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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Advantage of multi-mode sapphire optical fiber for evanescent-field SERS sensing.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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An unclad, multi-mode single crystal sapphire fiber was used as a platform, and immobilized colloidal Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were used as enabler, for evanescent-field fiber-optic sensing via surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) solution. The dependence of the measured Raman intensity on NP coverage density (to a maximum of 120??particles/?m2) as well as the coverage length (to a maximum of 6 cm) was investigated. We demonstrate the utility of SERS-active sapphire fibers for sensitive measurements (10-8??M R6G). We further reveal, with the aid of theoretical analysis, that multi-mode fiber offers a significant advantage compared to its single-mode counterpart because the former allows two orders of magnitude higher particle coverage density than the latter to maximize SERS benefit, while maintaining the dominance of Raman gain despite the competitive interplay of NP-induced absorption and scattering loss along the interaction path length.
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Evidence of recombinant strains of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, United States, 2013.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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To investigate the evolutionary process by which porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) in the United States hypothetically descended from strains in China, we analyzed PEDV-positive samples collected in China during January 2012-July 2013. Recombination in 2 strain sublineages was likely associated with identification of PEDV in the United States in 2013.
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[Identification of metabolites of antitumor lead compound T-OA in rat urine by HPLC-HRMS].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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To study the major metabolites of antitumor lead compound T-OA (oleanolic acyl-3, 5, 6-trimethyl pyrazine-2-methyl ester) in rat urine, in order to preliminarily infer its metabolic mode in rats.
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Differential expression of circulating miRNAs in maternal plasma in pregnancies with fetal macrosomia.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Macrosomia is associated with problems at birth and has life-long health implications for the infant. The aim of this study was to profile the plasma microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) and evaluate the potential of circulating miRNAs to predict fetal macrosomia. The expression levels of miRNAs in plasma samples obtained from pregnant women with fetal macrosomia and from women with normal pregnancies (controls) were analyzed using TaqMan Low-Density Arrays (TLDAs) followed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) validation and analysis. The TLDA data revealed that 143 miRNAs were differentially expressed in the plasma samples from pregnant women with fetal macrosomia compared with the controls (43 upregulated and 100 downregulated miRNAs). Twelve of these miRNAs were selected for RT-qPCR analysis. Receiver operational characteristic (ROC) curve analysis indicated that several miRNAs (e.g., miR?141-3p and miR-200c-3p) were clearly distinguished between pregnancies with fetal macrosomia and other types of abnormal pregnancy and healthy pregnancies with high sensitivity and specificity (AUC >0.9). The expression of miRNA clusters also showed a similar trend in pregnancies with fetal macrosomia. This study provides a platform for profiling circulating miRNAs in maternal plasma. Our data also suggest that altered levels of maternal plasma miRNAs have great potential to serve as non-invasive biomarkers and as a mechanistic indicator of abnormal pregnancies.
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Tumor-derived transforming growth factor-? is critical for tumor progression and evasion from immune surveillance.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Tumors have evolved numerous mechanisms by which they can escape from immune surveillance. One of these is to produce immunosuppressive cytokines. Transforming growth factor-?(TGF-?) is a pleiotropic cytokine with a crucial function in mediating immune suppression, especially in the tumor microenvironment. TGF-? produced by T cells has been demonstrated as an important factor for suppressing antitumor immune responses, but the role of tumor-derived TGF-? in this process is poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that knockdown of tumor-derived TGF-? using shRNA resulted in dramatically reduced tumor size, slowing tumor formation, prolonging survival rate of tumor-bearing mice and inhibiting metastasis. We revealed possible underlying mechanisms as reducing the number of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells, and consequently enhanced IFN-? production by CTLs. Knockdown of tumor-derived TGF-? also significantly reduced the conversion of naive CD4+ T cells into Treg cells in vitro. Finally, we found that knockdown of TGF-? suppressed cell migration, but did not change the proliferation and apoptosis of tumor cells in vitro. In summary, our study provided evidence that tumor-derived TGF-? is a critical factor for tumor progression and evasion of immune surveillance, and blocking tumor-derived TGF-? may serve as a potential therapeutic approach for cancer.
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Metformin decreases IL-22 secretion to suppress tumor growth in an orthotopic mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Epidemiological, preclinical and cellular studies in the last 5 years have shown that metformin exerts anti-tumoral properties, but its mode of action in cancer remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of metformin on a mouse hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) model and tumor-associated T cell immune responses. Oral metformin administration led to a significant reduction of tumor growth, which was accompanied by decreased interleukin-22 (IL-22). Meanwhile, IL-22-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and up-regulation of downstream genes Bcl-2 and cyclin D1 were inhibited by metformin. At the cellular level, metformin attenuated Th1- and Th17-derived IL-22 production. Furthermore, metformin inhibited de novo generation of Th1 and Th17 cells from naive CD4(+) cells. These observations were further supported by the fact that metformin treatment inhibited CD3/CD28-induced IFN-? and IL-17A expression along with the transcription factors that drive their expression (T-bet (Th1) and ROR-?t (Th17), respectively). The effects of metformin on T cell differentiation were mediated by down-regulated STAT3 and STAT4 phosphorylation via the AMPK-mTORC1 pathway. Notably, metformin led to a reduction in glucose transporter Glut1 expression, resulting in less glucose uptake, which is critical to regulate CD4(+) T cell fate. Taken together, these ?ndings provide evidence for the growth-inhibitory and immune-modulatory effects of metformin in HCC and thus, broaden our understanding about the action of metformin in liver cancer treatment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Relationship of serum MMP-7 levels for colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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This meta-analysis aimed to identify the value of serum matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) levels for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Through searching the following electronic databases: Cochrane Library (Issue 12, 2014), Web of Science (1945?2014), PubMed (1966?2014), CINAHL (1982?2014), EMBASE (1980?2014), and CBM (1982?2014), related articles were determined without any language restrictions. Stata statistical software (Version 12.0, Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA) was chosen to deal with statistical data. Standard mean difference (SMD) and its corresponding 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) were calculated to clarify the correlation between serum MMP-7 levels and CRC. Seven clinical case-control studies which recruited 430 CRC patients and 357 healthy subjects were selected for statistical analysis. The main findings of our meta-analysis showed that the serum MMP-7 level in CRC patients was significantly higher than that in control subjects (SMD?=?2.15, 95 % CI?=?1.46?2.84, P?
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Cbf? deletion in mice recapitulates cleidocranial dysplasia and reveals multiple functions of Cbf? required for skeletal development.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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The pathogenesis of cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) as well as the specific role of core binding factor ? (Cbf?) and the Runt-related transcription factor (RUNX)/Cbf? complex in postnatal skeletogenesis remain unclear. We demonstrate that Cbf? ablation in osteoblast precursors, differentiating chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and odontoblasts via Osterix-Cre, results in severe craniofacial dysplasia, skeletal dysplasia, abnormal teeth, and a phenotype recapitulating the clinical features of CCD. Cbf?(f/f)Osterix-Cre mice have fewer proliferative and hypertrophic chondrocytes, fewer osteoblasts, and almost absent trabecular bone, indicating that Cbf? may maintain trabecular bone formation through its function in hypertrophic chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Cbf?(f/f)Collagen, type 1, alpha 1 (Col1?1)-Cre mice show decreased bone mineralization and skeletal deformities, but no radical deformities in teeth, mandibles, or cartilage, indicating that osteoblast lineage-specific ablation of Cbf? results in milder bone defects and less resemblance to CCD. Activating transcription factor 4 (Atf4) and Osterix protein levels in both mutant mice are dramatically reduced. ChIP assays show that Cbf? directly associates with the promoter regions of Atf4 and Osterix. Our data further demonstrate that Cbf? highly up-regulates the expression of Atf4 at the transcriptional regulation level. Overall, our genetic dissection approach revealed that Cbf? plays an indispensable role in postnatal skeletal development and homeostasis in various skeletal cell types, at least partially by up-regulating the expression of Atf4 and Osterix. It also revealed that CCD may result from functional defects of the Runx2/Cbf? heterodimeric complex in various skeletal cells. These insights into the role of Cbf? in postnatal skeletogenesis and CCD pathogenesis may assist in the development of new therapies for CCD and osteoporosis.
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Core binding factor beta (Cbf?) controls the balance of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation by upregulating Indian hedgehog (Ihh) expression and inhibiting parathyroid hormone-related protein receptor (PPR) expression in postnatal cartilage and bone formation.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Core binding factor beta (Cbf?) is essential for embryonic bone morphogenesis. Yet the mechanisms by which Cbf? regulates chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation as well as postnatal cartilage and bone formation remain unclear. Hence, using paired-related homeobox transcription factor 1-Cre (Prx1-Cre) mice, mesenchymal stem cell-specific Cbf?-deficient (Cbf?(f/f) Prx1-Cre) mice were generated to study the role of Cbf? in postnatal cartilage and bone development. These mutant mice survived to adulthood but exhibited severe sternum and limb malformations. Sternum ossification was largely delayed in the Cbf?(f/f) Prx1-Cre mice and the xiphoid process was noncalcified and enlarged. In newborn and 7-day-old Cbf?(f/f) Prx1-Cre mice, the resting zone was dramatically elongated, the proliferation zone and hypertrophic zone of the growth plates were drastically shortened and disorganized, and trabecular bone formation was reduced. Moreover, in 1-month-old Cbf?(f/f) Prx1-Cre mice, the growth plates were severely deformed and trabecular bone was almost absent. In addition, Cbf? deficiency impaired intramembranous bone formation both in vivo and in vitro. Interestingly, although the expression of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) was largely reduced, the expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) receptor (PPR) was dramatically increased in the Cbf?(f/f) Prx1-Cre growth plate, indicating that that Cbf? deficiency disrupted the Ihh-PTHrP negative regulatory loop. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis and promoter luciferase assay demonstrated that the Runx/Cbf? complex binds putative Runx-binding sites of the Ihh promoter regions, and also the Runx/Cbf? complex directly upregulates Ihh expression at the transcriptional level. Consistently, the expressions of Ihh target genes, including CyclinD1, Ptc, and Pthlh, were downregulated in Cbf?-deficient chondrocytes. Taken together, our study reveals not only that Cbf? is essential for chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation for the growth and maintenance of the skeleton in postnatal mice, but also that it functions in upregulating Ihh expression to promoter chondrocyte proliferation and osteoblast differentiation, and inhibiting PPR expression to enhance chondrocyte differentiation.
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Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: recent advances in China.
J Dig Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Orthotopic liver transplantation is currently the best treatment option for selected patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). From 1980 to 2011, 8874 patients with HCC in China underwent liver transplantation. The organ donation classification criteria of China (China criteria), which are established by the Government of China, are divided into three parts: China criteria I, donation after brain death; China criteria II, donation after cardiac death and China criteria III, donation after dual brain-cardiac death. Data from the China Liver Transplant Registry(CLTR) System shows that patients within the Milan criteria have higher survival rates than those who are beyond these criteria. Based on CLTR data, altogether 416 patients received living-donor liver transplantation(LDLT) in China. Their 1-year and 3-year survival rates were significantly higher than those of the non-LDLT recipients. The most common early stage(<30 days after liver transplantation) complications include pleural effusion, diabetes, peritoneal effusion or abscess, postoperative infection, hypertension and intraperitoneal hemorrhage; while the most common late stage (? 30 days after liver transplantation) complications were diabetes, hypertension, biliary complications,postoperative infection, tacrolimus toxicity and chronic graft rejection. The incidence of vascular complication, which is the main reason for acute graft failure and re-transplantation, was 2.4%. Liver transplantation is an effective treatment for patients with HCC in China.
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Aquisalimonas halophila sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from a hypersaline mine.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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A Gram-negative, moderately halophilic, strictly aerobic strain, designated YIM 95345(T), was isolated from a soil sample of a hypersaline mine in Yunnan province, PR China, and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Strain YIM 95345(T) grew at 15-45 °C (optimum 30-35 °C), 3.0-23.0% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 10.0-11.0%, w/v) and pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.0-8.0). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the organism belongs to the genus Aquisalimonas and exhibited sequence similarity of 96.6% to the sole type strain Aquisalimonas asiatica CG12(T). The predominant isoprenoid quinone was Q-8 and the major fatty acids were C16 : 0, C19 : 0 cyclo ?8c and C18 : 1?7c. The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, three aminolipids and three unidentified phospholipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 59.4 mol%. Based on the results of our comparative phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and physiological analyses, the new isolate is assigned to a novel species of the genus Aquisalimonas, for which the name Aquisalimonas halophila sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain YIM 95345(T) (?= DSM 25902(T)?= CCTCC AB 2012043(T)).
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Fates of Fe3O4 and Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles in human mesenchymal stem cells assessed by synchrotron radiation-based techniques.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) have been widely used as the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent in biomedical studies and clinical applications, with special interest recently in in vivo stem cell tracking. However, a full understanding of the fate of SPIOs in cells has not been achieved yet, which is particularly important for stem cells since any change of the microenvironment may disturb their propagation and differentiation behaviors. Herein, synchrotron radiation-based X-ray fluorescence (XRF) in combination with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) were used to in situ reveal the fate of Fe3O4 and Fe3O4@SiO2 NPs in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), in which the dynamic changes of their distribution and chemical speciation were precisely determined. The XAS analysis evidences that Fe3O4 NPs cultured with hMSCs are quite stable and almost keep their initial chemical form up to 14 days, which is contradictory to the previous report that Fe3O4 NPs were unstable in cell labeling assessed by using a simplified lysosomal model system. Coating with a SiO2 shell, Fe3O4@SiO2 NPs present higher stability in hMSCs without detectable changes of their chemical form. In addition, XRF analysis demonstrates that Fe3O4@SiO2 NPs can label hMSCs in a high efficiency manner and are solely distributed in cytoplasm during cell proliferation, making it an ideal probe for in vivo stem cell tracking. These findings with the help of synchrotron radiation-based XAS and XRF improve our understanding of the fate of SPIOs administered to hMSCs and will help the future design of SPIOs for safe and efficient stem cells tracking.
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N-acetyl-l-cystine (NAC) protects against H9N2 swine influenza virus-induced acute lung injury.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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The antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) had been shown to inhibit replication of seasonal human influenza A viruses. Here, the effects of NAC on H9N2 swine influenza virus-induced acute lung injury (ALI) were investigated in mice. BALB/c mice were inoculated intranasally with 10(7) 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID(50)) of A/swine/HeBei/012/2008/(H9N2) viruses with or without NAC treatments to induce ALI model. The result showed that pulmonary inflammation, pulmonary edema, MPO activity, total cells, neutrophils, macrophages, TNF-?, IL-6, IL-1? and CXCL-10 in BALF were attenuated by NAC. Moreover, our data showed that NAC significantly inhibited the levels of TLR4 protein and TLR4 mRNA in the lungs. Pharmacological inhibitors of TLR4 (E5564) exerted similar effects like those determined for NAC in H9N2 swine influenza virus-infected mice. These results suggest that antioxidants like NAC represent a potential additional treatment option that could be considered in the case of an influenza A virus pandemic.
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Poor outcome prediction by burst suppression ratio in adults with post-anoxic coma without hypothermia.
Neurol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Burst suppression ratio (BSR) is a quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) parameter. The purpose of our study was to compare the accuracy of BSR when compared to other EEG parameters in predicting poor outcomes in adults who sustained post-anoxic coma while not being subjected to therapeutic hypothermia.
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Structural basis for DNA recognition and nuclease processing by the Mre11 homologue SbcD in double-strand breaks repair.
Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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The Mre11 complex comprising meiotic recombination 11 (Mre11), Rad50 and Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1 (Nbs1) plays multiple important roles in the sensing, processing and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Here, crystal structures of the Escherichia coli Mre11 homologue SbcD and its Mn2+ complex are reported. Dimerization of SbcD depends on a four-helix bundle consisting of helices ?2, ?3, ?2' and ?3' of the two monomers, and the irregular and bent conformation of helices ?3 and ?3' in the SbcD dimer results in a dimeric arrangement that differs from those of previously reported Mre11 dimers. This finding indicates a distinct selectivity in DNA substrate recognition. The biochemical data combined with the crystal structures revealed that the SbcD monomer exhibits single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) endonuclease activity and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) exonuclease activity on the addition of a high concentration of Mn2+. For the first time, atomic force microscopy analysis has been used to demonstrate that the SbcD monomer also possesses Mn2+-dependent dsDNA endonuclease activity. Loop ?7-?6 of SbcD is likely to be a molecular switch and plays an important role in the regulation of substrate binding, catalytic reaction and state transitions. Based on structural and mutational analyses, a novel ssDNA-binding model of SbcD is proposed, providing insight into the catalytic mechanism of DSBs repair by the Mre11 complex.
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Semen cassiae attenuates myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury in high-fat diet streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats.
Am. J. Chin. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which is characterized by hyperglycemia, are liable to more severe myocardial infarction. Semen Cassiae is proven to reduce serum lipid levels. This study investigated whether the Semen Cassiae extract (SCE) reduces myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (MI/R) injury with or without diabetes and the underlying mechanisms. The high-fat diet-fed streptozotocin (HFD-STZ) rat model was created as a T2DM model. Normal and DM rats received SCE treatment orally (10 mg/kg/day) for one week. Subsequently these animals were subjected to MI/R. Compared with the normal animals, DM rats showed increased plasma total cholesterol (TC) and triacylglycerol (TG), and more severe MI/R injury and cardiac functional impairment. SCE treatment significantly reduced the plasma TC and TG, improved the instantaneous first derivation of left ventricle pressure and reduced infarct size, decreased plasma creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels, and apoptosis index at the end of reperfusion in diabetic rats. Moreover, SCE treatment increased the antiapoptotic protein Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation levels. Pretreatment with a PI3K inhibitor wortmannin or an ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 not only blocked Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation respectively, but also inhibited the cardioprotective effects of SCE. However, SCE treatment did not show any effects on the MI/R injury in the normal rats. Our data suggest that SCE effectively improves myocardial function and reduces MI/R-induced injury in diabetic but not normal animals, which is possibly attributed to the reduced TC/TG levels and the triggered cell survival signaling Akt and ERK1/2.
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Isolation and identification of acaricidal compounds in Eupatorium adenophorum petroleum ether extract and determination of their acaricidal activity against Psoroptes cuniculi.
Vet. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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We used multiple silica gel column chromatography and thin-layer chromatography coupled with (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and (13)C NMR to separate and identify the active acaricidal ingredients in Eupatorium adenophorum petroleum ether extract. The acaricidal activity of each compound was tested against Psoroptes cuniculi in vitro. Three compounds had strong acaricidal activity against P. cuniculi in vitro. The insecticidal effect of 0.5% compound 9?-hydroxy-ageraphorone was better than the insecticidal effect of fenvalerate, and compounds 9-oxo-ageraphorone and 9-oxo-10,11-dehydro-ageraphorone exhibited higher insecticidal effects than 9?-hydroxy-ageraphorone. Thus, the E. adenophorum petroleum ether extract contains an effective composition of acaricides that could potentially be developed as a promising plant-origin acaricide.
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Acaricidal activity of petroleum ether extracts from Eupatorium adenophorum against the ectoparasitic cattle mite, Chorioptes texanus.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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In this study, we evaluated the acaricidal efficacy of extracts obtained from the plant Eupatorium adenophorum against the common cattle mite Chorioptes texanus. The results showed that 95% ethanol extracts at concentrations of 1.0, 0.5, and 0.25 g/mL (w/v) were highly toxic to C. texanus in vitro, killing 100% of mites in 4 h. Similarly, petroleum ether extracts of E. adenophorum resulted in between 80 and 100% mortality of mites in vitro at concentrations of 0.1, 0.05, and 0.025 mL/mL (v/v) within 4 h. In clinical trials, all infected individuals completely recovered after two treatments administered at 7-day intervals and remained disease-free at 60 days posttreatment. The clinical effect of treatment with E. adenophorum petroleum ether extracts was similar to that of treatment with the acaricide fenvalerate. These results indicated that E. adenophorum contains novel potential acaricidal compounds that can effectively control mites in livestock.
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MAGEC2, an epithelial-mesenchymal transition inducer, is associated with breast cancer metastasis.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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MAGEC2 is a member of melanoma antigen (MAGE) family of cancer-testis antigens and associated with tumor relapse and metastasis. Here, we investigated the expression of MAGEC2 in patients with breast cancer and its clinical effects with underlying mechanisms. The expression levels of MAGEC2 were compared between 420 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and 120 ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. Correlations between MAGEC2 expression and clinico-pathologic factors or survival of patients with IDC were analyzed. In addition, MAGEC2 expression levels in tumor tissues dissected from the primary focus and matched tumor-invaded axillary lymph nodes were analyzed in 8 breast cancer patients. The functional effects of MAGEC2 overexpression were assessed in vitro using scratch assay and transwell chamber assay. MAGEC2 expression was increased in metastatic breast cancer in comparison to the non-metastatic. MAGEC2 expression was significantly associated with ER negative expression (P = 0.037), high tumor grade (P = 0.014) and stage (P = 0.002), high incidence of axillary lymph node metastasis (P = 0.013), and distant metastasis (P = 0.004). Patients with tumor with MAGEC2 positive expression have a worse prognosis and a shorter metastasis free interval. Multivariate analyses showed that MAGEC2 expression was an independent risk factor for patient overall survival and metastasis-free survival. Breast cancer cells that overexpressed MAGEC2 had stronger migratory and invasive potential than control-treated cells. Epithelial markers (E-cadherin and cytokeratin) were down-regulated in MAGEC2-overexpressing cells compared to controls, whereas mesenchymal markers (vimentin and fibronectin) were upregulated. Our results indicate that MAGEC2 has a role in breast cancer metastasis through inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In addition, MAGEC2 is a novel independent poor prognostic factor in patients with IDC. Thus, targeting MAGEC2 may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for breast cancer treatment.
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Preliminary study on the role of virtual touch tissue quantification combined with a urinary ?2-microglobulin test on the early diagnosis of gouty kidney damage.
Ultrasound Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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The goal of the work described here was to evaluate the role of virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ) combined with urinary ?2-microglobulin (?2-MG) measurement in the early diagnosis of gouty kidney damage. Two hundred fifty-nine patients with gouty kidney damage and 200 healthy control subjects were tested. The shear wave velocity (SWV) of the renal parenchyma and sinus as determined with VTQ and the urinary ?2-MG level of the two groups were analyzed. Although there were no significant differences in age, body mass index, creatinine level and blood urea nitrogen between the two groups (all p's > 0.05), the aforementioned parameters were higher in the group with gouty kidney damage than in the control group. Urinary ?2-MG levels of the patients with kidney damage were significantly higher than those of the control subjects (t = 6.38, p < 0.01). The SWV of the renal parenchyma was higher than that of the sinus in both groups. Compared with controls, patients with kidney damage had significantly increased renal parenchyma and sinus SWVs (all p-values < 0.05). Urinary ?2-MG level was positively linearly correlated with the SWV of renal parenchyma in patients with kidney damage (r = 0.442, p < 0.0001). However, there was no correlation between urinary ?2-MG level and the SWV of the sinus in patients with kidney damage (r = 0). In the control group, there was no correlation between urinary ?2-MG level and the SWV of the renal parenchyma or sinus. The elasticity of the kidney as determined with VTQ, combined with the urinary ?2-MG level, may be helpful in the early diagnosis of gouty kidney damage.
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Protection against lung cancer patient plasma-induced lymphocyte suppression by Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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This study was conducted to determine the potential of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS) in protection against lung cancer patient plasma-induced suppression of lymphocytes. Lung cancer is a major cause of disease and loss of life in the United States and worldwide. Cancer cells release immunosuppressive mediators, such as PGE2, TGF-?, IL-10, and VEGF, to inhibit the immune response to escape from immune surveillance. Gl-PS has been shown to counteract this immune inhibition in an animal cell culture model, and thus to facilitate tumor control. The present study explored whether or not such an effect could also be demonstrated in human lung cancer patients.
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Genome-wide mapping of DNase I hypersensitive sites and association analysis with gene expression in MSB1 cells.
Front Genet
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) mark diverse classes of cis-regulatory regions, such as promoters and enhancers. MSB-1 derived from chicken Marek's disease (MD) lymphomas is an MDV-transformed CD4+ T-cell line for MD study. Previously, DNase I HS sites were studied mainly in human cell types for mammalian. To capture the regulatory elements specific to MSB1 cells and explore the molecular mechanisms of T-cell transformation caused by MDV in MD, we generated high-quality of DHSs map and gene expression profile for functional analysis in MSB1 cell line. The total of 21,724 significant peaks of DHSs was identified from around 40 million short reads. DHSs distribution varied between chromosomes and they preferred to enrich in the gene-rich chromosomes. More interesting, DHSs enrichments appeared to be scarce on regions abundant in CpG islands. Besides, we integrated DHSs into the gene expression data and found that DHSs tended to enrich on high expressed genes throughout whole gene regions while DHSs did not show significant changes for low and silent expressed genes. Furthermore, the correlation of DHSs with lincRNAs expression was also calculated and it implied that enhancer-associated lincRNAs probably originated from enhancer-like regions of DHSs. Together, our results indicated that DNase I HS sites highly correlate with active genes expression in MSB1 cells, suggesting DHSs can be considered as markers to identify the cis-regulatory elements associated with chicken Marek's disease.
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Association of five SNPs at the PARK16 locus as a susceptibility locus with Parkinsons disease for forensic application.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2013
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To investigate the association of five SNPs (rs823083, rs708723, rs4951261, rs823076 and rs16856110) at the PARK16 locus with Parkinsons disease (PD), and to potentiate its forensic application. The genomic DNAs of 215 PD patients and 212 matched controls from the northern Han Chinese population were amplified in two independent PCR systems and subsequently genotyped by digestion with the three endonucleases (Hinf I, Nco I and Msp I ). The genetic parameters and association studies were carried out with SPSS 13.0, Haploview version 4.2 and PLINK 1.07 softwares. We detected accurately all genotypes in the five SNPs with multiplex PCR-RFLP and mismatched multiplex PCR-RFLP techniques. The genotypes of four SNPs, except for rs823083, were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The four SNPs, rs16856110, rs4951261, rs708723 and rs823076, which were in linkage equilibrium, should not be associated with PD (P-values ranging from 0.077 to 0.544). The SNPs investigated at the PARK16 locus were not found to be involved in PD-associated blocks in the northern Han Chinese population. The allele distributions of rs708723, rs4951261, rs823076 and rs16856110 in the northern Han Chinese population can be highly polymorphic, which can be applied to genetic analysis and forensic practices.
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Alpha-linolenic acid intake prevents endothelial dysfunction in high-fat diet-fed streptozotocin rats and underlying mechanisms.
VASA
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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Endothelial dysfunction is an important factor in the pathogenesis of diabetes related vascular complications, and acute alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) intake can increase flow-mediated dilation of the diabetic artery at 4 h postprandially. However, whether chronic ALA supplementation may prevent endothelial dysfunction in the process of diabetes and underlying mechanisms remains largely unknown.
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New microbiota found in sputum from patients with community-acquired pneumonia.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2013
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Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major concern in hospitals and the bacterial community of which has not been systemically discussed yet. Sputum from patients in the acute stages is a kind of accessible sample reflecting its features. In our study, we analyzed 45 sputum samples from 45 patients with CAP. Eighteen sputum samples from healthy people were chosen as the controls. Pyrosequencing of the 16s rDNA V3 hypervariable regions of all the bacteria contained in the sputum was used as a culture-independent method to disclose the community constitution. Also, our published data for hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) in sputum was used for comparison. By pyrosequencing, >90,000 DNA reads were detected. After being analyzed by tools in the Ribosomal Database Project, the reads were classified into five main phyla and >100 genera. At the phyla level, the reads distribution of CAP is similar to that of healthy people and at genera level, the occurrence of each genus possesses their feature in three categories. Genera such as Streptococcus and Neisseria showed stability in their percentages, indicating that such genera are rarely affected by exogenous bacteria or antibiotics. The role of other genera such as Moraxella and Rothia in CAP should be emphasized. According to our analysis, the bacterial communities of CAP are with slight change when compared with those of healthy people, but have a large gap between HAP. Meanwhile, Rothia might be an important endogenous pneumonia-causing factor.
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Comparison of next-generation sequencing and clone-based sequencing in analysis of hepatitis B virus reverse transcriptase quasispecies heterogeneity.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2013
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We previously reported that, based on clone-based sequencing (CBS), hepatitis B virus (HBV) heterogeneity within the reverse transcriptase (RT) region was a predictor of antiviral efficacy. Here, by comparing ultradeep pyrosequencing (UDPS), i.e., next-generation sequencing (NGS), with CBS in characterizing the genetic heterogeneity of HBV quasispecies within the RT region, we evaluated the performance of UDPS in the analysis of HBV viral populations. HBV genomic DNA was extracted from serum samples from 31 antiviral treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis B. The RT region quasispecies were analyzed in parallel using CBS and UDPS. Characterization of quasispecies heterogeneity was conducted using bioinformatics analysis. Quasispecies complexity values were calculated with the formula Sn = -?i(pilnpi)/lnN. The number of qualified strains obtained by UDPS was much larger than that obtained by CBS (P < 0.001). Pearson analysis showed that there was a positive correlation of quasispecies complexity values at the nucleotide level for the two methods (P < 0.05), while the complexity value derived from UDPS data was higher than that derived from CBS data (P < 0.001). Study of the prevalences of variations within the RT region showed that CBS detected an average of 9.7 ± 1.1 amino acid substitutions/sample and UDPS detected an average of 16.2 ± 1.4 amino acid substitutions/sample. The phylogenetic analysis based on UDPS data showed more genetic entities than did that based on CBS data. Viral heterogeneity determination by the UDPS technique is more sensitive and efficient in terms of low-abundance variation detection and quasispecies simulation than that by the CBS method, although imperfect, and thus sheds light on the future clinical application of NGS in HBV quasispecies studies.
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Genotype diversity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Shenyang, China.
Scand. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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The aim of this study was to better understand methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at the molecular level by investigating the genotypic characteristics and evolutionary patterns of MRSA clones in Shenyang, China.
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Fabrication of highly fluorescent graphene quantum dots using L-glutamic acid for in vitro/in vivo imaging and sensing.
J Mater Chem C Mater Opt Electron Devices
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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A facile bottom-up method for the synthesis of highly fluorescent graphene quantum dots (GQDs) has been developed using a one-step pyrolysis of a natural amino acid, L-glutamic acid, with the assistance of a simple heating mantle device. The developed GQDs showed strong blue, green and red luminescence under the irradiation of ultra-violet, blue and green light, respectively. Moreover, the GQDs emitted near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence in the range of 800-850 nm with the excitation-dependent manner. This NIR fluorescence has a large Stokes shift of 455 nm, providing significant advantage for sensitive determination and imaging of biological targets. The fluorescence properties of the GQDs, such as quantum yields, fluorescence life time, and photostability, were measured and the fluorescence quantum yield was as high as 54.5 %. The morphology and composites of the GQDs were characterized using TEM, SEM, EDS, and FT-IR. The feasibility of using the GQDs as a fluorescent biomarker was investigated through in vitro and in vivo fluorescence imaging. The results showed that the GQDs could be a promising candidate for bioimaging. Most importantly, compared to the traditional quantum dots (QDs), the GQDs is chemically inert. Thus, the potential toxicity of the intrinsic heavy metal in the traditional QDs would not be a concern for GQDs. In addition, the GQDs possessed an intrinsic peroxidase-like catalytic activity that was similar to the graphene sheets and carbon nanotubes. Coupled with 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), the GQDs can be used for the sensitive detection of hydrogen peroxide with a limit of detection of 20 ?M.
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Achyranthes bidentata polypeptides reduces oxidative stress and exerts protective effects against myocardial ischemic/reperfusion injury in rats.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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Achyranthes bidentata, a Chinese medicinal herb, is reported to be neuroprotective. However, its role in cardioprotection remains largely unknown. Our present study aimed to investigate the effects of Achyranthes bidentata polypeptides (ABPP) preconditioning on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury and to test the possible mechanisms. Rats were treated with ABPP (10 mg/kg/d, i.p.) or saline once daily for one week. Afterward, all the animals were subjected to 30 min of myocardial ischemia followed by 4 h of reperfusion. ABPP preconditioning for one week significantly improved cardiac function following MI/R. Meanwhile, ABPP reduced infarct size, plasma creatine kinase (CK)/lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and myocardial apoptosis at the end of reperfusion in rat hearts. Moreover, ABPP preconditioning significantly inhibited superoxide generation, gp91phox expression, malonaldialdehyde formation and enhanced superoxide dismutase activity in I/R hearts. Furthermore, ABPP treatment inhibited PTEN expression and increased Akt phosphorylation in I/R rat heart. PI3K inhibitor wortmannin blocked Akt activation, and abolished ABPP-stimulated anti-oxidant effect and cardioprotection. Our study demonstrated for the first time that ABPP reduces oxidative stress and exerts cardioprotection against MI/R injury in rats. Inhibition of PTEN and activation of Akt may contribute to the anti-oxidant capacity and cardioprotection of ABPP.
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"One-step production of biodiesel from Jatropha oil with high-acid value in ionic liquids" [Bioresour. Technol. 102 (11) (2011)].
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
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Catalytic conversion of un-pretreated Jatropha oil with high-acid value (13.8 mg KOH/g) to biodiesel was studied in ionic liquids (ILs) with metal chlorides. Several commercial ILs were used to catalyze the esterification of oleic acid. It was found that 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tosylate {[BMIm][TS]} had high catalytic activity with 93% esterification rate for oleic acid at 140 °C but only 63.7% Jatropha biodiesel yield at 200 °C. When ZnCl2 was added to [BMIm][TS], a maximum Jatropha biodiesel yield of 92.5% was achieved at 180 °C. Addition of metal ions supplied Lewis acidic sites in ILs promoted both esterification and transestrification reactions. It was also found that the transition metal ions performed higher catalytic activity in transestrification than the ions of Group A. Mixture of [BMIm][TS] and ZnCl2 was easily separated from products for reuse to avoid producing pollutants.
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Hydrophilic carbon nanoonions coated with carbon nanobubbles by laser ablation of carbon black suspension.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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Hydrophilic carbon nanoonions coated with carbon nanobubbles were synthesized by long-pulse-width laser ablating of carbon black particles suspended in water. The high resolution TEM (HTREM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and Raman spectrometer results revealed that the crystallinity and the structure of carbon nanoonions. All analysis techniques showed that the hydrophilic properties of carbon nanoonions could be ascribed to both hydrophilic groups and carbon nanobubbles simultaneously formed on the surface of the synthesized carbon nanoonions under laser ablation, in which the carbon nanobubbles were also believed to improve the specific surface area and form more hydrophilic groups by chemical or physical absorption.
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Nrf2 suppresses lupus nephritis through inhibition of oxidative injury and the NF-?B-mediated inflammatory response.
Kidney Int.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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The generation of reactive oxygen species has a pivotal role in both acute and chronic glomerular injuries in patients with lupus nephritis. As the transcription factor Nrf2 is a major regulator of the antioxidant response and is a primary cellular defense mechanism, we sought to determine a role of Nrf2 in the progression of lupus nephritis. Pathological analyses of renal biopsies from patients with different types of lupus nephritis showed oxidative damage in the glomeruli, accompanied by an active Nrf2 antioxidant response. A murine lupus nephritis model using Nrf2(+/+) and Nrf2(-/-) mice was established using pristine injection. In this model, Nrf2(-/-) mice suffered from greater renal damage and had more severe pathological alterations in the kidney. In addition, Nrf2(+/+) mice showed ameliorative renal function when treated with sulforaphane, an Nrf2 inducer. Nrf2(-/-) mice had higher expression of transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF?1), fibronectin, and iNOS. In primary mouse mesangial cells, the nephritogenic monoclonal antibody R4A activated the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) pathway and increased the level of reactive oxygen species, iNOS, TGF?1, and fibronectin. Knockdown of Nrf2 expression aggravated all aforementioned responses induced by R4A. Thus, these results suggest that Nrf2 improves lupus nephritis by neutralizing reactive oxygen species and by negatively regulating the NF-?B and TGF?1 signaling pathways.Kidney International advance online publication, 11 September 2013; doi:10.1038/ki.2013.343.
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Evaluating pharmacokinetics and toxicity of luminescent quantum dots.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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Luminescent quantum dots (QDs) are widely utilized in the field of biology and medicine due to their excellent optical properties. The ultimate goal of QD research is the fabrication of favorable luminescent nanoprobes or nanocarriers. However, their toxicity and pharmacokinetics, in the human body, are of crucial concern and must be thoroughly investigated before QDs are used in clinical applications.
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Long-period gratings inscribed in photonic crystal fiber by symmetric CO2 laser irradiation.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Long-period gratings (LPGs) inscribed in endlessly single mode (ESM) photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) with symmetric and asymmetric CO2 laser irradiation are investigated both numerically and experimentally. Parallel results from conventional single mode fibers (SMFs) are presented for comparison. Theoretical predictions, transmission measurements, and near-field imaging indicate that, regardless of the fiber type, symmetric index perturbation induced by laser irradiation with the aid of a 120° gold-coated reflecting mirror results in LP(0n) symmetric mode coupling, while asymmetric irradiation without using the mirror leads to LP(1n) asymmetric mode coupling. Our results show that, because of the azimuthally anisotropic hexagonal cladding structure, symmetric irradiation yields far more reproducible LPGs in PCFs than asymmetric irradiation. On the other hand, the irradiation symmetry has little effect on the reproducibility of LPGs inscribed in SMFs due to the isotropy of its all-solid cladding structure.
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Analytical Solutions of Travel Time to a Pumping Well with Variable Evapotranspiration.
Ground Water
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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Analytical solutions of groundwater travel time to a pumping well in an unconfined aquifer have been developed in previous studies, however, the change in evapotranspiration was not considered. Here, we develop a mathematical model of unconfined flow toward a discharge well with redistribution of groundwater evapotranspiration for travel time analysis. Dependency of groundwater evapotranspiration on the depth to water table is described using a linear formula with an extinction depth. Analytical solutions of groundwater level and travel time are obtained. For a typical hypothetical example, these solutions perfectly agree with the numerical simulation results based on MODFLOW and MODPATH. As indicated in a dimensionless framework, a lumped parameter which is proportional to the pumping rate controls the distributions of groundwater evapotranspiration rate and the travel time along the radial direction.
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Sepsis-associated Cholestasis in Adult Patients: A Prospective Study.
Am. J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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Sepsis-associated cholestasis is a common problem in neonatal patients. However, there are limited data related to sepsis-associated cholestasis in adults. In this study, the authors assessed the clinical characteristics, risk factors and outcome of adult patients with sepsis-associated cholestasis.
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Evaluation acaricidal efficacy of botanical extract from Eupatorium adenophorum against the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acari: Ixodidae).
Exp. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the acaricidal activity of a botanical extract from Eupatorium adenophorum against the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis. This could result in developing effective extracts of E. adenophorum as a source of natural, low-toxicity plant-based acaricidal drugs. Adult engorged females of H. longicornis were collected from naturally infected goats. The engorged females were reared in the laboratory and their offspring (larvae and nymphs) were used as test ectoparasites. The toxic effects of botanical extracts from E. adenophorum against larvae and nymphs of H. longicornis were evaluated. The results showed that the extracts with 1.5 and 1.0g/ml (w/v) concentrations were toxic for H. longicornis, comparable to a toxic effect of 2% chlorpyrifos (positive control). The median lethal time (LT50) for larval and nymphal ticks with 1.5g/ml (w/v) concentration of extract were 0.790 (LT99=1.065) and 1.018 (LT99=10.608) hours, respectively, whereas the LT50 of 1.0g/ml (w/v) concentration were 1.445 (LT99=6.047) and 1.313 (LT99=29.932) hours for larval and nymphal ticks, respectively. At a concentration of 1.5g/ml (w/v), an acaricidal effect of 100% was achieved for both larval and nymphal ticks, while a concentration of 1.0g/ml (w/v) resulted in 100% (for larvae) and 93% (for nymphs) within a 6h period. In additional, we found that the relatively low concentration (0.5g/ml) also obtained a good acaricidal effect during the short experimental period, with 2.22 and 2.651h LT50 for larval and nymphal ticks, respectively. These results indicate that E. adenophorum contains potent acaricidal ingredients against the hard tick H. longicornis.
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[Peripheral nervous impairment in a patient with methylmalonic aciduria combined with hyperhomocysteinemia].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Methylmalonic aciduria combined homocysteinemia can cause multisystemic damages, mainly involving central nervous system, while the peripheral nerves are rarely impaired. A 10-year-old boy complained of weakness of both lower extremities for 1 month. His past history showed mildly delay of intelligence as well as motor development. He had proteinuria when he was 3 years old and was diagnosed as epilepsy, which was controlled by sodium valproate when he was 8 years 6 months old. His physical examination showed attenuated bilateral knee jerk reflex, while the bilateral achilles tendon reflex was absent; the examination of sensation was normal and the bilateral Babinski sign was positive. The electromyography indicated injury of peripheral nerves. The elevated levels of urine methylmalonic aciduria and plasma homocysteinemia were consistent with the diagnosis of methylmalonic aciduria combined homocysteinemia. The pathogenic gene was confirmed as MMACHC, on which two pathogenic mutations (c.365A>T and c.609G>A) were detected. cblC defect was confirmed. He was treated by vitamin B12, calcium folinate, L-carnitine and betaine supplementation, and significant improvement was observed after 6 months. According to this case, we suggest that urinary organic acid analysis and plasma homocysteine should be performed in patients with unknown peripheral neuropathy, especially combined with multisystemic damages.Early diagnosis and treatment are important to improve the prognosis.
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DNMT gene expression and methylome in Mareks disease resistant and susceptible chickens prior to and following infection by MDV.
Epigenetics
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Mareks disease (MD) is characterized as a T cell lymphoma induced by a cell-associated ?-herpesvirus, Mareks disease virus type 1 (MDV1). As with many viral infectious diseases, DNA methylation variations were observed in the progression of MD; these variations are thought to play an important role in host-virus interactions. We observed that DNA methyltransferase 3a (DNMT3a) and 3b (DNMT3b) were differentially expressed in chicken MD-resistant line 6 3 and MD-susceptible line 7 2 at 21 d after MDV infection. To better understand the role of methylation variation induced by MDV infection in both chicken lines, we mapped the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in each line using Methyl-MAPS (methylation mapping analysis by paired-end sequencing). Collectively, the data sets collected in this study provide a more comprehensive picture of the chicken methylome. Overall, methylation levels were reduced in chickens from the resistant line 6 3 after MDV infection. We identified 11,512 infection-induced differential methylation regions (iDMRs). The number of iDMRs was larger in line 7 2 than in line 6 3, and most of iDMRs found in line 6 3 were overlapped with the iDMRs found in line 7 2. We further showed that in vitro methylation levels were associated with MDV replication, and found that MDV propagation in the infected cells was restricted by pharmacological inhibition of DNA methylation. Our results suggest that DNA methylation in the host may be associated with disease resistance or susceptibility. The methylation variations induced by viral infection may consequentially change the host transcriptome and result in diverse disease outcomes.
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Recompression in new levels after percutaneous vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty compared with conservative treatment.
Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2013
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A prospective clinical study assessing new vertebral compression fracture after previous treatment.
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Simple alcohols promoted direct C-H arylation of unactivated arenes with aryl halides.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Simple and cheap alcohols can promote the direct arylation of unactivated arenes with aryl iodides and bromides in the presence of potassium tert-butoxide. This transition-metal-free aromatic C-H transformation offers a cheap and easy practical way to synthesize biaryls under mild conditions.
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Antagonism by Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharides Against the Suppression by Culture Supernatants of B16F10 Melanoma Cells on Macrophage.
Phytother Res
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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It is well-documented that macrophages have the functions to regulate antitumor immune response. Antitumor response can be launched by a series of events, starting with inflammation mediated by monocyte/macrophages, which stimulates natural killer and dendritic cells and finally activates the cytotoxic lymphoid system. Monocytes/macrophages may be the first line of defense in tumors. However, specific and nonspecific immunotherapy for human cancer has shown no success or limited success in clinical trials. Part of the reasons attribute to tumor-derived soluble factors that suppress functions of immune cells or induce apoptosis of these cells, including macrophages. Therefore, antagonism of the suppression on the macrophages is an important goal for tumor immunotherapy. To achieve this purpose, Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS) with multiple bioactivities were used on mouse peritoneal macrophages incubating with culture supernatants of B16F10 melanoma cells (B16F10-CS). It was shown that the viability, phagocytic activity, NO production, TNF-? production and activity in peritoneal macrophages after activation by lipopolysaccharide were suppressed by B16F10-CS, while the suppressions were fully or partially antagonized by Gl-PS. In conclusion, B16F10-CS is suppressive to the viability, phagocytic activity, NO production, TNF-? production and activity in peritoneal macrophages while Gl-PS had the antagonistic effects against this suppression, suggesting this potential of Gl-PS to facilitate cancer immunotherapy. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Corrosion behavior of pure titanium in the presence of Actinomyces naeslundii.
J Mater Sci Mater Med
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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It is well known that some microorganisms affect the corrosion of dental metal. Oral bacteria such as Actinomyces naeslundii may alter the corrosion behavior and stability of titanium. In this study, the corrosion behavior of titanium was studied in a nutrient-rich medium both in the presence and the absence of A. naeslundii using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). A. naeslundii was able to colonize the surface of titanium and then form a dense biofilm. The SEM images revealed the occurrence of micropitting corrosion on the metal surface after removal of the biofilm. The electrochemical corrosion results from EIS showed a significant decrease in the corrosion resistant (R(p)) value after immersing the metal in A. naeslundii culture for 3 days. Correspondingly, XPS revealed a reduction in the relative levels of titanium and oxygen and an obvious reduction of dominant titanium dioxide (TiO?) in the surface oxides after immersion of the metal in A. naeslundii culture. These results suggest that the metabolites produced by A. naeslundii can weaken the integrity and stability of the protective TiO? in the surface oxides, which in turn decreases the corrosion resistance of titanium, resulting in increased corrosion of titanium immersed in A. naeslundii solution as a function of time.
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Compressed carbon nanotubes: a family of new multifunctional carbon allotropes.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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The exploration of novel functional carbon polymorphs is an enduring topic of scientific investigations. In this paper, we present simulations demonstrating metastable carbon phases as the result of pressure induced carbon nanotube polymerization. The configuration, bonding, electronic, and mechanical characteristics of carbon polymers strongly depend on the imposed hydrostatic/non-hydrostatic pressure, as well as on the geometry of the raw carbon nanotubes including diameter, chirality, stacking manner, and wall number. Especially, transition processes under hydrostatic/non-hydrostatic pressure are investigated, revealing unexpectedly low transition barriers and demonstrating sp(2)?sp(3) bonding changes as well as peculiar oscillations of electronic property (e.g., semiconducting?metallic?semiconducting transitions). These polymerized nanotubes show versatile and superior physical properties, such as superhardness, high tensile strength and ductility, and tunable electronic properties (semiconducting or metallic).
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Clinical efficacy of botanical extracts from Eupatorium adenophorum against the Sarcoptes scabiei (Sarcoptidae: Sarcoptes) in rabbits.
Vet. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2013
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The aims of present study were to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of extracts from Eupatorium adenophorum against Sarcoptes scabiei. A 30-day experiment was performed using New Zealand rabbits that were naturally infested with S. scabiei in the toes (n=30) or artificially infected in the external ear margin with S. scabiei (n=30). Rabbits were randomly divided into five groups (6 animals per group, A-E groups for rabbits of naturally infested and F-J groups for artificially infected rabbits), respectively. All 60 rabbits were treated twice on days 0 and 7 successively. Animals in groups A/F, B/G, and C/H were treated on each toe/external ear margin with topical E. adenophorum ethanol extract at 1.0, 0.5 and 0.25 g/ml (w/v), respectively. Animals in groups D/I and E/J were treated with ivermectin by injections (positive controls) or by glycerol with water only rubbed onto the affected area (negative controls). After two treatments with extracts of E. adenophorum with relatively high concentrations of 0.5 and 1g/ml, the S. scabiei was completely eliminated in rabbits between days 14 and 30. Our results showed that rabbits treated with ivermectin (positive controls) and those treated with the extracts of concentrations of 1.0 or 0.5 g/ml achieved remarkable therapeutic efficacy; no mites were present in toes of rabbits in these groups on day 14, which confirmed a 100% therapeutic efficacy rate up to day 30 of the end of the trial. The clinical effects of treatment with 1.0 and 0.5 g/ml E. adenophorum extracts (groups A and B) were similar to ivermectin treatment. However, the therapeutic efficacy in group C and E rabbits only reached 43.25% and 7.13% by day 14. Furthermore, the therapeutic efficacy improved slightly by the end of the experiment on day 30, and rabbits in groups F, G and I also achieved good efficacy according to the recovery scoring criteria. These results indicate that E. adenophorum contains potent compounds for the effective control of sarcoptidosis.
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Long-term effects of a combination of D-penicillamine and zinc salts in the treatment of Wilsons disease in children.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a high-dose zinc sulfate and low-dose D-penicillamine combination in the treatment of pediatric Wilsons disease (WD). A retropective chart review of 65 patients with WD was conducted. These patients received D-penicillamine (8-10 mg/kg/day) and zinc sulfate as the primary treatment. The pediatric dose of elemental zinc is 68-85 mg/day until 6 years of age, 85-136 mg/day until 8 years of age, 136-170 mg/day until 10 years of age and then 170 mg/day, in 3 divided doses 1 h before meals. After clinical and biochemical improvement or stabilization, zinc sulfate alone was administered as the maintenance therapy. Under treatment, the majority of patients (89.2%) had a favourable outcome and 3 patients succumbed due to poor therapy compliance. No penicillamine-induced neurological deterioration was noted and side-effects were observed in <11% of patients over the entire follow-up period. Benefical results on the liver and neurological symptoms were reported following extremely long-term treatment with a combination of low-dose D-penicillamine and high-dose zinc sulfate. Therefore, this regimen is an effective and safe treatment for children with WD.
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RSE prediction by EEG patterns in adult GCSE patients.
Epilepsy Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Electroencephalogram (EEG) can predict mortality in status epilepticus (SE) patients. However, we consider that the prediction for refractory status epilepticus (RSE) after SE initial treatment is more significant than long-term prognosis of SE. The objective of this study is to detect some predictive EEG patterns for RSE.
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Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides counteract inhibition on CD71 and FasL expression by culture supernatant of B16F10 cells upon lymphocyte activation.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Immune responses to tumor-associated antigens are often detectable in tumor-bearing hosts, but they fail to eliminate malignant cells or prevent development of metastases. Tumor cells produce factors such as interleukin-10, transforming growth factor-?1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that suppress the function of immune cells or induce apoptosis of immune cells. Culture supernatant of tumor cells may contain these immunosuppressive factors which suppress lymphocyte activation. CD71 and FasL are two important molecules that are expressed upon lymphocyte activation. Counteraction against suppression CD71 and FasL expression upon lymphocyte activation may benefit tumor control. A potential component with this effect is Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS). In this study, Gl-PS was used on lymphocytes incubating with culture supernatant of B16F10 melanoma cells (B16F10-CS) in the presence of phytohemagglutinin. Following induction with phytohemagglutinin, B16F10-CS suppressed CD71 expression in lymphocytes (as detected by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry), proliferation in lymphocytes (as detected by MTT assay), and FasL expression in lymphocytes (as detected by immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis), while Gl-PS fully or partially counteracted these suppressions. Gl-PS showed counteractive effects against suppression induced by B16F10-CS on CD71 and FasL expression upon lymphocyte activation, suggesting the potential of Gl-PS to facilitate cancer immunotherapy.
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Magnetic resonance imaging of Fe3O4@SiO2-labeled human mesenchymal stem cells in mice at 11.7 T.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2) core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized and used to label human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) for in vitro and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging study. The diameter of the nanoparticles is 24-30 nm with a Fe(3)O(4) core of ?8 nm and a SiO(2) shell of ~8 nm. Transverse relaxivity of the nanoparticles dispersed in water is measured to be ~106 mM(-1) s(-1). After incubation with hMSCs for 12 h at a concentration of 100 ?g Fe/mL, cellular uptake of Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2) is 20-100 pg Fe/cell, which are located predominantly in the cytoplasm of cells. This level of uptake exhibits no significant influence on hMSCs viability and differentiation. In vitro imaging of Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2)-labeled hMSCs evenly distributed in agarose gel yields single cell sensitivity at 11.7 T. In vivo imaging of Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2)-labeled hMSCs injected into the left brain hemisphere of nude mice yields imaging sensitivity of ~130 hMSCs.
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Immunologic cross-reactivity between Muscovy duck parvovirus and goose parvovirus on the basis of epitope prediction.
Braz. J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Through bioinformatic prediction, between Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) and goose parvovirus (GPV), there were one epitope AA503-509 (RANEPKE) on non-structural protein and three epitopes AA426-430 (SQDLD), 540-544 (DPYRS), 685-691 (KENSKRW) on structural protein might cross-react with each other. Furthermore, the four epitops were expressed in Escherichia coli. All the four recombinant proteins could react with GPV-antisera and MDPV-antisera in Western blot.
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Alpha-linolenic acid exerts an endothelial protective effect against high glucose injury via PI3K/Akt pathway.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Mounting evidence has indicated that the cardiovascular protective effects of dietary alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), but whether ALA exerts an endothelial protective effect against high glucose injury and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Streptozocin-induced diabetic rats were randomized treated orally for 4 weeks with vehicle (0.01% alcohol) or ALA (500 µg/kg per day by gavage). Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to high glucose (28 mmol/L) stimulation for 48 hours. ALA significantly improved concentration-dependent vasorelaxation to ACh in diabetic aortic segments and inhibited endothelial inflammation as evidenced by decreased soluble P-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in diabetic rats. Furthermore, both P-selectin and ICAM-1 expression were increased significantly in high glucose-induced HUVECs, resulting in enhanced neutrophils adhesion to HUVECs compared with normal glucose group. Treatment with ALA (50 µmol/L) increased Akt phosphorylation, attenuated P-selectin and ICAM-1 expressions and thus inhibited neutrophils adhesion in HUVECs exposed to high glucose, all of which was blocked by the PI3K inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin. These data indicates that ALA inhibits endothelial inflammation and improved endothelial function in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The anti-adhesive effect of ALA against high glucose injury may partially be mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway.
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[Relationship between intrauterine infection and the gene polymorphism of DC-SIGN/DC-SIGNR in the pregnant women of HBV positive].
Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2011
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To investigate the influence of the individual genotype differences of DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR on the mother-to-neonate intrauterine infection of HBV.
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Antimicrobial resistance, genotypic characterization and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing of extended spectrum ?-lactamases-producing clinical Escherichia coli strains in Macao, China.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2011
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The rise of the production of CTX-M class extended spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) has been well documented in traveling countries but no data are found for Macao, an international travel city. The objectives of this study were to identify the antimicrobial resistance pattern, and determine the prevalence, genotype and clonal relationship of ESBLs in 209 clinical Escherichia coli strains from Macao, China.
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Effects of the "Conversion of Cropland to Forest and Grassland Program" on the water budget of the Jinghe River catchment in China.
J. Environ. Qual.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2011
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In 1999 China adopted the "Conversion of Cropland to Forest and Grassland Program" (CCFGP), a nationwide ecological recovery program, to minimize wide-scale soil erosion and vegetation degradation in China, as well as to improve water budgeting results. In the 10 yr since implementation, the CCFGP has resulted in the recovery and reforestation of >100,000 km of cropland and bare land, though the quantitative effect of this program on catchment water budget is not entirely clear. Therefore, we used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool to evaluate and quantify the effects of the CCFGP on the water budget of the Jinghe River catchment, a tributary of the Yellow River covering the central region of the Loess Plateau. Our results indicated that precipitation had dropped by 12.0% from the 1970s (611.6 mm) to the 2000s (538 mm) and that there was a corresponding 25.2% decrease in humidity index from 0.48 to 0.36. Before the CCFGPs implementation, forest and grassland had been decreasing, while bare land, cropland, and shrub land had been increasing. After the implementation of the CCFGP, the opposite trend was observed. Moreover, streamflow increased by about 15 and 20% for the upstream and middle stream subbasins, respectively, while soil water content also showed an obvious increase. Over the same period, evapotranspiration decreased by 5.2 and 13.5 mm and runoff decreased by 37.5 and 38.6% in the two subbasins. The same trends were obtained in the downstream subbasin, where changes were even greater. As a result of the reduced runoff and evapotranspiration, utilization of water resources was more efficient and ecological environment was improved under the CCFGP policy. Our results indicate the CCFGP resulted in a favorable ecological impact and should therefore be maintained.
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Pretreatment of microcrystalline cellulose in organic electrolyte solutions for enzymatic hydrolysis.
Biotechnol Biofuels
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2011
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Previous studies have shown that the crystalline structure of cellulose is negatively correlated with enzymatic digestibility, therefore, pretreatment is required to break down the highly ordered crystalline structure in cellulose, and to increase the porosity of its surface. In the present study, an organic electrolyte solution (OES) composed of an ionic liquid (1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([AMIM]Cl)) and an organic solvent (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO) was prepared, and used to pretreat microcrystalline cellulose for subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis; to our knowledge, this is the first time that this method has been used.
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Localization of linear B-cell epitopes on goose parvovirus structural protein.
Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2011
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Goose parvovirus (GPV), a small non-enveloped ssDNA virus, can cause Derzsys disease, a highly contagious and lethal disease in goslings and muscovy ducklings, leading to a huge economic loss. However, little is known about the localization of B-cell epitopes on GPV structural protein. To address the issue, the structural protein of GPV was dissected into sets of partially overlapping fragments and expressed in Escherichia coli. Then Western blot reactivity of these glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion short peptides to viral infected sera was surveyed. The results showed linear immunodominant epitopes, which were found in seven fragments covering amino acid residues 35-71, 123-198, 423-444, 474-491, 531-566, 616-669, 678-732. Our findings may provide the basis for the development of immunity-based prophylactic, therapeutic, and diagnostic clinical techniques for Derzsys disease.
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MiRNA expression signatures induced by Mareks disease virus infection in chickens.
Genomics
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2011
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Emerging evidence suggests that differential miRNA expression is associated with viral infection and cancer. Mareks disease virus infection induces lymphoma in chickens. However, the host defense response against Mareks disease (MD) progression remains poorly understood. Here, we utilized microarrays to screen miRNAs that were sensitive to Mareks disease virus (MDV) infection. QRT-PCR analysis confirmed the microarray data and revealed expression patterns of some miRNAs in tumor samples. Chicken miRNA gga-miR-15b, which was reduced in infected susceptible chickens and splenic tumors, controlled the expression of ATF2 (activating transcription factor 2). ATF2 was significantly increased in the same group. Our results indicated that differential expression of miRNA in resistant and susceptible chickens was caused by MDV infection, which effectively influenced protein expression of ATF2. This latter result might be related to Mareks disease resistance/susceptibility.
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Acaricidal activity of extract from Eupatorium adenophorum against the Psoroptes cuniculi and Sarcoptes scabiei in vitro.
Vet. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2011
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The possible acaricidal activity of Eupatorium adenophorum was analyzed using extracts created by water decocting, ethanol thermal circumfluence, and steam distillation. The toxic effect of each extract was tested against Psoroptes cuniculi and Sarcoptes scabiei in vitro. Ethanol thermal circumfluence extract had strong toxicity against mites, killing all S. scabiei at 0.5 and 1.0 g/ml (w/v) concentration, while 1g/ml extract was also found to kill all P. cuniculi within a 4-h period. Similarly, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 g/ml concentration of extract had strong toxicity against S. scabiei, with median lethal time (LT(50)) values at 0.866, 0.785 and 0.517 h, respectively. 0.5 g/ml and 1g/ml showed strong acaricidal action against P. cuniculi; the LT(50) values were 0.93 h and 1.29 h, respectively. The median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values were 0.22 g/ml for Scabies mite and 0.64 g/ml for P. cuniculi in 1h. The results indicated that E. adenophorum contains potent acaricidal ingredients; as a first step in the potential development of novel drugs, it may provide new acaricidal compounds for the effective control of animal acariasis.
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Molecular mechanism of silymarin-induced apoptosis in a highly metastatic lung cancer cell line anip973.
Cancer Biother. Radiopharm.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2011
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Silymarin, the main flavonoid constituent element extracted from Silybum marianum possessing antioxidant activity, is already known to be able to block the NF-?B activation process and result in cell apoptosis, implicating silymarins potential to control cancer cell growth.
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Safety assessment of Lactobacillus plantarum JDM1 based on the complete genome.
Int. J. Food Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2011
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We performed a comprehensive safety assessment of a probiotic based on the whole genome sequence and corresponding phenotypes. This was performed on Lactobacillus plantarum JDM1, a widely used commercial probiotic strain in China. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of sixteen antibiotics and the biogenic amine production of JDM1 were tested to supplement a traditional oral toxicity test. In total, fifty-one antibiotic resistance-associated genes, one hundred twenty-six virulence-associated genes, and twenty-three adverse metabolism-associated genes were found in JDM1. However, there were no toxin or hemolysin encoding genes, and safety-associated genes were rarely transferable. This approach can be generalized to provide a deep safety investigation of novel probiotic strains and greatly reveal the potential danger determinants and their molecular mechanisms. However, this kind of analysis reveals the theoretical maximum risk level as not all genes are efficient depending on environmental conditions.
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Down-regulation of promoter methylation level of CD4 gene after MDV infection in MD-susceptible chicken line.
BMC Proc
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2011
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Mareks disease virus (MDV) is an oncovirus that induces lymphoid tumors in susceptible chickens, and may affect the epigenetic stability of the CD4 gene. The purpose of this study was to find the effect of MDV infection on DNA methylation status of the CD4 gene differed between MD-resistant (L63) and -susceptible (L72) chicken lines.
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Bacterial diversity of subgingival plaque in 6 healthy Chinese individuals.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
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The subgingival microbial ecology is complex, and little is known regarding its bacteria species composition in healthy Chinese individuals. This study aimed to identify the subgingival microbiota from 6 healthy Chinese subjects. Subgingival samples from 6 volunteers were collected, the 16S rRNA gene was amplified using broad-range bacterial primers, and clone libraries were constructed. For the initial 2,439 sequences analyzed, 383 species-level operational taxonomic units (SLOTUs) belonging to seven phyla were identified, estimated as 51% [95% confidence interval (CI) 44-55] of the SLOTUs in this ecosystem. Most (85%) of the bacterial sequences, falling into 228 types of species, corresponded to known and cultivated species. However, 146 (6%) sequences, comprising 104 phylotypes, had <97% similarity to prior database sequences. Ten bacterial genera were conserved among all 6 individuals, comprising 2,000 (82%) of the 2,439 clones analyzed. Ten species were noted in all of the 6 subjects, comprising 1,435 (58.8%) of the 2,439 clones. Streptococcus infantis was the species most frequently cloned. Furthermore, certain species which may participate in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease were present in the 6 subjects. Although the initial subgingival plaque community of each subject was unique in terms of diversity and composition, 10 common key species were found in the 6 Chinese individuals. These ten species of bacteria in the human subgingival plaque in the 6 healthy individuals may be key species which, to some extent, affect periodontal health. Destruction of these key species in subgingival bacteria may break the microbiota balance and may easily lead to over-breeding conditions resulting in pathogenic oral disease.
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Muscle transcriptomic analyses in Angus cattle with divergent tenderness.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2011
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Beef tenderness contributes significantly to variation of beef palatability, and is largely influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. To identify candidate genes and pathways related to beef tenderness, we analyzed the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of Angus cattle that had different degrees of tenderness, measured by Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). Microarray and RT-PCR analyses identified 53 genes that were differentially expressed in LD samples categorized as either tough or tender, including myosin, heavy chain 3 skeletal muscle embryonic (MYH3), myosin heavy chain 8 skeletal muscle perinatal (MYH8), guanylate binding protein 5 (GBP5), fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD), Fatty acid synthase (FASN), ubiquitin-like with PHD and ring finger domains 1 (UHRF1). Most of these genes are involved in lipid metabolism and skeletal muscle contraction. Employing Gene ontology (GO) and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), several GO terms and pathways were found to be related to hydrolase, peptidase and GTPase activity, lipid metabolism, small molecule biochemistry, molecular transport, and tissue development. Overall, this analysis provides insight into the metabolic relationships between muscle biology and beef quality.
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Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides antagonize the suppression on lymphocytes induced by culture supernatants of B16F10 melanoma cells.
J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2011
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Tumour cells produce factors such as interleukin 10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that suppress the function of immune cells or induce apoptosis of immune cells. One of the most important goals of tumour immunotherapy is to antagonize this suppression on immune cells. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS) may have this potential. The purpose of this study was to determine the antagonistic effects of Gl-PS on the suppression induced by B16F10 melanoma cell culture supernatant (B16F10-CS) on lymphocytes.
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Effects of the Hedgehog pathway inhibitor GDC-0449 on lung cancer cell lines are mediated by side populations.
Clin. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2011
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The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has been shown to be activated in the cancer stem cells of several tumor entities. The Hh inhibitor GDC-0449 has been proven to be effective in some cancers but not yet in lung cancer. We aimed at investigating whether GDC-0449 is effective in the lung cancer cell lines HCC (adenocarcinoma) and H1339 (small-cell-lung carcinoma), whether in these cell lines stem cell-like side populations (SPs) can be identified, and whether possible effects of GDC-0449 are mediated via SPs. SPs were identified by spectrum shift and decreased fluorescence after staining with 2.5 ?g/ml Hoechst 33342. Expression of proteins was quantified by immunofluorescence. GDC-0449 (25 and 50 ?M) inhibited concentration-dependent cell growth in HCC and H1339 cells. Further, the inhibitory effects of cisplatin on cell growth were augmented. In HCC and H1339 cell lines, SPs of 0.57 and 0.46% could be identified, respectively. SP, but not non-SP, cells were able to repopulate the original tumor population. The Hh receptor smoothened was detectable in SP but not in non-SP cells, showing the activation of the Hh pathway only in SPs. GDC-0449 considerably reduced SPs in HCC and H1339 cells. We demonstrate for the first time that GDC-0449 effectively reduces cell growth in lung cancer cell lines. This effect is mediated by the inhibition of stem cell-like SPs.
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Differential gene expression by RamA in ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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Overexpression of ramA has been implicated in resistance to multiple drugs in several enterobacterial pathogens. In the present study, Salmonella Typhimurium strain LTL with constitutive expression of ramA was compared to its ramA-deletion mutant by employing both DNA microarrays and phenotype microarrays (PM). The mutant strain with the disruption of ramA showed differential expression of at least 33 genes involved in 11 functional groups. The study confirmed at the transcriptional level that the constitutive expression of ramA was directly associated with increased expression of multidrug efflux pump AcrAB-TolC and decreased expression of porin protein OmpF, thereby conferring multiple drug resistance phenotype. Compared to the parent strain constitutively expressing ramA, the ramA mutant had increased susceptibility to over 70 antimicrobials and toxic compounds. The PM analysis also uncovered that the ramA mutant was better in utilization of 10 carbon sources and 5 phosphorus sources. This study suggested that the constitutive expression of ramA locus regulate not only multidrug efflux pump and accessory genes but also genes involved in carbon metabolic pathways.
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Determination of emulsion explosives with Span-80 as emulsifier by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2011
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A novel approach for identification and determination of emulsion explosives with Span-80 (sorbitol mono-oleate) as the emulsifier and their postblast residues by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been developed. 24 kinds of emulsion explosives collected have been processed by transesterification reaction with metholic KOH solution and the emulsifier has turned into methyl esters of fatty acids. From the peak area ratios of their methyl esters, most of these emulsion explosives can be differentiated. In order to detect the postblast residues of emulsion explosives, the sorbitols in the emulsifier Span-80 obtained after transesterification reaction have been further derivatized by silylation reaction with N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) containing 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) as the derivatizing reagent. The derivatization conditions were optimized and the derivatives were determined by GC-MS. The results showed that the silylation derivatives of sorbitol and it isomers, combined with hydrocarbon compounds and methyl esters of fatty acids, were the characteristic components for identification of the emulsion explosives. The established approach was applied to analyze the postblast residues of emulsion explosives. It has been found that the method was sensitive and specific, especially when detecting the derivatives of sorbitol and its isomers by GC-MS in selecting ion mode. The information of the characteristic components can help probe the origin of the emulsion explosives and providing scientific evidences and clues for solving the crimes of the emulsion explosive explosion.
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Long-period gratings in photonic crystal fiber as an optofluidic label-free biosensor.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2011
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Using long-period gratings (LPG) inscribed in photonic crystal fiber (PCF) and coupling this structure with an optically aligned flow cell, we have developed an optofluidic refractive index transduction platform for label-free biosensing. The LPG-PCF scheme possesses extremely high sensitivity to the change in refractive index induced by localized binding event in different solution media. A model immunoassay experiment was carried out inside the air channels of PCF by a series of surface modification steps in sequence that include adsorption of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) monolayer, immobilization of anti-rat bone sialoprotein monoclonal primary antibody, and binding interactions with non-specific goat anti-rabbit IgG (H+L) and specific secondary goat anti-mouse IgG (H+L) antibodies. These adsorption and binding events were monitored in situ using the LPG-PCF by measuring the shift of the core-to-cladding mode coupling resonance wavelength. Steady and significant resonance changes, about 0.75 nm per nanometer-thick adsorbed/bound bio-molecules, have been observed following the sequence of the surface events with monolayer sensitivity, suggesting the promising potential of LPG-PCF for biological sensing and evaluation.
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[Effects of jiawei huzhang san decoction on the expressions of inflammatory factors MCP-1 and PDGF-BB in rat models of experimental autoimmune prostatitis].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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To study the effects of Jiawei Huzhang San (JWHZS) decoction on the expressions of the inflammatory factors monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) on experimental autoimmune prostatitis in rats.
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