solvent ions (Sr(2+), Ba(2+), Mg(2+), K(+) or Na(+)) with and without Hoechst 33258. The most striking finding is that the pairing modes of O(6)-CMG with T are quite different from those previously reported. In the present dodecamer, the T bases are displaced (wobbled) into the major groove to form a hydrogen bond between the thymine N(3) N-H and the carboxyl group of O(6)-CMG. In addition, a water molecule is bridged through two hydrogen bonds between the thymine O(2) atom and the 2-amino group of O(6)-CMG to stabilize the pairing. These interaction modes commonly occur in the four crystal forms, regardless of the differences in crystallization conditions. The previous and the present results show that O(6)-CMG can form a base pair with T in two alternative modes: the Watson-Crick type and a high-wobble type, the nature of which may depend on the DNA-sequence context.
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Anti-HMGB1 neutralizing antibody ameliorates neutrophilic airway inflammation by suppressing dendritic cell-mediated Th17 polarization.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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We demonstrate that high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) directs Th17 skewing by regulating dendritic cell (DC) function. First, our in vitro studies reveal that recombinant HMGB1 (rHMGB1) activates myeloid DCs to produce IL-23 in vitro, and rHMGB1-activated DCs prime naïve lymphocytes to produce the Th17 cytokine IL-17A. Second, we demonstrate that anti-HMGB1 neutralizing antibody attenuates HMGB1 expression, neutrophilic inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, and Th17-related cytokine secretion in vivo by using a murine model of neutrophilic asthma induced by ovalbumin (OVA) plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Furthermore, anti-HMGB1 neutralizing antibody decreases the number of Th17 cells in lung cells and suppresses the production of IL-23 by lung CD11C(+) APCs. Finally, we show that intranasal adoptive transfer of rHMGB1-activated DCs was sufficient to restore lung neutrophilic inflammation and the Th17 response in a DC-driven model of asthma, whereas the transfer of rHMGB1 plus anti-HMGB1-treated mDCs significantly reduced these inflammation phenotypes. These data suggest, for the first time, that HMGB1 drives the DC-polarized Th17-type response in allergic lung inflammation and that blocking HMGB1 may benefit the attenuation of neutrophilic airway inflammation in asthma.
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Mangiferin regulates interleukin-6 and cystathionine-b-synthase in lipopolysaccharide-induced brain injury.
Cell. Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Mangiferin has been extensively applied in different fields due to its anti-inflammatory properties. However, the precise mechanism used by mangiferin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation has not been elucidated. Here, we discuss the potential mechanism of mangiferin during a LPS-induced brain injury. Brain injury was induced in ICR mice via intraperitoneal LPS injection (5 mg/kg). Open- and closed-field tests were used to detect the behaviors of mice, while immunoblotting was performed to measure the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cystathionine-b-synthase (CBS) in the hippocampus after mangiferin was orally administered (p.o.). Mangiferin relieved LPS-induced sickness 6 and 24 h after LPS injection; in addition, this compound suppressed LPS-induced IL-6 production after 24 h of LPS induction as well as the downregulation of LPS-induced CBS expression after 6 and 24 h of LPS treatment in the hippocampus. Therefore, mangiferin attenuated sickness behavior by regulating the expression of IL-6 and CBS.
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The Protective Effect of Esculentoside A on Experimental Acute Liver Injury in Mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Inflammatory response and oxidative stress are considered to play an important role in the development of acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and galactosamine (GalN)/lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Esculentoside A (EsA), isolated from the Chinese herb phytolacca esculenta, has the effect of modulating immune response, cell proliferation and apoptosis as well as anti-inflammatory effects. The present study is to evaluate the protective effect of EsA on CCl4 and GalN/LPS-induced acute liver injury. In vitro, CCK-8 assays showed that EsA had no cytotoxicity, while it significantly reduced levels of TNF-? and cell death rate challenged by CCl4. Moreover, EsA treatment up-regulated PPAR-? expression of LO2 cells and reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) challenged by CCl4. In vivo, EsA prevented mice from CCl4-induced liver histopathological damage. In addition, levels of AST and ALT were significantly decreased by EsA treatment. Furthermore, the mice treated with EsA had a lower level of TNF-?, Interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 in mRNA expression. EsA prevented MDA release and increased GSH-Px activity in liver tissues. Immunohistochemical staining showed that over-expression of F4/80 and CD11b were markedly inhibited by EsA. The western bolt results showed that EsA significantly inhibited CCl4-induced phosphonated IkBalpha (P-I?B) and ERK. Furthermore, EsA treatment also alleviated GalN/LPS-induced acute liver injury on liver enzyme and histopathological damage. Unfortunately, our results exhibited that EsA had no effects on CCl4-induced hepatocyte apoptosis which were showed by TUNEL staining and Bax, Caspase-3 and cleaved Caspase-3 expression. Our results proved that EsA treatment attenuated CCl4 and GalN/LPS-induced acute liver injury in mice and its protective effects might be involved in inhibiting inflammatory response and oxidative stress, but not apoptosis with its underlying mechanism associated with PPAR-?, NF-?B and ERK signal pathways.
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Effects of secondary metabolite extract from Phomopsis occulta on ?-amyloid aggregation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Inhibition of ?-amyloid (A?) aggregation is an attractive therapeutic and preventive strategy for the discovery of disease-modifying agents in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Phomopsis occulta is a new, salt-tolerant fungus isolated from mangrove Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre. We report here the inhibitory effects of secondary metabolites from Ph. occulta on the aggregation of A?42. It was found that mycelia extracts (MEs) from Ph. occulta cultured with 0, 2, and 3 M NaCl exhibited inhibitory activity in an E. coli model of A? aggregation. A water-soluble fraction, ME0-W-F1, composed of mainly small peptides, was able to reduce aggregation of an A?42-EGFP fusion protein and an early onset familial mutation A?42E22G-mCherry fusion protein in transfected HEK293 cells. ME0-W-F1 also antagonized the cytotoxicity of A?42 in the neural cell line SH-SY5Y in dose-dependent manner. Moreover, SDS-PAGE and FT-IR analysis confirmed an inhibitory effect of ME0-W-F1 on the aggregation of A?42 in vitro. ME0-W-F1 blocked the conformational transition of A?42 from ?-helix/random coil to ?-sheet, and thereby inhibited formation of A?42 tetramers and high molecular weight oligomers. ME0-W-F1 and other water-soluble secondary metabolites from Ph. occulta therefore represent new candidate natural products against aggregation of A?42, and illustrate the potential of salt tolerant fungi from mangrove as resources for the treatment of AD and other diseases.
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Gr-1?CD11b? immature myeloid cells (IMC) promote resistance of pro-inflammatory T cells to suppression by regulatory T cells in atherosclerotic Apo E- deficient mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Accumulating evidence indicates that both defects in Treg numbers and/or function as well as resistance of effector T cells to suppression may contribute to the development of human chronic inflammatory diseases. However, which mechanism involved in the progression of atherosclerosis remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the production and function of CD4? inflammatory and regulatory T cells in atherosclerosis-prone mice. We found that the hyperactivity and unresponsiveness to Treg-mediated suppression of inflammatory CD4? T cells occurred in the progression of atherosclerosis, though Treg cells were present in very large numbers and fully functional. We further found that Gr-1?CD11b? immature myeloid cells were significantly accumulated in atherosclerotic Apo E?/? mice, and they promoted resistance of inflammatory CD4? T cells to Treg-mediated suppression in vitro and in vivo. we further confirmed that Gr-1?CD11b? immature myeloid cells produced high level of interleukin 6 which was at least partially responsible for inducing unresponsiveness of inflammatory CD4? T cells to suppression via activation of Jak/Stat signaling pathway. Taken together, these findings might provide new insights to explore potential targets for immune therapeutic intervention in atherosclerosis.
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Protective effects of hyperbaric oxygen treatment against spinal cord injury in rats via toll-like receptor 2/nuclear factor-?B signaling.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious medical problem with high mortality and disability rates. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment is beneficial for neurological recovery after SCI, but the underlying mechanisms await characterization. This study examined whether HBO treatment following SCI in rats exerts a neuroprotective effect through activation of the toll-like receptor (TLR) 2/nuclear factor (NF)-?B signaling pathway. The SC of rats was injured via T10 laminectomy. Experimental animals (n=144) were divided into four groups: sham-operated (SH), SH+HBO, SCI, and SCI+HBO. Each group was subdivided into six subgroups (n=6 per group) that were examined at 12 h, and 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14 days post-injury. Functional recovery in the hind limb was evaluated using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scoring system. The expression of TLR2 and NF-?B was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, while interleukin-1 (IL)-1? and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. TLR2 and NF-?B levels and histological scores were higher in the SCI than in the SH and SH+HBO groups at various time points. HBO treatment decreased TLR2 and NF-?B expression and histological scores as well as IL-1? and TNF-? levels compared to the SCI group at early post-injury stages. In addition, BBB scores were improved in the SCI+HBO relative to the SCI group at 7 and 14 days. HBO treatment may mitigate secondary injury to the SC by inhibiting inflammatory responses induced by TLR2/NF-?B signaling, thereby promoting functional recovery and improving neurological outcome.
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[Imaging diagnosis of masses in temporal bone associated with pulsatile tinnitus].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
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To improve the imaging diagnosis accuracy on masses of temporal bone associated with pulsatile tinnitus.
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Interplay of mevalonate and Hippo pathways regulates RHAMM transcription via YAP to modulate breast cancer cell motility.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2013
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Expression of receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility (RHAMM), a breast cancer susceptibility gene, is tightly controlled in normal tissues but elevated in many tumors, contributing to tumorigenesis and metastases. However, how the expression of RHAMM is regulated remains elusive. Statins, inhibitors of mevalonate metabolic pathway widely used for hypercholesterolemia, have been found to also have antitumor effects, but little is known of the specific targets and mechanisms. Moreover, Hippo signaling pathway plays crucial roles in organ size control and cancer development, yet its downstream transcriptional targets remain obscure. Here we show that RHAMM expression is regulated by mevalonate and Hippo pathways converging onto Yes-associated protein (YAP)/TEAD, which binds RHAMM promoter at specific sites and controls its transcription and consequently breast cancer cell migration and invasion (BCCMI); and that simvastatin inhibits BCCMI via targeting YAP-mediated RHAMM transcription. Required for ERK phosphorylation and BCCMI, YAP-activated RHAMM transcription is dependent on mevalonate and sensitive to simvastatin, which modulate RHAMM transcription by modulating YAP phosphorylation and nuclear-cytoplasmic localization. Further, modulation by mevalonate/simvastatin of YAP-activated RHAMM transcription requires geranylgeranylation, Rho GTPase activation, and actin cytoskeleton rearrangement, but is largely independent of MST and LATS kinase activity. These findings from in vitro and in vivo investigations link mevalonate and Hippo pathways with RHAMM as a downstream effector, a YAP-transcription and simvastatin-inhibition target, and a cancer metastasis mediator; uncover a mechanism regulating RHAMM expression and cancer metastases; and reveal a mode whereby simvastatin exerts anticancer effects; providing potential targets for cancer therapeutic agents.
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A high-throughput quantitative approach reveals more small RNA modifications in mouse liver and their correlation with diabetes.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2013
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Studies of RNA modification are usually focused on tRNA. However the modification of other small RNAs, including 5.8S rRNA, 5S rRNA, and small RNA sized at 10-60 nt, is still largely unknown. In this study, we established an efficient method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to simultaneously identify and quantify more than 40 different types of nucleosides in small RNAs. With this method, we revealed 23 modified nucleosides of tRNA from mouse liver, and 6 of them were observed for the first time in eukaryotic tRNA. Moreover, 5 and 4 modified nucleosides were detected for the first time in eukaryotic 5.8S and 5S rRNA, respectively, and 22 modified nucleosides were identified in the small RNAs sized at 30-60 or 10-30 nt. Interestingly, two groups of 5S rRNA peaks were observed when analyzed by HPLC, and the abundance of modified nucleosides is significantly different between the two groups of peaks. Further studies show that multiple modifications in small RNA from diabetic mouse liver are significantly increased or decreased. Taken together, our data revealed more modified nucleosides in various small RNAs and showed the correlation of small RNA modifications with diabetes. These results provide new insights to the role of modifications of small RNAs in their stability, biological functions, and correlation with diseases.
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Incidence, survival and prevalence of esophageal and gastric cancer in linzhou city from 2003 to 2009.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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This study describes recent trends in incidence, survival and prevalence of subgroups of esophageal and gastric cancer in Linzhou city between 2003 and 2009. Data of esophageal and gastric cancer for the period of interest were extracted from the Linzhou Cancer Registry. Using information on tumor morphology or anatomical site, data were divided into six groups; esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, esophageal adenocarcinoma, other and unspecified types of esophageal cancer, and cardia, non-cardia, and unspecified anatomical site of stomach cancer. Incidence, survival and prevalence rates for each of the six cancer groups were calculated. The majority of esophageal cancers were squamous cell carcinomas (82%). Cardiac cancer was the major gastric cancer group (64%). The incidence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric cardiac cancer increased between 2003 and 2009. Both esophageal and gastric cancer had a higher incidence in males compared with females. Overall survival was poor in all sub-groups with 1 year survival ranging from 45.9 to 65.6% and 5 year survival ranging from 14.7 to 30.5%. Prevalence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric cardiac cancer was high (accounting for 80% overall). An increased focus on prevention and early diagnosis, especially in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric cardiac cancer, is required.
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Screening for behavioral health issues in children enrolled in massachusetts medicaid.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2013
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To understand mandated behavioral health (BH) screening in Massachusetts Medicaid including characteristics of screened children, predictors of positive screens, and whether screening identifies children without a previous BH history.
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miR-30b and miR-30c expression predicted response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors as first line treatment in non-small cell lung cancer.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2013
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Aberrantly expressed microRNAs are a hallmark of cancer, and microRNA expression profiling is associated with tumor progression and response to chemotherapy, suggesting their potential application as prognostic and predictive biomarkers. The role of microRNAs in lung cancer remains elusive. It has been recently reported that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET) tyrosine kinase can regulate expression of specific microRNAs including miR-30b, miR-30c, miR-221, miR-222, miR-103 and miR-203, and induce tumorigenesis and gefitinib resistance in lung cancers. We intend to study the role of miR-30b and miR-30c expression in predicting response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
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Application of gas chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry for post-target analysis of volatile compounds in Fructus Amomi.
Eur J Mass Spectrom (Chichester, Eng)
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2013
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A post-target analysis method based on gas chromatography coupled to a high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass analyzer is applied for the investigation of volatile compounds in Fructus Amomi. A series of narrow window extracted ion chromatograms at selected characteristic ions were performed. Chromatographic peaks with the same retention time in different extracted ion chromatograms was used to screen out the candidate compound. Identification was achieved by the accurate masses of several characteristic ions and the retention index of the peak. Forty six compounds, including 12 monoterpene compounds, were identified by conventional static headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry and another six monoterpene compounds were found and identified by the post-target method. Post-target analysis is a useful strategy in qualitative research of natural products.
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Minimal RED Cell Pairs Markedly Improve Electrode Kinetics and Power Production in Microbial Reverse Electrodialysis Cells.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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Power production from microbial reverse electrodialysis cell (MRC) electrodes is substantially improved compared to microbial fuel cells (MFCs) by using ammonium bicarbonate (AmB) solutions in multiple RED cell pair stacks and the cathode chamber. Reducing the number of RED membranes pairs while maintaining enhanced electrode performance could help to reduce capital costs. We show here that using only a single RED cell pair (CP), created by operating the cathode in concentrated AmB, dramatically increased power production normalized to cathode area from both acetate (Acetate: from 0.9 to 3.1 W/m(2)-cat) and wastewater (WW: 0.3 to 1.7 W/m(2)), by reducing solution and charge transfer resistances at the cathode. A second RED cell pair increased RED stack potential and reduced anode charge transfer resistance, further increasing power production (Acetate: 4.2 W/m(2); WW: 1.9 W/m(2)). By maintaining near optimal electrode power production with fewer membranes, power densities normalized to total membrane area for the 1-CP (Acetate: 3.1 W/m(2)-mem; WW: 1.7 W/m(2)) and 2-CP (Acetate: 1.3 W/m(2)-mem; WW: 0.6 W/m(2)) reactors were much higher than previous MRCs (0.3-0.5 W/m(2)-mem with acetate). While operating at peak power, the rate of wastewater COD removal, normalized to reactor volume, was 30-50 times higher in 1-CP and 2-CP MRCs than that in a single chamber MFC. These findings show that even a single cell pair AmB RED stack can significantly enhance electrical power production and wastewater treatment.
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[Study on phage display technology and target protein screening for active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2013
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Phage display technology refers to a high-throughput in vitro screening technology for extracting required peptides/ proteins from colonies with mass mutants. Due to its high efficiency, practicability and convenience, it has been widely applied in pharmaceutical research and development, as well as target protein screening for active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines. Target protein is the binding site of drug molecules in vivo, and good targets are the basis of excellent pharmaceuticals. This article summarizes the advance in studies on the phage display technology and its application in targeted protein screening for active ingredients of Chinese materia medica.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.