JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
High-throughput mapping of brain-wide activity in awake and drug-responsive vertebrates.
Lab Chip
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The reconstruction of neural activity across complete neural circuits, or brain activity mapping, has great potential in both fundamental and translational neuroscience research. Larval zebrafish, a vertebrate model, has recently been demonstrated to be amenable to whole brain activity mapping in behaving animals. Here we demonstrate a microfluidic array system ("Fish-Trap") that enables high-throughput mapping of brain-wide activity in awake larval zebrafish. Unlike the commonly practiced larva-processing methods using a rigid gel or a capillary tube, which are laborious and time-consuming, the hydrodynamic design of our microfluidic chip allows automatic, gel-free, and anesthetic-free processing of tens of larvae for microscopic imaging with single-cell resolution. Notably, this system provides the capability to directly couple pharmaceutical stimuli with real-time recording of neural activity in a large number of animals, and the local and global effects of pharmacoactive drugs on the nervous system can be directly visualized and evaluated by analyzing drug-induced functional perturbation within or across different brain regions. Using this technology, we tested a set of neurotoxin peptides and obtained new insights into how to exploit neurotoxin derivatives as therapeutic agents. The novel and versatile "Fish-Trap" technology can be readily unitized to study other stimulus (optical, acoustic, or physical) associated functional brain circuits using similar experimental strategies.
Related JoVE Video
Statistical properties in Young's interference pattern formed with a radially polarized beam with controllable spatial coherence.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Experimental generation of a radially polarized (RP) beam with controllable spatial coherence (i.e., partially coherent RP beam) was reported recently [Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 051108 (2012)]. In this paper, we carry out theoretical and experimental studies of the statistical properties in Young's two-slit interference pattern formed with a partially coherent RP beam. An approximate analytical expression for the cross-spectral density matrix of a partially coherent RP beam in the observation plane is obtained, and it is found that the statistical properties, such as the intensity, the degree of coherence and the degree of polarization, are strongly affected by the spatial coherence of the incident beam. Our experimental results are consistent with the theoretical predictions, and may be useful in some applications, where light field with special statistical properties are required.
Related JoVE Video
Generation and propagation of partially coherent beams with nonconventional correlation functions: a review [Invited].
J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Partially coherent beams with nonconventional correlation functions have displayed many extraordinary properties, such as self-focusing and self-splitting, which are totally different from those of partially coherent beams with conventional Gaussian correlated Schell-model functions and are useful in many applications, such as optical trapping, free-space optical communications, and material thermal processing. In this paper, we present a review of recent developments on generation and propagation of partially coherent beams with nonconventional correlation functions.
Related JoVE Video
Genomic diversity and virulence characterization of historical Escherichia coli O157 strains isolated from clinical and environmental sources.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is, to date, the major E. coli serotype causing food-borne human disease worldwide. Strains of O157 with other H antigens have also been recovered. We analyzed a collection of historic O157 strains (N=400) isolated in the late 1980's - early 1990's in the United States. Strains were predominantly serotype O157:H7 (55%), and various O157:non-H7 (41%) not previously reported regarding their pathogenic potential. Although lacking Shiga-toxin (stx) and eae genes, serotypes O157:H1, H2, H11, H42, and H43 carried several virulence factors (iha, terD, hlyA) also found in virulent serotype E. coli O157:H7. Pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed the O157 serogroup was diverse, with strains with the same H-type clustering together closely. Among non-H7 isolates, Serotype O157:H43 was highly prevalent (65%) and carried important enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) virulence markers (iha, terD, hlyA, espP). Isolates from two particular H-types, H2 and H11, among the most commonly found non-O157 EHEC (O26:H11, O111:H11, O103:H2/H11, O45:H2), unexpectedly clustered more closely with O157:H7 than other H-types, and carried several virulence genes. This suggests an early divergence of the O157 serogroup to clades with different pathogenic potential. Appearance of important EHEC virulence markers in closely related H-types suggests their virulence potential and suggests further monitoring of those serotypes not implicated in severe illness thus far.
Related JoVE Video
Safety, Tolerability, and Plasma Exposure of Tiotropium Respimat(®) in Children and Adults with Cystic Fibrosis.
J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Background: People with cystic fibrosis (CF) suffer from chronic lung disease that is often treated with a bronchodilator. This trial evaluated the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of single and multiple doses of tiotropium inhaled via the Respimat(®) Soft Mist™ Inhaler in patients with CF. Methods: Patients received a single dose (placebo, 2.5??g, 5??g, or 10??g) and/or multiple doses (placebo, 2.5??g, or 5??g) of tiotropium daily for 28 days. Results: Ninety-two patients, aged 5-57 years, were treated. All doses showed a satisfactory safety profile for adverse events, vital signs, laboratory evaluations, and physical examination. At steady-state, peak exposure to tiotropium was comparable between adult patients with CF and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Conclusions: Tiotropium 2.5??g or 5??g inhaled via the Respimat(®) Soft Mist™ Inhaler once daily was well tolerated in patients with CF.
Related JoVE Video
[Effect of bile acids on surface tension of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in rabbits].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To observe changes in surface tension of bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) in rabbits with hyperbilirubinemia and the influence of bile diluents and 5 different bile acids on BALF surface tension to provide better insight into the regulatory role of bile acids on respiratory function.
Related JoVE Video
Thermo-optic waveguide gate switch arrays based on direct UV-written highly fluorinated low-loss photopolymer.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Novel thermo-optic waveguide gate switch arrays were designed and fabricated based on the direct UV-written technique. Highly fluorinated low-loss photopolymers and organic-inorganic grafting materials were used as the waveguide core and cladding, respectively. The low absorption loss characteristics and excellent thermal stabilities of the core and cladding materials were obtained. The rectangular waveguides and arrayed electrode heaters have been theoretically designed and numerically simulated to realize single-mode transmission. The propagation loss of a 4-?m-wide straight waveguide was measured as 0.15??dB/cm. The insertion loss of the device was directly measured to be about 5.5 dB. The rise and fall times of the device applied 100 Hz square-wave voltage were obtained as 1.068 and 1.245 ms, respectively. The switching power was about 9.2 mW, and the extinction ratio was 17.8 dB. The low-loss integrated switch arrays are suitable for realizing large-scale photonic integrated circuits.
Related JoVE Video
Generalized multi-Gaussian correlated Schell-model beam: from theory to experiment.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A new kind of partially coherent beam with non-conventional correlation function named generalized multi-Gaussian correlated Schell-model (GMGCSM) beam is proposed. The GMGCSM beam of the first or second kind is capable of producing dark hollow or flat-topped beam profile in the focal plane (or in the far field). Furthermore, we carry out experimental generation of a GMGCSM beam of the first or second kind, and measure its focused intensity. Our experimental results verify theoretical predictions. The GMGCSM beam will be useful for free-space optical communications, material thermal processing, particle or atom trapping.
Related JoVE Video
Reconfigurable optical interleaver modules with tunable wavelength transfer matrix function using polymer photonics lightwave circuits.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A transparent reconfigurable optical interleaver module composed of cascaded AWGs-based wavelength-channel-selector/interleaver monolithically integrated with multimode interference (MMI) variable optical attenuators (VOAs) and Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) switch arrays was designed and fabricated using polymer photonic lightwave circuits. Highly fluorinated photopolymer and grafting modified organic-inorganic hybrid material were synthesized as the waveguide core and caldding, respectively. Thermo-optic (TO) tunable wavelength transfer matrix (WTM) function of the module can be achieved for optical routing network. The one-chip transmission loss is ~6dB and crosstalk is less than ~25 dB for transverse-magnetic (TM) mode. The crosstalk and extinction ratio of the MMI VOAs were measured as -15.2 dB and 17.5 dB with driving current 8 mA, respectively. The modulation depth of the TO switches is obtained as ~18.2 dB with 2.2 V bias. Proposed novel interleaver module could be well suited for DWDM optical communication systems.
Related JoVE Video
Arsenic induced overexpression of inflammatory cytokines based on the human urothelial cell model in vitro and urinary secretion of individuals chronically exposed to arsenic.
Chem. Res. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic persistent inflammation could play an important role in the pathogenesis of some malignancies, and inflammation is a critical factor for bladder cancer development. In this study, we measured urine levels of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and IL-8 in arsenic exposure workers and expressions of inflammatory cytokines in human urothelial cells in vivo and in vitro. We found the concentrations of IL-8, TNF-?, and TGF-? presented in urine were significantly elevated in the high urinary arsenic workers compared with the low urinary arsenic workers. Multiple regression analysis showed that the urinary IL-8 level was significantly positively associated with urinary iAs concentration after adjusting for the confounding effects of age, employed years, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol, and seafood consumption in recent 3 days. Urinary TNF-? and TGF-? levels were also significantly positively associated with urinary iAs concentration, and SMI. TGF-? level was negatively associated with age after adjusting for the confounding effects. Consistent with the results in vivo, mRNA expressions of TNF-?, TGF-?, and IL-8 and protein expressions of TGF-?, TGF-?1, and IL-8 were significantly elevated in SV-HUC-1 cells after exposure to lower concentrations of arsenite for 24h as compared to the control group. These data indicated that arsenic increased the secretion of inflammatory factors and IL-8, TNF-?, and TGF-? expression may be a useful biomarker of the effect of arsenic exposure.
Related JoVE Video
Overexpression of heat stress-responsive TaMBF1c, a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Multiprotein Bridging Factor, confers heat tolerance in both yeast and rice.
Plant Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previously, we found an ethylene-responsive transcriptional co-activator, which was significantly induced by heat stress (HS) in both thermo-sensitive and thermo-tolerant wheat. The corresponding ORF was isolated from wheat, and named TaMBF1c (Multiprotein Bridging Factor1c). The deduced amino acid sequence revealed the presence of conserved MBF1 and helix-turn-helix domains at the N- and C-terminus, respectively, which were highly similar to rice ERTCA (Ethylene Response Transcriptional Co-Activator) and Arabidopsis MBF1c. The promoter region of TaMBF1c contained three heat shock elements (HSEs) and other stress-responsive elements. There was no detectable mRNA of TaMBF1c under control conditions, but the transcript was rapidly and significantly induced by heat stress not only at the seedling stage, but also at the flowering stage. It was also slightly induced by drought and H2O2 stresses, as well as by application of the ethylene synthesis precursor ACC, but not, however, by circadian rhythm, salt, ABA or MeJA treatments. Under normal temperatures, TaMBF1c-eGFP protein showed predominant nuclear localization with some levels of cytosol localization in the bombarded onion epidermal cells, but it was mainly detected in the nucleus with almost no eGFP signals in cytosol when the bombarded onion cells were cultured under high temperature conditions. Overexpression of TaMBF1c in yeast imparted tolerance to heat stress compared to cells expressing the vector alone. Most importantly, transgenic rice plants engineered to overexpress TaMBF1c showed higher thermotolerance than control plants at both seedling and reproductive stages. In addition, transcript levels of six Heat Shock Protein and two Trehalose Phosphate Synthase genes were higher in TaMBF1c transgenic lines than in wild-type rice upon heat treatment. Collectively, the present data suggest that TaMBF1c plays a pivotal role in plant thermotolerance and holds promising possibilities for improving heat tolerance in crops.
Related JoVE Video
Adiponectin Receptor 1 (ADIPOR1) rs1342387 Polymorphism and Risk of Cancer: a Meta-analysis.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Many studies have indicated possible associations between a polymorphism of adiponectin receptor 1 (ADIPOR1) rs1342387 and risk of cancer, but contradictory results have been reported. The main aim of this study was to draw a reliable conclusion about the relationship between the rs1342387 polymorphism and cancer incidence, by conducting a literature search of Pubmed, Embase, Wanfang and Cochrane libraries. Eleven studies including 3, 738 cases and 4, 748 controls were identified in this meta-analysis. The ADIPOR1 rs1342387 polymorphism was associated with risk of colorectal cancer for all genetic comparison models (GG vs AA, OR: 1.44, 95%CI: 1.21 -1.70; G carriers vs A carriers, OR: 1.23, 95%CI: 1.11 -1.36; dominant model, OR: 1.28, 95%CI: 1.10 -1.49 and recessive model, OR: 1.31, 95%CI: 1.12 -1.55). Stratified by ethnicity, the rs1342387 polymorphism was significantly associated with risk of colorectal cancer in Asian ancestry for all genetic comparison models (GG vs AA, OR: 1.56, 95%CI: 1.26-1.92; G carriers vs. A carriers OR: 1.30, 95%CI: 1.18 -1.43; dominant model OR: 1.31, 95%CI: 1.08 -1.60 and recessive model OR: 1.44, 95%CI: 1.26 -1.64), but not in Caucasian or mixed (Caucasian mainly) groups. In summary, the ADIPOR1 rs1342387 polymorphism is significantly associated with risk of colorectal cancer among individuals of Asian ancestry.
Related JoVE Video
Gambogic Acid-loaded electrosprayed particles for site-specific treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aims to assess the targeted effect and antitumor efficacy of Gambogic-acid-loaded particles (GA-Ps). GA-Ps with uniform particle sizes of 69.8 ± 17.8 nm (GA-P1), 185.6 ± 33.8 nm (GA-P2), 357.8 ± 81.5 nm (GA-P3), and 7.56 ± 0.95 ?m (GA-P4) were prepared using an electrospray technique and exhibited extremely high entrapment efficiency. As the particle size increased from the nano- to microscale, the in vitro GA release rate sharply decreased. After tail-vein injection in mice, GA-P samples GA-P1, GA-P2, GA-P3, and GA-P4 improved the uptake of GA 1.67-times in the liver, 1.78-times in the liver, 2.18-times in the spleen, and 2.35-times in the lung, respectively, compared with GA solution (GA-S). The antitumor efficacy of GA-P2, with an 82.51% targeting efficiency (Te) for the liver, was examined in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) model mice. After 2 weeks of administration, HCC mice in the GA-P2 group exhibited a lower degree of tumor invasion and cell lesions in hepatic tissue, recovered liver function, and significantly prolonged survival time, compared with mice in the model, GA-S, and normal saline (NS) groups. Pharmacokinetic studies indicated that the superior antitumor efficacy of GA-P2 was attributed not only to tissue targeting but also to low clearance, extended retention, high bioavailability in plasma, and increased GA stability.
Related JoVE Video
Assessment of Corneal Epithelial Thickness in Dry Eye Patients.
Optom Vis Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the features of corneal epithelial thickness topography with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) in dry eye patients.
Related JoVE Video
Chemical of Vitex trifolia.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A new steroidal ester, beta-rosaterol palmitate (1) along with ten known compounds, uvaol(2), 3-epi-ursolic acid (3), 2alpha, 3beta, 24-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (4), 2alpha, 3alpha, 24-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (5), 2alpha, 3alpha, 24-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (6), 2alpha, 3alpha, 24-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid-28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (7), (Z)-9-hexadecenoic acid (8), octacosyl alcohol (9), beta-sitosterol (10) and beta-daucosterol (11), has been isolated from the stems and leaves of Vitex trifolia. Their structures were elucidated using a combination of 1D and 2D NMR techniques (COSY, HMQC, and HMBC)and HR-ESI-MS analyses. Compounds 2-7 were isolated from this plant for the first time.
Related JoVE Video
Single-Dose Etomidate Does Not Increase Mortality in Patients with Sepsis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials and Observational Studies.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Background:The effect of single-dose etomidate on mortality in patients with sepsis remains controversial. We systematically reviewed the literature to investigate whether a single-dose etomidate for rapid sequence intubation increased mortality in patients with sepsis. Methods:PubMed, Embase, and CENTRAL were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies regarding the effect of single-dose etomidate on mortality in adults with sepsis. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. The Mantel-Haenszel method with random effects model was used to calculate pooled relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results:Eighteen studies (two RCTs and sixteen observational studies), involving 5552 patients, were included. Pooled analysis suggested that single-dose etomidate was not associated with increased mortality in patients with sepsis, both in RCTs (RR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.72; P = 0.31; I2 = 0%) and observational studies (RR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.13; P = 0.23; I2 = 25%). When only adjusted RRs were pooled in five observational studies, RR for mortality was 1.05 (95% CI, 0.79 to 1.39; P = 0.748; I2= 71.3%). These findings also were consistent across all subgroup analyses for observational studies. Single-dose etomidate increased the risk of adrenal insufficiency in patients with sepsis (eight studies; RR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.22 to 1.64; P < 0.00001). Conclusions:Current evidence indicates that single-dose etomidate does not increase mortality in patients with sepsis. However, this finding largely relies on data from observational studies, potentially subject to selection bias, and hence high-quality and adequately powered RCTs are warranted.
Related JoVE Video
[Research advances of platelet derived growth factor family and its significance in neovascular eye diseases].
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) is a family of peliotropic growth factors that regulate cell proliferation and differentiation in an autocrine or paracrine manner through receptor mediated signal transduction pathways. Recent studies have demonstrated that PDGF plays an important role in ocular neovascularization, and the application of PDGF has a broad prospect in treatment of ocular neovascularization. Here, we summarize the current understanding of structure, function and expression of PDGF in the eye; the effects of PDGF on the blood vessel forming cells, as well as the interaction between PDGF and other pro-angiogenic factors. In addition, the role of PDGF in neovascular eye diseases, including retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, corneal neovascularization, and neovascular glaucoma, is also discussed.
Related JoVE Video
[Acupuncture for premature ovarian failure: a prospective cohort study].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the clinical efficacy and action mechanism of acupuncture for premature ovarian failure (POF).
Related JoVE Video
[Development of researches on acupuncture-assisted fertilization outside of China].
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Increasing evidence shows that acupuncture therapy may have a role in promoting fertilization. Authors of the present paper collected the related articles in English published from January 2003 to May 2013 in databases of Ovid Medline, Maternity and Infant Care and Medline (Pubmed), and made an analysis. Results of many randomized controlled clinical trials (RCT) indicated that acupuncture intervention had a positive role in raising pregnancy rate, fetus surviving rate of the transplanted embryo, and increasing the neuropeptide Y content in the ollicular fluid in patients experiencing embryo transplantation, and in raising survival rate of zygote, conception rate of embryo transplantation, and in improving azoospermia in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization. But many systematic reviews and Meta-analysis did not support the above-mentioned conclusion of acupuncture therapy about promoting fertilization. The authors hold that despite of dominated positive outcomes of RCT for acupuncture-assisted fertilization, further well designed RCT are still warranted for providing further definite and convincing evidence.
Related JoVE Video
Quantitative impedance characterization of sub-10 nm scale capacitors and tunnel junctions with an interferometric scanning microwave microscope.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We present a method to characterize sub-10 nm capacitors and tunnel junctions by interferometric scanning microwave microscopy (iSMM) at 7.8 GHz. At such device scaling, the small water meniscus surrounding the iSMM tip should be reduced by proper tip tuning. Quantitative impedance characterization of attofarad range capacitors is achieved using an 'on-chip' calibration kit facing thousands of nanodevices. Nanoscale capacitors and tunnel barriers were detected through variations in the amplitude and phase of the reflected microwave signal, respectively. This study promises quantitative impedance characterization of a wide range of emerging functional nanoscale devices.
Related JoVE Video
Zeolitic metal-organic frameworks based on amino acid.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Two enantiomorphic metal-organic frameworks with zeotype SOD topology have been successfully synthesized from enantiopure L-alanine and D-alanine, respectively, which demonstrates the feasibility of fabricating MOFs that integrate the 4-connected zeotype topologies and homochiral nature by the employment of enantiopure amino acids.
Related JoVE Video
CUL4B promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of human osteosarcoma cells.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cullin 4B (CUL4B) is a component of the Cullin4B-Ring E3 ligase complex (CRL4B) that functions in proteolysis and is implicated in tumorigenesis. Here, we report that CUL4B is associated with tumorigenesis by promoting proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis of human osteosarcoma cells. We performed RNA interference (RNAi) with a lentiviral vector system to silence the CUL4B gene using osteosarcoma SAOS-2 cells. The negative control included the normal target cells infected with the negative control virus whereas the knockdown cells included the normal target cells transfected with the RNAi target virus. We assessed the inhibition resulting from the decreased expression of the CUL4B gene on the proliferation rate of SAOS-2 cells, and also evaluated the cell cycle distribution, apoptosis and clonability. Compared with the negative control, the CUL4B gene expression was significantly inhibited in the SAOS-2 cells at the mRNA and protein levels in the knockdown group (P<0.01). Furthermore, in the knockdown group, the cell proliferation rate and clonability were also significantly inhibited (P<0.01). The apoptosis rate increased significantly (P<0.05). A significant decrease in the number of cells in the G1 phase (P<0.01) and significant increases in the S (P<0.01) and G2 phases (P<0.05) were observed. The silencing of CUL4B gene expression can effectively inhibit osteosarcoma cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. These findings may provide a novel biomarker for the treatment of osteosarcoma.
Related JoVE Video
[Single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for pulmonary diseases: analysis of 158 cases].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess the clinical value of single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) for treatment of pulmonary diseases.
Related JoVE Video
A new approach towards zeolitic tetrazolate-imidazolate frameworks (ZTIFs) with uncoordinated N-heteroatom sites for high CO2 uptake.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Successful development of a new synthetic approach towards zeolitic tetrazolate-imidazolate frameworks (ZTIFs) via combining tetrazolates into the zinc-imidazolate frameworks leads to new ZTIF materials (ZTIF-1 and ZTIF-2) with zeolite-type topologies and uncoordinated N-heteroatom sites, which exhibit high CO2 uptake capacity.
Related JoVE Video
Care pathway workbench: evidence harmonization from guideline and data.
Stud Health Technol Inform
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Care pathways (CPs) as a means of healthcare quality control are getting increasing attention due to widespread recognition in the healthcare industry of the need for well coordinated, evidence based and personalized care. To keep the promise, CPs require continuous refinement in order to stay up to date with regard to both clinical guidelines and data-driven insights from real world practices. There is therefore a strong demand for a unified platform that allows harmonization of evidence coming from multiple sources. In this paper we describe Care Pathway Workbench, a web-based platform that enables users to build and continuously improve Case Management Model and Notation based CPs by harmonizing evidences from guidelines and patient data. To illustrate the functionalities, we describe how a CHF (Congestive Heart Failure) Ambulatory Care Pathway can be developed using this workbench by first extracting key elements from widely accepted guidelines for CHF management, then incorporating evidence mined from clinical practice data, and finally transforming and exporting the resulting CP model to a care management product.
Related JoVE Video
Organotin(IV) complexes derived from Schiff base N'-[(1E)-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methylidene]pyridine-4-carbohydrazone: synthesis, in vitro cytotoxicities and DNA/BSA interaction.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Five organotin(IV) compounds were synthesized from N'-[(1E)-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methylidene]pyridine-4-carbohydrazone and the corresponding dialkyltin(IV) or trialkyltin(IV) precursor. Solid state structures were determined by IR, elemental analysis, NMR spectroscopy, and for 1, 2, 4 and 5 single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds 1, 2 and 4 are monomers with the tin atoms five-coordinated in distorted trigonal bipyramid, of which the deprotonated Schiff base ligand chelate to tin center in the enolic tridentate mode. Differently, in compound 5, the enolization does not occur for the Schiff base ligand, and only the pyridinyl N atom and the deprotonated phenol hydroxyl oxygen atom participate in the coordination. Fascinatingly, six trimethyltin(IV) coordination units are linked by the Sn?N weak interaction atoms and form a 72-membered crown-like macrocycle. Preliminary in vitro cytotoxicity studies on five human tumor cells lines (HL-60, A549, HT-29, HCT-116 and Caco-2) by MTT assay reveal that di-n-butyltin(IV) complex 2 and diphenyltin(IV) complex 4 triggered significant antiproliferative effects in cultured tumor cells, and their cytotoxic activity correlates with intracellular organotin(IV) concentration. The interaction of the complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) has been explored by absorption and emission titration methods, which revealed that complexes 2 and 4 interact with CT-DNA through groove-binding and partial intercalation of the extended planar ligand with the DNA base stack. Further, the albumin interactions of complexes 2 and 4 were investigated using fluorescence quenching spectra and synchronous fluorescence spectra. Studies reveal that di-n-butyltin(IV) complex 2 with higher cytotoxicity show stronger DNA/BSA interaction than diphenyltin(IV) complex 4.
Related JoVE Video
Vertical sleeve gastrectomy restores glucose homeostasis in apolipoprotein A-IV KO mice.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bariatric surgery is the most successful strategy for obesity treatment, yet the mechanisms for this success are not clearly understood. Clinical literature suggests that plasma levels of apolipoprotein A-IV (A-IV) rise with roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). A-IV is secreted from the intestine postprandially and has demonstrated benefits for both glucose and lipid homeostasis. Because of the parallels in the metabolic improvements seen with surgery and the rise in A-IV, we hypothesized that A-IV was necessary for the metabolic benefits of bariatric surgery. To test this hypothesis, we performed vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), a surgery with very similar clinical efficacy as RYGB, in whole-body A-IV KO mice. We found that VSG reduced body mass and improved both glucose and lipid homeostasis similarly in WT vs. A-IV KO mice. In fact, VSG normalized the impairment in glucose tolerance and caused a significantly greater improvement in hepatic triglyceride storage in the A-IV KO mice. Lastly, independent of surgery, A-IV KO mice had a significantly reduced preference for a high fat diet. Altogether these data suggest that A-IV is not necessary for the metabolic improvements of VSG, but do suggest an interesting role for A-IV in regulating macronutrient preference and hepatic triglyceride levels. Future studies are necessary to determine if this is the case for RYGB as well.
Related JoVE Video
The mouse that roared: neural mechanisms of social hierarchy.
Trends Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hierarchical social status greatly influences behavior and health. Human and animal studies have begun to identify the brain regions that are activated during the formation of social hierarchies. They point towards the prefrontal cortex (PFC) as a central regulator, with brain areas upstream of the PFC conveying information about social status, and downstream brain regions executing dominance behavior. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the neural circuits that control social status. We discuss how the neural mechanisms for various types of dominance behavior can be studied in laboratory rodents by selective manipulation of neuronal activity or synaptic plasticity. These studies may help in finding the cause of social stress-related mental and physical health problems.
Related JoVE Video
PDGF regulates chondrocyte proliferation through activation of the GIT1- and PLC?1-mediated ERK1/2 signaling pathway.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Studies investigating the effects of cytokines on chondrocytes have significant application potential, since the culture of cartilage cells in vitro is a vital step for cartilage tissue engineering. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), one of the growth factors occurring at the early stage of the healing process of damaged tissue, is critical in bone healing. The present study investigated the effects of the activation of PDGF on cell proliferation, apoptosis and the underlying mechanisms of chondrocytes in vitro. The results indicated that the stimulation of PDGF led to overexpression of the G-protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting protein-1 (GIT1) and promotion of the phosphorylation of phospholipase C?1 (PLC?1). Furthermore, PDGF induced chondrocyte proliferation and inhibited apoptosis via activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 pathway. Following knocking down GIT1 expression by small interfering RNA, phosphorylation of PLC?1 and activation of the ERK1/2 pathway was no longer promoted by PDGF. In addition, the effects of PDGF on proliferation and apoptosis were suppressed. The expression levels of GIT1 were not affected; however, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was suppressed through inhibition of the phosphorylation of PLC?1 by U73122. The results demonstrated that GIT1 is upstream of PLC?1. Although the ability of PDGF to induce cell proliferation was inhibited by the inhibition of the ERK1/2 pathway by PD98059, apoptosis was not suppressed. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that PDGF was able to activate the GIT1?PLC?1?mediated ERK1/2 pathway to control chondrocyte proliferation.
Related JoVE Video
Bio-mimetic Nanostructure Self-assembled from Au@Ag Heterogeneous Nanorods and Phage Fusion Proteins for Targeted Tumor Optical Detection and Photothermal Therapy.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nanomaterials with near-infrared (NIR) absorption have been widely studied in cancer detection and photothermal therapy (PTT), while it remains a great challenge in targeting tumor efficiently with minimal side effects. Herein we report a novel multifunctional phage-mimetic nanostructure, which was prepared by layer-by-layer self-assembly of Au@Ag heterogenous nanorods (NRs) with rhodamine 6G, and specific pVIII fusion proteins. Au@Ag NRs, first being applied for PTT, exhibited excellent stability, cost-effectivity, biocompatibility and tunable NIR absorption. The fusion proteins were isolated from phage DDAGNRQP specifically selected from f8/8 landscape phage library against colorectal cancer cells in a high-throughput way. Considering the definite charge distribution and low molecular weight, phage fusion proteins were assembled on the negatively charged NR core by electrostatic interactions, exposing the N-terminus fused with DDAGNRQP peptide on the surface. The fluorescent images showed that assembled phage fusion proteins can direct the nanostructure into cancer cells. The nanostructure was more efficient than gold nanorods and silver nanotriangle-based photothermal agents and was capable of specifically ablating SW620 cells after 10?min illumination with an 808?nm laser in the light intensity of 4?W/cm(2). The prepared nanostructure would become an ideal reagent for simutaneously targeted optical imaging and PTT of tumor.
Related JoVE Video
Prion disease and the 'protein-only hypothesis'.
Essays Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Prion disease is the only naturally occurring infectious protein misfolding disorder. The chemical nature of the infectious agent has been debated for more than half a century. Early studies on scrapie suggested that the unusual infectious agent might propagate in the absence of nucleic acid. The 'protein-only hypothesis' provides a theoretical model to explain how a protein self-replicates without nucleic acid, which predicts that a prion, the proteinaceous infectious agent, propagates by converting its normal counterpart into the likeness of itself. Decades of studies have provided overwhelming evidence to support this hypothesis. The latest advances in generating infectious prions with bacterially expressed recombinant prion protein in the presence of cofactors not only provide convincing evidence supporting the 'protein-only hypothesis', but also indicate a role of cofactors in forming prion infectivity and encoding prion strains. In the present chapter, we review the literature regarding the chemical nature of the infectious agent, describe recent achievements in proving the 'protein-only hypothesis', and discuss the remaining questions in this research area.
Related JoVE Video
Farmer and retailer knowledge and awareness of the risks from pesticide use: a case study in the Wei River catchment, China.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Monitoring the educational level of farmers and retailers on pesticide use would be useful to assess the appropriateness of information for reducing or/and avoiding the risks from pesticides in rural regions. The levels of knowledge and awareness of the dangers to the environment and human health were investigated by questionnaires for farmers (209) and retailers (20) in two rural regions (Qianyang County (S1) and Chencang County (S2)) of the Wei River catchment in China where the modes of farming and the state of erosion are very different. The results showed that farmers learned the use and dangers of pesticides mainly by oral communication (p<0.01). Protective measures were inadequate; 65% (S1) and 55% (S2) of farmers never used any protective measures during spraying (p<0.05). Washing hands (>70%) was the most common mode of personal hygiene, relative to wearing masks, showering, and changing clothes, but no significant differences were observed between the selected regions. Most pesticide wastes were dumped directly onto the land or into water, suggesting that educational measures should be taken to address the potential risks from the residues in the wastes. Over 85% of farmers (S1 and S2) claimed to use illegal pesticides, but the reasons for their use varied (p<0.01). Retailers were well-informed and highly conscious of their responsibility for the safe use of pesticides, especially in S2 (p<0.01). A canonical correspondence analysis indicated that educational level and age differed between the two regions and contributed greatly to the risks from pesticide use (p<0.01). Educational programmes targeted to age groups, proper disposal of pesticide waste, and sufficient supervision from authorities should consequently be considered for improving the levels of knowledge and awareness of the dangers of pesticides to human health and environmental pollution in the Wei River catchment, China.
Related JoVE Video
Analysis of genetic mutations in Chinese patients with systemic primary carnitine deficiency.
Eur J Med Genet
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Systemic primary carnitine deficiency (CDSP) is caused by mutations in SLC22A5 gene, which encodes organic cation transporter 2(OCTN2). CDSP leads to skeletal or cardiac myopathy and hepatic encephalopathy. The present study aimed to identify SLC22A5 gene mutations and analyze the potential relationship between genotype and clinical symptoms in 20 Chinese patients with CDSP. The complete coding region of the SLC22A5 gene including intron-exon boundaries were amplified and sequenced in all patients. Eighteen different mutations were found; of which, nine were novel. The mutations clustering in exons 1 and 4 accounted for 66.7% of all mutant alleles (26/39). The c.760C>T (p. R254X) was the most frequent mutation (25.6%, 10/39), suggesting it as an ethnic founder mutation. The relationship between genotype and phenotype was investigated in patients carrying the R254X mutation. Homozygous patients with R254X were late-onset cases who presented with dilated cardiomyopathy and muscle weakness after 1 year of age. Compound heterozygous patients carrying R254X, combined with other missense mutations occurred in very specific positions, dramatically altered OCTN2 protein function. Based on the analysis of case studies, a clear relationship between free carnitine (C0) level in plasma and OCTN2 genotype was not found in the present work, however, the low plasma C0 level could not indicate disease severity or genotype. Further functional studies with a large sample size are required to understand the relationship between R254X mutation and CDSP.
Related JoVE Video
[Quality assessment on guidelines of clinical practice in acupuncture and moxibustion: a study based on AGREE].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The quality of guidelines of clinical practice in acupuncture and moxibustion was evaluated with AGREE II tool. After retrieval of officially-issued guidelines of clinical practice in acupuncture and moxibustion from 2004 to 2013, totally 5 types of evidence-based guidelines of clinical practice in acupuncture and moxibustion were acquired, including depression, herpes zoster, pseudobulbar palsy after stroke, migraine and Bell's palsy. With AGREE II tool, independent score in six areas, including guideline's scope and purpose, participants and personnel, preciseness, clarity and readability, applicability and editorial independence were analyzed to perform a comprehensive evaluation in the end. The assessment results indicated that the score of editorial independence in evidence-based guidelines of clinical practice in acupuncture and moxibustion was the highest, averagely 97.9%, which was followed by clarity and readability (83.3%), participants and personnel (78.1%), preciseness (75.6%), the scope and purpose (68.1%) and the applicability (62.5%). The total evaluation score was all 6 points in the five guidelines with recommended as comprehensive evaluation advice. This study results indicate that although the guideline of clinical practice in acupuncture and moxibustion is low in number, the total quality is considerable.
Related JoVE Video
Inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase increases the expression of IFN-responsive genes.
Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) pathway is an important metabolic route that is present in almost every organism. However, whether HMGCR affects the expression of IFN-responsive genes is unclear. In this study, expression levels of IFN-responsive genes were monitored by real time PCR and ELISA. The results showed that expression levels of IFN-responsive genes were significantly increased in HMGCR-downregulated cells and HMGCR inhibitor-treated cells, indicating that inhibition of HMGCR activates the expression of IFN-responsive genes. The result in this study will give new insight into the role of HMG-CoA reductase in antiviral research. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Related JoVE Video
Rapamycin-Induced apoptosis in HGF-stimulated lens epithelial cells by AKT/mTOR, ERK and JAK2/STAT3 pathways.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) induced the proliferation of lens epithelial cells (LECs) and may be a major cause of posterior capsule opacification (PCO), which is the most frequent postoperative complication of cataract surgery. To date, several agents that can block LECs proliferation have been studied, but none have been used in clinic. Recently, accumulating evidence has suggested rapamycin, the inhibitor of mTOR (mammalian target of Rapamycin), was associated with the induction of apoptosis in LECs. The purpose of our study was to investigate the potential effects of rapamycin on HGF-induced LECs and the underlying mechanisms by which rapamycin exerted its actions. Using cell proliferation, cell viability and flow cytometric apoptosis assays, we found that rapamycin potently not only suppressed proliferation but also induced the apoptosis of LECs in a dose-dependent manner under HGF administration. Further investigation of the underlying mechanism using siRNA transfection revealed that rapamycin could promote apoptosis of LECs via inhibiting HGF-induced phosphorylation of AKT/mTOR, ERK and JAK2/STAT3 signaling molecules. Moreover, the forced expression of AKT, ERK and STAT3 could induce a significant suppression of apoptosis in these cells after treatment of rapamycin. Together, these findings suggested that rapamycin-induced apoptosis in HGF-stimulated LECs is accompanied by inhibition of AKT/mTOR, ERK and JAK2/STAT3 pathways, which supports its use to inhibit PCO in preclinical studies and provides theoretical foundation for future possible practice.
Related JoVE Video
Synergistic effect of amino acids modified on dendrimer surface in gene delivery.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Design of an efficient gene vector based on dendrimer remains a great challenge due to the presence of multiple barriers in gene delivery. Single-functionalization on dendrimer cannot overcome all the barriers. In this study, we synthesized a list of single-, dual- and triple-functionalized dendrimers with arginine, phenylalanine and histidine for gene delivery using a one-pot approach. The three amino acids play different roles in gene delivery: arginine is essential in formation of stable complexes, phenylalanine improves cellular uptake efficacy, and histidine increases pH-buffering capacity and minimizes cytotoxicity of the cationic dendrimer. A combination of these amino acids on dendrimer generates a synergistic effect in gene delivery. The dual- and triple-functionalized dendrimers show minimal cytotoxicity on the transfected NIH 3T3 cells. Using this combination strategy, we can obtain triple-functionalized dendrimers with comparable transfection efficacy to several commercial transfection reagents. Such a combination strategy should be applicable to the design of efficient and biocompatible gene vectors for gene delivery.
Related JoVE Video
A wheat lipid transfer protein 3 could enhance the basal thermotolerance and oxidative stress resistance of Arabidopsis.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the major grain crops, and heat stress adversely affects wheat production in many regions of the world. Previously, we found a heat-responsive gene named Lipid Transfer Protein 3 (TaLTP3) in wheat. TaLTP3 was deduced to be regulated by cold, ABA, MeJA, Auxin and oxidative stress according to cis-acting motifs in its promoter sequences. In this study, we show that TaLTP3 is responsive to prolonged water deficit, salt or ABA treatment in wheat seedlings. Also, TaLTP3 accumulation was observed after the plant suffered from heat stress both at the seedling and the grain-filling stages. TaLTP3 protein was localized in the cell membrane and cytoplasm of tobacco epidermal cells. Overexpression of TaLTP3 in yeast imparted tolerance to heat stress compared to cells expressing the vector alone. Most importantly, transgenic Arabidopsis plants engineered to overexpress TaLTP3 showed higher thermotolerance than control plants at the seedling stage. Further investigation indicated that transgenic lines decreased H?O? accumulation and membrane injury under heat stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that TaLTP3 confers heat stress tolerance possibly through reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging.
Related JoVE Video
Detecting awareness in patients with disorders of consciousness using a hybrid brain-computer interface.
J Neural Eng
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The bedside detection of potential awareness in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) currently relies only on behavioral observations and tests; however, the misdiagnosis rates in this patient group are historically relatively high. In this study, we proposed a visual hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI) combining P300 and steady-state evoked potential (SSVEP) responses to detect awareness in severely brain injured patients.
Related JoVE Video
Telocytes in liver regeneration: possible roles.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Telocytes (TCs) are a novel type of interstitial cells which are potentially involved in tissue regeneration and repair (www.telocytes.com). Previously, we documented the presence of TCs in liver. However, the possible roles of TCs in liver regeneration remain unknown. In this study, a murine model of partial hepatectomy (PH) was used to induce liver regeneration. The number of TCs detected by double labelling immunofluorescence methods (CD34/PDGFR-?, CD34/PDGFR-ß and CD34/Vimentin) was significantly increased when a high level of hepatic cell proliferation rate (almost doubled) as shown by 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) immunostaining and Western Blot of Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was found at 48 and 72 hrs post-PH. Meanwhile, the number of CK-19 positive-hepatic stem cells peaked at 72 hrs post-PH, co-ordinating with the same time-point, when the number of TCs was most significantly increased. Taken together, the results indicate a close relationship between TCs and the cells essentially involved in liver regeneration: hepatocytes and stem cells. It remains to be determined how TCs affect hepatocytes proliferation and/or hepatic stem cell differentiation in liver regeneration. Besides intercellular junctions, we may speculate a paracrine effect via ectovesicles.
Related JoVE Video
Natural products and their derivatives regulating the janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcriptions (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway is one of the major signaling pathways involved in a variety of human physiological and pathological process. The proteins of JAK/STAT pathway or interferon response element (such as JAK, STAT, Src, SOCS, 2'5'-OAS, and ISRE) might be as drug targets for the study of physiological processes and treatment of related diseases, including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and immune processes, inflammation, cancer, arthritis, asthma, diabetes, and other diseases. This review attempts to summarize the current status of natural products and their derivatives (2002-2013) regulating the proteins or transcription elements of JAK/STAT signaling pathway to supply a new direction or drug targets for the discovery of new drugs.
Related JoVE Video
4?,6-dihydroxy-4-methoxyisoaurone inhibits the HIF-1? pathway through inhibition of Akt/mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 phosphorylation.
J. Pharmacol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
4?,6-Dihydroxy-4-methoxyisoaurone (ISOA) is an isoaurone compound isolated from Trichosanthes kirilowii seeds, which was identified as an inhibitor of tumor growth. However, the mechanism by which ISOA inhibits hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1)-mediated tumor growth is not fully understood. We here demonstrated the effect of ISOA on HIF-1 activation. ISOA showed a potent inhibitory activity against HIF-1 activation induced by hypoxia in various human cancer cell lines. This compound markedly decreased the hypoxia-induced accumulation of HIF-1a protein dose-dependently, whereas it did not affect the expressions of HIF-1b and topoisomerase-I (Topo-I). Further analysis revealed that the suppression of HIF-1a accumulation by ISOA was closely correlated with strong dephosphorylation of Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and its effectors ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1), a pathway known to regulate HIF-1a expression at the translational level. Furthermore, ISOA prevented hypoxia-induced expression of HIF-1 target genes and suppresses the invasiveness of tumor cells. Taken together, our results suggested that ISOA is an effective inhibitor of HIF-1 through targeting Akt/mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 pathway, thereby, providing new perspectives into the mechanism of its anticancer activity.
Related JoVE Video
Occurrence and Toxicity of Sediment-Associated Contaminants in Guangzhou College City and Its Adjacent Areas: The Relationship to Urbanization.
Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Guangzhou College City in the southeast of Guangzhou, China, became a home to 10 universities in 2003 after a largely agricultural past. The city has since experienced rapid urbanization with limited development of adjacent areas. Twenty-one sediment samples were collected in the city and its adjacent areas to evaluate the influence of urbanization in different functional zones on sediment quality in local waterways. Sediment toxicity was assessed by 10-day toxicity tests using two benthic invertebrates, Chironomus dilutus and Hyalella azteca. In addition, various organic contaminants-including current-use pesticides (pyrethroids and organophosphate insecticides) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-were analyzed, and a toxic unit (TU) approach was applied to identify possible toxicity contributors. In general, 38 and 4.8 % of the sediments exhibited acute toxicity to C. dilutus and H. azteca, respectively, with 9.5 % of the samples resulting in 100 % mortality to C. dilutus. Distribution analysis showed that the rural industrial area, which is south of the city, had the greatest contaminant concentrations and greatest toxicity to both organisms compared with the other areas. Pyrethroids, especially cypermethrin, appeared to contribute the most to the observed toxicity, yet the lack of relationship between the toxicity and TU of pyrethroids may reflect toxicity associated with other contaminants.
Related JoVE Video
Carbon dioxide absorption and release properties of pyrolysis products of dolomite calcined in vacuum atmosphere.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The decomposition of dolomite into CaO and MgO was performed at 1073 K in vacuum and at 1273 K in an Ar atmosphere. The dolomite calcined in vacuum was found to have a higher specific surface area and a higher micropore volume when compared to the dolomite calcined in the Ar atmosphere. These pyrolysis products of dolomite were reacted with CO2 at 673 K for 21.6 ks. On the absorption of CO2, the formation of CaCO3 was observed. The degree of absorption of the dolomite calcined in vacuum was determined to be above 50%, which was higher than the degree of absorption of the dolomite calcined in the Ar atmosphere. The CO2 absorption and release procedures were repeated three times for the dolomite calcined in vacuum. The specific surface area and micropore volume of calcined dolomite decreased with successive repetitions of the CO2 absorption and release cycles leading to a decrease in the degree of absorption of CO2.
Related JoVE Video
Development and bin mapping of gene-associated interspecific SNPs for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) introgression breeding efforts.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the largest producer of natural fibers for textile and is an important crop worldwide. Crop production is comprised primarily of G. hirsutum L., an allotetraploid. However, elite cultivars express very small amounts of variation due to the species monophyletic origin, domestication and further bottlenecks due to selection. Conversely, wild cotton species harbor extensive genetic diversity of prospective utility to improve many beneficial agronomic traits, fiber characteristics, and resistance to disease and drought. Introgression of traits from wild species can provide a natural way to incorporate advantageous traits through breeding to generate higher-producing cotton cultivars and more sustainable production systems. Interspecific introgression efforts by conventional methods are very time-consuming and costly, but can be expedited using marker-assisted selection.
Related JoVE Video
Colistin for the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) has emerged as an important and intractable clinical problem. This review assessed the efficacy and safety of colistin for treatment of MDR GNB VAP. PubMed and Embase were searched for controlled studies of colistin for treatment of MDR GNB VAP. The Mantel-Haenszel random-effects model was used to pool odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The primary outcome was clinical cure; secondary outcomes were microbiological eradication, ICU mortality, hospital mortality, length of ICU stay and nephrotoxicity. Fourteen controlled studies involving 1167 patients were identified, including six reporting colistin versus ?-lactam antibiotics, three reporting aerosolised (AS) plus intravenous (IV) colistin versus IV colistin alone and five reporting colistin combined therapy versus colistin monotherapy. The clinical cure rate of colistin was comparable with that of ?-lactam antibiotics (OR=1.00, 95% CI 0.68-1.47). Compared with IV colistin alone, AS plus IV colistin exhibited a better clinical cure (OR=2.12, 95% CI 1.40-3.20). Compared with colistin monotherapy, colistin combined therapy did not appear to provide a better clinical cure (OR=1.38, 95% CI 0.81-2.33). There was no significant difference in nephrotoxicity and other secondary outcomes between the treatment groups. Colistin appears as effective and safe as ?-lactam antibiotics for the treatment of MDR GNB VAP. AS colistin may be a beneficial adjunct to IV colistin in the management of MDR GNB VAP. Colistin combined therapy does not appear to provide better outcomes compared with colistin monotherapy.
Related JoVE Video
The partition behavior of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanesulfonamide (FOSA) on microplastics.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Microplastics have been recognized as transport vectors for heavy metals and organic pollutants to marine animals. Thus, the sorption behavior of contaminant on microplastic is crucial to their transport in marine system. In this study, the sorption behavior of PFOS and FOSA (two perfluorochemicals) on three kinds of microplastics (PE, PS, and PVC) are reported. The isotherm study showed that the sorption of PFOS and FOSA on microplastics is highly linear, and it indicated that partition by hydrophobic interaction is the predominant sorption mechanism. The Kd values of FOSA on three kinds of microplastics are all higher than those of PFOS, and the reason is attributed to their different functional groups. The Kd value of FOSA on three types of microplastics followed the order as: PE>PVC>PS. Such finding may indicate that the molecule composition and structure of microplastics play important roles in their sorption processes of organic pollutants. The PFOS sorption levels on PE and PS particles were increased with the increase of NaCl and CaCl2 concentrations, while the ion concentrations have no effect on FOSA sorption. The study on the pH effects on PFOS and FOSA sorption indicated FOSA could partition under various pH conditions on three types of microplastics while PFOS sorption on PE and PS were favored with lower pH.
Related JoVE Video
Lumbo-femoral angle: a novel sagittal parameter related to quality of life in patients with adult scoliosis.
Eur Spine J
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
PT and PI-LL sometimes offer limited utility in daily practice when evaluating QOL, especially in outpatient clinics with limited time and equipment facility. This study proposes a novel spino-pelvic parameter, lumbo-femoral angle (LFA). The purpose of this study is to analyze the correlation between LFA and HRQOL in adult scoliosis patients.
Related JoVE Video
Tert-butylhydroquinone attenuates scrotal heat-induced damage by regulating Nrf2-antioxidant system in the mouse testis.
Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), a widely used nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activator, was always employed to investigate the potential protective role of Nrf2 activation. In this study, to elucidate the effect of tBHQ on scrotal heat-induced damage and Nrf2-antioxidant system in mouse testes, eight-week-old mice were administrated with or without dietary tBHQ (1%w/w) for 1week and afterward subjected to a single scrotal heat treatment (42°C for 25min). Trunk blood and testes were collected 3h or 1, 2, or 7days later. Mice displayed less germ cell loss in testes, higher relative testis weight and lower testosterone concentration on day 2 in tBHQ treatment group. Before heat treatment, there were significant increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in tBHQ treatment group. After heat treatment, mice in tBHQ treatment group showed lower MDA concentration than those in non-tBHQ treatment group. In addition, both tBHQ pretreatment and scrotal heat treatment induced markedly increased Nrf2 protein expression in cytoplasm and nuclei of interstitial cells, accompanying with elevated mRNA expression of Nrf2 and Nrf2-regulated genes in mice testes. Our data indicated that pretreatment to tBHQ induced a mild oxidative stress, and further enhanced the cellular antioxidative ability to protect testicular cells against scrotal heat-induced damage via a mechanism that might involve the Nrf2-antioxidant system in mice testes.
Related JoVE Video
Femoral trochlear groove development after patellar subluxation and early reduction in growing rabbits.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This animal study aimed to investigate whether early reduction in patellar subluxation could minimize femoral trochlear dysplasia in growing rabbits.
Related JoVE Video
The effect of goal-directed therapy on mortality in patients with sepsis - earlier is better: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
IntroductionThe Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines recommend goal-directed therapy (GDT) for the early resuscitation of patients with sepsis. However, the findings of the ProCESS (Protocolized Care for Early Septic Shock) trial show no benefit from GDT for reducing mortality rates in early septic shock. We performed a meta-analysis to integrate these findings with existing literature on this topic and evaluate the effect of GDT on mortality from sepsis.MethodsWe searched the PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and reference lists of articles. Randomized controlled trials comparing GDT with standard therapy or usual care in patients with sepsis were included. The prespecified primary outcome was overall mortality.ResultsIn total, 13 trials involving 2,525 adult patients were included. GDT significantly reduced overall mortality in the random-effect model (relative risk (RR) 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71 to 0.96, P =0.01, I2¿=¿56%). Predefined subgroup analysis according to the timing of GDT for resuscitation suggested that mortality benefit was seen only in the subgroup of early GDT within the first six hours (seven trials; RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.89, P =0.0004, I2¿=¿40%) but not in the subgroup with a late or unclear timing of GDT (six trials; RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.24, P =0.59, I2¿=¿56%). GDT was significantly associated with the use of dobutamine (five trials; RR 2.71, 95% CI 1.20 to 6.10, P =0.02).ConclusionsThe current meta-analysis suggests that GDT significantly reduces overall mortality in patients with sepsis, especially when initiated early. However, due to the variable quality of the studies, strong and definitive recommendations can not be made.
Related JoVE Video
Diversity of wetland plants used traditionally in China: a literature review.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In comparison with terrestrial plants, those growing in wetlands have been rarely studied ethnobotanically, including in China, yet people living in or near wetlands can accumulate much knowledge of the uses of local wetland plants. A characteristic of wetlands, cutting across climatic zones, is that many species are widely distributed, providing opportunities for studying general patterns of knowledge of the uses of plants across extensive areas, in the present case China. There is urgency in undertaking such studies, given the rapid rates of loss of traditional knowledge of wetland plants as is now occurring.
Related JoVE Video
Mineralization initiation of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast is suppressed under simulated microgravity condition.
Cell Biol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Microgravity decreases the differentiation of osteoblast. However, as this process is multistage and complex, the mechanism by which microgravity inhibits osteoblast differentiation is still unclear. We have previously found that 24?h acute treatment of simulated microgravity (SM) in a random positioning machine (RPM) significantly inhibited the differentiation of preosteoblasts and have explored whether osteoblasts show different response to microgravity condition at other stages, such as the mineralizing-stage. Murine MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts induced for osteogenic differentiation for 7 days were cultured either under normal gravity or SM conditions for 24?h. SM treatment significantly suppressed mineralized nodule formation. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was dramatically decreased, and the expression of ALP gene was downregulated. Expression of well-known markers and regulators for osteoblasts differentiation, including osteocalcin (OC), type I collagen ?1 (Col I?1), dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), were downregulated. Western blot analysis showed that the phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) level was lower under SM condition. Thus, the initiation of osteoblast mineralization is suppressed by SM condition, and the suppression may be through the regulation of ALP activity and the osteogenic gene expression. ERK signaling might be involved in this process. These results are relevant to the decrease of osteoblast maturation and bone formation under microgravity condition.
Related JoVE Video
Overexpression of the cell adhesion molecule claudin-9 is associated with invasion in pituitary oncocytomas.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pituitary oncocytoma is a subtype of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas with the potential to be locally invasive. Currently, surgery is the most effective treatment, whereas functional pituitary adenomas can be treated by drugs. We analyzed the invasiveness of pituitary oncocytomas to identify biomarkers that may be useful for guiding future therapeutic decision making. To identify important biomarkers of pituitary oncocytomas, 20 oncocytomas that were negative for hormone-specific immunostaining were confirmed by anti-mitochondria antibody immunostaining and electron microscopy. Our clinical phenotype data showed a prominent male predilection (85%). These tumors were classified as invasive or noninvasive based on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging, intraoperative records, and pathology slide. We observed significantly different expression profiles between pituitary oncocytomas (n = 3) and normal pituitary glands (n = 3). A total of 1937 genes were differentially expressed between the pituitary oncocytomas and normal pituitary glands. Among these 1937 genes, 954 were up-regulated and 983 were down-regulated in pituitary oncocytomas. The most significantly altered gene, claudin-9 (CLDN9), was further confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemical staining in 10 invasive pituitary oncocytoma samples and 10 noninvasive pituitary oncocytoma samples. High levels of CLDN9 were found in the pituitary oncocytomas, whereas low levels were detected in normal pituitary glands. In addition, the CLDN9 expression level was higher in invasive oncocytomas compared with noninvasive oncocytomas. Bioinformatics Gene Ontology analysis was performed to better understand the critical role of CLDN9 in the development and progression of oncocytomas. Consequently, CLDN9 may be an important biomarker for invasive pituitary oncocytomas.
Related JoVE Video
Homogeneous isolation of nanocelluloses by controlling the shearing force and pressure in microenvironment.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nanocelluloses were prepared from sugarcane bagasse celluloses by dynamic high pressure microfluidization (DHPM), aiming at achieving a homogeneous isolation through the controlling of shearing force and pressure within a microenvironment. In the DHPM process, the homogeneous cellulose solution passed through chambers at a higher pressure in fewer cycles, compared with the high pressure homogenization (HPH) process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) demonstrated that entangled network structures of celluloses were well dispersed in the microenvironment, which provided proper shearing forces and pressure to fracture the hydrogen bonds. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC), CP/MAS (13)C NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) measurements suggested that intra-molecular hydrogen bonds were maintained. These nanocelluloses of smaller particle size, good dispersion and lower thermal stability will have great potential to be applied in electronics devices, electrochemistry, medicine, and package and printing industry.
Related JoVE Video
Breast cancer awareness among women in Eastern China: a cross-sectional study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
High breast cancer mortality has been attributed to lack of public awareness, which leads to late diagnoses. As little is known about the level of knowledge and awareness of breast cancer in China, this study was designed to explore it among women in Eastern China.
Related JoVE Video
Production, Purification, and Characterization of a Cellulase-Free Thermostable Endo-xylanase from Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum DSM 571.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This is the first report describing the cloning, expression, and characterization of a putative thermostable, cellulase-free xylanase (XYN) from the thermophilic bacterium Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum DSM 571. The temperature and pH values for optimal enzyme activity of XYN were found to be 65 °C and pH 6.5, respectively. The XYN activity was apparently enhanced by Co(2+), Mn(2+), and Tween 60 and significantly inactivated by Al(3+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and SDS. The K m and V max values of XYN for the hydrolysis of beechwood xylan were 2.1 mg/ml and 222.1 U/mg, respectively. The k cat values of XYN for beechwood xylan at the optimal temperature and pH values were 481.4 s(-1). XYN represents an attractive candidate for use in the large-scale production of xylooligosaccharides (XOs) from forest residues because it is an endo-xylanase capable of degrading xylan.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of the clinical effects of open and closed chain exercises after medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction.
J Phys Ther Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
[Purpose] To compare the effects of open-chain exercise (OCE) and closed-chain exercise (CCE) for patients after medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] Forty patients after MPFL reconstruction were randomly divided into an OCE group and a CCE group. All the patients were evaluated at four different time points. [Results] The mean change of thigh circumference decrease in the CCE group was lower than that in the OCE group at both the 3rd and 6th month after surgery. The Lysholm score of the CCE group was higher than that of the OCE group at both the 3rd and 6th month. At the 3rd month after surgery, the visual analog scale score of the CCE group was lower than that of the OCE group. [Conclusion] CCE is better than OCE for both short and long term outcomes of patients after MPFL reconstruction.
Related JoVE Video
High capacity reversible watermarking for audio by histogram shifting and predicted error expansion.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Being reversible, the watermarking information embedded in audio signals can be extracted while the original audio data can achieve lossless recovery. Currently, the few reversible audio watermarking algorithms are confronted with following problems: relatively low SNR (signal-to-noise) of embedded audio; a large amount of auxiliary embedded location information; and the absence of accurate capacity control capability. In this paper, we present a novel reversible audio watermarking scheme based on improved prediction error expansion and histogram shifting. First, we use differential evolution algorithm to optimize prediction coefficients and then apply prediction error expansion to output stego data. Second, in order to reduce location map bits length, we introduced histogram shifting scheme. Meanwhile, the prediction error modification threshold according to a given embedding capacity can be computed by our proposed scheme. Experiments show that this algorithm improves the SNR of embedded audio signals and embedding capacity, drastically reduces location map bits length, and enhances capacity control capability.
Related JoVE Video
Significance of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? expression with atrial fibrosis in rats induced with isoproterenol.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Atrial interstitial fibrosis plays a dual role in inducing and maintaining atrial fibrillation (AF). Hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) has been reported as closely associated with renal, liver and pulmonary fibrosis diseases. However, whether HIF-1? is involved in myocardial fibrosis, and the associations between HIF-1?, transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) remain unknown. Therefore, this area warrants studying for the significance of AF diagnosis and treatment. The present study investigated the expression of HIF-1? in atrial fibrosis and its possible mechanism in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced rats. The three groups of rats; control, ISO and ISO plus sirolimus [also known as rapamycin (Rapa)], were treated for 15 days and sacrificed to remove the myocardial tissues. The expression levels of HIF-1?, TGF-?1 and MMP-9 and their associations with atrial fibrosis were examined through histomorphology and protein and mRNA levels. The protein and mRNA levels of HIF-1?, TGF-?1 and MMP-9 in the ISO group were increased markedly (P<0.01) compared with the control group, while those in the Rapa group were clearly decreased (P<0.01) compared with the ISO group. The protein and mRNA levels of HIF-1?, TGF-?1 and MMP-9 were positively correlated (P<0.01) with atrial fibrosis (collagen volume fraction index), as were the HIF-1?, TGF-? 1 and MMP-9 mRNA levels (P<0.01) and the mRNA levels between MMP-9 and TGF-? 1 (P<0.01). During the process of atrial fibrosis in ISO-induced rats, HIF-1? promotes the expression of TGF-?1 and MMP-9 protein, and thus is involved in in atrial fibrosis.
Related JoVE Video
Ethanol supports macrophage recruitment and reinforces invasion and migration of lewis lung carcinoma.
Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Inflammation plays a critical role in cancer progression, and our data suggested that ethanol (EtOH) could promote the progression of breast cancer via increased monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Thus, we investigated the effects of EtOH on lung cancer growth and metastasis to explore whether immunosuppression had a role.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of humic acid on the sorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) on boehmite.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The sorption of PFOS and PFBS on boehmite was significantly retarded by the competitive sorption of humic acid (HA), implying that PFOS and PFBS are likely more mobile in water and groundwater systems enriched with HA. The sorption behavior of PFOS and PFBS on the HA-modified boehmite surface were also found to differ due to their different chain lengths. For a partially HA-modified boehmite surface, the isotherm study showed that PFOS had a much higher maximum sorption capacity than PFBS and that PFOS might possess additional surface interactions besides electrostatic interaction. For a HA-saturated boehmite, a linear sorption isotherm was found for PFOS while nearly no PFBS sorption was observed. This indicates that sorption behavior between PFOS and the sorbed HA on boehmite was dominated by hydrophobic interactions, instead of electrostatic interaction. In addition, a conceptual model combining hydrophobic and electrostatic interaction was established to explain the sorption behavior of PFOS and PFBS on HA-modified boehmite. Finally, the results revealed that the sorption of PFOS and PFBS on HA-modified boehmite is pH-dependent. The neutralization of negative sites on HA-modified boehmite reduced the electrostatic repulsion and enhanced the partitioning of PFBS on the sorbed HA.
Related JoVE Video
The combined treatment of amyloid-?1-42-stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells plus splenocytes from young mice prevents the development of Alzheimer's disease in APPswe/PSENldE9 mice.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Anti-amyloid-? (A?) immunotherapy is a potential therapeutic strategy to reduce amyloid plaques and amyloid-associated pathologies in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Immune senescence with aging has also played a crucial role in AD pathogenesis and influences the effect of anti-A? immunotherapy. In this study, a combined treatment of A?1-42-bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) with intraperitoneal injection of splenocytes from young mice was designed as a novel immunotherapy for AD in APPswe/PSEN1de9 transgenic mice models. The results showed that the combined treatment not only elevated the level of anti-A? antibodies but also reduced amyloid plaques in brain and finally ameliorated deterioration of spatial learning and memory in AD mice. Additionally, the results revealed an increase of CD68 positive microglial cells in the vicinity of amyloid plaques in the mouse brain, which was responsible for the enhanced phagocytosis of A? plaques. In conclusion, the A?1-42-BMDCs plus splenocytes treatment improved the phagocytosis of microglia and prevented AD pathology more effectively. This combined immunotherapy provided a promising treatment in preventing the progression of AD in clinical studies in the near future.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of elevated O? on microbes in the rhizosphere of mycorrhizal snap bean with different O? sensitivity.
Can. J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Elevated ozone (O?) generally affects microbial biomass and community structure in rhizosphere, but these effects are unclear in mycorrhizal plants because arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi often benefit microbial growth in the rhizosphere. Here, we investigate the effects of elevated O? on microbial biomass and community structure in the rhizosphere of mycorrhizal snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with different O? sensitivity (R123: O?-tolerant plant; S156: O?-sensitive plant) based on the phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) method. Compared with ambient O?, elevated O? significantly decreased mycorrhizal colonization rates in the 2 genotypes, especially in S156 plants. The wet masses of shoot and root were decreased by elevated O? in the 2 genotypes independent of AM inoculation, but they were higher in the mycorrhizal plant than in the nonmycorrhizal plant independent of O? concentration. Elevated O? significantly decreased the relative proportion of specific fungal PLFAs in the nonmycorrhizal plant, but this effect disappeared in the mycorrhizal plant. The relative proportions of specific PLFAs of other microbial groups (Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and actinomycete) in the rhizosphere and all specific PLFAs in the hyphosphere were not affected by elevated O? independent of AM inoculation. In the rhizosphere of the 2 genotypes, microbial community structure was changed by AM inoculation and elevated O? as well as by their interaction; in the hyphosphere, however, microbial community structure was changed by elevated O? only in R123 plants. It is concluded that AM inoculation can offset negative effect of elevated O? on fungal biomass but seems to enhance shift of microbial community structure in rhizosphere under elevated O?.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of open drainage ditch design on bacterial and fungal communities of cold waterlogged paddy soils.
Braz. J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A field experiment established in 1980 was conducted to evaluate the effects of open drainage ditch applied for water removal on bacterial and fungal communities of cold waterlogged paddy soils in 2011. In this experiment, traditional plate counting and temperature gradient gel electrophoresis were employed to characterize the abundance and diversity of soil bacterial and fungal communities. Four different distances from the open drainage ditch, 5, 15, 25 and 75 m with different degrees of drainage were designed for this study. Maximum populations of culturable aerobic bacteria and fungi were at 15-m distance while minimum populations were at 75-m distance. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in fungal populations were observed at all distances from open drainage ditch. The highest diversity of the bacterial community was found at a distance of 25 m, while that of the fungal community was observed at a distance of 5 m. Sequencing of excised TGGE bands indicated that the dominant bacteria at 75-m distance belonged to anaerobic or microaerobic bacteria. Relationships between microbial characteristics and soil physicochemical properties indicated that soil pH and available nitrogen contents were key factors controlling the abundance of culturable aerobic bacteria and fungi, while soil water capacity also affected the diversity of fungal community. These findings can provide the references for better design and advanced management of the drainage ditches in cold waterlogged paddy soils.
Related JoVE Video
N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Antagonist Effects on Prefrontal Cortical Connectivity Better Model Early Than Chronic Schizophrenia.
Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Prefrontal cortex (PFC) function contributes to schizophrenia onset and progression. However, little is known about neural mechanisms behind PFC functional alterations along illness stages. Recent pharmacologic studies indicate that glutamate dysfunction may produce increased functional connectivity. However, pharmacologic models of schizophrenia overlook effects of illness progression on PFC function. This study compared N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist effects in healthy volunteers with stages of schizophrenia with respect to PFC functional connectivity.
Related JoVE Video
Genome-wide association discoveries of alcohol dependence.
Am J Addict
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To report the genome-wide significant and/or replicable risk variants for alcohol dependence and explore their potential biological functions.
Related JoVE Video
Ultrasound guidance for radial artery catheterization: an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Since a previous meta-analysis reported that ultrasound guidance was associated with a higher first-attempt success rate in catheterization of the radial artery, a number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have reported inconsistent results. The aim of the present study is to conduct an updated meta-analysis to clarify the role of ultrasound guidance for radial artery catheterization.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of GLP-1 analogues versus sitagliptin in the management of type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis of head-to-head studies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Incretin-based therapies which include glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are recommended by several practice guidelines as second-line agents for add-on therapy to metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) who do not achieve glycemic control with metformin plus lifestyle interventions alone. The purpose of this study is to perform a systematic review with meta-analysis of existing head to head studies to compare the efficacy and safety of GLP-1 analogues with DPP-4 inhibitors.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.