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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Tissue Engineering of Human Nasal Alar Cartilage Precisely by Using 3D Print.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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Tissue engineering strategies holds promise for the restoration of damaged cartilage. However, the results of most studies are irregularly shaped beads of cartilage, which are not precise enough. Thus a precisely three-dimensional shape of cartilage graft must be taken into consideration to achieve cosmetic contour. The goal of this study was to develop a simple method to create a precisely predetermined nasal alar shape with the aid of 3D print.
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Preservation of viral genomes in 700-y-old caribou feces from a subarctic ice patch.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Viruses preserved in ancient materials provide snapshots of past viral diversity and a means to trace viral evolution through time. Here, we use a metagenomics approach to identify filterable and nuclease-resistant nucleic acids preserved in 700-y-old caribou feces frozen in a permanent ice patch. We were able to recover and characterize two viruses in replicated experiments performed in two different laboratories: a small circular DNA viral genome (ancient caribou feces associated virus, or aCFV) and a partial RNA viral genome (Ancient Northwest Territories cripavirus, or aNCV). Phylogenetic analysis identifies aCFV as distantly related to the plant-infecting geminiviruses and the fungi-infecting Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirulence-associated DNA virus 1 and aNCV as within the insect-infecting Cripavirus genus. We hypothesize that these viruses originate from plant material ingested by caribou or from flying insects and that their preservation can be attributed to protection within viral capsids maintained at cold temperatures. To investigate the tropism of aCFV, we used the geminiviral reverse genetic system and introduced a multimeric clone into the laboratory model plant Nicotiana benthamiana. Evidence for infectivity came from the detection of viral DNA in newly emerged leaves and the precise excision of the viral genome from the multimeric clones in inoculated leaves. Our findings indicate that viral genomes may in some circumstances be protected from degradation for centuries.
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Integrated Microcapillary for Sample-to-Answer Nucleic Acid Pretreatment, Amplification, and Detection.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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This work develops an integrated microcapillary-based loop-mediated isothermal amplification (icLAMP) containing preloaded reagents and DNA extraction card, allowing for sample-to-answer screening of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) typing of the CYP2C19 gene from untreated blood samples with minimal user operation. With all reagents and the DNA extraction card preloaded inside the capillary, this icLAMP system can achieve on-site pretreatment, extraction, amplification, and detection of nucleic acids within 150 min, without the requirement for advanced instruments. As icLAMP technology carries many advantages such as disposability, easy operation, low cost, and reduced cross contamination and biohazard risks, we expect this system to have a great impact on point-of-care (POC) nucleic acid detection.
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Metagenomic identification of novel enteric viruses in urban wild rats and genome characterization of a group A rotavirus.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Rats are known as reservoirs and vectors for several zoonotic pathogens. However, information on the viruses shed by urban wild rats that could pose a zoonotic risk to human health is scare. Here, intestinal contents from 20 wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) collected in the city of Berlin, Germany, were subjected to metagenomic analysis of viral nucleic acids. The determined faecal viromes of rats consisted of a variety of known and unknown viruses, and were highly variable among the individuals. Members of the families Parvoviridae and Picobirnaviridae represented the most abundant species. Novel picornaviruses, bocaviruses, sapoviruses and stool-associated circular ssDNA viruses were identified, which showed only low sequence identity to known representatives of the corresponding taxa. In addition, noroviruses and rotaviruses were detected as potential zoonotic gastroenteritis viruses. However, partial-genome sequence analyses indicated that the norovirus was closely related to the recently identified rat norovirus and the rotavirus B was closely related to the rat rotavirus strain IDIR; both viruses clustered separately from respective human virus strains in phylogenetic trees. In contrast, the rotavirus A sequences showed high identity to human and animal strains. Analysis of the nearly complete genome of this virus revealed the known genotypes G3, P[3] and N2 for three of the genome segments, whereas the remaining eight genome segments represented the novel genotypes I20-R11-C11-M10-A22-T14-E18-H13. Our results indicated a high heterogeneity of enteric viruses present in urban wild rats; their ability to be transmitted to humans remains to be assessed in the future.
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Effects of progesterone vs. dexamethasone on brain oedema and inflammatory responses following experimental brain resection.
Brain Inj
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Abstract Background: Dexamethasone (DEXA) is commonly used to reduce brain swelling during neurosurgical procedures. DEXA, however, has many side-effects that can increase the risks of post-operative complications. In contrast, progesterone (PRO) has fewer side-effects and has been found to be neuroprotective on traumatic brain injury (TBI). Whether PRO may be used as an alternative to DEXA during routine procedures has not been fully explored.
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Identification of several clades of novel single-stranded circular DNA viruses with conserved stem-loop structures in pig feces.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Metagenomic analysis of fecal samples collected from diarrheal swine detected sequences encoding a replication initiator protein (Rep). The genomes of ten novel single-stranded DNA viruses were determined, and they exhibited a similar genome organization. The two putative open reading frames (ORFs) encoding Rep and the capsid protein are bidirectionally transcribed and separated by two intergenic regions. Stem-loop structure(s) typical of genomes that undergo the rolling-circle DNA replication mechanism were observed. Phylogenetically, these ten genomes are in a monophyletic clade with the previously described porcine stool-associated virus (PoSCV) but are divergent enough to be further classified into to six distinct virus clades.
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Hyperoxia resensitizes chemoresistant glioblastoma cells to temozolomide through unfolded protein response.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Intratumoural hypoxia is associated with chemoresistance in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a highly malignant brain tumour. Adaptive response to endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by temozolomide is a major obstacle in recurrent GBM. We investigated whether hyperoxia resensitizes temozolomide-resistant GBM cells to temozolomide by abrogating the hypoxia-induced, unfolded protein response (UPR)-related protective mechanisms.
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Electrochemiluminescence immunosensor for highly sensitive detection of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine based on carbon quantum dot coated Au/SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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An electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor using Pt electrode modified with carbon quantum dot (CQDs) coated Au/SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles was proposed for sensitive detection of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in this work. Rabbit anti-8-OHdG antibody was covalently bound to CQDs on the surface of Au/SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles. Through signal amplification of Au/SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles, 8-fold enhancement of the ECL signals was achieved. Under optimal conditions, a good linear range from 0.2 to 200 ng mL(-1) with a low detection limit of 0.085 ng mL(-1) (S/N=3) for 8-OHdG detection was obtained. Interfering substances tests showed that the corresponding ECL intensity (?ECL) of 8-OHdG is 8-18 times higher than that of guanine, uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid, demonstrating its good selectivity for 8-OHdG detection. The ECL immunosensor exhibits long-term stability with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 8.5% even after 16 cycles of continuous potential scans. The result of analytical detection of 8-OHdG in real samples was satisfactory. The proposed ECL immunosensor shows good performance with high sensitivity, specificity, repeatability, stability and provided a powerful tool for 8-OHdG monitoring in clinical samples.
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Effects of tsaoko (Fructus tsaoko) cultivating on tree diversity and canopy structure in the habitats of eastern hoolock gibbon (Hoolock leuconedys).
Zool. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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In this study, the quadrat method was used to study the effects of tsaoko (Fructus tsaoko) plantation on tree diversity and canopy structure of two natural habitats of eastern hoolock gibbon (Hoolock leuconedys): Nankang (characterized by extensive tsaoko plantation) and Banchang (relatively well reserved and without tsaoko plantation). Totally, 102 tree species from 25 families and 16 woody liana species from 10 families were recorded in Nankang, whereas 108 tree species from 30 families and 17 woody liana species from 12 families were recorded in Banchang. Although the tree species between two habitats is different, both habitats are characterized by enriched food resources for eastern hoolock gibbons, sharing similar dominant plant families. Due to tsaoko plantation, tree density proportion and diversity of forest layer? (>20 m) in Nankang were both significantly decreased, but the tree density of layer? (10-20 m) increased. Likewise, in conjunction with these behavioral observations, we also address potential impacts of tsaoko plantation on the behavior of eastern hoolock gibbon.
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Divergent picobirnaviruses in human feces.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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The near-complete genomes of two picobirnaviruses (PBVs) in diarrheal stool samples, human picobirnaviruses D and E (HuPBV-D and -E), were genetically characterized. Their RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) protein sequences had <66% identities to known PBVs. Due to a single nucleotide insertion, the open reading frame 2 (ORF2) in segment 1 of HuPBV-D was interrupted by a stop codon. A small stem-loop structure overlying the stop codon may result in translational readthrough into the rest of ORF2.
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Quantitative computer tomography analysis of post-operative subdural fluid volume predicts recurrence of chronic subdural haematoma.
Brain Inj
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Post-operative volume of subdural fluid is considered to correlate with recurrence in chronic subdural haematoma (CSDH). Information on the applications of computer-assisted volumetric analysis in patients with CSDHs is lacking.
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Identification of a novel single-stranded circular DNA virus in pig feces.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Porcine stool-associated circular virus 5 (PoSCV5) was detected in the feces of a pig with diarrhea. The complete 3,062-nucleotide genome contains two bidirectionally transcribed open reading frames (ORFs). Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced replication initiator protein (Rep) places PoSCV5 alone on a deep branch among the small circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA viruses.
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Unique circovirus-like genome detected in pig feces.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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Using a metagenomic approach and molecular cloning methods, we identified, cloned, and sequenced the complete genome of a novel circular DNA virus, porcine stool-associated virus (PoSCV4), from pig feces. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced replication initiator protein showed that PoSCV4 is most related to a fur seal feces-associated circular DNA virus.
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Tunable optical and magneto-optical properties of ferrofluid in the terahertz regime.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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The dielectric property and magneto-optical effects of ferrofluids have been investigated in the terahertz (THz) regime by using THz time-domain spectroscopy. The experiment results show that the refractive index and absorption coefficient of ferrofluid for THz waves rise up with the increase of nanoparticle concentration in the ferrofluid. Moreover, two different THz magneto-optical effects have been found with different external magnetic fields, of which mechanisms have been theoretically explained well by microscopic structure induced refractive index change in the magnetization process and the transverse magneto-optical effect after the saturation magnetization, respectively. This work suggests that ferrofluid is a promising magneto-optical material in the THz regime which has widely potential applications in THz functional devices for THz sensing, modulation, phase retardation, and polarization control.
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Observation of the slow, Debye-like relaxation in hydrogen-bonded liquids by dynamic light scattering.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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The slow, Debye-like relaxation in hydrogen-bonded liquids has largely remained a dielectric phenomenon and has thus far eluded observation by other experimental techniques. Here we report the first observation of a slow, Debye-like relaxation by both depolarized dynamic light scattering (DLS) and dielectric spectroscopy in a model hydrogen-bonded liquid, 2-ethyl-4-methylimidazole (2E4MIm). The relaxation times obtained by these two techniques are in good agreement and can be well explained by the Debye model of rotational diffusion. On the one hand, 2E4MIm is analogous to the widely studied monohydroxy alcohols in which transient chain-like supramolecular structure can be formed by hydrogen bonding. On the other hand, the hydrogen-bonded backbone of 2E4MIm is much more optically polarizable, making it possible to apply light scattering to study the dynamics of the supramolecular structure. These findings provide the missing evidence of the slow, Debye-like relaxation in DLS and open the venue for the application of dynamic light scattering to the study of supramolecular structures in hydrogen-bonded liquids.
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Production and identification of mannosylerythritol lipid-A homologs from the ustilaginomycetous yeast Pseudozyma aphidis ZJUDM34.
Carbohydr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are mainly produced by strains of the genus Pseudozyma and by Ustilago maydis. These glycolipid biosurfactants exhibit not only excellent surface-active properties but also versatile bioactivities. Mannosylerythritol lipid-A (MEL-A) is worth investigating due to its self-assembling property. In this work, crude MELs were produced by resting Pseudozyma aphidis ZJUDM34 cells using different culture media. MEL-A fractions were isolated and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that MEL-A homologs had long unsaturated fatty acid chains, and the chain lengths range from C8 to C20. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was employed to confirm the chemical structures of the MEL-A homologs. Fermentation medium without NaNO3 and medium with manganese ions enhanced MEL-A production by Pseudozyma aphidis ZJUDM34.
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Biodiversity and evolution of Imjin virus and Thottapalayam virus in Crocidurinae shrews in Zhejiang Province, China.
Virus Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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The recent discovery of numerous hantaviruses in insectivores has provided a new view of hantavirus biodiversity and evolution. To determine the presence and genetic diversity of Imjin virus (MJNV) and Thottapalayam virus (TPMV) in insectivores in Zhejiang Province, China, we captured and performed virus screening of 32 Ussuri white-toothed shrews (Crocidura lasiura) and 105 Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus) in different coastal regions. Hantavirus genome (S, M, and L segments) sequences were successfully recovered from one Ussuri white-toothed shrew and seven Asian house shrews. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the virus carried by the Ussuri white-toothed shrew was most closely related to MJNV, but with >15% nucleotide sequence difference, suggesting that it represents a new subtype. The hantaviruses carried by Asian house shrews were closely related to the TPMV variants found in the same geographic area, but more distantly related to those sampled in India and Nepal. Additionally, the TPMV sequences obtained in this study, as well as those found previously in this area, could be divided into three lineages reflecting their geographic origins, indicative of largely allopatric evolution. Overall, our data highlights the high genetic diversity of insectivore-borne hantaviruses in China, suggesting that more may be discovered in the future.
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Plasma 15-F2t-isoprostane in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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15-F2t-isoprostane (15-F2t-IsoP), a prostaglandin F2-like compound, is widely recognized as a biomarker of chronic heart failure. This study investigated the potential role and prognostic significance of plasma 15-F2t-IsoP in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH).
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Comprehensive and simultaneous coverage of lipid and polar metabolites for endogenous cellular metabolomics using HILIC-TOF-MS.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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The comprehensive metabolomic analyses using eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells are an effective way to identify biomarkers or biochemical pathways which can then be used to characterize disease states, differences between cell lines or inducers of cellular stress responses. One of the most commonly used extraction methods for comprehensive metabolomics is the Bligh and Dyer method (BD) which separates the metabolome into polar and nonpolar fractions. These fractions are then typically analysed separately using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and reversed-phase (RP) liquid chromatography (LC), respectively. However, this method has low sample throughput and can also be biased to either polar or nonpolar metabolites. Here, we introduce a MeOH/EtOH/H2O extraction paired with HILIC-time-of-flight (TOF)-mass spectrometry (MS) for comprehensive and simultaneous detection of both polar and nonpolar metabolites that is compatible for a wide array of cellular species cultured in different growth media. This method has been shown to be capable of separating polar metabolites by a HILIC mechanism and classes of lipids by an adsorption-like mechanism. Furthermore, this method is scalable and offers a substantial increase in sample throughput compared to BD with comparable extraction efficiency. This method was able to cover 92.2% of the detectable metabolome of Gram-negative bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti, as compared to 91.6% of the metabolome by a combination of BD polar (59.4%) and BD nonpolar (53.9%) fractions. This single-extraction HILIC approach was successfully used to characterize the endometabolism of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria as well as mammalian macrophages.
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Chemiluminescence immunoassay based on microfluidic chips for ?-fetoprotein.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Conventional immunoassays are labor intensive, time consuming, expensive and require large pieces of equipment for detection. In an effort to overcome these shortcomings, this study established an immunoassay method of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) in serum in combination with the microfluidic chip technology.
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Feline fecal virome reveals novel and prevalent enteric viruses.
Vet. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Humans keep more than 80 million cats worldwide, ensuring frequent exposure to their viruses. Despite such interactions the enteric virome of cats remains poorly understood. We analyzed a fecal sample from a single healthy cat from Portugal using viral metagenomics and detected five eukaryotic viral genomes. These viruses included a novel picornavirus (proposed genus "Sakobuvirus") and bocavirus (feline bocavirus 2), a variant of feline astrovirus 2 and sequence fragments of a highly divergent feline rotavirus and picobirnavirus. Feline sakobuvirus A represents the prototype species of a proposed new genus in the Picornaviridae family, distantly related to human salivirus and kobuvirus. Feline astroviruses (mamastrovirus 2) are the closest known relatives of the classic human astroviruses (mamastrovirus 1), suggestive of past cross-species transmission. Presence of these viruses by PCR among Portuguese cats was detected in 13% (rotavirus), 7% (astrovirus), 6% (bocavirus), 4% (sakobuvirus), and 4% (picobirnavirus) of 55 feline fecal samples. Co-infections were frequent with 40% (4/10) of infected cats shedding more than one of these five viruses. Our study provides an initial description of the feline fecal virome indicating a high level of asymptomatic infections. Availability of the genome sequences of these viruses will facilitate future tropism and feline disease association studies.
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Individuality and stability in male songs of cao vit gibbons (Nomascus nasutus) with potential to monitor population dynamics.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Vocal individuality and stability has been used to conduct population surveys, monitor population dynamics, and detect dispersal patterns in avian studies. To our knowledge, it has never been used in these kinds of studies among primates. The cao vit gibbon is a critically endangered species with only one small population living in a karst forest along China-Vietnam border. Due to the difficult karst terrain, an international border, long life history, and similarity in male morphology, detailed monitoring of population dynamics and dispersal patterns are not possible using traditional observation methods. In this paper, we test individuality and stability in male songs of cao vit gibbons. We then discuss the possibility of using vocal individuality for population surveys and monitoring population dynamics and dispersal patterns. Significant individuality of vocalization was detected in all 9 males, and the correct rate of individual identification yielded by discriminant function analysis using a subset of variables was satisfactory (>90%). Vocal stability over 2-6 years was also documented in 4 males. Several characters of cao vit gibbons allowed long-term population monitoring using vocal recordings in both China and Vietnam: 1) regular loud calls, 2) strong individuality and stability in male songs, 3) stable territories, and 4) long male tenure. During the course of this research, we also observed one male replacement (confirmed by vocal analysis). This time- and labor-saving method might be the most effective way to detect dispersal patterns in this transboundary population.
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Isolation and molecular characterization of a novel picornavirus from baitfish in the USA.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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During both regulatory and routine surveillance sampling of baitfish from the states of Illinois, Minnesota, Montana, and Wisconsin, USA, isolates (n = 20) of a previously unknown picornavirus were obtained from kidney/spleen or entire viscera of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and brassy minnows (Hybognathus hankinsoni). Following the appearance of a diffuse cytopathic effect, examination of cell culture supernatant by negative contrast electron microscopy revealed the presence of small, round virus particles (? 30-32 nm), with picornavirus-like morphology. Amplification and sequence analysis of viral RNA identified the agent as a novel member of the Picornaviridae family, tentatively named fathead minnow picornavirus (FHMPV). The full FHMPV genome consisted of 7834 nucleotides. Phylogenetic analysis based on 491 amino acid residues of the 3D gene showed 98.6% to 100% identity among the 20 isolates of FHMPV compared in this study while only 49.5% identity with its nearest neighbor, the bluegill picornavirus (BGPV) isolated from bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). Based on complete polyprotein analysis, the FHMPV shared 58% (P1), 33% (P2) and 43% (P3) amino acid identities with BGPV and shared less than 40% amino acid identity with all other picornaviruses. Hence, we propose the creation of a new genus (Piscevirus) within the Picornaviridae family. The impact of FHMPV on the health of fish populations is unknown at present.
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RNA viral metagenome of whiteflies leads to the discovery and characterization of a whitefly-transmitted carlavirus in North America.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Whiteflies from the Bemisia tabaci species complex have the ability to transmit a large number of plant viruses and are some of the most detrimental pests in agriculture. Although whiteflies are known to transmit both DNA and RNA viruses, most of the diversity has been recorded for the former, specifically for the Begomovirus genus. This study investigated the total diversity of DNA and RNA viruses found in whiteflies collected from a single site in Florida to evaluate if there are additional, previously undetected viral types within the B. tabaci vector. Metagenomic analysis of viral DNA extracted from the whiteflies only resulted in the detection of begomoviruses. In contrast, whiteflies contained sequences similar to RNA viruses from divergent groups, with a diversity that extends beyond currently described viruses. The metagenomic analysis of whiteflies also led to the first report of a whitefly-transmitted RNA virus similar to Cowpea mild mottle virus (CpMMV Florida) (genus Carlavirus) in North America. Further investigation resulted in the detection of CpMMV Florida in native and cultivated plants growing near the original field site of whitefly collection and determination of its experimental host range. Analysis of complete CpMMV Florida genomes recovered from whiteflies and plants suggests that the current classification criteria for carlaviruses need to be reevaluated. Overall, metagenomic analysis supports that DNA plant viruses carried by B. tabaci are dominated by begomoviruses, whereas significantly less is known about RNA viruses present in this damaging insect vector.
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Distinct lineage of vesiculovirus from big brown bats, United States.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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We identified a novel rhabdovirus, American bat vesiculovirus, from postmortem tissue samples from 120 rabies-negative big brown bats with a history of human contact. Five percent of the tested bats were infected with this virus. The extent of zoonotic exposure and possible health effects in humans from this virus are unknown.
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Correlation analysis of genotypes, auditory function, and vestibular size in Chinese children with enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome.
Acta Otolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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In children with enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome (EVAS), their hearing was more related to genotype than VA size, and VA size was related to genotype.
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Ranging behavior of eastern hoolock gibbon (Hoolock leuconedys) in a northern montane forest in Gaoligongshan, Yunnan, China.
Primates
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2013
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Generally, food abundance and distribution exert important influence on primate ranging behavior. Hoolock gibbons (genus Hoolock) live in lowland and montane forests in India, Bangladesh, Myanmar and China. All information about hoolock gibbons comes from studies on western hoolock gibbons (Hoolock hoolock) living in lowland forest. Between August 2010 and September 2011, we studied the ranging behavior of one habituated group of eastern hoolock gibbon (H. leuconedys) living in a seasonal montane forest in Gaoligongshan, Yunnan, China. Results show that the study group did not increase foraging effort, calculated in this study as the daily path length, when fruit was less available. Instead, the gibbons fed more on leaves and decreased traveling to conserve energy. They relied heavily on a single food species in most study months which was patchily distributed within their total (14-month) home range, and during most months they used only a small portion of their total home range. In order to find enough food, the group shifted its monthly home range according to the seasonal availability of food species. To satisfy their annual food requirements, they occupied a total home range of 93 ha. The absence of neighboring groups of gibbons and the presence of tsaoko cardamom (Amomum tsaoko) plantations may also have influenced the ranging behavior of the group. Further long-term studies of neighboring groups living in intact forests are required to assess these effects.
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[Correlation between the methylation of SULF2 and WRN promoter and chemosensitivity to irinotecan in gastric cancer].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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To explore the relationship between SULF2 and WRN promoter methylation and chemosensitivity to irinotecan, and also the clinicopathological features in patients with gastric cancer.
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Radiation-Sensitising Effects of Antennapedia Proteins (ANTP)-SmacN7 on Tumour Cells.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
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The objective of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms behind the radiation-sensitising effects of the antennapedia proteins (ANTP)-smacN7 fusion protein on tumour cells. ANTP-SmacN7 fusion proteins were synthesised, and the ability of this fusion protein to penetrate cells was observed. Effects of radiation on the expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) were detected by western blotting. The radiation-sensitising effects of ANTP-SmacN7 fusion proteins were observed by a clonogenic assay. The effects of drugs and radiation on tumour cell apoptosis were determined using Annexin V/FITC double staining. Changes in caspase-8, caspase-9 and caspase-3 were detected by western blot before and after ANTP-SmacN7 inhibition of XIAP. The ANTP-SmacN7 fusion protein could enter and accumulate in cells; in vitro XIAP expression of radiation-induced tumour cells was negatively correlated with tumour radiosensitivity. The ANTP-SmacN7 fusion protein promoted tumour cell apoptosis through the activation of caspase3. ANTP-SmacN7 fusion protein may reduce tumour cell radioresistance by inducing caspase3 activation.
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Clinical and radiological characteristics of Chinese patients with hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma.
Ann Saudi Med
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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To study clinical features, imaging findings, and prognosis of hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEHE) in Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgical Hospital and to improve the level of recognition and preoperative diagnosis of HEHE.
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[Clinical and prognostic analyses of juvenile sudden sensorineural hearing loss].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
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To explore the clinical profiles of juvenile sudden sensorineural hearing loss (JSSNHL) and examine its clinical characteristics and prognosis.
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[Clinical analysis of sudden sensorineural hearing loss in patients with different ages].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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To investigate the clinical materials of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) in different ages of patients, and explore their clinical characteristics and prognosis.
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Evaluation of the comet assay for assessing the dose-response relationship of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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Dose- and time-response curves were combined to assess the potential of the comet assay in radiation biodosimetry. The neutral comet assay was used to detect DNA double-strand breaks in lymphocytes caused by ?-ray irradiation. A clear dose-response relationship with DNA double-strand breaks using the comet assay was found at different times after irradiation (p < 0.001). A time-response relationship was also found within 72 h after irradiation (p < 0.001). The curves for DNA double-strand breaks and DNA repair in vitro of human lymphocytes presented a nice model, and a smooth, three-dimensional plane model was obtained when the two curves were combined.
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Nonpeptidic angiotensin II AT? receptor antagonists derived from 6-substituted aminocarbonyl and acylamino benzimidazoles.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Both 6-substituted aminocarbonyl and acylamino benzimidazole derivatives were designed and synthesized as nonpeptidic angiotensin II AT? receptor antagonists. Compounds 6f, 6g, 11e, 11f, 11g, and 12 showed nanomolar AT? receptor binding affinity and high AT? receptor selectivity over AT? receptor in a preliminary pharmacological evaluation. Among them, the two most active compounds 6f (AT? IC?? = 3 nM, AT? IC?? > 10,000 nM, PA? = 8.51) and 11g (AT? IC?? = 0.1 nM, AT? IC?? = 149 nM, PA? = 8.43) exhibited good antagonistic activity in isolated rabbit aortic strip functional assay. In addition, they were orally active AT? receptor antagonists in spontaneous hypertensive rats.
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5,6-Dihy-droxy-7,8-di-meth-oxy-flavone.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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5,6-dihy-droxy-7,8-dimeth-oxy-2-phenyl-chromen-4-one), C17H14O6, is a flavone that was isolated from the petroleum ether-soluble fraction of the rare traditional Chinese medicinal herb Saussurea involucrata. The flavone mol-ecule is almost planar, with a dihedral angle between the planes of the benzo-pyran-4-one group and the attached phenyl group of 1.89?(6)°. The 5-hy-droxy group forms a strong intra-molecular hydrogen bond with the carbonyl group, resulting in a six-membered hydrogen-bonded ring. The 6-hy-droxy group also forms an intra-molecular O-H?O contact. In the crystal, the molecules are linked by O-H?O and C-H?O hydrogen bonds and ?-? inter-actions [3.37?(2)-3.39?(2)?Å], which build up a three-dimensional network.
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Cytogenetic abnormalities in lymphocytes from victims exposed to cobalt-60 radiation.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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The present study investigates cytogenetic damage in lymphocytes, derived from three victims who were unfortunately exposed to cobalt-60 (60Co) radiation (the 1999 accident occurred in a village in Chinas Henan province). Case A of the three victims was exposed to a higher dose of 60Co radiation than Cases B and C. The chromosomal aberrations, cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN, the CBMN assay), and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, the comet assay) examined in this study are biomarkers for cytogenetic abnormalities. After the lymphocytes collected from the victims were cultured, the frequencies of dicentric chromosomes and rings (dic + r) and CBMN in the first mitotic division detected in the lymphocytes of Case A were found to be substantially higher than in Cases B and C. Similarly, the DNA-DSB level found in the peripheral blood collected from Case A was much higher than those of Cases B and C. These results suggest that an acutely enhanced induction of the 60Co-induced cytogenetic abnormality frequency in humans depends on the dose of 60Co radiation. This finding is supported by the data obtained using practical techniques to evaluate early lymphoid-tissue abnormalities induced after exposure to acute radiation.
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Ionic conductivity and glass transition of phosphoric acids.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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Here we report the low-temperature dielectric and viscoelastic properties of phosphoric acids in the range of H2O:P2O5 1.5-5. Both dielectric and viscosity measurements allow us to determine the glass-transition temperatures of phosphoric acids. The obtained glass-transition temperatures are in good agreement with previous differential scanning calorimetric measurements. Moreover, our analysis reveals moderate decoupling of ionic conductivity from structural relaxation in the vicinity of the glass transition.
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New substituted benzimidazole derivatives: a patent review (2010 - 2012).
Expert Opin Ther Pat
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Benzimidazole is a heterocyclic aromatic system, which is part of some natural and many synthetic compounds. A large number of benzimidazoles and its derivatives are found to be biologically active against many diseases. Researchers around the world are paying greater attention to and showing increasing interests in this field.
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Significance of thymidylate synthase expression for resistance to pemetrexed in pulmonary adenocarcinoma.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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Pemetrexed (PEM), a multi-targeted antifolate, has promising clinical activity in non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer. However, the majority of patients eventually acquire resistance to PEM. To evaluate the resistant mechanisms, the A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell line was exposed to stepwise increasing PEM concentrations of 1.6, 6.4 and 16 ?M to establish three PEM-resistant lung cancer cell lines, A549/PEM-1.6, -6.4 and -16. Growth inhibition was determined by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Expression of the genes encoding thymidylate synthase (TS), reduced folate carrier (RFC) and folypoly-?-glutamate synthetase (FPGS) were analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The three A549 cell lines showed more resistance to PEM (3.7-, 17.3(-) and 38.0-fold, respectively) compared with that of the parental cell line, which also showed cross-resistance to cisplatin, but not to docetaxel, vinorelbine and 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). TS gene expression was significantly increased in three PEM-resistant cells, relative to that of the parental cells, in a PEM dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of TS expression with siRNA enhanced the cytotoxicity of PEM in A549/PEM-16 cells. By contrast, the levels of RFC and FPGS gene expression in A549/PEM-1.6 and -6.4 cells were significantly decreased, whereas the levels of the two genes were restored in A549/PEM-16 cells. In summary, PEM-resistant A549 cells remained sensitive to docetaxel, vinorelbine and 5-FU. TS expression appeared to be associated with resistance to PEM, which may be a predictive marker for PEM sensitivity in lung adenocarcinoma.
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The phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor vardenafil reduces oxidative stress while reversing pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Previously, we demonstrated that vardenafil, a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, has potential as therapy for PAH, although the mechanism remained uncharacterized. Here, we aimed to determine baseline levels of oxidative stress in PAH and investigate whether vardenafil affects oxidative stress levels while improving PAH.
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Divergent picornavirus from a Turkey with gastrointestinal disease.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2013
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A novel picornavirus, turkey avisivirus (TuASV), was identified from the feces of turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) with gastrointestinal disease from a farm in Indiana. Its genome organization is as follows: 5 untranslated region (UTR)(IRES-II) [VP0, VP3, VP1, 2A, 2B, 2C, 3A, 3B, 3C(pro), 3D(pol)] 3 UTR-poly(A). TuASV shares only 34% (P1), 36% (P2), and 35% (P3) amino acid identities with avihepatoviruses, indicating that it potentially represents a novel picornavirus genus.
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State conversion based on terahertz plasmonics with vanadium dioxide coating controlled by optical pumping.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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The state conversion and terahertz (THz) wave modulation based on a plasmonic device composed of silicon column arrays with vanadium dioxide (VO2) coating were experimentally demonstrated. For double 45° tilted optical pumping, a state conversion from dielectric photonic crystal (PC) to metallic PC was demonstrated due to the insulator-metal transition (IMT) of VO2 with the pump power increasing. In this process, a broadband intensity modulation with 70% modulation depth was achieved. Furthermore, for normally incident optical pumping, another state conversion from dielectric PC to plasmonic device was also demonstrated due to the partial IMT of VO2, and the out of plane PC resonance gradually changed to be plasmonic resonances. This device and its modulation scheme will be of great significance for potential THz applications.
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Examination of methods to determine free-ion diffusivity and number density from analysis of electrode polarization.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Electrode polarization analysis is frequently used to determine free-ion diffusivity and number density in ionic conductors. In the present study, this approach is critically examined in a wide variety of electrolytes, including aqueous and nonaqueous solutions, polymer electrolytes, and ionic liquids. It is shown that the electrode polarization analysis based on the Macdonald-Trukhan model [J. Chem. Phys. 124, 144903 (2006); J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357, 3064 (2011)] progressively fails to give reasonable values of free-ion diffusivity and number density with increasing salt concentration. This should be expected because the original model of electrode polarization is designed for dilute electrolytes. An empirical correction method which yields ion diffusivities in reasonable agreement with pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance measurements is proposed. However, the analysis of free-ion diffusivity and number density from electrode polarization should still be exercised with great caution because there is no solid theoretical justification for the proposed corrections.
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Tunable nonreciprocal terahertz transmission and enhancement based on metal/magneto-optic plasmonic lens.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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A tunable metal/magneto-optic plasmonic lens for terahertz isolator is demonstrated. Based on the magneto-optical effect of the semiconductor material and non-symmetrical structure, this plasmonic lens has not only the focusing feature but also nonreciprocal transmission property. Moreover, a transmission enhancement through this device greatly larger than that of the ordinary metallic slit arrays is contributed by the extraordinary optical transmission effect of the magneto surface plasmon polaritons. The results show that the proposed isolator has an isolation bandwidth of larger than 0.4THz and the maximum isolation of higher than 110dB, and its operating frequency also can be broadly tuned by changing the external magnetic field or temperature. This low-loss, high isolation, broadband tunable nonreciprocal terahertz transmission mechanism has a great potential for terahertz application systems.
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Combined silicone implant and cartilage grafts for augmentation rhinoplasty.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Silicone implants are widely used in Asia for nasal dorsal augmentation. Meanwhile, autologous cartilage grafts are the most preferred materials for tip surgery. In order to minimize the drawbacks of silicone implants, combined silicone implant and cartilage grafts were introduced for augmentation rhinoplasty. In this work, augmentation rhinoplasty technique using combined silicone implant and cartilage grafts are reported. Forty-six patients underwent dorsal and tip augmentation using this technique. The outcomes were satisfactory in 45 patients. Bilateral marginal incisions were used without transcolumellar incision. By suturing the silicone nasal implant with a shield cartilage graft, a new complex was achieved. Assisted with a columellar strut either sutured to the complex or not, the new complex could provide improved dorsal height and tip projection with low complication rate in augmentation rhinoplasty.
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Self-assembled ?-extended condensed benzothiophene nanoribbons for field-effect transistors.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
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Nanostructures: A new air-stable ?-extended condensed benzothiophene was prepared by starting from 4,8-dioctyl-oxybenzo[1,2-b:4,5-b]dithiophene in about 54?% overall yield. Highly ordered 1D organic nanoribbons of the resultant compound were formed by molecular self-assembly. An individual nanoribbon-based organic field-effect transistor (see figure) exhibited an average mobility of 0.05?cm(2) ?V(-1) ?s(-1).
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Association of tumor-associated fibroblasts with progression of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Interaction between tumor and stromal cells plays an important role in cancer progression. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of tumor-associated fibroblasts on regulation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression. Sixty-five cases of HCC and the corresponding normal liver tissues were recruited for immunohistochemical assessment of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) expression, a biomarker for activated fibroblasts. Clinicopathological data were also collected from HCC patients for association with ?-SMA expression. Primary cell culture of fibroblasts from HCC tissues was used to generate conditioned medium for testing the effect on regulation of HCC cell migration capacity in the transwell cell migration assay. ?-SMA protein was expressed in 84.0 % (21 out 25 cases) of the fibroblasts from the metastatic HCCs, 45 % (18/40) from HCCs without metastasis, and 19.2 % (5/26) from normal liver tissues, difference of which was statistically significant (P < 0.01). The expression of ?-SMA protein in HCC tissues was associated with tumor thrombosis, poor pathology grade, advanced clinical stages, and lymph node metastasis. The conditioned medium from the primary cultured fibroblasts with ?-SMA expression significantly promoted the migration capacity of HCC Hep3B cells compared to the heat-inactivated conditioned medium. The data from the current study demonstrated that expression of ?-SMA protein in HCC fibroblasts associated with tumor metastasis and advanced clinical stages and that the conditioned medium from ?-SMA-positive fibroblasts enhanced HCC cell migration. This study indicates that ?-SMA protein might serve as a biomarker to predict HCC progression.
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Effect of radiation on the Notch signaling pathway in osteoblasts.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Notch signaling has been shown to be important in osteoblast differentiation. Therapeutic radiation has been shown to alter the skeletal system, yet little information is available on the changes in Notch signaling in irradiated osteoblasts. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of radiation therapy with 2 and 4 Gy on Notch signaling in osteoblasts. In order to assess the radiation damage on osteoblast differentiation, total RNA and protein were collected three days after exposure to radiation. The effects of radiation on Notch signaling at the early and terminal stages of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell differentiation was analyzed by qRT-PCR and western blot analysis. Our study applied a previously established method to induce MC3T3-E1 cell differentiation into osteoblasts and osteoblast precursors. Our results showed that the expression of Notch receptors (Notch1-4), ligands (Jagged1, Jagged2 and Delta1), target of Notch signaling (Hes1) and markers (ALP, M-CSF, RANKL and OPG) were altered following 2 and 4 Gy of irradiation. The present research did not indicate a strong relationship between Notch1 regulation and suppression of osteoblast differentiation. We found Hes1 may play a role in the radiation effect on osteoblast differentiation. Our results indicate that radiated osteoblast precursors and osteoblasts promoted osteoclast differentiation and proliferation.
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Molecular survey of hard ticks in endemic areas of tick-borne diseases in China.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Over the past several years, there was a substantial increase in the number of cases of known and novel tick-borne infections in humans in China. To better understand the ticks associated with these infections, we collected hard ticks from animals or around livestock shelters in 29 localities in 5 provinces (Beijing, Henan, Hubei, Inner Mongolia, and Zhejiang) where cases of tick-borne illness were reported. We collected 2950 hard ticks representing 7 species of 4 genera (Dermacentor sinicus, Haemaphysalis flava, Haemaphysalis longicornis, Ixodes granulatus, Ixodes persulcatus, Rhipicephalus microplus, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus). These ticks were identified to species using morphological characters initially. We then sequenced the mitochondrial small subunit rRNA (12S rRNA) gene, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene, and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) gene of these ticks, and conducted phylogenetic analyses. Our analyses showed that the molecular and morphological data are consistent in the identification of the 7 tick species. Furthermore, all these 7 tick species from China were genetically closely related to the same species or related species found outside China. Rapid and accurate identification and long-term monitoring of these ticks will be of significance to the prevention and control of tick-borne diseases in China.
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Molecular and microscopic evidence of viruses in marine copepods.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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As dominant members of marine mesozooplankton communities, copepods play critical roles in oceanic food webs and biogeochemical cycling. Despite the ecological significance of copepods, little is known regarding the causes of copepod mortality, and up to 35% of total copepod mortality cannot be accounted for by predation alone. Viruses have been established as ecologically important infectious agents in the oceans; however, viral infection has not been investigated in mesozooplankton communities. Here we used molecular and microscopic techniques to document viral infection in natural populations of the calanoid copepods Acartia tonsa (Dana) and Labidocera aestiva (Wheeler) in Tampa Bay, FL. Viral metagenomics revealed previously undocumented viruses in each species, named Acartia tonsa copepod circo-like virus (AtCopCV) and Labidocera aestiva copepod circo-like virus (LaCopCV). LaCopCV was found to be extremely prevalent and abundant in L. aestiva populations, with up to 100% prevalence in some samples and average viral loads of 1.13 × 10(5) copies per individual. LaCopCV transcription was also detected in the majority of L. aestiva individuals, indicating viral activity. AtCopCV was sporadically detected in A. tonsa populations year-round, suggesting temporal variability in viral infection dynamics. Finally, virus-like particles of unknown identity were observed in the connective tissues of A. tonsa and L. aestiva by transmission electron microscopy, demonstrating that viruses were actively proliferating in copepod connective tissue as opposed to infecting gut contents, parasites, or symbionts. Taken together, these results provide strong independent lines of evidence for active viral infection in dominant copepod species, indicating that viruses may significantly influence mesozooplankton ecology.
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Identification of an astrovirus commonly infecting laboratory mice in the US and Japan.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Mice (Mus musculus) are the most commonly used laboratory animals. Viral metagenomics on tissues of immunodeficient mice revealed sequences of a novel mammalian astrovirus. Using PCR, we screened mice from 4 breeders, 4 pharmaceutical companies, 14 research institutes and 30 universities in the US and Japan. Mice from one US breeder tested positive while none from Japanese breeders were positive for MuAstV. Mice in over half of the universities (19/30), institutes (7/14) and pharmaceutical animal facilities (2/4) investigated revealed the presence of MuAstV. Nine mice strains tested positive including both immunodeficient strains (NSG, NOD-SCID, NSG-3GS, C57BL6-Timp-3 (-/-), and uPA-NOG) and immunocompetent strains (B6J, ICR, Bash2, BALB/c). Our data indicates that MuAstV has a wide geographical, institutional and host strain distribution. Comparison of the MuAstV RdRp sequences showed numerous mutations indicating ongoing viral divergence in different facilities. This study demonstrates the need for metagenomic screening of laboratory animals to identify adventitious infections that may affect experimental outcomes.
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2-[4-(2-Hy-droxy-eth-oxy)phenyl]-4,4,5,5-tetra-methyl-2-imidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2011
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In the title compound, C(15)H(21)N(2)O(4), the imidazoline ring displays a twisted conformation. The dihedral angle between the mean plane of the imidazoline ring and the benzene ring is 33.50?(12)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are connected by O-H?O hydrogen bonds, forming a zigzag chain along the c axis. The chains are linked by C-H?O and C-H?? inter-actions.
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Size-dependent in vivo toxicity of PEG-coated gold nanoparticles.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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Gold nanoparticle toxicity research is currently leading towards the in vivo experiment. Most toxicology data show that the surface chemistry and physical dimensions of gold nanoparticles play an important role in toxicity. Here, we present the in vivo toxicity of 5, 10, 30, and 60 nm PEG-coated gold nanoparticles in mice.
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Evaluation of oral chemotherapy with capecitabine and cyclophosphamide plus thalidomide and prednisone in prostate cancer patients.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2011
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The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical outcomes of second-line chemotherapy with capecitabine and cyclophosphamide (CTX) plus thalidomide and prednisone in refractory advanced castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients.
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[Analysis on the etiological surveillance of influenza/novel influenza A (H1N1) from 2009-2010 in Shanxi Province].
Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
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To study the epidemical characteristics of influenza/novel influenza A (H1N1) in Shanxi province from 2009 to 2010, and to provide scientific foundations for predicting and controlling the pandemic outbreak of influenza/novel influenza A (H1N1) effectively.
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Four systems involved with congenital abnormalities: a new type of syndromic hearing loss - ADOC Wangs syndrome?
Acta Otolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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Syndromic hearing impairment encompasses hundreds of phenotypes. We identified a young female patient affected by the unique combination of dysplasia of the auricular system, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), choroideremia, and enamel hypoplasia. The patient was treated with PDA ligature and left exploratory tympanotomy. Impairment in all four systems suggests a correlation with the neural crest. It is presumed that all of the features result from the same origin, probably through autosomal recessive inheritance or a novel mutation during the embryonic period. When audio-dento-oculo-cardio systems are involved, we suggest that this new syndrome can be named ADOC Wangs syndrome, summarizing the disorders of the four systems and indicative of the founding person (Dr Wang, the first and corresponding author of the paper).
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Population differences and acoustic stability in male songs of wild western black crested gibbons (Nomascus concolor) in Mt. Wuliang, Yunnan.
Folia Primatol.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2011
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Population differences and acoustic stability in male songs of the western black crested gibbon (Nomascus concolor) at Mt. Wuliang, Yunnan, were investigated using data collected over 4 years. Detectable vocal differences were found between the western and eastern populations within Mt. Wuliang. Discriminant functions calculated using the phrases recorded in 2007-2008 correctly classified phrases recorded in 2009, and discriminant functions produced from phrases recorded in 2007-2009 could correctly classify phrases recorded in 2010 for 4 of 5 males. Results showed that the male songs of western black crested gibbons remain relatively stable over years. In light of the acoustic individuality in male songs of this gibbon species, which has recently been proved, and the acoustic stability shown in this research, we suggest that the song of male individuals may be useful in monitoring individuals or family groups of this species.
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[Effects of soil trituration size on adsorption of oxytetracycline on soils].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
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In order to understand the effects of soil trituration size on adsorption of oxytetracycline (OTC) on soils, two contrasting soils including moisture soil and purplish soil were selected to investigate adsorption of OTC on these soils, at the scales of no more than 0.20 mm, 0.84 mm, 0.25 mm and 0.15 mm, using the method of batch equilibrium experiments respectively. The results presented as the following: (1) Adsorption amount of OTC on moisture soil and purplish soil increased with the sampling time, and reached to equilibration at 24 h. First-order kinetic model, second-order kinetic model, parabolic-diffusion kinetic model, Elovich kinetic model, and two-constant kinetic model could be used to fit the changes in adsorption on soils with sampling time. Adsorption of OTC on two soils consisted of two processes such as quick adsorption and slow adsorption. Quick adsorption process happened during the period of 0-0.5 h. The adsorption rates of OTC on soils were higher at the small trituration size than those at the large trituration size, and at the same trituration size, the k(f) of purplish soil was about two times higher than those of moisture soil. (2) Adsorption isotherms of OTC on two soils with different trituration sizes were deviated from the linear model. The data were fitted well to Freundlich and Langmuir models, with the correlation coefficients between 0.956 and 0.999. The values of k(f) and q(m) for purplish soil were higher than those for moisture soil. At the same soil, adsorption amount of OTC increased with the decreases of soil trituration size. The results suggested that it is important to select the appropriate trituration size, based on the physical and chemical properties such as soil particle composition and so on, when the fate of antibiotics on soils was investigated.
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Broad surveys of DNA viral diversity obtained through viral metagenomics of mosquitoes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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Viruses are the most abundant and diverse genetic entities on Earth; however, broad surveys of viral diversity are hindered by the lack of a universal assay for viruses and the inability to sample a sufficient number of individual hosts. This study utilized vector-enabled metagenomics (VEM) to provide a snapshot of the diversity of DNA viruses present in three mosquito samples from San Diego, California. The majority of the sequences were novel, suggesting that the viral community in mosquitoes, as well as the animal and plant hosts they feed on, is highly diverse and largely uncharacterized. Each mosquito sample contained a distinct viral community. The mosquito viromes contained sequences related to a broad range of animal, plant, insect and bacterial viruses. Animal viruses identified included anelloviruses, circoviruses, herpesviruses, poxviruses, and papillomaviruses, which mosquitoes may have obtained from vertebrate hosts during blood feeding. Notably, sequences related to human papillomaviruses were identified in one of the mosquito samples. Sequences similar to plant viruses were identified in all mosquito viromes, which were potentially acquired through feeding on plant nectar. Numerous bacteriophages and insect viruses were also detected, including a novel densovirus likely infecting Culex erythrothorax. Through sampling insect vectors, VEM enables broad survey of viral diversity and has significantly increased our knowledge of the DNA viruses present in mosquitoes.
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Phenotype-genotype correlation in 295 Chinese deaf subjects with biallelic causative mutations in the GJB2 gene.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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The connexin 26 coding gene (GJB2) is the primary causative gene for nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing impairment (NSSHI). More than 100 mutations in this gene have been reported to be linked to hearing impairment (HI), from mild to profound hearing loss. To precisely estimate the impact of GJB2 mutations in the Chinese population, a cross-sectional study was performed to analyze the auditory data of Chinese patients with NSSHI.
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Metagenomic identification of a novel anellovirus in Pacific harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardsii) lung samples and its detection in samples from multiple years.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2011
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To investigate viral pathogens potentially involved in a mortality event of 21 Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsii) in California in 2000, viral metagenomics was performed directly on lung samples from five individuals. Metagenomics revealed a novel seal anellovirus (SealAV), which clusters phylogenetically with anelloviruses from California sea lions and domestic cats. Using specific PCR, SealAV was identified in lung tissue from two of five animals involved in the 2000 mortality event, as well as one of 20 harbor seal samples examined post-mortem in 2008. The identification of SealAV in multiple years demonstrates that this virus is persistent in the harbor seal population. SealAV is the second anellovirus reported in the lungs of pinnipeds, suggesting that anellovirus infections may be common amongst marine mammals and that more research is needed to understand the roles of these viruses in marine mammal health and disease.
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First-principles investigation of ag-doped gold nanoclusters.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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Gold nanoclusters have the tunable optical absorption property, and are promising for cancer cell imaging, photothermal therapy and radiotherapy. First-principle is a very powerful tool for design of novel materials. In the present work, structural properties, band gap engineering and tunable optical properties of Ag-doped gold clusters have been calculated using density functional theory. The electronic structure of a stable Au(20) cluster can be modulated by incorporating Ag, and the HOMO-LUMO gap of Au(20-) (n)Ag(n) clusters is modulated due to the incorporation of Ag electronic states in the HOMO and LUMO. Furthermore, the results of the imaginary part of the dielectric function indicate that the optical transition of gold clusters is concentration-dependent and the optical transition between HOMO and LUMO shifts to the low energy range as the Ag atom increases. These calculated results are helpful for the design of gold cluster-based biomaterials, and will be of interest in the fields of radiation medicine, biophysics and nanoscience.
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Exploring the diversity of plant DNA viruses and their satellites using vector-enabled metagenomics on whiteflies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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Current knowledge of plant virus diversity is biased towards agents of visible and economically important diseases. Less is known about viruses that have not caused major diseases in crops, or viruses from native vegetation, which are a reservoir of biodiversity that can contribute to viral emergence. Discovery of these plant viruses is hindered by the traditional approach of sampling individual symptomatic plants. Since many damaging plant viruses are transmitted by insect vectors, we have developed "vector-enabled metagenomics" (VEM) to investigate the diversity of plant viruses. VEM involves sampling of insect vectors (in this case, whiteflies) from plants, followed by purification of viral particles and metagenomic sequencing. The VEM approach exploits the natural ability of highly mobile adult whiteflies to integrate viruses from many plants over time and space, and leverages the capability of metagenomics for discovering novel viruses. This study utilized VEM to describe the DNA viral community from whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) collected from two important agricultural regions in Florida, USA. VEM successfully characterized the active and abundant viruses that produce disease symptoms in crops, as well as the less abundant viruses infecting adjacent native vegetation. PCR assays designed from the metagenomic sequences enabled the complete sequencing of four novel begomovirus genome components, as well as the first discovery of plant virus satellites in North America. One of the novel begomoviruses was subsequently identified in symptomatic Chenopodium ambrosiodes from the same field site, validating VEM as an effective method for proactive monitoring of plant viruses without a priori knowledge of the pathogens. This study demonstrates the power of VEM for describing the circulating viral community in a given region, which will enhance our understanding of plant viral diversity, and facilitate emerging plant virus surveillance and management of viral diseases.
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Cellular mechanisms underlying Hyperin-induced relaxation of rat basilar artery.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2011
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Hyperin, a flavonol compound extracted from the Chinese herb Abelmoschus manihot L. Medic, is reported to exert protective actions in cerebral ischemic injury. The specific aim of the present study was to study the relaxation of Hyperin in rat isolated basilar artery and identify the underlying cellular mechanisms.
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Value of Doppler ultrasonography in predicting deteriorating renal function after spinal cord injury.
Radiol Med
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2011
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The authors sought to study the relationship between Doppler ultrasonography and deterioration of renal function in patients with spinal cord injury.
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Molecular epidemiological analysis of mitochondrial DNA12SrRNA A1555G, GJB2, and SLC26A4 mutations in sporadic outpatients with nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss in China.
Acta Otolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2010
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GJB2 mutation was frequent in sporadic outpatients and its mutation frequency was significant higher in the prelingual group than in the postlingual group, whereas the mutation of mtDNA A1555G and SLC26A4 was very rare in Chinese sporadic outpatients with nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss (NSHL). Standard and comprehensive inclusion and grouping criteria are necessary for epidemiological studies of deafness-related gene mutations.
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[Effects of urokinase intervention on endotoxin-induced DIC in Wistar rat model].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2010
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To study the effects of urokinase intervention on endotoxin-induced DIC in Wistar rats model.
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[Expression of FLI-1 and analysis of prognostic factors in primitive neuroectodermal tumor].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2010
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To observe the expression of FLI-1 in primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), explore the value of immunohistochemical staining of FLI-1 in combination with other neural markers in diagnosis of PNET, and analyze the prognostic factors in PNET patients.
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[Proteasome inhibitors sensitize ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin].
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2010
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To explore the sensitivity and the molecular mechanism of cisplatin-resistance ovarian cancer cell line C13 to proteasome inhibitors and the combination with cisplatin.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.