As the human population increased in China, the carbon monoxide is a serious environmental toxin in public health. However, predicting the delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae (DNS) of carbon monoxide poisoning (COP) has not been well studied. We investigated the independent predictors of DNS in patients with COP. This study was conducted at four hospitals in China. Data were retrospectively collected from 258 patients with COP between November 1990 and October 2011. DNS was the primary endpoint. A positive Babinski reflex was the independent predictor for DNS: sensitivity = 53.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 26.1-79.6), specificity = 88.6% (95% CI: 83.7-92.1), positive predictive value (PPV) = 20.0% (95% CI: 9.1-37.5), and negative predictive value (NPV) = 97.3% (95% CI: 94.0-98.9). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.712 (95% CI: 0.544-0.880). A positive Babinski reflex was very memorable, immediately available, and applicable in clinical practice. Even when the sensitivity and PPV of a positive Babinski reflex were unsatisfactory, it had a good specificity and NPV for excluding the risk of DNS. In patients without a positive Babinski reflex, the risk for DNS was only 2.7%. This finding may help physicians make decisions about dispositions for patients with COP.
Humic acids are ubiquitous in surface and underground waters and may pose potential risk to human health when present in drinking water sources. In this study, ordered mesoporous carbon was synthesized by means of a hard template method and further characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption, transition electron microscopy, elemental analysis, and zeta-potential measurement. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate adsorption of two humic acids from coal and soil, respectively, on the synthesized carbon. For comparison, a commercial microporous activated carbon and nonporous graphite were included as additional adsorbents; moreover, phenol was adopted as a small probe adsorbate. Pore size distribution characterization showed that the synthesized carbon had ordered mesoporous structure, whereas the activated carbon was composed mainly of micropores with a much broader pore size distribution. Accordingly, adsorption of the two humic acids was substantially lower on the activated carbon than on the synthesized carbon, because of the size-exclusion effect. In contrast, the synthesized carbon and activated carbon showed comparable adsorption for phenol when the size-exclusion effect was not in operation. Additionally, we verified by size-exclusion chromatography studies that the synthesized carbon exhibited greater adsorption for the large humic acid fraction than the activated carbon. The pH dependence of adsorption on the three carbonaceous adsorbents was also compared between the two test humic acids. The findings highlight the potential of using ordered mesoporous carbon as a superior adsorbent for the removal of humic acids.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) requires at a minimum membrane-associated glycoproteins gB, gH, and gL for entry into host cells. B-cell entry additionally requires gp42, which binds to gH/gL and triggers viral entry into B cells. The presence of soluble gp42 inhibits membrane fusion with epithelial cells by forming a stable heterotrimer of gH/gL/gp42. The interaction of gp42 with gH/gL has been previously mapped to residues 36 to 81 at the N-terminal region of gp42. In this study, we further mapped this region to identify essential features for binding to gH/gL by use of synthetic peptides. Data from fluorescence polarization, cell-cell fusion, and viral infection assays demonstrated that 33 residues corresponding to 44 to 61 and 67 to 81 of gp42 were indispensable for maintaining low-nanomolar-concentration gH/gL binding affinity and inhibiting B-cell fusion and epithelial cell fusion as well as viral infection. Overall, specific, large hydrophobic side chain residues of gp42 appeared to provide critical interactions, determining the binding strength. Mutations of these residues also diminished the inhibition of B-cell and epithelial cell fusions as well as EBV infection. A linker region (residues 62 to 66) between two gH/gL binding regions served as an important spacer, but individual amino acids were not critical for gH/gL binding. Probing the binding site of gH/gL and gp42 with gp42 peptides is critical for a better understanding of the interaction of gH/gL with gp42 as well as for the design of novel entry inhibitors of EBV and related human herpesviruses.
The presence of pharmaceutical antibiotics in aquatic environments poses potential human health and ecological risks. We synthesized ordered micro- and mesoporous carbons, and further conducted batch experiments to systematically examine their adsorption properties toward three antibiotics, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, and tylosin, in aqueous solution. In comparison, nonporous graphite, single-walled carbon nanotubes, and two commercial microporous activated carbons were included as additional adsorbents. Adsorption of low-sized sulfamethoxazole was stronger on the activated carbons than on other carbonaceous adsorbents resulting from the pore-filling effect; in contrast, due to the size-exclusion effect adsorption of bulky tetracycline and tylosin was much lower on the activated carbons, especially for the more microporous one, than on the synthesized carbons. After normalizing for adsorbent surface area, adsorption of tetracycline and tylosin on the synthesized carbons was similar to that on nonporous graphite, reflecting complete accessibility of the adsorbent surface area in adsorption. Additionally, compared with other porous adsorbents the synthesized carbons showed faster adsorption kinetics of tetracycline and tylosin, which was attributed to their regular-shaped, open and interconnected three-dimensional pore structure. The findings indicate that template-synthesized micro- and mesoporous carbons are promising adsorbents for the removal of antibiotics, particularly, the bulky and flexible-structured compounds, from aqueous solution.
Pd/ZrO(2) catalysts using different ZrO(2) as supports were prepared using the deposition-precipitation method and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, N(2) adsorption, temperature programmed reduction, H(2) chemisorption and measurement of surface hydroxyl group. Catalytic hydrodechlorination (HDC) of chlorobenzene was used to evaluate the activity and stability of the catalyst. The results showed that ZrO(2) support calcined at 300 degrees C was amorphous in nature, whereas ZrO(2) supports calcined at 500 and 600 degrees C consisted of both monoclinic and tetragonal phases. In addition, increasing calcination temperature led to the decrease of specific surface area and surface hydroxyl group content of the ZrO(2) support. For temperature programmed reduction of PdO/ZrO(2) samples, two H(2) consumption peaks with varied reduction temperature were distinctly observed, implying the existence of different Pd species in Pd/ZrO(2) catalysts. In addition, Pd/ZrO(2) catalyst with ZrO(2) calcined at 500 degrees C had a relatively higher content of Pd species with strong metal-support interaction than other catalysts. For catalytic HDC of chlorobenzene, Pd/ZrO(2) catalyst with ZrO(2) support calcined at 500 degrees C exhibited a higher initial activity and stability as compared to other catalysts, indicative of a strong dependence of the catalytic behavior of the Pd/ZrO(2) catalyst on the support properties for catalytic HDC of chlorobenzene.
A microporous carbon with very high specific surface area and narrow pore size distribution was synthesized using Y zeolite as a template. The structural, porosity, and surface characteristics of the material were investigated by elemental analysis, N2 adsorption, powder X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. The batch adsorption technique was performed to assess adsorption of three monoaromatic compounds, phenol, 1,3-dichlorobenzene, and 1,3-dinitrobenzene, on the synthesized carbon. Nonporous graphite, single-walled carbon nanotubes, and two commercial microporous activated carbons were also included as comparative adsorbents. The synthesized microporous carbon showed extraordinarily high adsorption affinity (comparable or higher than activated carbons and carbon nanotubes) for the three adsorbates, and very fast adsorption/ desorption kinetics (equilibrium reached less than 3 h) and complete adsorption reversibility for phenol. These adsorption properties were attributed to the large hydrophobic surface area and the regular-shaped, open and interconnected three-dimensional pore structure of the synthesized microporous carbon. Additionally, with normalization of adsorbent surface area adsorption of a bulky solute, 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene, was prominently higher on the synthesized carbon than on the activated carbons, due to alleviated size exclusion effect. Findings of the present work highlight the potential of using zeolite-templated carbons as effective adsorbents for removal of hydrophobic organic contaminants in water treatment.
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