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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Recovery Method Development of Sodium Chloride-Susceptible Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Ground Pork Samples.
Microb. Drug Resist.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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The growth of certain methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates could be inhibited by NaCl higher than 2.5%. The objective of this study was to develop an enrichment method to recover NaCl-susceptible MRSA isolates from meat samples. The growth of 12 MRSA and 10 non-MRSA strains was measured in Mueller-Hinton (MH) broth supplemented with 2.5%, 4%, 6.5%, and 7.5% NaCl. Selective agents, including aztreonam, polymyxin B, NaCl, nalidixic acid, and NaN3, were determined for their inhibitory effect to MRSA and non-MRSA strains in MH broth. Based on these data, a two-step enrichment method was developed to recover both NaCl-susceptible and -resistant MRSA isolates in meat products. Comparing to the enrichment method that only used MH broth supplemented with 6.5% NaCl, five additional NaCl-susceptible MRSA isolates were recovered from 92 retail ground pork samples by this newly developed two-step enrichment method. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that considers NaCl-susceptible MRSA recovery from ground pork samples. The application of this new enrichment method might expand the diversity of MRSA isolates recovered from various samples.
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Meta-analysis: low-dose intake of vitamin E combined with other vitamins or minerals may decrease all-cause mortality.
J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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It has been suggested that vitamin E alone or combined with other vitamins or minerals can prevent oxidative stress and slow oxidative injury-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. A comprehensive search of PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library was performed. Relative risk was used as an effect measure to compare the intervention and control groups. A total of 33 trials were included in the meta-analysis. Neither vitamin E intake alone (RR=1.01; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.04; p=0.77) nor vitamin E intake combined with other agents (RR=0.97; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.06; p=0.55) was correlated with all-cause mortality. Subgroup analyses revealed that low-dose vitamin E supplementation combined with other agents is associated with a statistically significant reduction in all-cause mortality (RR=0.92; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.98; p=0.01), and vitamin E intake combined with other agents is associated with a statistically significant reduction in mortality rates among individuals without probable or confirmed diseases (RR=0.92; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.99; p=0.02). Neither vitamin E intake alone nor combined with other agents is associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality. But a low dose (<400 IU/d) of vitamin E combined with other agents is correlated with a reduction in all-cause mortality, and vitamin E intake combined with other agents is correlated with a reduction in the mortality rate among individuals without probable or confirmed diseases.
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Liver myofibroblasts from hepatitis B related liver failure patients may regulate natural killer cell function via PGE2.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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BackgroundNatural killer (NK) cells are abundant in the liver and constitute a major innate immune component that contributes to immune-mediated liver injury. However, few studies have investigated the phenotypes and functions of NK cells involved in hepatitis B related liver failure (LF), and the precise mechanism underlying NK cell regulation is not fully understood.MethodsWe detected the percentage and function of peripheral NK cells both in hepatitis B related LF patients and healthy volunteers by flow cytometry and isolated the liver myofibroblasts (LMFs) from hepatitis B related LF livers. To determine the possible effects of LMFs on NK cells, mixed cell cultures were established in vitro.ResultsWe found a down-regulated percentage of peripheral NK cells in hepatitis B related LF patients, and their NK cells also displayed decreased activated natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs) and cytokine production. In a co-culture model, LMFs sharply attenuated IL-2-induced NK cell triggering receptors, cytotoxicity, and cytokine production. The inhibitory effect of LMFs on NK cells correlated with their ability to produce prostaglandin (PG) E2.ConclusionThese data suggest that LMFs may protect against immune-mediated liver injury in hepatitis B related LF patients by inhibiting NK cell function via PGE2.
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The cysteine protease CEP1, a key executor involved in tapetal programmed cell death, regulates pollen development in Arabidopsis.
Plant Cell
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Tapetal programmed cell death (PCD) is a prerequisite for pollen grain development in angiosperms, and cysteine proteases are the most ubiquitous hydrolases involved in plant PCD. We identified a papain-like cysteine protease, CEP1, which is involved in tapetal PCD and pollen development in Arabidopsis thaliana. CEP1 is expressed specifically in the tapetum from stages 5 to 11 of anther development. The CEP1 protein first appears as a proenzyme in precursor protease vesicles and is then transported to the vacuole and transformed into the mature enzyme before rupture of the vacuole. cep1 mutants exhibited aborted tapetal PCD and decreased pollen fertility with abnormal pollen exine. A transcriptomic analysis revealed that 872 genes showed significantly altered expression in the cep1 mutants, and most of them are important for tapetal cell wall organization, tapetal secretory structure formation, and pollen development. CEP1 overexpression caused premature tapetal PCD and pollen infertility. ELISA and quantitative RT-PCR analyses confirmed that the CEP1 expression level showed a strong relationship to the degree of tapetal PCD and pollen fertility. Our results reveal that CEP1 is a crucial executor during tapetal PCD and that proper CEP1 expression is necessary for timely degeneration of tapetal cells and functional pollen formation.
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Upregulation of miR-513b inhibits cell proliferation, migration, and promotes apoptosis by targeting high mobility group-box 3 protein in gastric cancer.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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The high mobility group-box 3 (HMGB3) protein belongs to the high mobility group box (HMG-box) subfamily, and recent studies have shown that HMGB3 is an oncogene for leukemia. HMGB3 is also expressed at a high level in the progression phase of breast and gastric cancer (GC). Using bioinformatic analyses, we found that HMGB3 is a potential target for miR-513b. However, the pathophysiological role of miR-513b and its relevance to the growth and development of GC have yet to be investigated. This study focuses on whether miR-513b acts as a tumor suppressor in GC. Compared with non-malignant adjacent tissues samples, qRT-PCR data showed significant downregulation of miR-513b in 74 GC tissue samples (P?
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Investigation of avian influenza virus in poultry and wild birds due to novel avian-origin influenza A(H10N8) in Nanchang City, China.
Microbes Infect.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Multiple reassortment events within poultry and wild birds had resulted in the establishment of another novel avian influenza A(H10N8) virus, and finally resulted in human death in Nanchang, China. However, there was a paucity of information on the prevalence of avian influenza virus in poultry and wild birds in Nanchang area. We investigated avian influenza virus in poultry and wild birds from live poultry markets, poultry countyards, delivery vehicles, and wild-bird habitats in Nanchang. We analyzed 1036 samples from wild birds and domestic poultry collected from December 2013 to February 2014. Original biological samples were tested for the presence of avian influenza virus using specific primer and probe sets of H5, H7, H9, H10 and N8 subtypes by real-time RT-PCR. In our analysis, the majority (97.98%) of positive samples were from live poultry markets. Among the poultry samples from chickens and ducks, AIV prevalence was 26.05 and 30.81%, respectively. Mixed infection of different HA subtypes was very common. Additionally, H10 subtypes coexistence with N8 was the most prevalent agent during the emergence of H10N8. This event illustrated a long-term surveillance was so helpful for pandemic preparedness and response.
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Rapid fibroblast activation in mammalian cells induced by silicon nanowire arrays.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Activated tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAFs) with abundant fibroblast activation protein (FAP) expression attract tremendous attention in tumor progression studies. In this work, we report a rapid 24 h FAP activation method for fibroblasts using silicon nanowires (SiNWs) as culture substrates instead of growth factors or chemokines. In contrast with cells cultured on flat silicon which rarely express FAP, SiNW cultivated cells exhibit FAP levels similar to those found in cancerous tissue. We demonstrated that activated cells grown on SiNWs maintain their viability and proliferation in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and focused ion beam and scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) analysis clearly revealed that activated cells on SiNWs adapt to the structure of their substrates by filling inter-wire cavities via filopodia in contrast to cells cultured on flat silicon which spread freely. We further illustrated that the expression of FAP was rarely detected in activated cells after being re-cultured in Petri dishes, suggesting that the unique structure of SiNWs may have a certain influence on FAP activation.
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Crucial enzymes in the hydroxylated triacylglycerol-ricinoleate biosynthesis pathway of castor bean.
Curr. Protein Pept. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is an important oilseed crop for the rich hydroxylated triacylglycerol (TAG)-ricinoleate which is a raw material with wide applications in industry. Hydroxylated TAG synthesis occurs through complicated pathways among multiple subcellular organelles. Some crucial enzymes have been identified in previous studies. After analyzing the available castor tissue-specific transcriptome sequencing data and comparing the classic pathways in other plants, a possible de novo biosynthesis pathway for the hydroxylated TAG has been revealed. In this study, some other crucial enzymes were ascertained and their expression levels were characterized and pinpointed into the pathways in castor. Several key enzymes were analyzed in terms of structure, biofunction prediction and similarity of expression pattern mechanisms, aiming to give an insight on the better understandings of the molecular knowledge for this oil-rich plant and the crucial enzyme performances in the hydroxylated triacylglycerol-ricinoleate biosynthesis pathways.
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Long-term differences in annual litter production between alien (Sonneratia apetala) and native (Kandelia obovata) mangrove species in Futian, Shenzhen, China.
Mar. Pollut. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Annual litter production in alien (Sonneratia apetala) and native (Kandelia obovata) mangrove forests in Shenzhen, China were compared from 1999 to 2010. S. apetala had significantly higher litter production than K. obovata, with mean annual total litter of 18.1 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and 15.2 t ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively. The higher litter production in S. apetala forest indicates higher productivity and consequently more nutrient supply to the estuarine ecosystems but may be more invasive due to positive plant-soil feedbacks and nutrient availability to this alien species. Two peaks were recorded in S. apetala (May and October), while only one peak was observed in K. obovata, in early spring (March and April). Leaf and reproductive materials were the main contributors to litter production (>80%) in both forests. These results suggest that the ecological function of S. apetala and its invasive potential can be better understood based on a long-term litter fall analysis.
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Electronic transport through a benzene-shaped quantum dots system.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Based on the nonequilibrium Green function method, quantum transport through a benzene-shaped quantum dots system is studied. It is shown that the conductance spectrum is sensitive to the arrangement of energy levels of dots. When the energy levels of dots are mismatched, the conductance shows apparent asymmetric structure and striking novel conductance dips appear due to the interference between two distinct paths. The differential conductance as a function of magnetic flux always exhibits 2pi period. An overall suppression of differential conductance emerges for the condition that the levels of dots are all aligned and phi = (2n + 1)pi (n is an integer). In addition, the influence of temperature on the differential conductance is presented.
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The efficacy of nimodipine drug delivery using mPEG-PLA micelles and mPEG-PLA/TPGS mixed micelles.
Eur J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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In order to develop and compare mPEG-PLA micelles and mPEG-PLA/TPGS mixed micelles, with the intention to develop a highly efficient formulation for nimodipine (NIM), NIM-loaded micelles and mixed micelles were made and their pharmacokinetics were studied.
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A mutually beneficial relationship between hepatocytes and cardiomyocytes mitigates doxorubicin-induced toxicity.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Use of doxorubicin (DOX) is limited by its toxicity in multiple organs. However, the relationship between different organs in response to DOX-induced injury is not well understood. We found that partial hepatectomy correlated with increased DOX-induced heart injury in vivo while supernatant prepared from DOX-treated hepatocytes mitigated DOX-induced cytotoxicity of cardiomyocytes in vitro. Meanwhile, the supernatant of DOX-treated cardiomyocytes mitigated DOX-induced cytotoxicity of hepatocytes. Investigation of the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects found that interleukin 6 (IL-6) was significantly up-regulated in DOX-treated tissues and cells, and supernatant from IL-6 treated cells had a similar effect to that from DOX-treated cells. Although the concentration of secreted IL-6 in supernatant from DOX-treated cells did not significantly differ, blockade of IL-6 signaling, by overexpressing SOCS3, suppressed expression of the downstream molecules trefoil factor family 3 (TFF3) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), impaired the mutually beneficial relationship between hepatocytes and cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, our study shows that a mutually beneficial relationship exists between hepatocytes and cardiomyocytes during the acute injury induced by DOX. Moreover, it demonstrates that this phenomenon may be indirectly caused by increased IL-6 expression and the activation of the downstream molecular mediators TFF3 and HGF in hepatocytes and cardiomyocytes, respectively.
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Liver myofibroblasts up-regulate monocyte CD163 expression via PGE2 during hepatitis B induced liver failure.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Although patients with liver failure exhibit a generalized inflammatory-imbalance status, substantial evidence indicates that this immunosuppressive or anti-inflammatory state may be deleterious. Increased expression of CD163 (known to be involved in several anti-inflammatory functions of the immune system) in patients with liver failure is significantly correlated with a fatal outcome. However, little is known of the regulatory mechanisms that influence the expression of CD163.
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Contamination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments and plants of mangrove swamps in Shenzhen, China.
Mar. Pollut. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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The concentrations of 16 individual and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (?PAHs) in sediments, roots and leaves of three mangrove swamps in Shenzhen, China, namely Futian, Baguang and Waterlands, were determined. The mean concentration of ?PAHs in Futian (4480 ng g(-1)) was significantly higher than that in Baguang (1262 ng g(-1)) and Waterlands (2711 ng g(-1)). Among the 16 PAHs, the concentration of naphthalene was the highest. Based on the ratios of phenanthrene/anthracene and fluoranthene/pyrene, PAHs in Futian and Waterlands came from petrogenic and pyrolytic sources, while Baguang was mainly from pyrolytic. More PAHs were accumulated in leaves, as reflected by its higher mean concentration of ?PAHs (3697 ng g(-1)) and bioconcentration factor of PAHs (BCF) (>1.5) than that in roots. The BCF values in plants collected from Futian were significantly higher than that from Waterlands. These results indicated that more attention should be paid to the PAH contamination in Futian.
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Zinc and its effects on oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive age-related neurodegenerative disorder. The patho-physiological characteristic of AD is abnormal deposition of fibrillar amyloid ? protein, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, oxidative damage and neuronal death in the brain. Zinc is an important trace element in human body regulating many physiological processes. Increasing evidence suggests that the etiology of AD may involve disruptions of zinc homeostasis, and oxidative stress facilitating reactive oxygen species production is an early and sustained event in AD disease progression. Both Zn deficiency and Zn overload may affect cellular Zn distribution and be linked to neurodegeneration in AD. Meanwhile, Zn may play paradoxical roles in initiating and inhibiting oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. This review will focus on aspects of the role of zinc in AD, which includes a large body of research regarding zinc dyshomeostasis and its relation with oxidative stress.
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Synergistic protective effects of escin and low?dose glucocorticoids against vascular endothelial growth factor?induced blood?retinal barrier breakdown in retinal pigment epithelial and umbilical vein endothelial cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Previous studies have shown that escin possesses glucocorticoid (GC)?like anti?edematous and anti?in?ammatory effects. The present study was designed to investigate whether escin exhibits synergistic protective effects against blood?retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown when combined with GC in an in vitro monolayer BRB model, based on retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The results showed that low concentrations of escin and triamcinolone acetonide (TA) administered separately did not affect BRB trans?endothelial (epithelium) resistance (TEER). However, when administered together, escin and TA significantly inhibited reduced BRB TEER following treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Furthermore, low?concentrations of escin and TA administered together significantly increased the expression levels of occludin and ZO?1. This demonstrates that escin and GC have synergistic protective effects against BRB breakdown, and the molecular mechanisms may be related to the upregulation of occludin and ZO?1 expression. The combination of escin with GC indicates a potential beneficial strategy for the treatment of breakdown of the BRB.
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Pih1d3 is required for cytoplasmic preassembly of axonemal dynein in mouse sperm.
J. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Axonemal dynein complexes are preassembled in the cytoplasm before their transport to cilia, but the mechanism of this process remains unclear. We now show that mice lacking Pih1d3, a PIH1 domain-containing protein, develop normally but manifest male sterility. Pih1d3(-/-) sperm were immotile and fragile, with the axoneme of the flagellum lacking outer dynein arms (ODAs) and inner dynein arms (IDAs) and showing a disturbed 9+2 microtubule organization. Pih1d3 was expressed specifically in spermatogenic cells, with the mRNA being most abundant in pachytene spermatocytes. Pih1d3 localized to the cytoplasm of spermatogenic cells but was not detected in spermatids or mature sperm. The levels of ODA and IDA proteins were reduced in the mutant testis and sperm, and Pih1d3 was found to interact with an intermediate chain of ODA as well as with Hsp70 and Hsp90. Our results suggest that Pih1d3 contributes to cytoplasmic preassembly of dynein complexes in spermatogenic cells by stabilizing and promoting complex formation by ODA and IDA proteins.
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Promoter polymorphism in the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene is significantly associated with leukocyte telomere length in Han Chinese.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT)-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) plays an important role in modulating mood and behavior by regulating 5-HTT expression and thereby controlling the concentration of serotonin (5-HT) in brain synapses: The homozygous shorter allele (S/S) in 5-HTTLPR results in lower 5-HTT expression coupled with stronger psycho-pathological reactions to stressful experiences compared to the homozygous long (L/L) and heterozygous (S/L) alleles. Psychological insults and mood disorders have been shown to cause accelerated telomere shortening, a marker of biological aging, however, it is currently unclear whether the allelic variants of 5-HTTLPR affect telomere length (TL) in the healthy population without mood disorders. In the present study, we determined the relationship between TL and the 5-HTTLPR variants in healthy Han Chinese. The 5-HTTLPR genotyping and leukocyte TL analysis of 280 young female Han Chinese freshmen showed a significantly shorter TL in 149 of them carrying the 5-HTTLPR S/S version compared to those (131) with the L/S or L/S plus L/L genotypes (mean ± SD, 0.533±0.241 for S/S vs 0.607±0.312 for L/S, P ?=? 0.034; or vs 0.604±0.313 for L/S plus L/L, P ?=? 0.038). Similar results were achieved in the other cohort including 220 adult healthy individuals of different age, gender and profession (0.691±0.168 for S/S vs 0.729±0.211 for L/S, P ?=? 0.046, or vs 0.725±0.213 for L/S plus L/L, P ?=? 0.039). Taken together, shorter leukocyte TL is significantly associated with the 5-HTTLPR S/S allelic variant, which may be implicated in psychological stress-related health problems.
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Prevalence and Characterization of Cefotaxime and Ciprofloxacin Co-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates in Retail Chicken Carcasses and Ground Pork, China.
Microb. Drug Resist.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2013
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Retail meat products could serve as an important medium for the transfer of multidrug resistant isolates from food-producing animals to the community. In this study, the prevalence and characteristics of cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin co-resistant Escherichia coli isolates were investigated in retail chicken and ground pork samples from four provinces of China. The isolates were subjected to phylogenetic group typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. All isolates were further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to determine the genetic relatedness. These isolates were also screened for beta-lactamase genes, quinolone resistance determinants by PCR, and followed by DNA sequence analysis. Cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin co-resistant E. coli isolates with diverse genetic origins were recovered in 31.9% (106/332) of retail meat samples. E. coli isolates of phylogenetic group A were dominant (59.4%, 63/106), and all isolates showed multidrug resistant profiles. The dominant resistant profiles were AMP-CAZ-CTX-CIP-CHL-GEN-SXT-TET (n=43) and AMP-CAZ-CTX-CIP-CHL-SXT-TET (n=43). Point mutations in quinolone resistance determination regions of topoisomerases were identified in all the isolates, and most of the isolates accumulated three (n=78) or four (n=21) point mutations. Plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistant determinants were identified in 68 isolates, including oqxAB (n=66), qnrS1 (n=7), qnrS2 (n=4), and aac(6)-Ib-cr (n=9). Eight subtypes of blaCTX-M were identified in 103 E. coli isolates, and blaCTX-M-55 (n=90) was dominant. This study highlights that retail meat could serve as an important reservoir of cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin co-resistant E. coli isolates. It is necessary to evaluate their contribution in the community and hospital infections.
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Does omethoate have the potential to cause insulin resistance?
Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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Persistent organic pollutant exposure is strongly associated with the development of diabetes. The development of diabetes or alteration in blood glucose levels is associated with insulin resistance that precedes diabetes for many years. Omethoate is a commonly used insecticide in most developing countries. The present study was designed to elucidate the potent role of omethoate in developing insulin resistance in rats. Male Wistar rats were exposed to omethoate at the concentration of 1.5mg/kg body weight (1/40 LD50), 3mg/kg body weight (1/20 LD50) and 6mg/kg body weight (1/10 LD50) through gastric injection for 60 days; control group rats received PBS through gastric injection. The results showed that the levels of MDA, TNF-? and IL-6 were increased and the activities of SOD and GSH-Px were decreased in the right thigh muscles of rats exposed to omethoate. However, JNK, p38 MAPK and NF-?B in right thigh muscles of rats exposed to omethoate were activated. This study suggested that omethoate had a potential to cause insulin resistance.
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Weighted relative entropy for phylogenetic tree based on 2-step Markov Model.
Math Biosci
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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The degree of similarity of DNA sequences can be concluded according to the comparison of DNA sequences, which helps to speculate their relationship in respect of the structure, function and evolution. In this paper, we introduce the fundamental of the weighted relative entropy based on 2-step Markov Model to compare DNA sequences. The DNA sequence, consisted of four characters A, T, C, G, can be considered as a Markov chain. By taking state space I={A, T, C, G} and describe the DNA sequences with 2-step transition probability matrix we can get the eigenvalue of the DNA sequence to define the similarity metric. Therefore, we find a new method to compare the DNA sequences, which is used to classify chromosomes DNA sequences obtained from 30 species. The phylogenetic tree built by the alignment-free method of the distance matrix resulted from the weighted relative entropy has clearer and more accurate division.
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Expression of chicken parvovirus VP2 in chicken embryo fibroblasts requires codon optimization for production of naked DNA and vectored meleagrid herpesvirus type 1 vaccines.
Virus Genes
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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Meleagrid herpesvirus type 1 (MeHV-1) is an ideal vector for the expression of antigens from pathogenic avian organisms in order to generate vaccines. Chicken parvovirus (ChPV) is a widespread infectious virus that causes serious disease in chickens. It is one of the etiological agents largely suspected in causing Runting Stunting Syndrome (RSS) in chickens. Initial attempts to express the wild-type gene encoding the capsid protein VP2 of ChPV by insertion into the thymidine kinase gene of MeHV-1 were unsuccessful. However, transient expression of a codon-optimized synthetic VP2 gene cloned into the bicistronic vector pIRES2-Ds-Red2, could be demonstrated by immunocytochemical staining of transfected chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs). Red fluorescence could also be detected in these transfected cells since the red fluorescent protein gene is downstream from the internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Strikingly, fluorescence could not be demonstrated in cells transiently transfected with the bicistronic vector containing the wild-type or non-codon-optimized VP2 gene. Immunocytochemical staining of these cells also failed to demonstrate expression of wild-type VP2, indicating that the lack of expression was at the RNA level and the VP2 protein was not toxic to CEFs. Chickens vaccinated with a DNA vaccine consisting of the bicistronic vector containing the codon-optimized VP2 elicited a humoral immune response as measured by a VP2-specific ELISA. This VP2 codon-optimized bicistronic cassette was rescued into the MeHV-1 genome generating a vectored vaccine against ChPV disease.
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[Effects of different major connectors on pronunciation and comfort in Kennedy I dentition defect].
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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To analyze the effect on pronunciation and comfort level when 4 different major connectors (type 1: Palatal plate; type 2: Single palatal strap; type 3: Anterior-posterior joint palatal strap; type 4: Anterior-posterior joint palatal bar) were used in patients with Kennedy I deletion.
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Molecular epidemiology of human enterovirus 71 strains in the Nanchang region of China in 2011.
Jpn. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused by enteroviruses, most commonly enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16). In general, EV71 infection is more likely to induce severe complications and mortality than other enterovirus infections. The present study focuses on the molecular epidemiology of human EV71 strains in the Nanchang region of China in 2011. Overall, 651 specimens (throat or rectal swabs) were collected, and one-step reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was performed for analysis. Enteroviruses were detected in 62.2% (405/651) of the specimens. EV71, CA16, and other enteroviruses were found in 292, 73, and 40 specimens, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 region of the 8 EV71 strains found in the Nanchang region indicated that these strains belong to the C4 subgenotype. This study shows that the C4 subgenotype strain of EV71 was prevalent in the HFMD cases of Nanchang in 2011, and it reports the first incidence of adults being infected by EV71 in the Nanchang region. Thus, the surveillance of HFMD epidemiology and monitoring of HFMD severity should be continued.
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Synergistic protective effects of escin and low?dose glucocorticoids on blood?retinal barrier breakdown in a rat model of retinal ischemia.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Escin, a natural mixture of triterpenoid saponins isolated from the seed of the horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), has been demonstrated to possess glucocorticoid (GC)?like anti?edematous and anti?in?ammatory effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether escin exhibits synergistic protective effects on blood?retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown when combined with GCs in a rat model of retinal ischemia. Low concentrations of escin and triamcinolone acetonide (TA) alone did not affect BRB permeability. However, when administered together, low?dose escin and TA significantly reduced BRB permeability following ischemia. Furthermore, low?dose escin and TA alone did not affect the expression of occludin in the ischemic retina; however, when administered together, they significantly increased occludin expression in the ganglion cell layer of the ischemic retina. This indicates that escin and GCs have synergistic protective effects on BRB breakdown and the molecular mechanisms may be correlated with the upregulation of occludin. Therefore, the administration of escin may allow a reduction in the dose of GCs for the treatment of macular edema. The combination of escin with GCs is potentially a beneficial treatment method for BRB breakdown and warrants further investigation.
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[Extraction and comparison of volatile oil components from water caltrop and kernel by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2011
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To extract the volatile components of water caltrop and kernel and to analyze them.
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[Antiviral activity of Ouyi antipyretic detoxicate soft capsule against influenza a virus H1N1 in vitro].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2011
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Our study aims to evaluate the antiviral effects of Ouyi antipyretic detoxicate soft capsule against influenza A virus H1N1 in vivo, so as to find an effective Chinese medicinal formulae for the treatment of the virus infection, which may lay a theoretical foundation for clinic treatment of patient infected with Influenza A Virus H1N1.
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A chemical genomics screen to discover genes that modulate neural stem cell differentiation.
J Biomol Screen
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2011
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The authors designed a chemical genomics screen with the aim of understanding genes and pathways that modulate neural stem/precursor cell differentiation. Multipotent mouse neural precursor cells isolated from cortices of embryonic day 12 (E12) embryos were subjected to spontaneous differentiation triggered by growth factor withdrawal. A quantitative whole-well immunofluorescence assay was set up to screen tool compound sets to identify small molecules with potent, dose-dependent, and reproducible effects on increasing neural stem cell differentiation toward neuronal lineage. Among the pro-neuronal compounds, kinase inhibitors were shown to exert pro-neuronal effect via a signaling pathway associated with the kinase. The global effect of hit compounds on modulating neuronal differentiation was confirmed by an in vivo mouse study and human neural stem cells culture. This study demonstrates that a phenotypic assay using cell type-specific antibody markers can be used for a large-scale compound screen to discover targets and pathways with impacts on differentiation of lineage-restricted precursor cells toward specific lineages.
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Effects of Combined Epidermal Growth Factor and Gastrin on PDX1 Expression in Experimental Type 1 Diabetic Rats.
Am. J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2011
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INTRODUCTION:: The aim of this study was to investigate whether combined epidermal growth factor (EGF) and gastrin can correct the hyperglycemia induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in rats and to determine the involvement of the transcription factor pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1) in this process. METHODS:: Rat diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ. The mRNA and protein levels of insulin and PDX1 were determined by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Serum levels of C-peptide and insulin were analyzed using radioimmunoassay kits. RESULTS:: The combined administration of EGF and gastrin efficiently reversed the hyperglycemia induced by STZ. Elevated insulin concentration was detected in diabetic rats treated with EGF plus gastrin. The authors also found that both insulin and PDX1 expression were reduced in STZ-treated rats. Interestingly, the combination treatment also significantly enhanced the mRNA levels of insulin and PDX1, and that of their protein products. CONCLUSIONS:: Therapy with EGF plus gastrin corrected hyperglycemia and maintained insulin content in STZ-induced diabetic rats via up-regulation of PDX1 expression, suggesting that this combination treatment may provide a valuable approach for pancreatic islet neogenesis in vivo.
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Differences in leaf construction cost between alien and native mangrove species in Futian, Shenzhen, China: implications for invasiveness of alien species.
Mar. Pollut. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2011
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Construction cost (CC) is a quantifiable measure of energy demand for biomass production, and low CC is hypothesized to give an alien plant growth advantages and increase its potential to be an invader. Comparison of leaf CC and growth traits between alien and native mangroves in Shenzhen Futian Nature Reserve showed CC per unit mass (CC(mass)), carbon concentration and gross and ash-free caloric values of alien mangroves were significantly lower than those of native species, while the height and chest circumference were just the opposite. Alien species Sonneratia apetala had the lowest CC(mass) while Sonneratia caseolaris had the lowest CC(area), and were 8.99% and 32.17% lower than those of native species, respectively. Conversely, specific leaf area (SLA) of these two Sonneratia species was significantly higher than native species. Lower CC and higher SLA make the two Sonneratia species grow and spread faster than other mangroves and enhance their invasive potential.
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Isolation and characterization of an AGAMOUS-like gene from Hosta plantaginea.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2011
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Based on genetic and molecular analyses, the ABC model was proposed to explain the genetic control of floral development. The C-class MADS box gene AGAMOUS (AG) plays crucial roles in Arabidopsis thaliana development through regulation of the organ identity of stamens and gynoecium. The present research reports for the first time the cloning of an AG homologue (HpAG) from Hosta plantaginea Aschers. Phylogenetic analysis shows HpAG is a homologue of AG that is closely related to C-lineage AG homologues from monocot species. Semi-quantitative PCR and real-time PCR analyses show that HpAG is stamen- and gynoecium-specific in expression and has spatial and temporal expression patterns in the reproductive organs of H. plantaginea. The transcriptional activation property of HpAG is also verified by a yeast one-hybrid. Functional analysis is carried out in Arabidopsis by overexpression of HpAG. The homeotic transformations of petals into staminoid organs are observed in 35S::HpAG transgenic plants. All these results show that HpAG1 plays a crucial role in stamen specification and gynoecium development.
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Aberrant expression profiles of isoproterenol-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress response genes in mouse myocardium.
J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2011
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In this study, we identified the aberrant expression profiles of isoproterenol- (ISO; synthetic catecholamine)induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response genes in mouse myocardium. Mouse models of acute catecholamine cardiotoxicity were induced by ISO for 6, 12, and 24 h. We performed whole genome oligo microarrays of damaged mouse cardiac tissues, and we found 26 ER stress-related genes whose expression changed significantly for at least one time point. The functional analysis of those genes indicated that myocardial cells were protected by increasing folding capacity, inhibiting general protein translation, and promoting the degradation of misfolded proteins; however, some of them underwent apoptosis in the early stage of ER stress after ISO induced.
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Premature senescence of T cells in long-term survivors of renal transplantation.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
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Prevention of graft rejection in renal transplant recipients depends on chronic treatment with immunosuppressive agents. However, impaired immune functions and immunosurveillance may cause infection, cancer and many other problems, which subsequently compromise quality of life and survival of patients. In the present study, we assessed potential premature immune-senescence in long-term survivors of kidney transplant patients receiving immunosuppressive agents. Peripheral blood lymphocytes derived from patients had significantly shorter telomeres than those from age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. Consistent with this, lower expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and telomerase activity was observed in patients lymphocytes. The level of p16(ink4A) expression was elevated in patients cells. Moreover, the CD8(+)/CD28(-) fraction of late-stage differentiated T cells was significantly increased in the patients. In vitro studies further showed that cyclosporine A, a widely used immunosuppressive drug in transplant patients, attenuated induction of hTERT and telomerase activation in T cells treated with the mitogenic agent concanavalin A. Taken together, immunosuppressant-mediated premature senescence of T lymphocytes occurs in renal transplant recipients.
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Activation of telomerase by seminal plasma in malignant and normal cervical epithelial cells.
J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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Seminal fluids are involved in the development of cervical cancer but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Because cellular transformation requires telomerase activation by expression of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene, we examined the role of seminal fluids in telomerase activation. Significantly elevated hTERT mRNA and telomerase activity were observed in cervical cell lines (HeLa, SiHa and Caski) treated with seminal plasma. Normal cervical epithelial cells expressed minimal levels of hTERT mRNA and telomerase activity, and seminal plasma substantially enhanced both expression and activity. The hTERT promoter activity was similarly increased in seminal plasma-treated HeLa cells and this effect was closely correlated with increased Sp1 expression and binding to the hTERT promoter. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was simultaneously increased in HeLa cells exposed to seminal plasma, and blockade of COX-2 induction abolished seminal plasma stimulation of the hTERT promoter activity, hTERT expression and telomerase activity. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) mimics the effect of seminal plasma, stimulating Sp1 expression, enhancing Sp1 occupancy on the hTERT promoter and promoter activity. Moreover, tumour growth was robustly enhanced when HeLa cells together with seminal plasma were injected into nude-mice. Taken together, seminal plasma stimulates COX-2-PGE2-Sp1-dependent hTERT transcription, which provides insights into the putative mechanism underlying telomerase activation in cervical epithelial and cancer cells.
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Leukemia inhibitory factor inhibits T helper 17 cell differentiation and confers treatment effects of neural progenitor cell therapy in autoimmune disease.
Immunity
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2011
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Neural progenitor cell (NPC) therapy is considered a promising treatment modality for multiple sclerosis (MS), potentially acting through neural repair. Here, we showed that intravenous administration of NPCs ameliorated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by selectively inhibiting pathogenic T helper 17 (Th17) cell differentiation. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) produced by NPCs was responsible for the observed EAE suppression. Through the inducible LIF receptor expression, LIF inhibited the differentiation of Th17 cells in EAE mice and that from MS subjects. At the molecular level, LIF exerted an opposing effect on interleukin 6 (IL-6)-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation required for Th17 cell differentiation by triggering a signaling cascade that activated extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase (ERK) and upregulated suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) expression. This study reveals a critical role for LIF in regulating Th17 cell differentiation and provides insights into the mechanisms of action of NPC therapy in MS.
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Intervention study of the association of antibiotic utilization measures with control of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria.
Microbes Infect.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2010
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We investigated the effects of replacing third-/fourth-generation cephalosporins with piperacillin-tazobactam on the rate of acquisition of extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli by patients hospitalized in a Department of Respiratory Medicine. This 9-month, prospective, non-controlled, intervention study comprised two phases: a 3-month pre-intervention phase (Phase I) and a 6-month intervention phase (Phase II), during which the use of third-/forth-generation cephalosporins was restricted and replaced by piperacillin-tazobactam. Rectal swabs were obtained within 24 h after admission (baseline screening), weekly, and 48 h before discharge during Phase I and the last 3 months of Phase II (Phase IIb). Swabs were tested for E. coli and K. pneumoniae, and extended spectrum beta-lactamase production was detected with the double disc test. Use of third/fourth-generation cephalosporins decreased by 63.0% and 100%, respectively; while the use of piperacillin-tazobactam increased by 28-fold. The rate of acquisition of extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae together in rectal swab specimens decreased in Phase IIb as compared with Phase I (19.5% vs 29.5%). Few rectal swab specimens were positive for extended spectrum beta-lactamases-producing K. pneumoniae, and no substantial decrease in the rate of its acquisition was observed.
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Synthesis and Properties of Dissymmetric Gemini Surfactants.
J Surfactants Deterg
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2010
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A series of novel dissymmetric gemini cationics surfactants was synthesized by three-step reactions. The dissymmetric gemini surfactants contain a dodecanoic acid dimethylethylamine ester as the constant cationic part on one side of the hydroxypropyl center and a similar other cationic part, but with a different acid length (from octanoic to palmitic), on the other side. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the effectiveness of surface tension reduction (?(CMC)) were determined. The surface tension measurements of dissymmetric gemini surfactants showed good water solubility, and low CMC had great efficiency in lowering the surface tension and a strong adsorption at the air/water interface. The CMC was observed to increase initially with the increase of the ester bond alkyl group. They also showed good foaming properties and wetting capabilites.
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Season- and age-associated telomerase activity in Ginkgo biloba L.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2010
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Telomeres have lately received considerable attention in the development of broad-leaved tree species. In order to determine tissue-, sex-, season- and age-specific changes in telomerase activity in ginkgo trees, analyses of the telomerase repeat amplification protocol were carried out. In all of the tissues detected (embryonal callus, microspore tissues and leaves) telomerase activity was found, with differences between these activities statistically significant (P < 0.05). The highest telomerase activity was found in embryonal callus, suggesting that ginkgo trees have tissue-specific telomerase activity. Tissues containing high levels of dividing cells also have high levels of telomerase activity. No significant difference of telomerase activity was found between male and female trees (P > 0.05). In the annual development cycle, the highest telomerase activity was found in April and a decreasing trend over time in the four age groups studied: 10, 20, 70 and 700 year. The most obvious decline appeared in trees of the 700 year old group, suggesting that ginkgo trees have season-specific telomerase activities and trees of various ages react differently to seasonal changes. The mean annual telomerase activity showed a regular decreasing trend in all leaf samples analyzed from 10 to 700 year old ginkgo trees. We conclude that maintenance of telomere length depends on season- and age- associated telomerase activity. An optimal telomere length is regulated and maintained by telomerase in Ginkgo biloba L.
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Extensive infiltration of neutrophils in the acute phase of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice.
Histochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2010
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To determine the possible involvement of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), we examined their infiltration pattern during the course of MOG35-55-induced EAE in the C57BL/6 mice. Using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry, we found that the number of neutrophils was significantly increased during onset of disease, remained high at the peak stage and dramatically declined thereafter. Moreover, dual labeling provided anatomical evidence of a prominent accumulation of neutrophils in the center and vicinity of lesion areas of demyelination, axonal loss or axonal degeneration at early stages of EAE. These observations provide evidence that neutrophils are one of the major sources of inflammatory cells to initiate EAE, which suggest that neutrophils may contribute to demyelination and axonal degeneration in the acute phase of EAE and play a greater role than previously thought in the pathogenesis of EAE.
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Classification for high-throughput data with an optimal subset of principal components.
Comput Biol Chem
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2009
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High-throughput data have been widely used in biological and medical studies to discover gene and protein functions. Due to the high dimensionality, principal component analysis (PCA) is often involved for data dimension reduction. However, when a few principal components (PCs) are selected for dimension reduction or considered for dimension determination, they are typically ranked by their variances, eigenvalues. However, this approach is not always effective in subsequent multivariate analysis, particularly classification. To maximize information from data with a subset of the components, we apply a different ranking criterion, canonical variate criterion, which considers within- and between-group variance rather than total variance in the classical criterion. Four prevalent classification methods are considered and compared using leave-one-out cross-validation. These methods are illustrated with three real high-throughput data sets, two microarray data sets and a nuclear magnetic resonance spectra data set.
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Activation of telomerase by human cytomegalovirus.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2009
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The mechanism by which human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) stimulates oncogenesis is unclear. Because cellular immortalization and transformation require telomerase activation by expression of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene, we examined the role of HCMV in telomerase activation.
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Change of season-specific telomere lengths in Ginkgo biloba L.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2009
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Telomeres have lately received considerable attention in the development of tree species. Normal somatic cells have limited replicative capacity and telomeres get shorten with each round of DNA replication. For broad-leaved tree species, to determine what changes happen to their somatic cells in its annual development cycle, an exhaustive research on different ages of gingko trees telomere length changes was carried out. Analysis of changes in leaf telomere lengths in the annual development cycle of Ginkgo biloba L. showed no significant changes (P > 0.05) from April to August, but a dramatic decrease in September and October (P < 0.05). Statistical analyses showed that TRF length of males and females are equal, the p values of the three age groups comparison were all bigger than 0.05. The results showed that specific apoptotic changes occur in the annual development cycle of Ginkgo biloba L.
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Longitudinal study to assess the safety and efficacy of a live-attenuated SHIV vaccine in long term immunized rhesus macaques.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2009
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Live-attenuated viruses derived from SIV and SHIV have provided the most consistent protection against challenge with pathogenic viruses, but concerns regarding their long-term safety and efficacy have hampered their clinical usefulness. We report a longitudinal study in which we evaluated the long-term safety and efficacy of DeltavpuSHIV(PPC), a live virus vaccine derived from SHIV(PPC). Macaques were administered two inoculations of DeltavpuSHIV(PPC), three years apart, and followed for eight years. None of the five vaccinated macaques developed an AIDS-like disease from the vaccine. At eight years, macaques were challenged with pathogenic SIV and SHIV. None of the four macaques with detectable cellular-mediated immunity prior to challenge had detectable viral RNA in the plasma. This study demonstrates that multiple inoculations of a live vaccine virus can be used safely and can significantly extend the efficacy of the vaccine, as compared to a single inoculation, which is efficacious for approximately three years.
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High throughput sequencing technology reveals that the taxoid elicitor methyl jasmonate regulates microRNA expression in Chinese yew (Taxus chinensis).
Gene
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2009
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression that are increasing being implicated in controlling plant development and its interaction with the environment. The advent of new high-throughput sequencing technologies has enabled both the discovery and quantification of miRNAs from a diverse range of species. In this study, we employed high throughput Illumina sequencing to identify miRNAs from Taxus chinensis (T. chinensis) cells to investigate the effect of the taxoid elicitor methyl jasmonate (MJ) on miRNA expression. In a dataset of approximately 6.6 million sequences, a total of 58 miRNAs, belonging to 25 families were identified. A majority of them are conserved between angiosperms and gymnosperms. However, two miRNAs (miR1310 and miR1314) appear gymnosperm-specific, with miR1314 likely to exist as a cluster. MJ treatment significantly affected the expression of specific miRNAs; 14 miRNAs from 7 different families (miR156, miR168, miR169, miR172, miR396, miR480 and mir1310) were down regulated whereas 3 miRNAs from 2 families (miR164 and miR390) were up regulated.
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[Genetic modification of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in higher plants: a review].
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao
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Plants provide an immense reservoir of natural secondary metabolites. Secondary metabolites and those involved enzymes accumulate in various compartments in specific plant tissues. The biosynthesis of diverse groups of secondary metabolites is often complicated, tightly controlled via network interconnections, metabolite levels, metabolite channeling and multi-enzyme complexes, and so on. Secondary metabolite profiles could be genetically altered by two strategies, i.e. single gene modification and multiple gene modification; which thus has opened a feasible and prospective platform for secondary chemicals production in plant.
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Fluid flow and interlinked feedback loops establish left-right asymmetric decay of Cerl2 mRNA.
Nat Commun
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Breaking of left-right symmetry in mouse embryos requires fluid flow at the node, but the precise action of the flow has remained unknown. Here we show that the left-right asymmetry of Cerl2 expression around the node, a target of the flow, is determined post-transcriptionally by decay of Cerl2 mRNA in a manner dependent on its 3 untranslated region. Cerl2 mRNA is absent specifically from the apical region of crown cells on the left side of the node. Preferential decay of Cerl2 mRNA on the left is initiated by the leftward flow and further enhanced by the operation of Wnt-Cerl2 interlinked feedback loops, in which Wnt3 upregulates Wnt3 expression and promotes Cerl2 mRNA decay, whereas Cerl2 promotes Wnt degradation. Mathematical modelling and experimental data suggest that these feedback loops behave as a bistable switch that can amplify in a noise-resistant manner a small bias conferred by fluid flow.
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Exon skipping of AGAMOUS homolog PrseAG in developing double flowers of Prunus lannesiana (Rosaceae).
Plant Cell Rep.
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KEY MESSAGE : Two transcript isoforms of AGAMOUS homologs, from single and double flower Prunus lannesiana, respectively, showed different functions. The Arabidopsis floral homeotic C function gene AGAMOUS (AG) confers stamen and carpel identity. Loss of AG function results in homeotic conversions of stamens into petals and formation of double flowers. In order to present a molecular dissection of a double-flower cultivar in Prunus lannesiana (Rosaceae), we isolated and identified a single-copy gene, AG homolog from two genetically cognate P. lannesiana bearing single and double flowers, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed that the AG homolog, prseag-1, from double flowers showed a 170-bp exon skipping as compared to PrseAG (Prunus serrulata AGAMOUS) from the single flowers. Genomic DNA sequence revealed that abnormal splicing resulted in mutant prseag-1 protein with the C-terminal AG motifs I and II deletions. In addition, protein sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that the PrseAG was grouped into the euAG lineage. A semi-quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression of PrseAG was restricted to reproductive organs of stamens and carpels in single flowers of P. lannesiana speciosa, while the prseag-1 mRNA was highly transcribed throughout the petals, stamens, and carpels in double flowers from Albo-rosea. The transgenic Arabidopsis containing 35S::PrseAG displayed extremely early flowering, bigger stamens and carpels and homeotic conversion of petals into staminoid organs, but ectopic expression of prseag-1 could not mimic the phenotypic ectopic expression of PrseAG in Arabidopsis. In general, this study provides evidences to show that double flower Albo-rosea is a putative C functional ag mutant in P. lannesiana.
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In vitro adventitious shoot regeneration via indirect organogenesis from inflorescence explants and peroxidase involvement in morphogenesis of Populus euphratica Olivier.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
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The inflorescences as explants for rapid propagation in vitro remained unknown in Populus euphratica Olivier. Here, we reported that multiple shoots were initiation from calli of both male and female inflorescences. The optimum medium for shoot induction from male inflorescences was lactose sulfite medium containing 1.0 mg?L(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and 0.5 mg?L(-1) ?-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) or Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 0.5 mg?L(-1) BA and 0.2 mg?L(-1) NAA. The optimum medium of shoot induction from female inflorescence calli was the MS medium containing 0.5 mg?L(-1) BA and 0.2 mg?L(-1) NAA. Rooting of regenerated shoots was obtained on 1/2 MS medium supplemented with 0.5?1.0 mg?L(-1) indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and the highest frequency rooting was on medium containing 0.5 mg?L(-1) IBA. No shoots were obtained on medium without BA and NAA. Peroxidase (POD) activity was measured by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis during shoot induction and differentiation stages. The results showed that two bands of POD (2a and 2b) activity appeared lowest during the early 8 days at the dedifferentiation phase of leaves inducing calli, whereas POD 2a, 2b activity appeared to be increasing at the homeochronous dedifferentiation phase of inflorescence. Five most intensive bands, POD 1a, 1b, 1c, 2a, and ab, appeared in 8th and 28th days at the redifferentiation phase during shoot morphogenesis. These results demonstrated that the POD was involved in shoot morphogenesis from both leaf and inflorescence explants of Populus euphratica.
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Local polynomial estimation of heteroscedasticity in a multivariate linear regression model and its applications in economics.
PLoS ONE
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Multivariate local polynomial fitting is applied to the multivariate linear heteroscedastic regression model. Firstly, the local polynomial fitting is applied to estimate heteroscedastic function, then the coefficients of regression model are obtained by using generalized least squares method. One noteworthy feature of our approach is that we avoid the testing for heteroscedasticity by improving the traditional two-stage method. Due to non-parametric technique of local polynomial estimation, it is unnecessary to know the form of heteroscedastic function. Therefore, we can improve the estimation precision, when the heteroscedastic function is unknown. Furthermore, we verify that the regression coefficients is asymptotic normal based on numerical simulations and normal Q-Q plots of residuals. Finally, the simulation results and the local polynomial estimation of real data indicate that our approach is surely effective in finite-sample situations.
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Mutation screening of EXT genes in Chinese patients with multiple osteochondromas.
Gene
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Multiple osteochondromas (MO), a dominantly inherited genetic disorder, is characterized by the presence of multiple osteochondromas in the long bones. EXT1 and EXT2 are the causative genes in most MO patients. We have characterized 9 MO families and 1 sporadic case involving a total of 25 patients. The coding exons of EXT1 and EXT2 were screened in 10 probands affected with MO. In five of the 10 probands novel pathogenic mutations have been identified: two in EXT1 and three in EXT2. Four probands carried recurrent mutations and one proband had no detectable mutation. Our study extends the mutational spectrum in EXT1 and EXT2 and will facilitate the deep understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease.
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Gallic acid as a cancer-selective agent induces apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells.
Chemotherapy
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Gallic acid (GA) is a plant phenol isolated from water caltrop which is reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. In this study, the antiproliferative effect of GA on human pancreatic cancer cell lines CFPAC-1 and MiaPaCa-2 as well as hepatocytes HL-7702 as normal cells was examined. Particularly, the mechanism of GA-induced apoptosis in MiaPaCa-2 cells in vitro was further studied.
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Telomere dysfunction induced by chemotherapeutic agents and radiation in normal human cells.
Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
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The number of long-term survivors of patients with various malignancies (>5 years) is increasing mainly owing to advances in cancer therapeutics, but long-term side effects of the cancer treatment in this population have emerged as an important health and socio-economical issue. Telomeres and telomerase are known to be essential for regulation of cellular life-span and maintenance of genomic stability, and earlier studies have demonstrated that cancer patients who receive chemotherapy have shorter telomeres in their blood cells, indicating accelerated telomere erosion and a potential contribution of telomere loss to late side-effects. Little is currently known about the effect of chemotherapeutic agents and radiation on telomere dynamics including potential effects on telomere length, structure, function, telomerase activity, and telomere shelterin proteins in normal human cells. In the present study, we had addressed this issue experimentally. The treatment of normal human T lymphocytes and fibroblasts with chemotherapeutic agents doxorubicin (DOX) or etoposide (VP16) led to significant shortening of telomeres, down-regulation of telomerase activity, and diminished expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and the telomere binding proteins TPP1 and POT1. More importantly, telomere dysfunction was observed in cells treated with DOX or VP16. Furthermore, all the above alterations were similarly found in the cells receiving ?-irradiation. Taken together, both chemotherapy and radiotherapy significantly impair telomere maintenance and function in normal human cells. Conceivably telomere dysfunction causes shortened life-span and genomic instability of normal human cells, and thereby contributes to tissue/organ damage and secondary malignancies in long-term survivors of cancer.
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Isolation and characterisation of an HpSHP gene from Hosta plantaginea.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
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Based on genetic and molecular analyses, the ABC model has been proposed to explain the genetic control of floral development. C-class MADS-box genes play crucial roles in Arabidopsis thaliana development by regulating the organ identities of stamens and gynoecium. The present research reports for the first time the cloning of an HpSHP gene from Hosta plantaginea (Lam.) Aschers. Phylogenetic analysis shows that HpSHP is a member of the C-class MADS-box genes that is closely related to C-lineage SHP homologues from monocot species. Semi-quantitative and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses show that HpSHP expression is stamen and gynoecium specific. HpSHP also has spatial and temporal expression patterns in the reproductive organs of H. plantaginea. A functional analysis is carried out in Arabidopsis by overexpression of HpSHP. Homeotic transformations of sepals into carpelloid organs, bent ovaries, and prematurely shattering fruits are observed in 35S::HpSHP transgenic plants. All these results show that HpSHP plays a crucial role in gynoecium development.
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Epidermal growth factor and gastrin on PDX1 expression in experimental type 1 diabetic rats.
Am. J. Med. Sci.
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The aim of this study was to investigate whether combined epidermal growth factor (EGF) and gastrin can correct the hyperglycemia induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in rats and to determine the involvement of the transcription factor pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1) in this process.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.