Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH) is associated with high mortality due to right ventricular failure and hypoxia, therefore to understand the mechanism by which pulmonary vascular remodeling initiates these processes is very important. We used a well-characterized monocrotaline (MCT)-induced rat PH model, and analyzed lung morphology, expression of cytokines, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt (PI-3k-Akt) pathway and nuclear factor (NF)-?B activation in order to elucidate the mechanisms by which sildenafil's protective effect in PH is exerted. Besides its protective effect on lung morphology, sildenafil suppressed multiple cytokines involved in neutrophil and mononuclear cells recruitment including cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, CINC-2?/?, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, interleukin (IL)-1?, lipopolysaccharide induced CXC chemokine (LIX), monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1?, and MIP-3?. NF-?B activation and phosphorylation were also attenuated by sildenafil. Furthermore, sildenafil reduced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and p38 MAPK activation while enhanced activation of the cytoprotective Akt pathway in PH. These data suggest a beneficial effect of sildenafil on inflammatory and kinase signaling mechanisms that substantially contribute to its protective effects, and may have potential implications in designing future therapeutic strategies in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension.
Oxidative stress and neurohumoral factors play important role in the development of hypertension-induced vascular remodeling, likely by disregulating kinase cascades and transcription factors. Oxidative stress activates poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP-1), which promotes inflammation and cell death. We assumed that inhibition of PARP-1 reduces the hypertension-induced adverse vascular changes. This hypothesis was tested in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).
Spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a suitable model for studies of the complications of hypertension. It is known that activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase enzyme (PARP) plays an important role in the development of postinfarction as well as long-term hypertension induced heart failure. In this study, we examined whether PARP-inhibitor (L-2286) treatment could prevent the development of hypertensive cardiopathy in SHRs. 6-week-old SHR animals were treated with L-2286 (SHR-L group) or placebo (SHR-C group) for 24 weeks. Wistar-Kyoto rats were used as aged-matched, normotensive controls (WKY group). Echocardiography was performed, brain-derived natriuretic peptide (BNP) activity and blood pressure were determined at the end of the study. We detected the extent of fibrotic areas. The amount of heat-shock proteins (Hsps) and the phosphorylation state of Akt-1(Ser473), glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3?(Ser9), forkhead transcription factor (FKHR)(Ser256), mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and protein kinase C (PKC) isoenzymes were monitored. The elevated blood pressure in SHRs was not influenced by PARP-inhibitor treatment. Systolic left ventricular function and BNP activity did not differ among the three groups. L-2286 treatment decreased the marked left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy which was developed in SHRs. Interstitial collagen deposition was also decreased by L-2286 treatment. The phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2(Thr183-Tyr185), Akt-1(Ser473), GSK-3?(Ser9), FKHR(Ser256), and PKC ?(Ser729) and the level of Hsp90 were increased, while the activity of PKC ?/?II(Thr638/641), ?/?(410/403) were mitigated by L-2286 administration. We could detect signs of LV hypertrophy without congestive heart failure in SHR groups. This alteration was prevented by PARP inhibition. Our results suggest that PARP-inhibitor treatment has protective effect already in the early stage of hypertensive myocardial remodeling.
According to the "membrane sensor" hypothesis, the membranes physical properties and microdomain organization play an initiating role in the heat shock response. Clinical conditions such as cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases are all coupled with specific changes in the physical state and lipid composition of cellular membranes and characterized by altered heat shock protein levels in cells suggesting that these "membrane defects" can cause suboptimal hsp-gene expression. Such observations provide a new rationale for the introduction of novel, heat shock protein modulating drug candidates. Intercalating compounds can be used to alter membrane properties and by doing so normalize dysregulated expression of heat shock proteins, resulting in a beneficial therapeutic effect for reversing the pathological impact of disease. The membrane (and lipid) interacting hydroximic acid (HA) derivatives discussed in this review physiologically restore the heat shock protein stress response, creating a new class of "membrane-lipid therapy" pharmaceuticals. The diseases that HA derivatives potentially target are diverse and include, among others, insulin resistance and diabetes, neuropathy, atrial fibrillation, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. At a molecular level HA derivatives are broad spectrum, multi-target compounds as they fluidize yet stabilize membranes and remodel their lipid rafts while otherwise acting as PARP inhibitors. The HA derivatives have the potential to ameliorate disparate conditions, whether of acute or chronic nature. Many of these diseases presently are either untreatable or inadequately treated with currently available pharmaceuticals. Ultimately, the HA derivatives promise to play a major role in future pharmacotherapy.
Novel immunosuppressive therapy facilitates long term allograft survival, but acute tubular necrosis and ischemia-reperfusion during transplantation can compromise allograft function. These processes are related to oxidative stress which activates poly- (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) contributing to the activation of cell death pathways. Here we raised the possibility that PARP inhibition curbs cell death pathways and shifts kinase signaling to improved graft survival.
Red wine polyphenols can prevent cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. Resveratrol, the most extensively studied constituent, is unlikely to solely account for these beneficial effects because of its rather low abundance and bioavailability. Malvidin is far the most abundant polyphenol in red wine; however, very limited data are available about its effect on inflammatory processes and kinase signaling pathways. METHODS FINDINGS: The present study was carried out by using RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide in the presence and absence of malvidin. From the cells, activation of nuclear factor-kappaB, mitogen-activated protein kinase, protein kinase B/Akt and poly ADP-ribose polymerase, reactive oxygen species production, mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression and mitochondrial depolarization were determined. We found that malvidin attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced nuclear factor-kappaB, poly ADP-ribose polymerase and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial depolarization, while upregulated the compensatory processes; mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression and Akt activation.
In this paper, we present evidence, for the first time, that increasing the lipophilicity of mitochondria targeting SOD mimetics reverses their cytoprotective properties, destabilizing the mitochondrial membrane system and promoting cell death. A new mitochondria-directed apolar SOD mimetic, HO-3814, was found to provoke mitochondrial swelling and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and these effects were not inhibited by cyclosporine A. HO-3814-induced cell death was predominantly necrotic, caspase-independent, and not affected by mitochondrial permeability transition inhibitors or cyclophilin D-suppression, inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinases or Akt, or various antioxidants. In contrast, Bcl-2 overexpression diminished the effects of HO-3814.
Macrophages represent the first defense line against bacterial infection and therefore, play a crucial role in early inflammatory response. In this study, we investigated the role of MAPKs and MKP-1 activation in regulation of an early inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. We induced the inflammatory response by treating the macrophages with LPS and inhibited an early inflammatory response by using ferulaldehyde, a water-soluble end-product of dietary polyphenol degradation that we found previously to exert its beneficial anti-inflammatory effects during the early phase of in vivo inflammation. We found that LPS-induced ROS and nitrogen species formations were reduced by ferulaldehyde in a concentration-dependent manner, and ferulaldehyde protected mitochondria against LPS-induced rapid and massive membrane depolarization. LPS induced early suppression of MKP-1, which was accompanied by activation of JNK, ERK, and p38 MAPK. By reversing LPS-induced early suppression of MKP-1, ferulaldehyde diminished MAPK activation, thereby inhibiting NF-?B activation, mitochondrial depolarization, and ROS production. Taken together, our data suggest that ferulaldehyde exerts its early anti-inflammatory effect by preserving the mitochondrial membrane integrity and shifting the expression of MKP-1 forward in time in macrophages.
Previously, it was suggested that the release of nuclearly formed ADP-ribose polymers or ADP-ribosylated proteins could be responsible for the cytosolic and mitochondrial effects of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 activation in oxidative stress. In this report, we provide a novel alternative mechanism. We found that reactive oxygen species-activated PARP-1 regulated the activation of JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) because inhibition of PARP-1 by pharmacons, small interfering RNA silencing of PARP-1 expression, or the transdominant expression of enzymatically inactive PARP-1 resulted in the inactivation of these MAPKs. This regulation was achieved by increased expression and enlarged cytoplasmic localization of MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) upon PARP-1 inhibition in oxidative stress because changes in MKP-1 expression were reflected in the phosphorylation states of JNK and p38. Furthermore, we found that in MKP-1-silenced cells, PARP inhibition was unable to exert its protective effect, indicating the pivotal roles of JNK and p38 in mediating the oxidative-stress-induced cell death as well as that of increased MKP-1 expression in mediating the protective effect of PARP inhibition. We suggest that regulation of a protein that can directly influence cytoplasmic signaling cascades at the expression level represents a novel mechanism for the cytoplasmic action of PARP-1 inhibition.
Tail-interacting protein (TIP47, also named PP17) has been implicated in lipid droplet metabolism and in the development of late endosomes, to date however, no data about its possible role in regulating cell death processes has been available. Here, we provide evidence for the role of TIP47 in the regulation of mitochondrial membrane stability and cell death. Overexpression of TIP47 protected NIH3T3 cells from taxol-induced cell death, while suppression of TIP47 by siRNA facilitated cell death. TIP47, but not its truncated form, t-TIP47, decreased taxol-induced cell death as determined by propidium iodide and fluorescent Annexin V staining. Recombinant TIP47, but not t-TIP47, partially prevented taxol-induced depolarization of mitochondria in vitro. Overexpression of TIP47, but not its truncated form, prevented the taxol-induced nuclear and cytoplasmic translocation of AIF and Endonuclease G, as well as the taxol-induced depolarization of mitochondria in NIH3T3 cells. Furthermore, overexpression of TIP47 facilitated Bcl-2 expression and suppressed Bax expression in taxol-treated cells. These data show that besides its previously known functions, TIP47 is involved in the regulation of mitochondria-related cell death by directly stabilizing the mitochondrial membrane system and by favorably affecting the expression of Bcl-2 homologues. Since TIP47 is overexpressed in certain tumors, it is possible that TIP47 contributes to the development of cytostatic resistance.
Oligodendrocyte loss and demyelination are major pathological hallmarks of multiple sclerosis. In pattern III lesions, inflammation is minor in the early stages, and oligodendrocyte apoptosis prevails, which appears to be mediated at least in part through mitochondrial injury. Here, we demonstrate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation and apoptosis inducing factor nuclear translocation within apoptotic oligodendrocytes in such multiple sclerosis lesions. The same morphological and molecular pathology was observed in an experimental model of primary demyelination, induced by the mitochondrial toxin cuprizone. Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in this model attenuated oligodendrocyte depletion and decreased demyelination. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibition suppressed c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, increased the activation of the cytoprotective phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase-Akt pathway and prevented caspase-independent apoptosis inducing factor-mediated apoptosis. Our data indicate that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of pattern III multiple sclerosis lesions. Since poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibition was also effective in the inflammatory model of multiple sclerosis, it may target all subtypes of multiple sclerosis, either by preventing oligodendrocyte death or attenuating inflammation.
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide with highly efficient cytoprotective actions. Its neuroprotective effects are well-known, but PACAP is able to exert similar actions in non-neuronal cells. Recently, we have shown that PACAP prolongs renal ischemic time, decreases mortality, and attenuates tubular degeneration in a rat model of renal ischemia/reperfusion, but the mechanism of renoprotection is not yet known. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to obtain further insight into the renoprotective effects of PACAP by examining its direct effects of PACAP on mitochondrial permeability transition in vitro and on the expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and cytokines/chemokines in kidney tissues following 45 and 60 min renal ischemia and reperfusion in vivo. We found that PACAP did not have any direct effect on mitochondrial permeability transition. Cytokine array revealed that the expression of a few cytokines/chemokines was strongly increased after ischemia/reperfusion, which was ameliorated by PACAP treatment. Furthermore, in rats subjected to renal ischemia, PACAP treatment counteracted the ischemia/reperfusion-induced decrease of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, both after 45 and 60 min ischemia, as analyzed by Western blot. In summary, we showed that PACAP could attenuate tissue injury involving both anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects, but not directly acting on mitochondrial permeability transition.
We studied cardioprotective as well as Akt and extracellular signal-activated kinase (ERK) activating effect of a Ca(2+) antagonist and a beta-adrenergic receptor blocker during ischemia-reperfusion, and compared these properties of the substances with that of a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor used as a positive control throughout the experiments. Langendorff-perfused isolated rat hearts were subjected to 25 min global ischemia followed by 45 min reperfusion, and recovery of energy metabolism as well as functional cardiac parameters were monitored. Although to varying extents, all substances improved recovery of creatine phosphate, ATP, intracellular pH, and reutilization of inorganic phosphate. These favorable changes were accompanied by improved recovery of heart function parameters and reduced infarct size. In addition and again to varying extents, all studied substances decreased oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation), and activated Akt, glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta, and ERK1/2. Correlation between cardioprotective and kinase activating effectivity of the compounds proved to be statistically significant. Physiological significance of these kinase activations was established by demonstrating that inhibition of Akt by LY294002 and ERK1/2 by PD98059 compromised the cardioprotective effect of all the substances studied. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI-3K)-Akt and ERK2 pathways significantly contributed to cardioprotective effects of a Ca(2+) antagonist and a beta-adrenergic receptor blocker. Furthermore, we found a strong correlation between cardioprotective and kinase-activating potencies of the substances studied (Verapamil, Metoprolol and two PARP inhibitors), which indicated the potentiality of these kinases as drug-targets in the therapy of ischemic heart disease.
We identified a sequence homologous to the Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3) domain of Bcl-2 proteins in SOUL. Tissues expressed the protein to different extents. It was predominantly located in the cytoplasm, although a fraction of SOUL was associated with the mitochondria that increased upon oxidative stress. Recombinant SOUL protein facilitated mitochondrial permeability transition and collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and facilitated the release of proapoptotic mitochondrial intermembrane proteins (PMIP) at low calcium and phosphate concentrations in a cyclosporine A-dependent manner in vitro in isolated mitochondria. Suppression of endogenous SOUL by diced small interfering RNA in HeLa cells increased their viability in oxidative stress. Overexpression of SOUL in NIH3T3 cells promoted hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death and stimulated the release of PMIP but did not enhance caspase-3 activation. Despite the release of PMIP, SOUL facilitated predominantly necrotic cell death, as revealed by annexin V and propidium iodide staining. This necrotic death could be the result of SOUL-facilitated collapse of MMP demonstrated by JC-1 fluorescence. Deletion of the putative BH3 domain sequence prevented all of these effects of SOUL. Suppression of cyclophilin D prevented these effects too, indicating that SOUL facilitated mitochondrial permeability transition in vivo. Overexpression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-x(L), which can counteract the mitochondria-permeabilizing effect of BH3 domain proteins, also prevented SOUL-facilitated collapse of MMP and cell death. These data indicate that SOUL can be a novel member of the BH3 domain-only proteins that cannot induce cell death alone but can facilitate both outer and inner mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and predominantly necrotic cell death in oxidative stress.
There is increasing evidence that moderate consumption of red wine containing high amount of polyphenols and anthocyanins is associated with decreased incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore, we hypothesized that cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis as well as Akt (protein kinase B, PKB) and protein kinase C (PKC) cascades can be beneficially influenced by an alcohol-free red wine (AFRW) extract rich in 14 types of polyphenols and 4 types of anthocyanins during cardiac remodeling. To test this assumption, rats were treated with isoproterenol (ISO) to induce postinfarction remodeling and were given tap water or AFRW ad libitum for 8 weeks. Control rats received vehicle instead of ISO. Heart mass/body mass and ventricle mass/body mass ratios, diameter of cardiomyocytes, phosphorylation of PKC alpha/beta II and protein kinase B/Akt, and deposition of collagen type III were determined from the hearts of all four groups of rats. All measured gravimetric parameters, myocyte diameters and the amount of collagen type III decreased, and the phosphorylation of PKC alpha/beta II was reduced in the ISO+AFRW group compared to the ISO group. AFRW induced activation of Akt, one of the best characterized cytoprotective pathways even without ISO treatment, and this activation was further increased in the ISO+AFRW group. These data suggest that AFRW treatment has a protective effect on hearts undergoing postinfarction remodeling by repressing hypertrophy-associated increased phosphorylation of PKC alpha/beta II and by activating Akt, providing a molecular mechanism for the cardioprotective effect of red wine polyphenols.
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic and multifunctional neuropeptide. Numerous studies prove that PACAP has neuroprotective effects in diverse neuronal systems in vitro and in vivo. The involvement of PACAP in visual and olfactory sensory processing has also been documented, but little is known about its effects in the auditory system. The presence of PACAP and its receptor, the specific PAC1 receptor, has been shown in the cochlea and in brain structures involved in auditory pathways. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether PACAP is protective in cochlear oxidative stress-induced cell death, which is known to play a role in several ototoxic insults. Chicken cochlear cells were exposed to 1mM H(2)O(2), which resulted in a marked reduction of cell viability and a parallel increase of apoptotic and necrotic cells assessed by MTT test, annexin V/propidium iodide flow cytometry and JC-1 apoptosis assay. Co-incubation with 100nM PACAP increased cell viability and reduced the percentage of apoptotic cells. Furthermore, oxidative stress increased the activation of caspase-3, while simultaneous PACAP treatment reduced it. In summary, our present results demonstrate that PACAP effectively protects cochlear cells against oxidative stress-induced apoptotic cell death.
Galectin-13 transcripts have been identified in several normal and malignant tissues, but the physiological function of galectin-13 is still poorly understood. Here, we present evidence for its possible role in promoting cell death in the U-937 human macrophage cell line. Transfection of U-937 human macrophages by a galectin-13 cDNA-containing mammalian expression vector increased the galectin-13 level and sensitized the cells to stress stimuli. Galectin-13 overexpression facilitated paclitaxel-induced cell death and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and endonuclease-G without inducing mitochondrial cytochrome-c release or caspase-3 activation. Immunoblot and immunofluorescence data showed that overexpression of galectin-13 induced long-term activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, as well as activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 (Ask-1) kinase while it suppressed paclitaxel-induced long-term activation of the phosphatidilylositol-3-kinase (PI-3K)-Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) cytoprotective pathways. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of JNK and p38-MAPK pathways protected the cells from paclitaxel-induced cell death. All this data indicate that galectin-13 overexpression promoted apoptosis presumably by activating the Ask-1 kinase-JNK and p38-MAPK pro-apoptotic pathways and by suppressing the PI-3K-Akt and ERK1/2 cytoprotective pathways.
Taxol is the most commonly used agent for salvage chemotherapy in transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium. We examined mechanisms responsible for taxol resistance by using T24 human bladder carcinoma cells.
Antiinflammatory properties of polyphenols in natural products, traditional medicines, and healthy foods were recently attributed to highly soluble metabolites produced by the microflora of the intestines rather than the polyphenols themselves. To provide experimental basis for this hypothesis, we measured antiinflammatory properties of ferulaldehyde (FA), a natural intermediate of polyphenol metabolism of intestinal microflora, in a murine lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic shock model. We found that intraperitoneally administered FA (6 mg/kg) prolonged the lifespan of LPS-treated (40 mg/kg) mice, decreased the inflammatory response detected by T(2)-weighted in vivo MRI, decreased early proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin (IL)-1beta, and increased the antiinflammatory IL-10 in the sera of the mice. Additionally, FA inhibited LPS-induced activation of nuclear factor kappaB transcription factor in the liver of the mice. According to our data, these effects were probably due to attenuating LPS-induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and Akt. Furthermore, FA decreased free radical and nitrite production in LPS plus interferon-gamma-treated primary mouse hepatocytes, whose effects are expected to contribute to its antiinflammatory property. These data provide direct in vivo evidence, that a water-soluble degradation product of polyphenols could be responsible for, or at least could significantly contribute to, the beneficial antiinflammatory effects of polyphenol-containing healthy foods, natural products, and traditional medicines.
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation is considered as a major regulator of cell death in various pathophysiological conditions, however, no direct information is available about its role in chronic hypoperfusion-induced neuronal death. Here, we provide evidence for the protective effect of PARP inhibition on degenerative retinal damage induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO), an adequate chronic hypoperfusion murine model. We found that BCCAO in adult male Wistar rats led to severe degeneration of all retinal layers that was attenuated by a carboxaminobenzimidazol-derivative PARP inhibitor (HO3089) administered unilaterally into the vitreous body immediately following carotid occlusion and then 4 times in a 2-week-period. Normal morphological structure of the retina was preserved and the thickness of the retinal layers was increased in HO3089-treated eyes compared to the BCCAO eyes. For Western blot studies, HO3089 was administered immediately after BCCAO and retinas were removed 4 h later. According to Western blot analysis utilizing phosphorylation-specific primary antibodies, besides activating poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) synthesis, BCCAO induced phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). HO3089 inhibited PAR synthesis, and decreased the phosphorylation of these proapoptotic MAPKs. In addition, HO3089 treatment induced phosphorylation, that is activation, of the protective Akt/glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) signaling pathways. These data indicate that PARP activation has a major role in mediating chronic hypoperfusion-induced neuronal death, and inhibition of the enzyme prevents the pathological changes both in the morphology and the kinase signaling cascades involved. These results identify PARP inhibition as a possible molecular target in the clinical management of chronic hypoperfusion-induced neurodegenerative diseases including ocular ischemic syndrome.
Based on circumstantial evidences, we (Gallyas, F., Farkas, O., Mázló, M., 2004. Gel-to-gel phase transition may occur in mammalian cells: Mechanism of formation of "dark" (compacted) neurons. Biol. Cell 96, 313-324.) proposed that the formation of "dark" neurons (striking compaction of visibly normal ultrastructural elements accompanied with large-scale fluid excretion), which occur in many neurological diseases such as ischemia, proceeds with a non-enzymatic mechanism.
PARP inhibitors combined with DNA-damage inducing cytostatic agents can lead to effective tumor therapy. However, inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1; EC 220.127.116.11) induces the activation of PI-3-kinase-Akt pathway, which can counteract the effectiveness of this therapy. To understand the role of Akt activation in the combined use of cytostatic agent and PARP inhibition, we used taxol (paclitaxel) as an antineoplastic agent, which targets microtubules and up-regulates mitochondrial ROS production, together with (i) pharmacological inhibition (PJ-34), (ii) siRNA knock-down and (iii) transdominant expression of the DNA binding domain of PARP-1. In all cases, PARP-1 inhibition leads to suppressed poly-ADP-ribosylation of nuclear proteins, prevention of NAD(+) depletion and significant resistance against taxol induced caspase-3 activation and apoptotic cell death. Paclitaxel induced a moderate increase in Akt activation, which was significantly augmented by PARP inhibition, suggesting that PARP inhibition-induced Akt activation could be responsible for the cytostatic resistance. When activation of the PI-3-kinase-Akt pathway was prevented by LY-294002 or Akt Inhibitor IV, the cytoprotective effect of PARP inhibition was significantly diminished showing that the activation of PI-3-kinase-Akt cascade had significantly contributed to the cytostatic resistance. Our study demonstrates that drug-induced drug resistance can be responsible for the reduced efficacy of antitumor treatment. Although inhibition of PARP-1 can promote cell death in tumor cells by the inhibition of DNA repair, PARP-inhibition promoted activation of the PI-3-kinase-Akt pathway can counteract this facilitating effect, and can cause cytostatic resistance. We suggest augmenting PARP inhibition by the inhibition of the PI-3-kinase-Akt pathway for antitumor therapy.
Resveratrol was suggested to inhibit Toll-like receptor (TLR)4-mediated activation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon-? (TRIF)-(TANK)-binding kinase 1, but the myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88-tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) pathway is not involved in this effect. However, involvement of TRAF6 in this process is still elusive since cross talk between TRIF and TRAF6 has been reported in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced signaling. Using RAW 264.7 macrophages, we determined the effect of resveratrol on LPS-induced TRAF6 expression, ubiquitination as well as activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and Akt in order to elucidate its involvement in TLR4 signaling. LPS-induced transient elevation in TRAF6 mRNA and protein expressions is suppressed by resveratrol. LPS induces the ubiquitination of TRAF6, which has been reported to be essential for Akt activation and for transforming growth factor-? activated kinase-1-NAP kinase kinase 6 (MKK6)-mediated p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. We found that resveratrol diminishes the effect of LPS on TRAF6 ubiquitination and activation of JNK and p38 MAP kinases, while it has no effect on the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. The effect of resveratrol on MAP kinase inhibition is significant since TRAF6 activation was reported to induce activation of JNK and p38 MAP kinase while not affecting ERK1/2. Moreover, Akt was identified previously as a direct target of TRAF6, and we found that, similarly to MAPKs, phosphorylation pattern of Akt followed the activation of TRAF6, and it was inhibited by resveratrol at all time points. Here, we provide the first evidence that resveratrol, by suppressing LPS-induced TRAF6 expression and ubiquitination, attenuates the LPS-induced TLR4-TRAF6, MAP kinase and Akt pathways that can be significant in its anti-inflammatory effects.
2,4-Dimethoxyphenyl-E-4-arylidene-3-isochromanone (IK11) was previously described to induce apoptotic death of A431 tumor cells. In this report, we investigated the molecular action of IK11 in the HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line to increase our knowledge of the role of poly (ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP), protein kinase B/Akt and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation in the survival and death of tumor cells and to highlight the possible role of PARP-inhibitors in co-treatments with different cytotoxic agents in cancer therapy.
Recently, cystathionine-?-lyase (CSE) was found to provide the major physiological pathway for H(2) S, the third member of the gasotransmitter family. In various pathophysiological conditions, H(2) S exerted protective effects based on its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive and other regulatory functions. Interestingly, CSE expression had been only poorly studied and only in relation with inflammatory processes. Therefore, the study by Hassan et al. in this issue of the BJP, provides a considerable advance by furnishing direct experimental evidence for the involvement of redox signalling in the regulation of CSE gene expression. They found that PDGF up-regulated CSE expression and activity that was abolished by antioxidants and by deletion of the transcription factor nuclear erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2). Furthermore, PDGF induced Nrf2 binding to its consensus sequence that was again reversed by antioxidants. As Nrf2 also governs CO biosynthesis, and PDGF inversely affects H(2) S and NO production, these data could indicate a concerted regulation of the three gasotransmitters by redox signalling.
In this study, we investigate the cardiotoxic effects of the well-known cytostatic agent imatinib mesylate (Gleevec), and presented evidence for the cardioprotective effect of BGP-15 which is a novel insulin sensitizer. The cardiotoxic effect of imatinib mesylate was assessed in Langendorff rat heart perfusion system. The cardiac high-energy phosphate levels (creatine phosphate (PCr) and ATP) were monitored in situ by (31)P NMR spectroscopy. The protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, and the activation of signaling pathways were determined from the freeze-clamped hearts. Prolonged treatment of the heart with imatinib mesylate (20 mg/kg) resulted in cardiotoxicity, which were characterized by the depletion of high-energy phosphates (PCr and ATP), and significantly increased protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. Imatinib mesylate treatment-induced activation of MAP kinases (including ERK1/2, p38, and JNK) and the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3beta. BGP-15 (200 ?M) prevented the imatinib mesylate-induced oxidative damages, attenuated the depletion of high-energy phosphates, altered the signaling effect of imatinib mesylate by preventing p38 MAP kinase and JNK activation, and induced the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3beta. The suppressive effect of BGP-15 on p38 and JNK activation could be significant because these kinases contribute to the cell death and inflammation in the isolated perfused heart.
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