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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Measurement of serum carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, cytokeratin-19 fragment and matrix metalloproteinase-7 for detecting cholangiocarcinoma: a preliminary case-control study.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignant tumor of the liver arising from the bile duct epithelium, accounting for 10-25% of all primary hepatic cancers. The clinical presentation of this tumor is not specific and the diagnosis of early cholangiocarcinoma is difficult, especially in patients with other biliary diseases. Measurement of serum carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) are commonly used to monitor response to therapy, but are also useful for confirming the presence of a cholangiocarcinoma. In this setting, other biomarkers have been previously tested, including cytokeratin-19 fragment (CYFRA 21-1) and the matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP7). The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the clinical usefulness of the assay of serum CEA, CA 19-9, CYFRA 21-1 and MMP7, individually and together, as tumor markers for the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma. Twenty-four patients (14 men, 10 women, 62.6±8.2 years of age) with histologically-confirmed cholangiocarcinoma (cases) and 25 age- and sex-matched patients with benign liver disease (controls) underwent measurement of these biomarkers. The mean values of all serum markers of patients with cholangiocarcinoma were significantly higher (p<0.01) than that of the controls. No correlation was found between serum tumor markers and total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were: CEA: 52%, 55%, and 58%; CA 19-9: 74%, 82% and 78%; CYFRA 21-1: 76%, 79% and 78%; MMP7: 78%, 77% and 80%, respectively. The combination of all serum markers afforded 92.0% sensitivity and 96% specificity in detecting cholangiocarcinoma, showing the highest diagnostic accuracy (94%). In conclusion, our preliminary results suggest that the measurement of all four biomarkers together can help in the early detection of cholangiocarcinoma.
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Mast Cells Control the Expansion and Differentiation of IL-10-Competent B Cells.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
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The discovery of B cell subsets with regulatory properties, dependent on IL-10 production, has expanded our view on the mechanisms that control inflammation. Regulatory B cells acquire the ability to produce IL-10 in a stepwise process: first, they become IL-10 competent, a poised state in which B cells are sensitive to trigger signals but do not actually express the Il-10 gene; then, when exposed to appropriate stimuli, they start producing IL-10. Even if the existence of IL-10-competent B cells is now well established, it is not yet known how different immune cell types cross talk with B cells and affect IL-10-competent B cell differentiation and expansion. Mast cells (MCs) contribute to the differentiation and influence the effector functions of various immune cells, including B lymphocytes. In this study, we explored whether MCs could play a role in the expansion of IL-10-competent B cells and addressed the in vivo relevance of MC deficiency on the generation of these cells. We show that MCs can expand IL-10-competent B cells, but they do not directly induce IL-10 production; moreover, the absence of MCs negatively affects IL-10-competent B cell differentiation. Noteworthy, our findings reveal that the CD40L/CD40 axis plays a significant role in MC-driven expansion of IL-10-competent B cells in vitro and highlight the importance of MC CD40L signaling in the colon.
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Vitamin D is a player or not in the pathophysiology of autoimmune thyroid diseases?
Autoimmun Rev
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D is a steroid hormone derived from vitamin D, playing an important role in maintaining an adequate serum level of calcium and phosphorus. It is now clear that vitamin D exerts an endocrine action on the cells of the immune system, generating anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory effects. The mechanisms underlying the role of vitamin D in autoimmunity are not completely understood. Lower vitamin D levels have been found in several autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel diseases, autoimmune thyroid diseases (i.e. Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease) and autoimmune gastritis. Several genetic studies have demonstrated an association between thyroid autoimmunity susceptibility and gene polymorphisms of vitamin D receptor, vitamin D binding protein, 1-alpha-hydroxylase and 25-hydroxylase. Of note, some papers do not confirm this connection. With regard to the role of vitamin D in autoimmune thyroid diseases, available data remain controversial. Only few reports have analyzed the supposed association between autoimmune thyroid diseases and vitamin D concentration with inconclusive results. In our experience, low serum levels of vitamin D do not correlate either with Hashimoto's thyroiditis or with Graves' disease. The inability to achieve an unambiguous conclusion is in part due to the limitations in study design. In fact, most of the studies are cross-sectional surveys with a small number of subjects. In addition, the heterogeneity of the study population, seasonal variation of blood sampling, inter-method analytical variability of vitamin D assays and different definitions of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency contribute to contradicting results. Therefore, further randomized, controlled, prospective trials are needed in order to demonstrate the causality of vitD in AITD and consequently the role of vitamin D supplementation in prevention or improvement of AITD, providing also information on the best formulation, dose and timing of supplementation.
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Pharmacological management of osteogenesis.
Clinics (Sao Paulo)
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Osteogenesis and bone remodeling are complex biological processes that are essential for the formation of new bone tissue and its correct functioning. When the balance between bone resorption and formation is disrupted, bone diseases and disorders such as Paget's disease, fibrous dysplasia, osteoporosis and fragility fractures may result. Recent advances in bone cell biology have revealed new specific targets for the treatment of bone loss that are based on the inhibition of bone resorption by osteoclasts or the stimulation of bone formation by osteoblasts. Bisphosphonates, antiresorptive agents that reduce bone resorption, are usually recommended as first-line therapy in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Numerous studies have shown that bisphosphonates are able to significantly reduce the risk of femoral and vertebral fractures. Other antiresorptive agents indicated for the treatment of osteoporosis include selective estrogen receptor modulators, such as raloxifene. Denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody, is another antiresorptive agent that has been approved in Europe and the USA. This agent blocks the RANK/RANKL/OPG system, which is responsible for osteoclastic activation, thus reducing bone resorption. Other approved agents include bone anabolic agents, such as teriparatide, a recombinant parathyroid hormone that improves bone microarchitecture and strength, and strontium ranelate, considered to be a dual-action drug that acts by both osteoclastic inhibition and osteoblastic stimulation. Currently, anti-catabolic drugs that act through the Wnt-? catenin signaling pathway, serving as Dickkopf-related protein 1 inhibitors and sclerostin antagonists, are also in development. This concise review provides an overview of the drugs most commonly used for the control of osteogenesis in bone diseases.
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Immunoassay of thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies: diagnostic performance in automated third generation methods. A multicentre evaluation.
Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Abstract Background: The use of automated immunometric methods for the detection of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb), the main serological marker of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD), has expanded in recent years. However, it is not known whether these new automated platforms have improved the diagnostic performance of TPOAb assays. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential improvement of the inter-method agreement of current automated third generation systems, 12 years after a previous study, which had assessed the analytical variability between semi-automated second generation methods of TPOAb detection. Methods: Eight pools of sera from patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, exhibiting different TPOAb concentrations, were collected from routine laboratory diagnostics and distributed to seven companies throughout Italy. All automated third generation methods were calibrated against the Medical Research Council (MRC) reference preparation 66/387. Results: The overall mean variability (CV) was 93.6% when results were expressed in part as arbitrary Units (U/mL) and in part as International Units (IU/mL). The conversion of all values in IU/mL resulted in a significant decrease of CV (49.8%). The CV expressed as COM (cut-off concentration multiples) was 64.0%. Agreement of qualitative results was 95.3% with a pronounced difference in the threshold values proposed by manufacturers (range 3.2-35.0 IU/mL). Conclusions: These findings confirm the improvement of harmonisation between different methods of automated third generation TPOAb assays. Nevertheless, further efforts should be made in the definition of the positive cut-off concentration to avoid misclassification of AITD patients as well as in a new international reference preparation and in the autoantigen purification modality.
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"Unplugged," a European school-based program for substance use prevention among adolescents: overview of results from the EU-Dap trial.
New Dir Youth Dev
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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The EU-Dap study aimed to develop and evaluate a school-based curriculum for the prevention of substance use among young people. The school curriculum, "Unplugged," is based on social influence approach and addresses social and personal skills, knowledge, and normative beliefs. It consists of 12 one-hour interactive sessions delivered by teachers. Its effectiveness was evaluated through a randomized trial involving 7,079 pupils of seven European countries. Unplugged was effective in reducing cigarette smoking, episodes of drunkenness, and the use of cannabis at short term. This association, however, was confined to boys, with age and self-esteem as possible explanations of this difference. Beneficial effects associated with the program persisted at fifteen-month follow-up for drunkenness, alcohol-related problems, and cannabis use, and were stronger among adolescents in schools of average low socioeconomic level. These results are of scientific importance and may inform the adoption of effective public health interventions at population level.
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Validation study on the Ocular Irritection assay for eye irritation testing.
Toxicol In Vitro
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Both a prospective and a retrospective validation study were undertaken to assess the suitability of the Ocular Irritection assay to discriminate ocular hazards as defined by the OECD and UN Globally Harmonized System (UN GHS) for classification. The primary focus of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of the Ocular Irritection assay to reliably discriminate chemicals not requiring classification (UN GHS non-classified), from classified chemicals (UN GHS Categories 1 and 2). Furthermore a post-hoc evaluation was carried out to evaluate the usefulness of the assay to discriminate chemicals inducing serious eye damage (UN GHS Category 1) from other classes. The prospective validation study was conducted between 2009 and 2012 following internationally agreed principles. A set of 56 coded test chemicals for which quality and/or peer-reviewed in vivo data were available were used to obtain prospective data on the assay's reliability (reproducibility within and between laboratories) and relevance (predictive capacity). The assay showed good within-laboratory variability, transferability including to a naïve laboratory, and between-laboratory concordance of classifications (82% for the discrimination of non-classified from classified chemicals, and 83% for the discrimination of Category 1 from other classes). The obtained prospective data were then combined with existing data on the Ocular Irritection collected from various sources, totaling 88 chemicals with parallel in vivo and in vitro data to obtain a comprehensive assessment of the test method performances. The enlarged dataset comprised 43 non-classified, 25 Category 2 and 20 Category 1 chemicals according to the UN GHS classification. When used for the identification of UN GHS non-classified versus classified materials (based on the existing cut-off of 12.5) the Ocular Irritection assay showed an overall a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 58%. An evaluation on possible reasons for misclassification identified some organic functional groups (acrylate, carboxamide and cycloalkene) to correlate with the observed mispredictions. If these functional groups were excluded from the Ocular Irritection applicability domain, the obtained dataset (n=79 chemicals distributed as 41 UN GHS Classified and 38 Non-Classified chemicals) had an overall sensitivity of 98%, and specificity of 63%, which is in line with currently adopted test methods. When used for the identification of UN GHS Category 1 versus other categories (based on the existing cut-off of 30.0) the Ocular Irritection assay showed an overall specificity of 81% and a sensitivity of 50% which is again in line with currently adopted test methods. The Ocular Irritection assay appeared therefore as a useful test method to predict chemicals not requiring classification for eye hazards according to the UN GHS classification system. Furthermore the method was found suitable to identify serious/irreversible eye damage (UN GHS Category 1). The detailed documentation and results of the study have been submitted to an internationally recognized validation centre for peer-review.
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Germination and Root Elongation Bioassays in Six Different Plant Species for Testing Ni Contamination in Soil.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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In vitro short-term chronic phytotoxicity germination and root elongation test were applied to test the effects of nickel (Ni) in seed germination and root elongation in six plants species: Cucumis sativus (Cucurbitaceae), Lepidium sativum and Brassica nigra (Brassicaceae), Trifolium alexandrinum and Medicago sativa (Fabaceae), Phacelia tanacetifolia (Boraginaceae). A naturally Ni rich soil was used to compare the results obtained. Unlike root elongation, germination was not affected by Ni in any of the six species tested. EC50 values, calculated on the root elongation, showed that Ni toxicity decreases in the following order: P. tanacetifolia > B. nigra > C. sativus > L. sativum > M. sativa > T. alexandrinum. The test conducted using soil elutriate revealed a significantly lower effect in both seed germination and root elongation when compared to the results obtained using untreated soil. Conversely, the test performed on soil confirmed the high sensitivity of C. sativus, P. tanacetifolia and L. sativum to Ni.
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A review on strontium ranelate long-term antifracture efficacy in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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Osteoporotic fractures are one of the major causes of increased morbidity and mortality in postmenopausal women and the overall aging population. One of the major issues in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis is to find a safe and effective treatment in the long term (>3 years) to achieve and maintain a reduction in the risk of fracture. Strontium ranelate (PROTELOS(®)) is a relatively novel drug, currently approved in Europe for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Strontium ranelate is the first agent of a new therapeutic class in osteoporosis, capable of both promoting bone formation and, to a lesser extent, inhibiting bone resorption. This uncoupling in bone turnover results in a net gain in bone mineral density (BMD), bone quality improvement and reduction in risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures, as initially demonstrated in the preplanned long-term registrative trials SOTI (Spinal Osteoporosis Therapeutic Intervention) and TROPOS (Treatment of Peripheral Osteoporosis) at 5 years. Recently, open-label extensions of the SOTI and TROPOS trials up to 8 and, recently, 10 years have confirmed the sustained efficacy of strontium ranelate in increasing BMD, the long-term safety profile and the high compliance to treatment, independently from baseline BMD or other risk factors for osteoporotic fractures. Recent economic impact analyses have proved that long-term treatment with strontium ranelate is highly cost effective, especially in women older than 70 years of age. Histomorphometric analyses in animals and humans participating in the phase III trials have proved that the quality of mineralization is preserved in the long term and bone microarchitecture is ameliorated, with increased bone strength. Thus, strontium ranelate has been confirmed to be an effective compound for the long-term, chronic treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
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Cooperation experience in a multicentre study to define the upper limits in a normal population for the diagnostic assessment of the functional lupus anticoagulant assays.
Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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Phospholipid-dependent coagulation tests for lupus anticoagulant (LA) are considered an important step for the diagnosis of anti-phospholipid syndrome; however, LA laboratory detection is difficult because of many variables. Five hospital laboratories, located in a North-Italy area and using the same method for LA testing, cooperated to standardise sample treatment and analytical procedure in order to define the upper values for LA negativity.
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Cardiac stem cell senescence.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Cellular senescence processes affecting tissue resident stem cells are considered, at present, an hallmark of both aging and age-related pathologies. Therefore it is mandatory to address this problem with adequate techniques that could highlight the molecular alterations associated with this complex cellular response to stressors. Here we describe methods to characterize cardiac stem cell (CSC) senescence from a molecular and functional standpoint.
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APECED: A Paradigm of Complex Interactions between Genetic Background and Susceptibility Factors.
Front Immunol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a rare autosomal recessive disease, caused by mutations of a single gene named Autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE) which results in a failure of T-cell tolerance. Central tolerance takes place within the thymus and represents the mechanism by which potentially auto-reactive T-cells are eliminated through the negative selection process. The expression of tissue-specific antigens (TSAs) by medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) in the thymus is a key process in the central tolerance and is driven by the protein encoded by AIRE gene, the transcription factor autoimmune regulator (AIRE). A failure in this process caused by AIRE mutations is thought to be responsible of the systemic autoimmune reactions of APECED. APECED is characterized by several autoimmune endocrine and non-endocrine manifestations and the phenotype is often complex. Although APECED is the paradigm of a monogenic autoimmune disorder, it is characterized by a wide variability of the clinical expression even between siblings with the same genotype, thus implying that additional mechanisms, other than the failure of Aire function, are involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Unraveling open issues of the molecular basis of APECED, will help improve diagnosis, management, and therapeutical strategies of this complex disease.
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Sudden death associated with danon disease in women.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2011
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Danon disease is an X-linked systemic disorder characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy, mental retardation, and skeletal myopathy affecting young men. Electrocardiogram usually displays a Wolff-Parkinson-White preexcitation pattern. Less has been reported about the phenotype in women, although later-onset cardiac symptoms have been described. The aim of this study was to expand the knowledge of the phenotype of Danon disease in women. We clinically followed and evaluated with echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI), and genetic testing a family affected by Danon disease in which 2 men and 6 women showed a severe arrhythmogenic phenotype. Affected family members carried a nucleotide substitution at position 294 in exon 3 (c.294 G ? A) that changed a tryptophan residue to a stop codon at position W98X in the lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2) gene. Four women died suddenly (1 aborted) at 37 to 54 years of age. Wolff-Parkinson-White pattern with atrioventricular block was detected in 2 of 6 women. Four had successful pregnancies without symptoms of heart failure. cMRI showed late gadolinium enhancement areas in a clinically healthy woman who was a mutation carrier. Two patients underwent heart transplantation; histology of explanted hearts demonstrated severe interstitial fibrosis, hypertrophic cardiomyocytes with cytoplasmic vacuoles, and myofibrillar disarray. In conclusion, LAMP2 mutation can cause a severe arrhythmogenic phenotype in women that includes a high risk of sudden death. cMRI may be useful in women harboring LAMP2 mutations to permit early detection of cardiac involvement and guide timely considerations of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy. Heart transplantation should be considered at onset of heart failure symptoms owing to rapid progression of the disease.
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Regulatory assessment of in vitro skin corrosion and irritation data within the European framework: Workshop recommendations.
Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2011
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Validated in vitro methods for skin corrosion and irritation were adopted by the OECD and by the European Union during the last decade. In the EU, Switzerland and countries adopting the EU legislation, these assays may allow the full replacement of animal testing for identifying and classifying compounds as skin corrosives, skin irritants, and non irritants. In order to develop harmonised recommendations on the use of in vitro data for regulatory assessment purposes within the European framework, a workshop was organized by the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health together with ECVAM and the BfR. It comprised stakeholders from various European countries involved in the process from in vitro testing to the regulatory assessment of in vitro data. Discussions addressed the following questions: (1) the information requirements considered useful for regulatory assessment; (2) the applicability of in vitro skin corrosion data to assign the corrosive subcategories as implemented by the EU Classification, Labelling and Packaging Regulation; (3) the applicability of testing strategies for determining skin corrosion and irritation hazards; and (4) the applicability of the adopted in vitro assays to test mixtures, preparations and dilutions. Overall, a number of agreements and recommendations were achieved in order to clarify and facilitate the assessment and use of in vitro data from regulatory accepted methods, and ultimately help regulators and scientists facing with the new in vitro approaches to evaluate skin irritation and corrosion hazards and risks without animal data.
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Extracorporeal shock wave therapy promotes cell proliferation and collagen synthesis of primary cultured human tenocytes.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
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The aim of this study was to investigate whether the effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) could affect the behavior of primary cultured human tenocytes over a 12-day period.
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Single-cell dynamics of mast cell-CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cell interactions.
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2011
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The biological behavior of immune cells is determined by their intrinsic properties and interactions with other cell populations within their microenvironment. Several studies have confirmed the existence of tight spatial interactions between mast cells (MCs) and Tregs in different settings. For instance, we have recently identified the functional cross-talk between MCs and Tregs, through the OX40L-OX40 axis, as a new mechanism of reciprocal influence. However, there is scant information regarding the single-cell dynamics of this process. In this study, time-lapse video microscopy revealed direct interactions between Tregs and MCs in both murine and human cell co-cultures, resulting in the inhibition of the MC degranulation response. MCs incubated with WT, but not OX40-deficient, Tregs mediated numerous and long-lasting interactions and displayed different morphological features lacking the classical signs of exocytosis. MC degranulation and Ca2+ mobilization upon activation were inhibited by Tregs on a single-cell basis, without affecting overall cytokine secretion. Transmission electron microscopy showed ultrastructural evidence of vesicle-mediated secretion reconcilable with the morphological pattern of piecemeal degranulation. Our results suggest that MC morphological and functional changes following MC-Treg interactions can be ascribed to cell-cell contact and represent a transversal, non-species-specific mechanism of immune response regulation. Further research, looking at the molecular composition of this interaction will broaden our understanding of its contribution to immunity.
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Effects of age and heart failure on human cardiac stem cell function.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
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Currently, it is unknown whether defects in stem cell growth and differentiation contribute to myocardial aging and chronic heart failure (CHF), and whether a compartment of functional human cardiac stem cells (hCSCs) persists in the decompensated heart. To determine whether aging and CHF are critical determinants of the loss in growth reserve of the heart, the properties of hCSCs were evaluated in 18 control and 23 explanted hearts. Age and CHF showed a progressive decrease in functionally competent hCSCs. Chronological age was a major predictor of five biomarkers of hCSC senescence: telomeric shortening, attenuated telomerase activity, telomere dysfunction-induced foci, and p21(Cip1) and p16(INK4a) expression. CHF had similar consequences for hCSCs, suggesting that defects in the balance between cardiomyocyte mass and the pool of nonsenescent hCSCs may condition the evolution of the decompensated myopathy. A correlation was found previously between telomere length in circulating bone marrow cells and cardiovascular diseases, but that analysis was restricted to average telomere length in a cell population, neglecting the fact that telomere attrition does not occur uniformly in all cells. The present study provides the first demonstration that dysfunctional telomeres in hCSCs are biomarkers of aging and heart failure. The biomarkers of cellular senescence identified here can be used to define the birth date of hCSCs and to sort young cells with potential therapeutic efficacy.
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Adipose tissue-derived stem cell in vitro differentiation in a three-dimensional dental bud structure.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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Tooth morphogenesis requires sequential and reciprocal interactions between the cranial neural crest-derived mesenchymal cells and the stomadial epithelium, which regulate tooth morphogenesis and differentiation. We show how mesenchyme-derived single stem cell populations can be induced to transdifferentiate in vitro in a structure similar to a dental bud. The presence of stem cells in the adipose tissue has been previously reported. We incubated primary cultures of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells in a dental-inducing medium and cultured the aggregates in three-dimensional conditions. Four weeks later, cells formed a three-dimensional organized structure similar to a dental bud. Expression of dental tissue-related markers was tested assaying lineage-specific mRNA and proteins by RT-PCR, immunoblot, IHC, and physical-chemical analysis. In the induction medium, cells were positive for ameloblastic and odontoblastic markers as both mRNAs and proteins. Also, cells expressed epithelial, mesenchymal, and basement membrane markers with a positional relationship similar to the physiologic dental morphogenesis. Physical-chemical analysis revealed 200-nm and 50-nm oriented hydroxyapatite crystals as displayed in vivo by enamel and dentin, respectively. In conclusion, we show that adipose tissue-derived stem cells in vitro can transdifferentiate to produce a specific three-dimensional organization and phenotype resembling a dental bud even in the absence of structural matrix or scaffold to guide the developmental process.
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Biochemical and biophysical analyses of tissue-engineered bone obtained from three-dimensional culture of a subset of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.
Tissue Eng Part A
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2010
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Grafts of tissue-engineered bone represent a promising alternative in the treatment of large and small bone defects. Current approaches are often badly tolerated by patients because of invasiveness, ethical problems, culture, and possibility of infection. Autologous grafts have been indicated as a solution to such problems. Because of tissue availability, many have proposed the use of cultured cells derived from bone marrow expanded in culture and induced to differentiate in bone tissue. Data reported in the literature show that it is possible to produce tissue substitutes in vitro indeed, but results are not always concordant regarding the in vitro produced bone quality. In the present work, we investigated bone formation in aggregates of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells induced to differentiate in bone. After osteoinduction we characterized the mineral matrix produced using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. Cells were obtained from bone marrow, subjected to immunodepletion for CD3, CD11b, CD14, CD16, CD19, CD56, CD66b, and glycophorin A using RosetteSep and cultured in a new formulation of medium for four passages and then were allowed to form spontaneous aggregates. At the end of proliferation before aggregation, cells were analyzed by fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS) for markers routinely used to characterize expanded mesenchymal stem cells and were found to be remarkably homogeneous for CD29 (99%?±?1%), CD73 (99%?±?1%), CD90 (95%?±?4%), CD105 (96%?±?4%), and CD133 (0%?±?1%) expression. Our results show that not only aggregated cells express the major markers of osteogenic differentiation, such as osteocalcin, osteonectin, osteopontin, and bone sialoprotein, but also the inorganic matrix is made of an apatite structurally and morphologically similar to native bone even without a scaffold.
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Paracrine loops of keratinocyte stimulation in cholesteatoma tissue: an immunofluorescence, transmission electron microscopy, and molecular study.
Otol. Neurotol.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2010
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In relation to the keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) expression in cholesteatoma tissue, the inflammatory infiltrate present in this disease could play a relevant role in the paracrine stimulation of keratinocytes.
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Endoscopic treatment of primary grade V vesicoureteral reflux using hyaluronic acid copolymer (DX/HA).
Pediatr. Surg. Int.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2010
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Since DX/HA was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2001 as an acceptable tissue-augmenting substance for subureteral injection, endoscopic treatment has become increasingly popular for treating vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). However, most paediatric urologists still continue to recommend ureteral reimplantation as the treatment of choice in the management of grade V VUR. The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the effectiveness of endoscopic subureteral injection of DX/HA in the treatment of grade V reflux.
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Pregnancy and chronic kidney disease: a challenge in all CKD stages.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2010
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a challenge for pregnancy. Its recent classification underlines the importance of its early phases. This studys aim was to evaluate outcomes of pregnancy according to CKD stage versus low-risk pregnancies followed in the same center.
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Recurrent Buschke-Löwenstein tumor treated using CO(2) laser vaporization.
J Minim Invasive Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2010
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A 69-year-old woman had a 4-year history of recurrent giant condylomas (Buschke-Lowenstein tumor) in the anal and perianal regions, with extension to the vulva and vagina. After failure of 3 surgical excisions, one of which was radical, the condition was successfully treated using carbon dioxide laser vaporization and systemic interferon therapy. After 3 years of follow-up, the patient has not experienced a recurrence.
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[Critical aspects of the direct distribution of medicines to patients upon discharge at the G. Rummo hospital in Benevento (Italy)].
Ig Sanita Pubbl
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2009
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Delivering prescription drugs directly to patients at the moment of discharge from the hospital is a useful tool for ensuring continuity in patient drug use, improving prescriptive appropriateness, limiting pharmaceutical expenditure and analyzing pharmacoepidemiological data. A project was therefore conducted from April 2005 to January 2007, at the G. Rumino hospital in Benevento (Italy), to encourage the direct delivery of drugs to patients upon discharge. The project consisted of various phases. Firstly, the medical records of all patients discharged from the hospital during April 2005 were analysed, mainly to collect information regarding discharge prescriptions, verify whether copies of the discharge form and prescription records were present in the chart, the type of drugs prescribed and whether these were available in the hospital pharmacy list of available drugs and had been dispensed to the patient. The percentage of drugs not available and of patients who did not pick up the prescribed drugs was calculated, critical aspects of the prescription process were analysed, and corrective measures implemented. A second evaluation of medical records was then performed for patients discharged in January 2007, to evaluate the effectiveness of the corrective measures applied. Results show that most discharged patients continue not to take advantage of the direct distribution of drugs in hospital and more information and communication to physicians and patients regarding this opportunity is required.
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Type 1 diabetes: evidence of interaction between ACP1 and ADA1 gene polymorphisms.
Med. Sci. Monit.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2009
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ACP1 (acid phosphatase locus 1, a cytosolic low-molecular-weight phosphotyrosin phosphatase) and ADA1 (adenosine deaminase locus 1) are two polymorphic systems involved in immune reactions. Observed interactions at the biochemical and clinical levels between the two systems prompted this investigation of a possible interaction concerning susceptibility to type 1 diabetes.
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Multipotent progenitor cells are present in human peripheral blood.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2009
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To determine whether the peripheral blood in humans contains a population of multipotent progenitor cells (MPCs), products of leukapheresis were obtained from healthy donor volunteers following the administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Small clusters of adherent proliferating cells were collected, and these cells continued to divide up to 40 population doublings without reaching replicative senescence and growth arrest. MPCs were positive for the transcription factors Nanog, Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4 and expressed several antigens characteristic of mesenchymal stem cells. However, they were negative for markers of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and bone marrow cell lineages. MPCs had a cloning efficiency of approximately 3%, and following their expansion, retained a highly immature phenotype. Under permissive culture conditions, MPCs differentiated into neurons, glial cells, hepatocytes, cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and osteoblasts. Moreover, the gene expression profile of MPCs partially overlapped with that of neural and embryonic stem cells, further demonstrating their primitive, uncommitted phenotype. Following subcutaneous transplantation in nonimmunosuppressed mice, MPCs migrated to distant organs and integrated structurally and functionally within the new tissue, acquiring the identity of resident parenchymal cells. In conclusion, undifferentiated cells with properties of embryonic stem cells can be isolated and expanded from human peripheral blood after granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration. This cell pool may constitute a unique source of autologous cells with critical clinical import.
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Human colon fibroblasts induce differentiation and proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells through the direct paracrine action of keratinocyte growth factor.
J. Cell. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2009
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The effects exerted by the keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) on intestinal epithelial cells cultured in vitro are influenced by cell confluence and differentiation through the modulation of keratinocyte growth factor receptor (KGFR) expression. In order to better define the contribution of KGF on the intestinal epithelial cell differentiation and proliferation, here we developed a coculture model, able to mimick in vitro the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions of the bowel. In consequence of its ability to produce KGF, demonstrated by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, the human colon fibroblast cell line CCD-18 has been selected as coculture partner for the intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell line. Analysis of the expression of the differentiation and proliferation markers CEA and Ki67, through double immunofluorescence assays, showed that either the coculture with CCD-18 cells or the incubation with primary colon fibroblast-derived conditioned media (CM-F and CM-F2) induced an increase in differentiation and proliferation of confluent intestinal epithelial Caco-2 or HT29 cells, parallel to that obtained by KGF treatment. Use of anti-KGF blocking antibodies and of a tyrosine kinase KGFR inhibitor demonstrated the contribution of KGF and the direct role of its receptor in the regulation of epithelial growth and differentiation, indicating that KGF is a crucial paracrine factor involved in promoting these effects.
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The importance of patient selection in the treatment of distal hypospadias using modified Koff procedure.
J Pediatr Urol
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2009
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We present our experience in the treatment of distal hypospadias using a modified Koff procedure, emphasizing the importance of patient selection for a good outcome.
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Rupture of Ovarian Pregnancy in a Woman with Low Beta-hCG Levels.
Case Rep Obstet Gynecol
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Background. Ovarian pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy. It is often difficult to distinguish from tubal pregnancy, and diagnosis and management are frequently a challenge. Case. A 33-year-old nulligravida woman presented with light vaginal bleeding and bilateral lower quadrants abdominal pain. Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) level (592?mUI/mL) and clinical and ultrasound (US) findings were suspicious for tubal pregnancy. On the third day, despite beta-hCG decrease (364?mUI/mL), she complained of severe pain in the lower abdomen, and physical examination revealed abdominal rebound tenderness. US showed a large amount of fluid in the abdominal cavity. Because of the unstable clinical condition, emergency laparoscopy and resection of left ovarian ectopic pregnancy were performed. Histology confirmed ovarian gestation. Conclusion. This case shows that ectopic pregnancy rupture may occur despite low levels of beta-hCG. Hemoperitoneum is not contraindication to laparoscopy.
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Dental pulp stem cells differentiation reveals new insights in Oct4A dynamics.
PLoS ONE
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Although the role played by the core transcription factor network, which includes c-Myc, Klf4, Nanog, and Oct4, in the maintenance of embryonic stem cell (ES) pluripotency and in the reprogramming of adult cells is well established, its persistence and function in adult stem cells are still debated. To verify its persistence and clarify the role played by these molecules in adult stem cell function, we investigated the expression pattern of embryonic and adult stem cell markers in undifferentiated and fully differentiated dental pulp stem cells (DPSC). A particular attention was devoted to the expression pattern and intracellular localization of the stemness-associated isoform A of Oct4 (Oct4A). Our data demonstrate that: Oct4, Nanog, Klf4 and c-Myc are expressed in adult stem cells and, with the exception of c-Myc, they are significantly down-regulated following differentiation. Cell differentiation was also associated with a significant reduction in the fraction of DPSC expressing the stem cell markers CD10, CD29 and CD117. Moreover, a nuclear to cytoplasm shuttling of Oct4A was identified in differentiated cells, which was associated with Oct4A phosphorylation. The present study would highlight the importance of the post-translational modifications in DPSC stemness maintenance, by which stem cells balance self-renewal versus differentiation. Understanding and controlling these mechanisms may be of great importance for stemness maintenance and stem cells clinical use, as well as for cancer research.
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Mast cell: an emerging partner in immune interaction.
Front Immunol
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Mast cells (MCs) are currently recognized as effector cells in many settings of the immune response, including host defense, immune regulation, allergy, chronic inflammation, and autoimmune diseases. MC pleiotropic functions reflect their ability to secrete a wide spectrum of preformed or newly synthesized biologically active products with pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory and/or immunosuppressive properties, in response to multiple signals. Moreover, the modulation of MC effector phenotypes relies on the interaction of a wide variety of membrane molecules involved in cell-cell or cell-extracellular-matrix interaction. The delivery of co-stimulatory signals allows MC to specifically communicate with immune cells belonging to both innate and acquired immunity, as well as with non-immune tissue-specific cell types. This article reviews and discusses the evidence that MC membrane-expressed molecules play a central role in regulating MC priming and activation and in the modulation of innate and adaptive immune response not only against host injury, but also in peripheral tolerance and tumor-surveillance or -escape. The complex expression of MC surface molecules may be regarded as a measure of connectivity, with altered patterns of cell-cell interaction representing functionally distinct MC states. We will focalize our attention on roles and functions of recently discovered molecules involved in the cross-talk of MCs with other immune partners.
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Modulation of Fc?RI-dependent mast cell response by OX40L via Fyn, PI3K, and RhoA.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
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The interaction of mast cells (MCs) with regulatory T cells through the OX40 ligand (OX40L):OX40 axis downregulates Fc?RI-dependent immediate hypersensitivity responses both in vitro and in vivo. Little is known on OX40L-mediated intracellular signaling or on the mechanism by which OX40L engagement suppresses MC degranulation.
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Acellular bone colonization and aggregate culture conditions diversely influence murine periosteum mesenchymal stem cell differentiation potential in long-term in vitro osteoinductive conditions.
Tissue Eng Part A
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Periosteum contains mesenchymal stem cells (Pe-MSCs) that contribute to normal bone growth, healing, and turnover; understanding Pe-MSC capabilities may shed light over the treatment of bone defects using tissue engineering. Bone tissue regeneration needs in vitro bone precursors or stem cell coculture onto specific scaffolds but, despite extensive research in the field, very little is known about the matrix structure of the tissue-engineered tissues and the scaffolds effects on cell differentiation. To this purpose we have selected a clonal population (murine Pe-MSCs) that was seeded and differentiated onto an acellular bone scaffold. Cell differentiation was assessed after 3 months and 1 year by molecular, histological, biochemical, and biophysical analyses and results were compared with the same osteoinduced clonal cells cultured as cellular aggregates. Our data show that Pe-MSCs cultured onto acellular bone scaffold develop a complex three-dimensional matrix and an osteoblastic phenotype but do not produce hydroxyapatite (HA); moreover, they seem able to reabsorb the colonized bone scaffold. On the contrary, cells cultured as three-dimensional aggregates differentiate and produce osteoblastic markers and HA nanocrystals.
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Incidence of febrile urinary tract infections in children after successful endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux: a long-term follow-up.
J. Pediatr.
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To evaluate the incidence of febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) after successful endoscopic correction of intermediate and high-grade vesicoureteral reflux (VUR).
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.