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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Antibody-engineered nanoparticles selectively inhibit mesenchymal cells isolated from patients with chronic lung allograft dysfunction.
Nanomedicine (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Aims: Chronic lung allograft dysfunction represents the main cause of death after lung transplantation, and so far there is no effective therapy. Mesenchymal cells (MCs) are primarily responsible for fibrous obliteration of small airways typical of chronic lung allograft dysfunction. Here, we engineered gold nanoparticles containing a drug in the hydrophobic section to inhibit MCs, and exposing on the outer hydrophilic surface a monoclonal antibody targeting a MC-specific marker (half-chain gold nanoparticles with everolimus). Materials & methods: Half-chain gold nanoparticles with everolimus have been synthesized and incubated with MCs to evaluate the effect on proliferation and apoptosis. Results & discussion: Drug-loaded gold nanoparticles coated with the specific antibody were able to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis without stimulating an inflammatory response, as assessed by in vitro experiments. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of our nanoparticles in inhibiting MCs and open new perspectives for a local treatment of chronic lung allograft dysfunction. Original submitted 24 July 2013; Revised submitted 15 October 2013.
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Intra and post-operative complications of esophageal achalasia.
Ann Ital Chir
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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To evaluate and discuss all the potential complications affecting morbidity of patients treated with surgery for primary achalasia.
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Persistent human cosavirus infection in lung transplant recipient, Italy.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Human cosavirus is a novel picornavirus recently identified in feces from children in southern Asia. We report infection with human cosavirus in a patient in the Mediterranean area. The patient was an adult double lung transplant recipient who had chronic diarrhea associated with persistent infection with human cosavirus.
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Early development of metabolic syndrome in patients subjected to lung transplantation.
Clin Transplant
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2013
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Cardiovascular disease is a common cause of morbidity and mortality after solid organ transplantation, due to a combination of pre-existing cardiovascular risk factors and immunosuppressive drug toxicity. The prevalence of new-onset hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome was assessed after lung transplantation in a cohort of 67 patients (mean age: 48 ± 14 yr). The prevalence of hypertension increased from 19.4% to 70.1% at the three-yr follow-up visit (p < 0.01). The concomitant prevalence of diabetes and dyslipidemia raised from 13.4% to 31.3%, and from 6.0% to 40.3%, respectively (p < 0.01 for both), and body mass index increased from 22.4 ± 3.7 to 26.1 ± 3.9 kg/m(2) (p < 0.01). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased from 3.0% to 23.9% after the first year, to remain stable thereafter, associated with a strict control of cardiovascular risk factors. A large number of lung transplant recipients develop new-onset hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia after transplantation, and in more than one-fifth metabolic syndrome can be diagnosed after the first year. The increased cardiovascular risk of these patients should be taken into account during follow-up, to better define a proper and timely cardiovascular prevention. Adequate control of cardiovascular risk factors, preventing further metabolic syndrome development, is recommended and feasible in lung transplant recipients.
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Cyclosporine in anti-Jo1-positive patients with corticosteroid-refractory interstitial lung disease.
J. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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To describe the longterm effectiveness and safety of cyclosporine (CYC) in patients with anti-Jo1-positive antisynthetase syndrome with corticosteroid-refractory interstitial lung disease (ILD).
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Systemic and local human cytomegalovirus-specific T-cell response in lung transplant recipients.
New Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2013
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It is debated whether human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection/disease of the pulmonary compartment in lung transplant recipients (LTRs) may be controlled by the HCMV-specific systemic T-cell response or requires a local (lung) T-cell response. Systemic and local HCMV loads were investigated in parallel by real-time PCR in 20 LTRs. T-cell responses were measured by intracellular cytokine staining of HCMV-specific IFN-? + CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in PBMC, and by enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assay in lung (BAL) mononuclear cells. Patients were grouped at time of peak of infection based on viral load in blood and BAL. Immunological testing results showed that five patients with no HCMV infection (either local or systemic) had both local and systemic T-cell responses; four patients with systemic infection had no systemic T-cell response; five patients with both systemic and lung infection had neither local nor systemic T-cell responses; and six patients with lung infection had no local and a partial (only CD8+ in the absence of CD4+) systemic T-cell response. These results indicate that local immunity is associated with resolution of lung infection. Systemic T-cell response alone is not sufficient to provide lung protection from HCMV infection.
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Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders and Epstein-Barr virus DNAemia in a cohort of lung transplant recipients.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are serious complications in lung transplant recipients. No consensus on EBV DNAemia levels predictive of PTLD has been reached. In addition, in many instances EBV DNAemia is determined in patients with suggestive symptoms only.
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Effects of different peritoneal dialysis fluids on the TH1/TH2 balance.
Eur. Cytokine Netw.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2011
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Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is associated with a depression of T cell function, as suggested by the impaired production of cytokines by Th cells collected from PD patients. Although treatment biocompatibility could be implicated in this immune dysfunction, it has been poorly investigated, thus far. Therefore, we undertook a study aiming to analyze the effects of different peritoneal dialysis fluids on the Th1/Th2 balance in PD patients.
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Clinical and immunological evaluation of 12-month azithromycin therapy in chronic lung allograft rejection.
Clin Transplant
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is the leading cause of morbidity/mortality in lung-transplant recipients (LTRs). Recent studies demonstrated that azithromycin (AZI) can improve graft function in BOS. We here investigated whether a 12-month course of AZI could more efficiently impact the course of BOS if administered early in BOS development.
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Management of adverse events associated with the use of everolimus in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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In April 2009, an expert group of 11 physicians and clinical nurses met to discuss the management of selected adverse events associated with the use of everolimus for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Everolimus is an orally administered inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin that recently received approval from the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of advanced RCC that has progressed on or after treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-targeted therapy, and from the United States Food and Drug Administration for treatment of advanced RCC after failure of sorafenib or sunitinib. Before the approval of everolimus, no standard therapy existed for the treatment of mRCC after failure of VEGF-targeted therapy. RECORD-1 (Renal Cell cancer treatment with Oral RAD001 given Daily) was the pivotal multicenter, phase III, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of everolimus that led to approval for patients with disease progression on or after treatment with VEGF-targeted agents. Safety data from RECORD-1 were reviewed by these clinicians, all of whom had experience using everolimus in patients with mRCC. Adverse events discussed were non-infectious pneumonitis, infections, stomatitis and metabolic abnormalities.
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Human cytomegalovirus-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell response determination: comparison of short-term (24h) assays vs long-term (7-day) infected dendritic cell assay in the immunocompetent and the immunocompromised host.
Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2010
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Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells were measured in the immunocompetent host as well as in 13 solid-organ transplant recipients (SOTR), and 12 young hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients (HSCTR) by using a long-term (7-day) assay based on PBMC stimulation by HCMV-infected dendritic cells (iDC), and two short-term (24h) assays, one for CD4(+) stimulation by infected cell lysate (iCL), and the other for CD8(+) stimulation by a pool of 34 epitopic peptides (pep-pool). In the immunocompetent, the number of T-cells activated by either iCL or the pep-pool was significantly reduced with respect to iDC. In both SOTR and HSCTR, the number of T-cells activated by iDC was comparable to that activated by iCL or the pep-pool. A significant correlation between iDC-activated T-cells and T-cells activated by either iCL or the pep-pool was observed. In conclusion, whenever a rapid result is needed, short-term assays may efficiently replace the iDC assay.
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Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in lung allograft tolerance.
J. Heart Lung Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2009
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Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme involved in the degradation of tryptophan (Try) to kynurenine (Kyn), is thought to suppress T-cell activity. Although a few experimental studies have suggested a role for IDO in graft acceptance, human data are scarce and inconclusive. We sought to establish whether, in lung transplant recipients (LTRs), plasma IDO activity mirrors the level of graft acceptance.
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2-DE and LC-MS/MS for a comparative proteomic analysis of BALf from subjects with different subsets of inflammatory myopathies.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2009
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The protein profiles of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf) of patients belonging to three selected subsets of Polymyositis/Dermatomyositis (PM/DM) have been compared by using a combination of 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/MS or LC-MS/MS. Our study examined the hypothesis that there were distinct differences in protein expression profiles that were related to the phenotype. From among the 323+/-51 protein spots that may represent the most highly expressed proteins in BALf of these patients, 24 unique spots were isolated and proteins identified. In particular, 9 spots were present in BALf of PM/DM patients only; 12 spots were exclusive of Overlap patients and 3 spots of AS patients. From among the proteins identified, a few were classified as cytoskeletal proteins, others were involved in oxidative stress and a number of proteins were associated with general metabolic activity or immunological response and inflammation. This is the first study in which evidence is provided that a number of different proteins are expressed in different subsets of PM/DM and supports our contention that the proteomic approach would be beneficial in discovering molecules which could represent possible prognostic factors of these rare pathologies.
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Systemic inflammatory response and downmodulation of peripheral CD25+Foxp3+ T-regulatory cells in patients undergoing radiofrequency thermal ablation for lung cancer.
Hum. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2009
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Radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA) is a local tumor-destructing technique that can potentially modulate the host immune response through mechanisms that are not clearly defined. We assessed whether RFTA could affect multiple systemic inflammatory and immunological parameters, including CD25+Foxp+ cells, in patients with primary or metastatic lung tumors. Three days after RFTA, a moderate and temporary systemic inflammatory response developed, as demonstrated by the increase in peripheral neutrophils and monocytes and in plasma levels of proinflammatory chemokines (MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, eotaxin, and interleukin[IL]-8) and acute phase reactants (complement C3 and C4, serum amyloid, alpha1 antichymotrypsin, and C-reactive protein). Moreover, we found a concomitant release of the anti-inflammatory factor IL-10. Thirty days after RFTA, a significant reduction in CD25+Foxp3+ counts with an increase in CD4+ T-cell proliferation and number of interferon-gamma-secreting cells was observed. The reduction in CD25+Foxp3+ cells lasted up to 90 days after treatment. The use of RFTA in lung cancer patients has an immunomodulatory activity: it induces a self-limiting systemic inflammation early and later a reduction of circulating CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs. In addition to tumor ablation, downmodulation of this regulatory subset might be an important mechanism involved in the long-term clinical efficacy of RFTA.
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Pulmonary Cladophialophora boppii infection in a lung transplant recipient: case report and literature review.
J. Heart Lung Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2009
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Cladophialophora boppii is a dematiaceous fungus, which has been reported only rarely to be the cause of cutaneous infection. Herein we describe a C boppii parenchymal and bronchial infection in a lung transplant recipient. We also illustrate the clinicoradiologic patterns and review possible treatment options for these difficult infections.
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Aortic valve replacement performed twice through ministernotomy 15 years after lung transplantation.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
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After transplantation, steroids and calcineurin inhibitors together with end-stage renal failure may lead to associated cardiovascular diseases, particularly in long-term survivors. We present a case of aortic valve replacement 15 years after lung transplantation, followed by reoperative valve replacement for late infective endocarditis. Lung compliance and gas exchange were excellent during recovery. Despite adequate prophylaxis, immunosuppression and hemodialysis likely contributed to repeated episodes of sepsis, which caused detachment of the first aortic prosthesis. Despite the high mortality of prosthetic valve endocarditis, the postoperative course was uneventful and the patient is doing well at 24-month follow-up.
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Human cytomegalovirus end-organ disease is associated with high or low systemic viral load in preemptively treated solid-organ transplant recipients.
New Microbiol.
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Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) end-organ disease in solid-organ transplant recipients (SOTR) may be associated with either high or low HCMV load in blood. In transplantation Centers where the preemptive therapy approach is adopted, antiviral therapy of systemic HCMV infections is initiated upon reaching pre-determined cut-off levels of viral DNA in blood, whereas no guidelines are provided for local end-organ infection/disease. In the latter case, clinicians often start antiviral treatment without defining the etiology of local symptoms. Here, we describe 14 cases of SOTR, in which a documented HCMV end-organ disease was observed. Nine patients had a systemic viral load lower than the cut-off for preemptive therapy and were treated based on viral load of local HCMV disease. The remaining five patients had a systemic viral load greater than the preemptive therapy cut-off and were efficiently treated for both the systemic and the local HCMV disease. Thus, HCMV infection in the post-transplant period must be monitored virologically both in blood and locally. End-organ disease in preemptively treated patients, seems to be associated with lack of development (primary HCMV infection) or reconstitution (reactivated infection) of HCMV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell immunity or with its functional impairment.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.