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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The direct electrophilic cyanation of ?-keto esters and amides with cyano benziodoxole.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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The direct electrophilic ?-cyanation of ?-keto esters and amides has been developed using a hypervalent iodine benziodoxole-derived cyano reagent. The procedure is accomplished within 10 min and without the use of any catalyst in DMF, at room temperature. Thus, the highly functionalized quaternary carbon-centered nitriles were produced in high to excellent yields.
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Switching Individual Quantum Dot Emission through Electrically Controlling Resonant Energy Transfer to Graphene.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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Electrically controlling resonant energy transfer of optical emitters provides a novel mechanism to switch nanoscale light sources on and off individually for optoelectronic applications. Graphene's optical transitions are tunable through electrostatic gating over a broad wavelength spectrum, making it possible to modulate energy transfer from a variety of nanoemitters to graphene at room temperature. We demonstrate photoluminescence switching of individual colloidal quantum dots by electrically tuning their energy transfer to graphene. The gate dependence of energy transfer modulation confirms that the transition occurs when the Fermi level is shifted over half the emitter's excitation energy. The modulation magnitude decreases rapidly with increasing emitter-graphene distance (d), following the 1/d(4) rate trend unique to the energy transfer process to two-dimensional materials.
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Helicobacter pylori Infection Increase the Risk of Myocardial Infarction: A Meta-Analysis of 26 Studies Involving more than 20,000 Participants.
Helicobacter
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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Myocardial infarction is a fatal cardiovascular disease and one of the most common death causes all around the world. The aim of the meta-analysis was to quantify the risk of myocardial infarction associated with Helicobacter pylori infection.
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Stat3 promotes invasion of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma through up-regulation of MMP2.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2014
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Stat3 alters the expression of its downstream genes and is associated with tumor invasion and metastasis in several human cancers. Its role in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has not been well characterized. We examined the tumor sections of 100 cases of ESCC by immunohistochemistry and observed significant overexpression of Stat3 in the cytoplasm of 89 % of ESCC cells and of phosphorylated Stat3 (p-Stat3) in the nuclei of 71 % of ESCC when compare with normal esophageal mucosa (72 %, p = 0.02; and 31 %, p = 0.001). Overexpression of Stat3 and p-Stat3 positively correlated with that of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2), a known regulator for cell migration, in 65 % of ESCC while only 26 % shown in benign esophageal mucosa. To further investigate the association of Stat3 with tumor metastasis in vitro, invasion of EC-1 cells (a human ESCC cell line) were investigated with Boyden chambers. The results showed that transfection of Stat3 not only promoted invasion of EC-1 cells but also significantly induced MMP2 expression in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, suppressing expression of endogenous Stat3 mRNA and protein by Stat3 siRNA significantly reduced EC-1 cell invasion and MMP2 expression. A high-affinity Stat3-binding element was localized to the positions of 648-641 bp (TTCTCGAA) in the MMP2 promoter with electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Our results suggest that Stat3, p-Stat3, and MMP2 were overexpressed in ESCC and associated with invasion of ESCC; and Stat3 up-regulated expression of MMP2 in ESCC through directly binding to the MMP2 promoter.
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Optimized Cell Survival and Seeding Efficiency for Craniofacial Tissue Engineering Using Clinical Stem Cell Therapy.
Stem Cells Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Traumatic injuries involving the face are very common, yet the clinical management of the resulting craniofacial deficiencies is challenging. These injuries are commonly associated with missing teeth, for which replacement is compromised due to inadequate jawbone support. Using cell therapy, we report the upper jaw reconstruction of a patient who lost teeth and 75% of the supporting jawbone following injury. A mixed population of bone marrow-derived autologous stem and progenitor cells was seeded onto ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP), which served as a scaffold to deliver cells directly to the defect. Conditions (temperature, incubation time) to achieve the highest cell survival and seeding efficiency were optimized. Four months after cell therapy, cone beam computed tomography and a bone biopsy were performed, and oral implants were placed to support an engineered dental prosthesis. Cell seeding efficiency (>81%) of the ?-TCP and survival during the seeding process (94%) were highest when cells were incubated with ?-TCP for 30 minutes, regardless of incubation temperature; however, at 1 hour, cell survival was highest when incubated at 4°C. Clinical, radiographic, and histological analyses confirmed that by 4 months, the cell therapy regenerated 80% of the original jawbone deficiency with vascularized, mineralized bone sufficient to stably place oral implants. Functional and aesthetic rehabilitation of the patient was successfully completed with installation of a dental prosthesis 6 months following implant placement. This proof-of-concept clinical report used an evidence-based approach for the cell transplantation protocol used and is the first to describe a cell therapy for craniofacial trauma reconstruction.
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Formulation, characterization, and in vitro/vivo studies of aclacinomycin A-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles.
Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to prepare aclacinomycin A (ACM)-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and to evaluate their in vitro and in vivo characteristics. Methods: SLNs were prepared using an emulsion evaporation-solidification method, and characterized in accordance with the morphological examination, particle size distribution, entrapment efficiency, drug-loading, and in vitro release. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies were employed to evaluate the in vivo of SLNs. Results: The SLNs were spherical in shape, uniform in size, and appropriate for administration via intravenous injection. The drug content, encapsulation efficiency, and drug loading of prepared SLNs were 96.4%?±?4.6%, 86.7%?±?2.3%, and 4.8%?±?0.7% (n?=?3), respectively, and the mean diameter was 68.2?±?5.6?nm from three batches. The SLNs were produced with stable physical properties and demonstrated significantly sustained release. The pharmacokinetic behavior of ACM was greatly improved by lyophilized injection of SLN with sustained drug release and high bioavailability. In addition, the results obtained from tissue distribution showed that ACM-SLNs were hepatic targeting in vivo. Conclusions: The present work demonstrated the feasibility of liver-targeted delivery of ACM utilizing SLNs.
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Molecular dynamics simulations of wild type and mutants of botulinum neurotoxin A complexed with synaptic vesicle protein 2C.
Mol Biosyst
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are known as the most poisonous biological substances, and they are also used to treat a wide range of medical conditions as well as in the cosmetic applications. Recently, the complex structures of the BoNT/A receptor-binding domain (BoNT/A-RBD) and the synaptic vesicle protein 2C luminal domain (SV2C-LD) were determined by X-ray crystallography. In this article, the wild type (WT) and four mutants of the new structure are studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The differently decreased structural stabilities of the mutants relative to WT are shown to be consistent with the experimental data of binding affinities. The conformational changes of the five systems are explored by using principal component analysis (PCA) and free energy landscape (FEL) methods. Based on the calculation of interactions at the binding interface, we divide the interface between BoNT/A-RBD and SV2C-LD into two crucial binding regions. Through the comparison of WT and four mutants, we further propose the relationship between the conformational changes of BoNT/A-RBD:SV2C-LD and the interfacial interactions. This study would provide some new insights into the understanding of the dynamics and the interaction mechanism of BoNT/A-RBD:SV2C-LD.
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Brownian Motion of Arbitrarily Shaped Particles in Two Dimensions.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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We implement microfabricated boomerang particles with unequal arm lengths as a model for nonsymmetric particles and study their Brownian motion in a quasi-two-dimensional geometry by using high-precision single-particle motion tracking. We show that because of the coupling between translation and rotation, the mean squared displacements of a single asymmetric boomerang particle exhibit a nonlinear crossover from short-time faster to long-time slower diffusion, and the mean displacements for fixed initial orientation are nonzero and saturate out at long times. The measured anisotropic diffusion coefficients versus the tracking point position indicate that there exists one unique point, i.e., the center of hydrodynamic stress (CoH), at which all coupled diffusion coefficients vanish. This implies that in contrast to motion in three dimensions where the CoH exists only for high-symmetry particles, the CoH always exists for Brownian motion in two dimensions. We develop an analytical model based on Langevin theory to explain the experimental results and show that among the six anisotropic diffusion coefficients only five are independent because the translation-translation coupling originates from the translation-rotation coupling. Finally, we classify the behavior of two-dimensional Brownian motion of arbitrarily shaped particles into four groups based on the particle shape symmetry group and discussed potential applications of the CoH in simplifying understanding of the circular motions of microswimmers.
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Three-Dimensional Spirals of Atomic Layered MoS2.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) layered materials, including graphene, boron nitride, and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), can exhibit novel phenomena distinct from their bulk counterparts and hold great promise for novel electronic and optoelectronic applications. Controlled growth of such 2D materials with different thickness, composition, and symmetry are of central importance to realize their potential. In particular, the ability to control the symmetry of TMD layers is highly desirable because breaking the inversion symmetry can lead to intriguing valley physics, nonlinear optical properties, and piezoelectric responses. Here we report the first chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of spirals of layered MoS2 with atomically thin helical periodicity, which exhibits a chiral structure and breaks the three-dimensional (3D) inversion symmetry explicitly. The spirals composed of tens of connected MoS2 layers with decreasing areas: each basal plane has a triangular shape and shrinks gradually to the summit when spiraling up. All the layers in the spiral assume an AA lattice stacking, which is in contrast to the centrosymmetric AB stacking in natural MoS2 crystals. We show that the noncentrosymmetric MoS2 spiral leads to a strong bulk second-order optical nonlinearity. In addition, we found that the growth of spirals involves a dislocation mechanism, which can be generally applicable to other 2D TMD materials.
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Synthesis and evaluation of new (18)F-labelled acetamidobenzoxazolone-based radioligands for imaging of the translocator protein (18 kDa, TSPO) in the brain.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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The visualization of the activated microglia/TSPO is one of the main aspects of neuroimaging. Here we describe two new (18)F-labelled molecules, 2-[5-(4-[(18)F]fluoroethoxyphenyl)- ([(18)F]2) and 2-[5-(4-[(18)F]fluoropropyloxyphenyl)- ([(18)F]3) -2-oxo-1,3-benzoxazol-3(2H)-yl]-N-methyl-N-phenylacetamide as novel PET ligands for imaging the translocator protein (18 kDa, TSPO) in the brain. The three-D pharmacophore evaluation and docking studies suggested their high affinity for the TSPO and in vitro binding assays of the TSPO showed binding affinities 6.6 ± 0.7 nM and 16.7 ± 2.5 nM for 2 and 3, respectively. The radiochemical yields for [(18)F]2 and [(18)F]3 were found to be 22 ± 4% (n = 8) and 5 ± 2% (n = 5), respectively at EOB. The radiochemical purity for both was found ?98% and the specific activity was in the range of 98-364 GBq ?mol(-1) at EOS. In vitro autoradiography with an ischemic rat brain showed significantly increased binding on the ipsilateral side compared to the contralateral side. The specificity of [(18)F]2 and [(18)F]3 for binding TSPO was confirmed using the TSPO ligands PK11195 and MBMP. The biodistribution patterns of both PET ligands were evaluated in normal mice by 1 h dynamic PET imaging. In the brain, regional radioactivity reached the maximum very rapidly within 0-4 min for both ligands, similar to (R)[(11)C]PK11195. The metabolite study of [(18)F]2 also favoured a more favourable profile for quantification in comparison to (R)[(11)C]PK11195. In summary, these data indicated that [(18)F]2 and [(18)F]3 have good potential to work as PET ligands, therefore there are merits to use these radioligands for the in vivo evaluation in animal models to see their efficacy in the living brain.
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Effects of operation parameters on nutrient removal from wastewater and high-protein biomass production in a duckweed-based (Lemma aequinoctialis) pilot-scale system.
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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The effects of water depth, coverage rate and harvest regime on nutrient removal from wastewater and high-protein biomass production were assessed in a duckweed-based (Lemna aequinoctialis) pilot-scale wastewater treatment system (10 basins × 12 m(2)) that is located near Dianchi Lake in China. The results indicated that a water depth of 50 cm, a coverage rate of 150% and a harvest regime of 4 days were preferable conditions, under which excellent records of high-protein duckweed (dry matter production of 6.65 g/m(2)/d with crude protein content of 36.16% and phosphorus content of 1.46%) were obtained at a temperature of 12-21 °C. At the same time, the system achieved a removal efficiency of 66.16, 23.1, 48.3 and 76.52% for NH4(+)-N, TN, TP and turbidity, respectively, with the considerable removal rate of 0.465 g/m(2)/d for TN and 0.134 g/m(2)/d for TP at a hydraulic retention time of 6 days. In additionally, it was found that a lower duckweed density could lead to higher dissolved oxygen in the water and then a higher removal percentage of NH4(+)-N by nitrobacteria. This study obtains the preferable operation conditions for wastewater treatment and high-protein biomass production in a duckweed-based pilot-scale system, supplying an important reference for further large-scale applications of duckweed.
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Comparison of Gefitinib Versus VMP in the Combination with Radiotherapy for Multiple Brain Metastases from Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of Gefitinib versus VMP in combination with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for multiple brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 73 NSCLC patients with brain metastases from January 2010 to August 2013 were randomly divided into Gefitinib group (37 patients) and VMP chemotherapy group (36 patients). Patients in VMP group recieved VM-26 100 mg/day by intravenous injection, from day 1 to day 3, cisplatin 25 mg/m2 by intravenous injection, from day 1 to day 3. One cycle was defined as a 21-day therapy duration, with a total of 3 cycles; 2 cycles were used for consolidation. Patients in Gefitinib group received Gefitinib orally. Both groups received 3D-CRT, DT50 Gy/25f/35d from first day and target areas were treated with whole brain radiotherapy. The results of the study are listed below: There was no significant difference in the short-term effects of the two groups (P > 0.05). Median survival time (MST) of Gefitinib was 13.3 months whereas median survival time of VMP group is 12.7 months (P < 0.05). In Gefitinib group, we did not observe any difference of the median survival time between the patients with and without mutation EGFR. Toxicity of Gefitinib groups were characterized by rash, whereas chemotherapy resulted in hematologic toxicities, which included 6 cases of III/IV leucopenia (17.6 %), 3 cases of anemia (8.8 %), and 5 cases of thrombocytopenia (14.7 %), and non-hematological toxicity which was less serious symptoms for gastrointestinal disorders, hair loss, etc. These adverse reactions can be released after symptomatic treatment. No treatment-related deaths occurred. Two patients in VMP group quit due to IV leucopenia. Both oral Gefitinib and systemic VMP chemotherapy in combination with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) could be used to treat brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer. There were no difference in the short-term effects of the two groups, but long-term effect of Gefitinib group was slightly better than VMP group. Moreover, Gefitinib group showed low toxicity. All together, our finding implicated that Gefitinib is an effective method for patients with brain metastases from NSCLC.
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Graphene: A partially ordered non-periodic solid.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the structural features of graphene over a wide range of temperatures from 50 to 4000 K using the PPBE-G potential [D. Wei, Y. Song, and F. Wang, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 184704 (2011)]. This potential was developed by force matching the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange correlation functional and has been validated previously to provide accurate potential energy surface for graphene at temperatures as high as 3000?K. Simulations with the PPBE?G potential are the best available approximation to a direct Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics study of graphene. One advantage of the PBE-G potential is to allow large simulation boxes to be modeled efficiently so that properties showing strong finite size effects can be studied. Our simulation box contains more than 600?000 C atoms and is one of the largest graphene boxes ever modeled. With the PPBE-G potential, the thermal-expansion coefficient is negative up to 4000 K. With a large box and an accurate potential, the critical exponent for the scaling properties associated with the normal-normal and height-height correlation functions was confirmed to be 0.85. This exponent remains constant up to 4000 K suggesting graphene to be in the deeply cooled regime even close to the experimental melting temperature. The reduced peak heights in the radial distribution function of graphene show an inverse power law dependence to distance, which indicates that a macroscopic graphene sheet will lose long-range crystalline order as predicted by the Mermin-Wagner instability. Although graphene loses long-range translational order, it retains long range orientational order as indicated by its orientational correlation function; graphene is thus partially ordered but not periodic.
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SFRP5 acts as a mature adipocyte marker but not as a regulator in adipogenesis.
J. Mol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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WNT/?-catenin signalling is involved in regulating adipogenesis, and its dysregulation occurs in obesity. Secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (SFRP5) is a WNT protein inhibitor; however, its role in adipogenesis and obesity is controversial. In this study, we observed that SFRP5 mRNA levels were increased in the fat tissues of obese humans and mice. Sfrp5 expression was gradually induced during differentiation of white and brown adipocytes and was highly increased in mature adipocytes rather than preadipocytes. However, the effects of the exogenous overexpression of Sfrp5 indicated that Sfrp5 may not directly regulate adipogenesis in vitro under the conditions studied. Moreover, SFRP5 did not inhibit the canonical WNT/?-catenin signalling pathway in preadipocytes. Subsequently, we measured the levels of circulating SFRP5 in obese patients and non-obese subjects using ELISA and did not find any significant difference. Collectively, these findings indicate that Sfrp5 represents a candidate for a mature adipocyte marker gene. Our data provide new evidence concerning the role of SFRP5 in adipogenesis of white and brown adipocytes and obesity.
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Oral adsorbents for preventing or delaying the progression of chronic kidney disease.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem which is at high increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and renal failure. Deterioration of kidney function causes an increase in circulating toxins, which, in turn promotes the progression of CKD. Oral adsorbents with capacity to adsorb and remove substances including uraemic toxins from the intestine could be effective in minimising kidney injury.
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A Missense Mutation in HK1 Leads to Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a genetically heterogeneous disease with over 60 causative genes known to date. Nevertheless, approximately 40% of RP cases remain genetically unsolved, suggesting that many novel disease-causing genes are yet to be identified. In this study, we aimed to identify the causative mutation for a large autosomal dominant RP (adRP) family with negative results from known retinal disease gene screening.
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SIN3A, Generally Regarded as a Transcriptional Repressor, is required for Induction of Gene Transcription by the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2014
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CYP1A1 bioactivates several procarcinogens and detoxifies several xenobiotic compounds. Transcription of CYP1A1 is highly induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-?-dioxin (TCDD) via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). We recently described an RNAi high throughput screening performed in the Hepa-1 mouse hepatoma cell line, which revealed that SIN3A is necessary for the induction of CYP1A1-dependent ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) enzymatic activity by TCDD. In the current studies, we sought to provide insight into the role of SIN3A in this process, particularly because studies on SIN3A have usually focused on its repressive activity on transcription. We report that ectopic expression of human SIN3A in Hepa-1 cells enhanced EROD induction by TCDD and efficiently rescued TCDD induction of EROD activity in cells treated with an siRNA to mouse SIN3A, thus validating a role for SIN3A in CYP1A1 induction. We demonstrate that SIN3A is required for TCDD induction of the CYP1A1 protein in Hepa-1 cells but not for expression of the AHR protein. In addition, siRNAs for SIN3A decreased TCDD-mediated induction of CYP1A1 mRNA and EROD activity in human hepatoma cell line Hep3B. We establish that TCDD treatment of Hepa-1 cells rapidly increases the degree of SIN3A binding to both the proximal promoter and enhancer of the CYP1A1 gene, and demonstrate that increased binding to the promoter also occurs in human Hep3B, HepG2, and MCF-7 cells. These studies establish that SIN3A physically interacts with the CYP1A1 gene and extends the transcriptional role of SIN3A to a gene that is very rapidly and dramatically induced.
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Tumor necrosis factor alpha promotes the proliferation of human nucleus pulposus cells via nuclear factor-?B, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.
Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2014
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Although tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) is known to play a critical role in intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration, the effect of TNF-? on nucleus pulposus (NP) cells has not yet been elucidated. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of TNF-? on proliferation of human NP cells. NP cells were treated with different concentrations of TNF-?. Cell proliferation was determined by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) analysis and Ki67 immunofluorescence staining, and expression of cyclin B1 was studied by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Cell cycle was measured by flow cytometry and cell apoptosis was analyzed using an Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) & propidium iodide (PI) apoptosis detection kit. To identify the mechanism by which TNF-? induced proliferation of NP cells, selective inhibitors of major signaling pathways were used and Western blotting was carried out. Treatment with TNF-? increased cell viability (as determined by CCK-8 analysis) and expression of cyclin B1 and the number of Ki67-positive and S-phase NP cells, indicating enhancement of proliferation. Consistent with this, NP cell apoptosis was suppressed by TNF-? treatment. Moreover, inhibition of NF-?B, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) blocked TNF-?-stimulated proliferation of NP cells. In conclusion, the current findings suggest that the effect of TNF-? on IVD degeneration involves promotion of the proliferation of human NP cells via the NF-?B, JNK, and p38 MAPK pathways.
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The prognostic value of preoperative NLR, d-NLR, PLR and LMR for predicting clinical outcome in surgical colorectal cancer patients.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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Accumulating evidences indicate cancer-triggered inflammation plays a pivotal role in carcinogenesis. Systematic inflammatory response biomarkers are considered as potential prognostic factors for improving predictive accuracy in colorectal cancer (CRC). Preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (d-NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and lymphocyte- to-monocyte ratio (LMR) were investigated and compared in 205 surgical CRC patients. ROC curve was applied to determine thresholds for four biomarkers, and their prognostic values were assessed using Kaplan-Meier curve, univariate and multivariate COX regression models. Moreover, a number of risk factors were used to form nomograms for evaluating risk of survival, and Harrell's concordance index (c-index) was used to evaluate predictive accuracy. Results showed that elevated NLR was significantly associated with diminished recurrent-free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) in surgical CRC patients. Moreover, multivariate COX analysis identified elevated NLR as an independent factor for poor RFS (P < 0.001, HR 2.52, 95 % CI 1.65-3.83), OS (P < 0.001, HR 2.73, 95 % CI 1.74-4.29) and CSS (P < 0.001, HR 2.77, 95 % CI 1.72-4.46). Additionally, predictive nomograms including NLR for RFS, OS and CSS could be more effective in predicting RFS (c-index: 0.810 vs. 0.656), OS (c-index: 0.809 vs. 0.690) and CSS (c-index: 0.802 vs. 0.688) in surgical CRC patients, respectively. These findings indicate that preoperative elevated NLR can be considered as an independent prognostic biomarker for RFS, OS and CSS. Nomograms containing NLR provide improved accuracy for predicting clinical outcomes in surgical CRC patients under surgery resection.
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(99m)Tc-3P-RGD2 Micro-Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography Provides a Rational Basis for Integrin ?v?3-Targeted Therapy.
Cancer Biother. Radiopharm.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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Abstract Purpose: This study was to demonstrate the utility of (99m)Tc-3P-RGD2 micro-single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) for the integrin ?v?3 expression quantification in NCI-H446 and A549 lung cancer xenografts.
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[Comparison of the stapled suture with the manual suture in the application of minimally invasive esophagectomy].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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To compare the associated anastomotic complication of cervical esophagogastric anastomosis between stapled and hand-sewn anastomosis in minimally invasive esophagectomy(MIE).
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Enhanced sulfur tolerance of nickel-based anodes for oxygen-ion conducting solid oxide fuel cells by incorporating a secondary water storing phase.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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In this work, a Ni+BaZr0.4Ce0.4Y0.2O3-? (Ni+BZCY) anode with high water storage capability is used to increase the sulfur tolerance of nickel electrocatalysts for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) with an oxygen-ion conducting Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9 (SDC) electrolyte. Attractive power outputs are still obtained for the cell with a Ni+BZCY anode that operates on hydrogen fuels containing 100-1000 ppm of H2S, while for a similar cell with a Ni+SDC anode, it displays a much reduced performance by introducing only 100 ppm of H2S into hydrogen. Operating on a hydrogen fuel containing 100 ppm of H2S at 600 °C and a fixed current density of 200 mA cm(-2), a stable power output of 148 mW cm(-2) is well maintained for a cell with a Ni+BZCY anode within a test period of 700 min, while it was decreased from an initial value of 137 mW cm(-2) to only 81 mW cm(-2) for a similar cell with a Ni+SDC anode after a test period of only 150 min. After the stability test, a loss of the Ni percolating network and reaction between nickel and sulfur appeared over the Ni+SDC anode, but it is not observed for the Ni+BZCY anode. This result highly promises the use of water-storing BZCY as an anode component to improve sulfur tolerance for SOFCs with an oxygen-ion conducting SDC electrolyte.
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Heat shock factors in carrot: genome-wide identification, classification, and expression profiles response to abiotic stress.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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Heat shock factors (HSFs) play key roles in the response to abiotic stress in eukaryotes. In this study, 35 DcHSFs were identified from carrot (Daucus carota L.) based on the carrot genome database. All 35 DcHSFs were divided into three classes (A, B, and C) according to the structure and phylogenetic relationships of four different plants, namely, Arabidopsis thaliana, Vitis vinifera, Brassica rapa, and Oryza sativa. Comparative analysis of algae, gymnosperms, and angiosperms indicated that the numbers of HSF transcription factors were related to the plant's evolution. The expression profiles of five DcHsf genes (DcHsf 01, DcHsf 02, DcHsf 09, DcHsf 10, and DcHsf 16), which selected from each subfamily (A, B, and C), were detected by quantitative real-time PCR under abiotic stresses (cold, heat, high salinity, and drought) in two carrot cultivars, D. carota L. cvs. Kurodagosun and Junchuanhong. The expression levels of DcHsfs were markedly increased by heat stress, except that of DcHsf 10, which was down regulated. The expression profiles of different DcHsfs in the same class also differed under various stress treatments. The expression profiles of these DcHsfs were also different in tissues of two carrot cultivars. This study is the first to identify and characterize the DcHSF family transcription factors in plants of Apiaceae using whole-genome analysis. The results of this study provide an in-depth understanding of the DcHSF family transcription factors' structure, function, and evolution in carrot.
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Reliability of Four Zygomatic Implant-Supported Prostheses for the Rehabilitation of the Atrophic Maxilla: A Systematic Review.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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Purpose: The reliability of oral rehabilitation by four zygomatic implants with no anterior support remains to be determined. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the predictability of this approach in regard to implant survival, technical and biologic complications, and quality of life. Materials and Methods: An electronic literature search was conducted from September 2000 to November 2013. Human clinical trials in which oral rehabilitation was achieved by the use of four zygomatic implants with no additional placement of standard implants were included. The primary outcome was the survival rate of the zygomatic implants. In addition, random effects meta-analyses of the selected studies were applied to avoid potential bias caused by methodologic differences among studies. Results: Zygomatic implant survival rate weighted mean (WM) was 96.7% (range, 95.8% to 99.9%), with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 92.5% to 98.5%. Only a limited number of surgical complications were reported, with orbital perforation the most significant. Similar results were obtained for prosthetic complications (few occurrences). Additionally, patient satisfaction levels were shown to be high, approaching that of the general population. Conclusion: Data from the present systematic review suggest that maxillary rehabilitation by four zygomatic implants with no anterior support is a reliable approach.
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[Subspecies identification for Mycobacterium abscessus group].
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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To identify the subspecies of Mycobacterium abscessus (M.abscessus) group.
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Influence of exciton dimensionality on spectral diffusion of single-walled carbon nanotubes.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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We study temporal evolution of photoluminescence (PL) spectra from individual single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) at cryogenic and room temperatures. Sublinear and superlinear correlations between fluctuating PL spectral positions and line widths are observed at cryogenic and room temperatures, respectively. We develop a simple model to explain these two different spectral diffusion behaviors in the framework of quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) caused by surface charges trapped in the vicinity of SWCNTs. We show that the wave function properties of excitons, namely, localization at cryogenic temperature and delocalization at room temperature, play a critical role in defining sub- and superlinear correlations. Room temperature PL spectral positions and line widths of SWCNTs coupled to gold dimer nanoantennas on the other hand exhibit sublinear correlations, indicating that excitonic emission mainly originates from nanometer range regions and excitons appear to be localized. Our numerical simulations show that such apparent localization of excitons results from plasmonic confinement of excitation and an enhancement of decay rates in the gap of the dimer nanoantennas.
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[Reprogramming mechanism and genetic stability of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)].
Yi Chuan
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were reprogrammed from somatic cells using specific transcription factors. Bypassing the ethical issue caused by embryonic stem cells (ESCs), iPSCs can be successfully induced from a variety of cells, which makes iPSCs a powerful research tool for developmental biology. iPSCs have also become indispensable to the research of life science due to their broad potential applications. However, it's a big challenge to obtain iPSCs with high quality and genetic stability. Here, we review the research progress of increasing the reprogramming mechanism and genetic stability of iPSCs in order to provide references of reprogramming efficiency of iPSCs, reducing the cost, and addressing key points of iPSCs quality control, further promoting clinical application of the iPSCs.
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Business intelligence from social media: a study from the VAST Box Office Challenge.
IEEE Comput Graph Appl
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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With over 16 million tweets per hour, 600 new blog posts per minute, and 400 million active users on Facebook, businesses have begun searching for ways to turn real-time consumer-based posts into actionable intelligence. The goal is to extract information from this noisy, unstructured data and use it for trend analysis and prediction. Current practices support the idea that visual analytics (VA) can help enable the effective analysis of such data. However, empirical evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of a VA solution is still lacking. A proposed VA toolkit extracts data from Bitly and Twitter to predict movie revenue and ratings. Results from the 2013 VAST Box Office Challenge demonstrate the benefit of an interactive environment for predictive analysis, compared to a purely statistical modeling approach. The VA approach used by the toolkit is generalizable to other domains involving social media data, such as sales forecasting and advertisement analysis.
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A Survey and a Molecular Dynamics Study on the (Central) Hydrophobic Region of Prion Proteins.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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Prion diseases which are serious neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and animals occur in various of species. Unlike many other neurodegenerative diseases affected by amyloid, prion diseases can be highly infectious. Prion diseases occur in many species. In humans, prion diseases include the fatal human neurodegenerative diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD), Fatal Familial Insomnia (FFI), Gerstmann-Strussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS) and Kuru etc. In animals, prion diseases are related to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or 'mad-cow' disease) in cattle, the chronic wasting disease (CWD) found in deer and elk, and scrapie seen in sheep and goats, etc. More seriously, the fact that transmission of the prion diseases across the species barrier to other species such as humans has caused a major public health concern worldwide. For example, the BSE in Europe, the CWD in North America, and variant CJDs (vCJDs) in young people of UK. Fortunately, it is discovered that the hydrophobic region of prion proteins (PrP) controls the formation of diseased prions (PrPSc), which provide some clues in control of such diseases. This article provides a detailed survey of recent studies with respect to the PrP hydrophobic region of human PrP(110-136) using molecular dynamics studies.
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[Adeno-associated vector mediated intracellular biological activity of human Kallistatin].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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Human tissue kallikrein-binding protein (Kallistatin, KAL), a secretory protein that participates in the regulation of multiple signaling pathways by binding to the extracellular receptor, however, at present has not been reported about the intracellular activity, and whether it has the similar biological activity with extracellular activity. Here we constructed no signal peptide KAL (NSK) into the adeno-associated virus vector to explore the intracellular activity of KAL. Both the endothelial cell and lung cancer cells could express KAL, but not secreted after rAAV2-NSK transfection. The proliferation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were inhibited, but the apoptosis rate was not affected. The proliferation rates, mobility and tubule formation of all the three tested lung cancer cells, such as NCI-H446, NCI-H460 and A549, were inhibited to different extents. This cellular study not only confirmed the intracellular activity, but also suggested it may serve as a kind of "balance factor" in multi-targeted controlling, which may provide a new train of thoughts to explain the regulatory contradiction in PI3K-Akt signaling pathways by KAL.
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Relationship between TLR4 and NF-?B p65 protein expressions and clinical radiosensitivity of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Pak J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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To study the relationship between TLR4 and NF-?B p65 protein expressions in tumor tissues after radiotherapy and clinical radiosensitivity of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
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Clinical outcomes of dental implant therapy in alveolar cleft patients: a systematic review.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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The purpose of this report was to evaluate data from published articles to determine the success and effectiveness of advanced bone grafting and dental implant therapy in alveolar cleft patients.
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Breast Adipose Tissue Estrogen Metabolism in Postmenopausal Women with or without Breast Cancer.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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Context: It has been shown that breast tumor actively produces and metabolizes steroid hormones. However, little is known about the possible mechanisms through which the non-malignant adipose tissue contributes to steroid hormone metabolism. Objective: We compared the metabolic pathways producing active estradiol in breast subcutaneous adipose tissue of postmenopausal women with or without breast cancer. Design and Setting: Serum and adipose tissue samples were obtained during elective surgery. Patients: We studied postmenopausal women undergoing mastectomy due to an estrogen receptor-positive breast tumor (N=14) and women undergoing breast reduction mammaplasty (N=14). Interventions: Estrone, estradiol, and estradiol fatty acyl ester concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. mRNA expression levels of estrogen-converting enzymes were analyzed by qRT-PCR. Results: Estradiol concentration in breast subcutaneous adipose tissue was lower in women with cancer than in controls (median 33 vs. 62 pmol/kg; P=0.002) whereas the serum concentrations did not differ. Also the mRNA expression for 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 12 was lower in the adipose tissue of women with cancer compared with controls (0.19±0.10 vs. 0.37±0.21, P=0.018). Conclusions: Estrogen metabolism is differently regulated in the adipose tissue of women with or without cancer. In the subcutaneous adipose tissue proximal to breast tumor 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 12 expression is lower than in controls, which could indicate that the conversion of estrone to estradiol is decreased. Further studies are needed to establish the clinical significance of our findings in the development and growth of breast cancer in postmenopausal women.
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The Molecular Mechanisms of TRAIL Resistance in Cancer Cells: Help in Designing New Drugs.
Curr. Pharm. Des.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), which is capable of selectively inducing apoptosis of cancer cells, is a potential targeted drug for cancer therapy. Many clinical trials have verified the safety, tolerability, and therapeutic efficacy of TRAIL or TRAIL agonists in patients. However, the resistance to TRAIL in multiple cancer cells resulted in limited treatment response and poor prognosis. In this review, the molecular mechanisms of TRAIL resistance in cancer cells are summarized. How TRAIL receptors, structure of the cellular membrane, the Protein Kinase B (Akt) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) pathways involve in regulating TRAIL resistance is described. A full understanding of the exact molecular mechanisms of TRAIL resistance in cancer cells could help to design more suitable strategies and new drugs to overcome TRAIL resistance and obtain better therapeutic outcomes.
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Identification of an antitumor immune response of polyhistidine through a toll-like receptor 4-dependent manner.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Polyhistidine is widely used for the delivery of nucleic acids and antibodies into the cell cytoplasm. However, little attention has been concerned on the effect of polyhistidine on the immune system. In this work, we identify a novel function of polyhistidine as an activator of the immune system. Single-molecule fluorescence imaging and single-molecule force measurements show that polyhistidine binds specifically to the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), inducing receptor dimerization and activation. Moreover, in a B16 melanoma model we demonstrate that polyhistidine treatment inhibits tumor growth in TLR4(+/+) but not TLR4(-/-) mice. These results suggest the potential use of polyhistidine for cancer immunotherapy.
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Quercetin suppresses insulin receptor signaling through inhibition of the insulin ligand-receptor binding and therefore impairs cancer cell proliferation.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Although the flavonoid quercetin is known to inhibit activation of insulin receptor signaling, the inhibitory mechanism is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that quercetin suppresses insulin induced dimerization of the insulin receptor (IR) through interfering with ligand-receptor interactions, which reduces the phosphorylation of IR and Akt. This inhibitory effect further inhibits insulin stimulated glucose uptake due to decreased cell membrane translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), resulting in impaired cancer cell proliferation. The effect of quercetin in inhibiting tumor growth was also evident in an in vivo model, indicating a potential future application for quercetin in the treatment of cancers.
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Atherosclerosis-related circulating miRNAs as novel and sensitive predictors for acute myocardial infarction.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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The dysregulated expressions of circulating miRNAs have been detected in various cardiovascular diseases. In our previous experiments, the altered expressions of circulating miRNA-21-5p, miRNA-361-5p and miRNA-519e-5p were confirmed in patients with coronary atherosclerosis by miRNA microarrays. However, the expression levels of these circulating miRNAs in the early phase of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are still unknown. In the present study, our aims were to examine the expressions of circulating miR-21-5p, miR-361-5p and miR-519e-5p in AMI patients, and assess their clinical applications for diagnosing and monitoring AMI.
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Reduced expression of p21-activated protein kinase 1 correlates with poor histological differentiation in pancreatic cancer.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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P21-activated protein kinase 1 (PAK1), a main downstream effector of small Rho GTPases, is overexpressed in many malignancies. PAK1 overexpression is associated with poor prognosis in some tumor types, including breast cancer, gastric cancer, and colorectal cancer. However, the expression and clinical relevance of PAK1 expression in human pancreatic cancer remains unknown.
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Remote Ischemic Conditioning Prevents Lung and Liver Injury After Hemorrhagic Shock/Resuscitation: Potential Role of a Humoral Plasma Factor.
Ann. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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To evaluate the efficacy of remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) on organ protection after hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation (S/R) in a murine model.
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Giant bandgap renormalization and excitonic effects in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductor.
Nat Mater
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2014
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Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are emerging as a new platform for exploring 2D semiconductor physics. Reduced screening in two dimensions results in markedly enhanced electron-electron interactions, which have been predicted to generate giant bandgap renormalization and excitonic effects. Here we present a rigorous experimental observation of extraordinarily large exciton binding energy in a 2D semiconducting TMD. We determine the single-particle electronic bandgap of single-layer MoSe2 by means of scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS), as well as the two-particle exciton transition energy using photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. These yield an exciton binding energy of 0.55 eV for monolayer MoSe2 on graphene-orders of magnitude larger than what is seen in conventional 3D semiconductors and significantly higher than what we see for MoSe2 monolayers in more highly screening environments. This finding is corroborated by our ab initio GW and Bethe-Salpeter equation calculations which include electron correlation effects. The renormalized bandgap and large exciton binding observed here will have a profound impact on electronic and optoelectronic device technologies based on single-layer semiconducting TMDs.
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[Levels of complement components C3a and C5a in renal injury among trichloroethylene-sensitized BALB/c mice].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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To determine the levels of complement components C3a and C5a in the kidneys of trichloroethylene (TCE)-sensitized BALB/c mice, and to investigate the role of complement components in TCE-induced renal injury among BALB/c mice.
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[Analysis of clinical effects of percutaneous vertebroplasty and percutaneous kyphoplasty in treating osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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To explore the clinical outcomes of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) in treating osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (OVCF).
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Combination of HBO and Memantine in Focal Cerebral Ischemia: Is There a Synergistic Effect?
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy and memantine, a non-competitive NMDA antagonist, are both promising treatment strategies for improving stroke prognosis. However, HBO's narrow therapeutic time window (<6 h post-stroke) and the adverse effect of high-dose MEM administration limits the use of these therapeutic interventions. In this study, we investigated whether or not MEM could prolong the narrow therapeutic window of HBO treatment. Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 120 min. MCAO produced neurobehavioral deficits, increased infarction volume, increased Evans blue (EB) content and levels of pro-inflammatory factors, as well as depleted glutathione (GSH), and reduced catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the ischemic ipsilateral hemisphere. The combination of 5 mg/kg MEM treatment 15 min after the onset of ischemic event and HBO therapy 12 h post-reperfusion significantly restored neurologic scores, EB concentration and IL-10 levels, as well as significantly decreased infarct volume and increased antioxidant activity. These results imply that the combination of MEM and HBO therapy not only prolongs the therapeutic window of HBO treatment, but also lowers the dosage requirement of MEM. The mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effects of the combined treatment may lie in alleviated blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, inhibited inflammatory response, and up-regulation of the antioxidant enzyme activity.
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Transforming growth factor-?1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma via the PTEN/PI3K signaling pathway.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial step for the invasive and metastatic properties of malignant tumor cells during tumor progression. Numerous signaling pathways are involved in the process of EMT in cancer, such as the EMT-inducing signal transforming growth factor (TGF)-? and the recently demonstrated PTEN/PI3K signaling pathway. To date, no data have been reported concerning the influence of PTEN/PI3K signaling pathway on EMT in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and how TGF-?1 and PTEN/PI3K act through multiple interconnected signaling pathways to trigger events associated with EMT and tumor progression. Our data showed that the PTEN/PI3K pathway was active in human ESCC tissues in vivo, particularly in ESCC with decreased E-cadherin and increased vimentin protein expression, poor differentiation, deep invasion and lymph node metastasis, which are responsible for EMT and tumor progression. In addition, in the human ESCC cell line (EC-1) in vitro, TGF-?1 treatment markedly induced EMT, including morphological alterations, a decrease of E-cadherin and an increase of vimentin levels and enhanced mobility and invasiveness. Furthermore, the PTEN/PI3K pathway was also activated in the process of TGF-?1-induced EMT in EC-1 cells in vitro, whereas inhibition of the PTEN/PI3K pathway by using pcDNA3.1 PTEN partially blocked TGF-?1-induced EMT and reduced mobility and invasiveness. These studies suggest that TGF-?1 and the PTEN/PI3K signaling pathway contribute to EMT and the PTEN/PI3K signaling pathway is a key regulator of TGF-?1?induced EMT in ESCC. Disruption of the PTEN/PI3K pathway involved in TGF-?1-induced EMT may provide possible routes for therapeutic intervention to ESCC.
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Coblation plus photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of juvenile onset laryngeal papillomatosis: case reports.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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In treating juvenile-onset laryngeal papillomatosis, the most difficult aspect is preventing recurrence. After a single treatment, recurrence can begin after as soon as 20 days and the recurrent rate can be higher than 90%. The causes of recurrence include the presence of mucosal cells infected with papilloma virus, which are undetectable with the naked eyes, and surgery-induced infection. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) could effectively solve this problem. Virus-infected cells have a very high metabolic energy for capturing and internalizing the photosensitizer, which, after light stimulation, subsequently induces active oxygen species inside the nucleus, which kill infected cells. The second generation of photosensitizer agents (PA) are locally applied to avoid the intravenous systemic damage caused by first-generation PAs, and this method is widely used for the treatment of genital warts to very good effect.
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Characterisation of a plancitoxin-1-like DNase II gene in Trichinella spiralis.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Deoxyribonuclease II (DNase II) is a well-known acidic endonuclease that catalyses the degradation of DNA into oligonucleotides. Only one or a few genes encoding DNase II have been observed in the genomes of many species. 125 DNase II-like protein family genes were predicted in the Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) genome; however, none have been confirmed. DNase II is a monomeric nuclease that contains two copies of a variant HKD motif in the N- and C-termini. Of these 125 genes, only plancitoxin-1 (1095 bp, GenBank accession no. XM_003370715.1) contains the HKD motif in its C-terminus domain.
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[Effects of hippocampal stimulus on ?? subunit of extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptor in kainic acid-induced epileptic rats].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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To observe the effects of electrical hippocampal stimulation of ?? subunit of extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptor in kainic acid-induced epileptic rats, explore the optimal therapeutic parameters and elucidate the possible mechanism of electrical stimulation for hippocampal epilepsy.
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[Altered effective connectivity of insula in nicotine addiction].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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To explore the changes of effective connectivity associated with insula in different nicotine addiction sessions so as to understand its role and function.
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Ultrafast charge transfer in atomically thin MoS?/WS? heterostructures.
Nat Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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Van der Waals heterostructures have recently emerged as a new class of materials, where quantum coupling between stacked atomically thin two-dimensional layers, including graphene, hexagonal-boron nitride and transition-metal dichalcogenides (MX2), give rise to fascinating new phenomena. MX2 heterostructures are particularly exciting for novel optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications, because two-dimensional MX2 monolayers can have an optical bandgap in the near-infrared to visible spectral range and exhibit extremely strong light-matter interactions. Theory predicts that many stacked MX2 heterostructures form type II semiconductor heterojunctions that facilitate efficient electron-hole separation for light detection and harvesting. Here, we report the first experimental observation of ultrafast charge transfer in photoexcited MoS2/WS2 heterostructures using both photoluminescence mapping and femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. We show that hole transfer from the MoS2 layer to the WS2 layer takes place within 50?fs after optical excitation, a remarkable rate for van der Waals coupled two-dimensional layers. Such ultrafast charge transfer in van der Waals heterostructures can enable novel two-dimensional devices for optoelectronics and light harvesting.
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Deoxycholic acid-modified chitooligosaccharide/mPEG-PDLLA mixed micelles loaded with paclitaxel for enhanced antitumor efficacy.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as a block in polymeric micelles can prolong circulation life and reduce systemic clearance but decrease the cellular uptake. To overcome this limitation, a mixed micelle composed of deoxycholic acid-modified chitooligosaccharide (COS-DOCA) and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-polylactide copolymer (mPEG-PDLLA) was designed to load paclitaxel (PTX). The PTX-loaded mixed micelles was prepared by nanoprecipitation method with high drug-loading efficiency of 8.03% and encapsulation efficiency of 97.09% as well as small size (?40nm) and narrow size distribution. COS-DOCA/mPEG-PDLLA mixed micelles exhibited the sustained release property. Due to the positive charge and bioadhesive property of COS-DOCA, the cellular uptake of PTX in mixed micelles was higher in cancer cells but lower in macrophage cells compared to the mPEG-PDLLA micelles. The systemic toxicity of PTX in mixed micelles was much lower than Taxol using zebrafish as a toxicological model. Furthermore, the PTX-loaded COS-DOCA/mPEG-PDLLA mixed micelles can prolong the blood circulation time of PTX and enhance the antitumor efficacy in A549 lung xenograft model. Our findings indicate that COS-DOCA/mPEG-PDLLA mixed micelles could be a potential vehicle for enhanced delivery of anticancer drugs.
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Tandem phosphorothioate modifications for DNA adsorption strength and polarity control on gold nanoparticles.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Unmodified DNA was recently used to functionalize gold nanoparticles via DNA base adsorption. Compared to thiolated DNA, however, the application of unmodified DNA is limited by the lack of sequence generality, adsorption polarity control and poor adsorption stability. We report that these problems can be solved using phosphorothioate (PS) DNA. PS DNA binds to gold mainly via the sulfur atom and is thus less sequence dependent. The adsorption affinity is ranked to be thiol > PS > adenine > thymine. Tandem PS improves adsorption strength, allows tunable DNA density, and the resulting conjugates are functional at a low cost.
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Determination of the free and total concentrations of vancomycin by two-dimensional liquid chromatography and its application in elderly patients.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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A robust two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) method for determining the free and total concentrations of vancomycin in plasma was developed and validated. The 2D-LC system, which exhibited a strong capacity for inhibiting interference, comprised a unique RP1-IEX-RP2 column system and an "Assistant Flow" configuration. Ultrafiltration technology was employed to separate free vancomycin from the protein-bound fraction in human plasma. The influence of ultrafiltration conditions on the free vancomycin concentration was evaluated. The calibration curve was linear over the 0.195-49.92?g/ml range for the free and total vancomycin concentrations. The within- and between-run precision ranges were 1.5-3.9% and 2.0-4.7% for the total concentration, 1.4-3.3% and 2.4-4.0% for the free concentration, respectively. Ultrafiltration was susceptible to variations in the experimental conditions, including the centrifugation time, the centrifugal force, and the nominal molecular weight limit of the ultrafiltration membrane. A total of 101 serum samples from 84 elderly patients were analyzed by this method. The free vancomycin concentration was 5.88±3.75?g/ml (range: 0.240-16.79?g/ml), the total concentration was 12.36±5.36?g/ml (range: 2.16-27.14?g/ml), and the unbound fraction was 45.6±18.8% (range: 11.1-96.9%). There was a poor correlation between the free and total vancomycin concentrations (R(2)=0.596, p<0.05). This method appears to be sensitive, precise, selective, and suitable for use in protein-binding studies of vancomycin.
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Intermediate long-term clinical performance of dental implants placed in sites with a previous early implant failure: a retrospective analysis.
Clin Oral Implants Res
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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The aim of this retrospective case-control study was to evaluate the intermediate long-term clinical performance and success rate of dental implants inserted into sites of previous early implant failure.
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Epinephrine Evokes Renalase Secretion via ?-Adrenoceptor/NF-?B Pathways in Renal Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells.
Kidney Blood Press. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Background/Aims : Renalase is a recently discovered, kidney-specific monoamine oxidase that metabolizes circulating catecholamines. These findings present new insights into hypertension and chronic kidney diseases. Previous data demonstrated that renalase was mainly secreted from proximal tubules which could be evoked by catecholamines. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether renalase expression is induced by epinephrine via ?-adrenoceptor/NF?B pathways. Methods : HK2 cells were utilized to explore renalase expression in response to epinephrine in vitro. Phentolamine, an ?-adrenoceptor antagonist, and Tosyl Phenylalanyl Chloromethyl Ketone (TPCK) were used to block ?-adrenoceptor and to knock down the transcription factor NF?B, respectively. Renalase expression was analyzed using Western blot and quantitative PCR. Results : Both protein and mRNA levels of renalase in HK2 cells increased in response to epinephrine (P<0.05). Epinephrine-evoked renalase expression was attenuated by phentolamine and TPCK separately (P<0.05). Conclusion : Epinephrine evokes renalase secretion via ?-adrenoceptor/NF-?B pathways in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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OPN Polymorphism Is Related to the Chemotherapy Response and Prognosis in Advanced NSCLC.
Int J Genomics
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Background. Osteopontin (OPN) is associated with prognosis of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, little is known about the association between OPN gene polymorphism and the chemotherapy response in NSCLC patients. Methods. A total of 497 patients with inoperable advanced stage of NSCLC (stages III B and IV NSCLC) were enrolled. All patients had received platinum-based chemotherapy. OPN gene polymorphisms at 156 GG/G, 443 C/T, and -66T/G were determined. Results. The genotypes and allele frequency of -443C>T were significantly different between the responders and nonresponders. Responders had a markedly higher frequency of -443TT genotype than responders (40.71% versus 19.09%, P < 0.001). With CC as reference, the TT genotype carriers had a higher chance to be well responders (adjusted OR = 4.43, 95% CI: 2.60-7.53, adjusted P < 0.001). The median overall survival time for patients with -443CC, -443CT, and -443TT genotype carriers was significantly different. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models showed that OPN -443C>T gene polymorphisms were closely correlated to poor NSCLC prognosis. Conclusion. OPN -443C>T gene polymorphism may be used as a molecular marker to predict the treatment response to chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC patients.
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Magnolin Protects against Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Rats via Antioxidation and Antiapoptosis.
Oxid Med Cell Longev
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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Background. Magnolin is the major active ingredient of the herb Magnolia fargesii which has anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. Oxidative stress and apoptosis are involved in the pathogenesis of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). We hypothesize that Magnolin could protect against CIN through antioxidative and antiapoptotic properties. Methods. To test whether Magnolin could attenuate CIN, oxidative stress and apoptosis, in vivo and in vitro, we utilized a rat model of ioversol-induced CIN and a cell model of oxidative stress in which HK2 cells were treated with H2O2. Rats were assigned to 4 groups (n = 6 per group): control group, ioversol group (ioversol-induced CIN), vehicle group (CIN rats pretreated with vehicle), and Magnolin group (CIN rats pretreated with 1?mg/kg Magnolin). Results. The results showed that magnolin ameliorated the renal tubular necrosis, apoptosis, and the deterioration of renal function (P < 0.05). Furthermore, Magnolin reduced the renal oxidative stress, suppressed caspase-3 activity, and increased Bcl-2 expression in vivo and in vitro. Conclusion. Magnolin might protect CIN in rats through antioxidation and antiapoptosis.
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15d-Prostaglandin J2 Protects Cortical Neurons Against Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation/Reoxygenation Injury: Involvement of Inhibiting Autophagy Through Upregulation of Bcl-2.
Cell. Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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We have previously shown that PPAR-? agonist 15d-PGJ2 inhibited neuronal autophagy after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the underlying mechanism of its regulatory role in neuronal autophagy remains unclear. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that 15d-PGJ2 upregulated Bcl-2 which binds to Beclin 1, and thereby inhibits autophagy. We performed cell viability assay, cytotoxicity assay, western blot, and co-immunoprecipitation to analyze autophagy activities in vitro model of oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R). OGD/R induced autophagy in cultured cortical neurons. 15d-PGJ2 treatment significantly decreased LC3-II/LC3-I ratio and Beclin 1 expression, but increased p62 expression. Autophagic inhibitor 3-methyladenine decreased LC3-II levels, increased neuronal cell viability, and mimicked some protective effect of 15d-PGJ2 against OGD/R injury. OGD/R-induced autophagy coincided with decreases in Bcl-2 expression and increases in Beclin 1 expression. 15d-PGJ2 treatment upregulated Bcl-2 expression and decreased Beclin 1 expression, and inhibit the dissociation of Beclin1 from Bcl-2 significantly. Bcl-2 siRNA abrogated the effect of 15d-PGJ2 on Beclin 1, LC3-II and p62, and influence cell viability and LDH level, while scRNA did not. PPAR-? agonist 15d-PGJ2 exerts neuroprotection partially via inhibiting neuronal autophagy after OGD/R injury. The inhibition of autophagy by 15d-PGJ2 is mediated through upregulation of Bcl-2.
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Effects of Melatonin on the Proliferation and Apoptosis of Sheep Granulosa Cells under Thermal Stress.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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The cross-talk between oocyte and somatic cells plays a crucial role in the regulation of follicular development and oocyte maturation. As a result, granulosa cell apoptosis causes follicular atresia. In this study, sheep granulosa cells were cultured under thermal stress to induce apoptosis, and melatonin (MT) was examined to evaluate its potential effects on heat-induced granulosa cell injury. The results demonstrated that the Colony Forming Efficiency (CFE) of granulosa cells was significantly decreased (heat 19.70% ± 1.29% vs. control 26.96% ± 1.81%, p < 0.05) and the apoptosis rate was significantly increased (heat 56.16% ± 13.95% vs. control 22.80% ± 12.16%, p < 0.05) in granulosa cells with thermal stress compared with the control group. Melatonin (10-7 M) remarkably reduced the negative effects caused by thermal stress in the granulosa cells. This reduction was indicated by the improved CFE and decreased apoptotic rate of these cells. The beneficial effects of melatonin on thermal stressed granulosa cells were not inhibited by its membrane receptor antagonist luzindole. A mechanistic exploration indicated that melatonin (10-7 M) down-regulated p53 and up-regulated Bcl-2 and LHR gene expression of granulosa cells under thermal stress. This study provides evidence for the molecular mechanisms of the protective effects of melatonin on granulosa cells during thermal stress.
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Effects of gastrokine?2 expression on gastric cancer cell apoptosis by activation of extrinsic apoptotic pathways.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Gastrokine?2 is a putative gastric cancer?specific tumor suppressor gene, the loss of which is known to be involved in the development and progression of gastric cancer, and restoration of gastrokine?2 expression inhibits growth of gastric cancer cells in vitro. However, the underlying mechanism of these effects requires elucidation. In the present study, expression patterns of gastrokine?2 protein were examined in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines. Expression of gastrokine?2 was restored in gastric cancer cells in order to assess its effect on cell viability, apoptosis and gene expression. A total of 76 gastric cancer tissues with corresponding normal mucosae samples, and two gastric cancer cell lines (SGC?7901 and AGS) were subjected to western blot analysis of gastrokine?2 expression. SGC?7901 cells were transiently transfected with gastrokine?2 cDNA and then treated with anti?CD95 and/or anti?Fas antibodies prior to analysis of cell viability, apoptosis and gene expression levels. Expression of gastrokine?2 protein was reduced or absent in gastric cancer tissues and gastric cancer cell lines. Following restoration of gastrokine?2 expression, the protein expression level of Fas was significantly increased, but no marked change was observed in the levels of bcl?2 and Bax proteins. Expression of gastrokine?2 protein reduced gastric cancer cell viability and induced apoptosis. Activity of caspase?3 and caspase?8 was increased, but caspase?9 activity remained unchanged in the SGC?7901 cells. Reduction or knockout of gastrokine?2 protein expression may contribute to gastric cancer development or progression, as the current study demonstrated that restoration of gastrokine?2 expression induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cells through the extrinsic apoptosis pathway.
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Development of an efficient process intensification strategy for enhancing Pfu DNA polymerase production in recombinant Escherichia coli.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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An efficient induction strategy that consisted of multiple additions of small doses of isopropyl-?-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) in the early cell growth phase was developed for enhancing Pfu DNA polymerase production in Escherichia coli. In comparison to the most commonly used method of a single induction of 1 mM IPTG, the promising induction strategy resulted in an increase in the Pfu activity of 13.5 % in shake flasks, while simultaneously decreasing the dose of IPTG by nearly half. An analysis of the intracellular IPTG concentrations indicated that the cells need to maintain an optimum intracellular IPTG concentration after 6 h for efficient Pfu DNA polymerase production. A significant increase in the Pfu DNA polymerase activity of 31.5 % under the controlled dissolved oxygen concentration of 30 % in a 5 L fermentor was achieved using the multiple IPTG induction strategy in comparison with the single IPTG induction. The induction strategy using multiple inputs of IPTG also avoided over accumulation of IPTG and reduced the cost of Pfu DNA polymerase production.
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Clinical effect analysis of microscopic surgery for epiglottis cysts with coblation.
Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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This study aims to explore the effects and advantages of coblation combined with microscopy to treat epiglottis cysts. Ninety patients with epiglottis cysts were randomly assigned to three groups: the first group: marsupialisation + electric coagulation group, n = 30; the second group: marsupialisation + coblation, n = 30; and the third group: marsupialisation + coblation + microsurgery, n = 30. To compare the cure rate, intraoperative bleeding volume, postoperative pain, operation time and postoperative complications were investigated among these three groups. The comparison among three procedures showed a significant difference for intraoperative bleeding volume, operation time and postoperative pain (P < 0.05), whereas no significant difference was observed for cure rate (P > 0.05). These three procedures are effective in treating epiglottis cysts. Microscopic surgery with coblation has the advantages of less bleeding, short procedure duration, less pain and few complications. Thus, microscopic surgery is worthy of clinical application.
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Y chromosome haplotype diversity of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in northern Eurasia.
Anim. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Variation in two SNPs and one microsatellite on the Y chromosome was analyzed in a total of 663 rams representing 59 breeds from a large geographic range in northern Eurasia. SNPA-oY1 showed the highest allele frequency (91.55%) across the breeds, whereas SNPG-oY1 was present in only 56 samples. Combined genotypes established seven haplotypes (H4, H5, H6, H7, H8, H12 and H19). H6 dominated in northern Eurasia, and H8 showed the second-highest frequency. H4, which had been earlier reported to be absent in European breeds, was detected in one European breed (Swiniarka), whereas H7, which had been previously identified to be unique to European breeds, was present in two Chinese breeds (Ninglang Black and Large-tailed Han), one Buryatian (Transbaikal Finewool) and two Russian breeds (North Caucasus Mutton-Wool and Kuibyshev). H12, which had been detected only in Turkish breeds, was also found in Chinese breeds in this work. An overall low level of haplotype diversity (median h = 0.1288) was observed across the breeds with relatively higher median values in breeds from the regions neighboring the Near Eastern domestication center of sheep. H6 is the dominant haplotype in northwestern and eastern China, in which the haplotype distribution could be explained by the historical translocations of the H4 and H8 Y chromosomes to China via the Mongol invasions followed by expansions to northwestern and eastern China. Our findings extend previous results of sheep Y chromosomal genetic variability and indicate probably recent paternal gene flows between sheep breeds from distinct major geographic regions.
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Identification of chemokines and growth factors in proliferative diabetic retinopathy vitreous.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Associations were investigated between levels of chemokines and growth factors in the vitreous and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Enrolled were 58 patients (58 eyes) requiring pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), with PDR (n = 32, none with traction retinal detachment) or not (non-PDR). In the latter, 16 had macular hole (MH) and 10 had epiretinal membrane (ERM). With a multiplex bead immunoassay, levels of 11 chemokines and growth factors were measured from the undiluted vitreous sample from each patient. In the non-PDR eyes, the levels of the 11 chemokines and growth factors tested were similar between patients with MH and those with ERM. However, the levels of all 11 were significantly higher in the PDR eyes relative to the non-PDR; CCL17, CCL19, and TGF?3 were markedly upregulated and have not been investigated in PDR previously. The significantly higher levels of CCL4 and CCL11 in PDR contradict the results of previous reports. Based on Spearman's nonparametric test, moderate-to-strong correlations were found between VEGF and other mediators. Our results indicate that these chemokines and growth factors could be candidates for research into targeted therapies applied either singly or in combination with anti-VEGF drugs for the treatment of PDR.
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Evolution of interlayer coupling in twisted molybdenum disulfide bilayers.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2014
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Van der Waals coupling is emerging as a powerful method to engineer physical properties of atomically thin two-dimensional materials. In coupled graphene-graphene and graphene-boron nitride layers, interesting physical phenomena ranging from Fermi velocity renormalization to Hofstadter's butterfly pattern have been demonstrated. Atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides, another family of two-dimensional-layered semiconductors, can show distinct coupling phenomena. Here we demonstrate the evolution of interlayer coupling with twist angles in as-grown molybdenum disulfide bilayers. We find that the indirect bandgap size varies appreciably with the stacking configuration: it shows the largest redshift for AA- and AB-stacked bilayers, and a significantly smaller but constant redshift for all other twist angles. Our observations, together with ab initio calculations, reveal that this evolution of interlayer coupling originates from the repulsive steric effects that leads to different interlayer separations between the two molybdenum disulfide layers in different stacking configurations.
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Transcript profiling of structural genes involved in cyanidin-based anthocyanin biosynthesis between purple and non-purple carrot (Daucus carota L.) cultivars reveals distinct patterns.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Carrots (Daucus carota L.) are among the 10 most economically important vegetable crops grown worldwide. Purple carrot cultivars accumulate rich cyanidin-based anthocyanins in a light-independent manner in their taproots whereas other carrot color types do not. Anthocyanins are important secondary metabolites in plants, protecting them from damage caused by strong light, heavy metals, and pathogens. Furthermore, they are important nutrients for human health. Molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin accumulation in purple carrot cultivars and loss of anthocyanin production in non-purple carrot cultivars remain unknown.
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MicroRNA-126 attenuates palmitate-induced apoptosis by targeting TRAF7 in HUVECs.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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The aim of the present study was to explore the role of miR-126 in palmitate-induced HUVECs apoptosis and the possible mechanisms. Palmitate inhibited miR-126 expression in HUVECs, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and induced apoptosis as determined by up-regulation of caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation. Overexpression of miR-126 decreased ROS production, TNF-? expression, and apoptosis in palmitate-stimulated HUVECs. In contrast, miR-126 antagomir enhanced palmitate-induced ROS production, TNF-? expression, and apoptosis. The induction of miR-126 correlated with a reduction in TRAF7. We further showed that miR-126 targeted and inhibited TRAF7 expression through target sites located in the 3' untranslated region of TRAF7 mRNA. In concordance, miR-126 mimic reduced TRAF7 protein in HUVECs, whereas the inhibition of miR-126 increased it. This study demonstrates an anti-apoptotic role of miR-126 in HUVECs and identifies TRAF7 as a direct target of miR-126 in HUVECs.
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Antimicrobial activity of the imipenem/rifampicin combination against clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii grown in planktonic and biofilm cultures.
World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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To investigate the antimicrobial activity of imipenem and rifampicin alone and in combination against clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii grown in planktonic and biofilm cultures. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for each isolate grown in suspension and in biofilm using a microbroth dilution method. Chequerboard assays and the agar disk diffusion assay were used to determine synergistic, indifferent or antagonistic interactions between imipenem and rifampicin. We used the tissue culture plate method for A. baumannii biofilm formation to measure the percentage of biofilm inhibition and the amount of extracellular DNA after the treatment. To understand the synergistic mechanisms, we conducted hydroxyl radical formation assays. The results were verified by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Imipenem and rifampicin showed effective antimicrobial activity against suspensions and biofilm cultures of A. baumannii, respectively. Synergistic antimicrobial effects between imipenem and rifampicin were observed in 13 and 17 of the 20 clinical isolates when in suspension and in biofilms, respectively. Imipenem and rifampicin alone and in combination generated hydroxyl radicals, which are highly reactive oxygen forms and the major components of bactericidal agents. Furthermore, treatment with imipenem and rifampicin individually or in combination has obvious antibiofilm effects. The synergistic activity of imipenem and rifampicin against clinical isolates of A. baumannii (in suspension and in biofilms) was observed in vitro. Therefore, we conclude that imipenem combined with rifampicin has the potential to be used as a combinatorial therapy for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by A. baumannii.
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Oxidation of Bioethanol using Zeolite-Encapsulated Gold Nanoparticles.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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With the ongoing developments in biomass conversion, the oxidation of bioethanol to acetaldehyde may become a favorable and green alternative to the preparation from ethylene. Here, a simple and effective method to encapsulate gold nanoparticles in zeolite silicalite-1 is reported and their high activity and selectivity for the catalytic gas-phase oxidation of ethanol are demonstrated. The zeolites are modified by a recrystallization process, which creates intraparticle voids and mesopores that facilitate the formation of small and disperse nanoparticles upon simple impregnation. The individual zeolite crystals comprise a broad range of mesopores and contain up to several hundred gold nanoparticles with a diameter of 2-3?nm that are distributed inside the zeolites rather than on the outer surface. The encapsulated nanoparticles have good stability and result in 50?% conversion of ethanol with 98?% selectivity toward acetaldehyde at 200?°C, which (under the given reaction conditions) corresponds to 606?mol?acetaldehyde/mol?Au?hour(-1) .
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Docetaxel with or without zoledronic acid for castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Int Urol Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of zoledronic acid (ZA) in the combination of docetaxel-based chemotherapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer with bone metastases.
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