The objective of this research was to analyze the organizational culture of a Brazilian public hospital. It is a descriptive study with quantitative approach of data, developed in a public hospital of São Paulo State, Brazil. The sample was composed by 52 nurses and 146 nursing technicians and auxiliaries. Data were collected from January to June 2011 using the Brazilian Instrument for Assessing Organizational Culture - IBACO. The analysis of the organizational values showed the existence of hierarchical rigidity and centralization of power within the institution, as well as individualism and competition, which hinders teamwork. The values concerning workers' well-being, satisfaction and motivation were not highly valued. In regard to organizational practices, the promotion of interpersonal relationship, continuous education, and rewarding practices were not valued either. It becomes apparent that traditional models of work organization support work practices and determine the organizational culture of the hospital.
Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) or Duhring-Brocq disease is a chronic bullous disease characterized by intense itching and burning sensation in the erythematous papules and urticarial plaques, grouped vesicles with centrifuge growth, and tense blisters. There is an association with the genotypes HLA DR3, HLA DQw2, found in 80-90% of cases. It is an IgA-mediated cutaneous disease, with immunoglobulin A deposits appearing in a granular pattern at the top of the dermal papilla in the sublamina densa area of the basement membrane, which is present both in affected skin and healthy skin. The same protein IgA1 with J chain is found in the small intestinal mucosa in patients with adult celiac disease, suggesting a strong association with DH. Specific antibodies such as antiendomysium, antireticulina, antigliadin and, recently identified, the epidermal and tissue transglutaminase subtypes, as well as increased zonulin production, are common to both conditions, along with gluten-sensitive enteropathy and DH. Autoimmune diseases present higher levels of prevalence, such as thyroid (5-11%), pernicious anemia (1-3%), type 1 diabetes (1-2%) and collagen tissue disease. The chosen treatment is dapsone and a gluten-free diet.
Piezosurgery is an osteotomy system used in medical and dental surgery. Many studies have proven clinical advantages of piezosurgery in terms of quality of cut, maneuverability, ease of use, and safety. However, few investigations have tested its superiority over the traditional osteotomy systems in terms of dynamics of bone healing. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of bone healing after osteotomies with piezosurgery and to compare them with those associated to traditional bone drilling.
Metastatic spread is the single-most powerful predictor of poor outcome in Ewing sarcoma (ES). Therefore targeting pathways that drive metastasis has tremendous potential to reduce the burden of disease in ES. We previously showed that activation of the ERBB4 tyrosine kinase suppresses anoikis, or detachment-induced cell death, and induces chemoresistance in ES cell lines in vitro. We now show that ERBB4 is transcriptionally overexpressed in ES cell lines derived from chemoresistant or metastatic ES tumours. ERBB4 activates the PI3K-Akt cascade and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and both pathways contribute to ERBB4-mediated activation of the Rac1 GTPase in vitro and in vivo. ERBB4 augments tumour invasion and metastasis in vivo, and these effects are blocked by ERBB4 knockdown. ERBB4 expression correlates significantly with reduced disease-free survival, and increased expression is observed in metastatic compared to primary patient-matched ES biopsies. Our findings identify a novel ERBB4-PI3K-Akt-FAK-Rac1 pathway associated with aggressive disease in ES. These results predict that therapeutic targeting of ERBB4, alone or in combination with cytotoxic agents, may suppress the metastatic phenotype in ES.
to analyze work accidents involving exposure to biological materials which took place among personnel working in nursing and to evaluate the influence of the organizational culture on the occurrence of these accidents.
Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been proposed as an adjunctive therapy to scaling and root planing (SRP). The transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?) has been considered as an anti-inflammatory cytokine, and its levels in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) could monitor the periodontal repair. This study evaluated the adjunct effect of aPDT compared with SRP, analyzing the TGF-? levels in GCF after nonsurgical and surgical therapy in chronic periodontitis patients.
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis caused by the thermodimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Leukotrienes and lipoxins are lipid mediators produced after 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) activation that exhibit pro- and anti-inflammatory roles, respectively. Here, we have investigated the contribution of 5-LO enzymatic activity in PCM using an experimental model of P. brasiliensis infection. B6.129 wild-type (B6.129) and 5-LO-deficient (5-LO(-/-)) mice were intravenously inoculated with a virulent strain of P. brasiliensis (Pb18), and the survival rate of the infected mice was investigated on different days after yeast infection. 5-LO(-/-) mice exhibited an increased survival rate associated with a decreased number of CFU. The resistance of 5-LO(-/-) during PCM was associated with augmented nitric oxide (NO) production and the formation of compact granulomas. In addition, the absence of 5-LO was associated with a diminished number of CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T cells, higher levels of gamma interferon and interleukin-12, and increased T-bet (a T-box transcription factor that directs Th1 lineage commitment) mRNA levels in the lungs. Taken together, our results show for the first time that 5-LO enzymatic activity increases susceptibility to P. brasiliensis, suggesting that this pathway may be a potential target for therapeutic intervention during PCM.
Inosine, a naturally occurring purine formed from the breakdown of adenosine, is associated with immunoregulatory effects. Evidence shows that inosine modulates lung inflammation and regulates cytokine generation. However, its role in controlling allergen-induced lung inflammation has yet to be identified. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of inosine and adenosine receptors in a murine model of lung allergy induced by ovalbumin (OVA). Intraperitoneal administration of inosine (0.001-10 mg/kg, 30 min before OVA challenge) significantly reduced the number of leukocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes and eosinophils recovered in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of sensitized mice compared with controls. Interestingly, our results showed that pre-treatment with the selective A2A receptor antagonist (ZM241385), but not with the selective A2B receptor antagonist (alloxazine), reduced the inhibitory effects of inosine against macrophage count, suggesting that A2A receptors mediate monocyte recruitment into the lungs. In addition, the pre-treatment of mice with selective A3 antagonist (MRS3777) also prevented inosine effects against macrophages, lymphocytes and eosinophils. Histological analysis confirmed the effects of inosine and A2A adenosine receptors on cell recruitment and demonstrated that the treatment with ZM241385 and alloxazine reverted inosine effects against mast cell migration into the lungs. Accordingly, the treatment with inosine reduced lung elastance, an effect related to A2 receptors. Moreover, inosine reduced the levels of Th2-cytokines, interleukin-4 and interleukin-5, an effect that was not reversed by A2A or A2B selective antagonists. Our data show that inosine acting on A2A or A3 adenosine receptors can regulate OVA-induced allergic lung inflammation and also implicate inosine as an endogenous modulator of inflammatory processes observed in the lungs of asthmatic patients.
This study investigated structural and functional features of apoptotic alveolar bone osteoclasts in estrogen-treated rats. For this purpose, 15 female rats 22 days old were divided into three groups: Estrogen (EG), Sham (SG) and Control (CG). The rats of EG received daily intramuscular injection of estrogen for 7 days. The SG received only the oil vehicle. Maxillary fragments containing alveolar bone were removed and processed for light and transmission electron microscopy. Area (OcA) and number of nuclei (OcN) and bone resorption surface per TRAP-positive osteoclasts (BS/OC) were obtained. Vimentin, caspase-3 and MMP-9 immunoreactions, TUNEL/TRAP and MMP-9/TUNEL combined reactions were performed. In EG, the OcA, OcN and BS/Oc were reduced. Moreover, osteoclasts showed cytoplasm immunolabelled by caspase-3 and a different pattern of vimentin expression in comparison with CG and SG. MMP-9 expression was not affected by estrogen and the TUNEL-positive osteoclasts were MMP-9-immunolabelled. In EG, ultrastructural images showed that apoptotic osteoclasts did not exhibit ruffled borders or clear zones and were shedding mononucleated portions. TRAP-positive structures containing irregular and dense chromatin were partially surrounded by fibroblast-like cells. In conclusion, the reduction in the BS/Oc may be due to reduction in OcA and OcN; these effects seem to be related to vimentin disarrangement rather than to an interference of estrogen with osteoclast MMP-9 expression. Osteoclast apoptosis involves caspase-3 activity and vimentin degradation; these cells release portions containing one apoptotic nucleus and, subsequently, undergo fragmentation, giving rise to apoptotic bodies.
The study aimed to identify performance indicators adopted by the Nursing Service of a public hospital and to analyze the opinions of the nurses regarding the use of these indicators to evaluate the quality of the nursing care. This is descriptive exploratory study with a quantitative approach, which used data from the management reports of the institution and applied a questionnaire in a sample of 25 nurses. It was found that the institution works with three databases of indicators, two being general and one specific for Nursing, which analyze 11 indicators. The indicators of pressure ulcer incidence and incidence of falls were the only ones considered highly relevant to qualify the nursing care for 100% of the nurses. It was concluded that the institution uses indicators for monitoring outcomes and tends to valorize the use of process indicators by the nurses to evaluate the Nursing performance, with it being necessary to expand the analysis to include multi-disciplinary indicators.
Diabetic patients commonly present an increased risk for cardiovascular events, for which aspirin is the most frequently used medication for primary prevention. Urinary 11-dehydro thromboxane (11-dhTXB?) concentrations assess the effect of aspirin on platelets and identify patients who are at risk of cardiovascular events. The present study investigated whether or not type 2 diabetic patients who took a daily dose of 100mg of aspirin had a significant reduction in urinary 11-dhTXB? concentrations and whether these results were associated with clinical and laboratory variables.
The thermally dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb) is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), one of the most frequent systemic mycosis that affects the rural population in Latin America. PCM is characterized by a chronic inflammatory granulomatous reaction, which is consequence of a Th1-mediated adaptive immune response. In the present study we investigated the mechanisms involved in the immunoregulation triggered after a prior contact with cell-free antigens (CFA) during a murine model of PCM. The results showed that the inoculation of CFA prior to the infection resulted in disorganized granulomatous lesions and increased fungal replication in the lungs, liver and spleen, that paralleled with the higher levels of IL-4 when compared with the control group. The role of IL-4 in facilitating the fungal growth was demonstrated in IL-4-deficient- and neutralizing anti-IL-4 mAb-treated mice. The injection of CFA did not affect the fungal growth in these mice, which, in fact, exhibited a significant diminished amount of fungus in the tissues and smaller granulomas. Considering that in vivo anti-IL-4-application started one week after the CFA-inoculum, it implicates that IL-4-CFA-induced is responsible by the mediation of the observed unresponsiveness. Further, the characterization of CFA indicated that a proteic fraction is required for triggering the immunosuppressive mechanisms, while glycosylation or glycosphingolipids moieties are not. Taken together, our data suggest that the prior contact with soluble Pb antigens leads to severe PCM in an IL-4 dependent manner.
Cross-sectional exploratory research developed to outline the roles and functions of occupational health nurses (OHNs) in Brazil and compare them with those in the United States. The sample consisted of 154 Brazilian occupational health nurses. First, the instrument Job Analysis Survey of Occupational Health Nursing Practice was translated into Portuguese, followed by data collection and data analysis, comparing the results of the proposed study in Brazil with the findings of a job delineation study conducted in the United States. It was found that most were women, white, between 41 and 50 years of age and working primarily at hospitals or medical centers as clinicians and managers/administrators. Besides, it was found that most Brazilian OHNs spend more time in managerial roles, followed by consultant and educator responsibilities while, in the United States, OHNs spend significantly more time in education/advisory roles.
This is an exploratory research, with a quantitative approach, developed with the objective of analyzing the work and of life situations that can offer risks to the workers health involved in the manual and automated cut of the sugar cane. The sample was composed by 39 sugar cane cutters and 16 operators of harvesters. The data collection occurred during the months of July and August of 2006, by the technique of direct observation of work situations and workers homes and through interviews semi-structured. The interviews were recorded and later transcribed. Data were analyzed according to Social Ecological Theory. It was observed that the workers deal with multiple health risk situations, predominantly to the risks of occurrence of respiratory, musculoskeletal and psychological problems and work-related accidents due to the work activities. The interaction of individual, social and environmental factors can determine the workers tendency to falling ill.
Qualitative study developed in a public university of São Paulo State, Brazil, to identify the conception of quality of hospital nursing care under the perspective of last year undergraduate nursing students. Semi-structured interviews with 24 students were performed to collect the data and the speeches were analyzed according to Bardins conceptual framework. The central ideas of the speeches were divided into six categories: holism, humanization, technically and scientifically trained team, promotion of self-care, appropriate management of the units and respecting the safety principles in care. It is concluded that students view regarding the theme is wide; however it is necessary to incorporate important issues to the concept of quality of hospital care, such as the valorization of team work, the systematization of care and the satisfaction of all actors involved in nursing care.
In the present paper, we developed a primary culture of Rhodnius prolixus salivary gland and main salivary canal cells. Cells remained viable in culture for 30 days. Three types of cells were indentified in the salivary gland cultures, with binuclear cells being the most abundant. The supernatants of salivary cultures contained mainly 16-24 kDa proteins and presented anticoagulant and apyrase activities. Secretion vesicles were observed budding from the cellular monolayer of the main salivary canal cells. These results indicate that R. prolixus salivary proteins may be produced in vitro and suggest that the main salivary canal may have a possible secretory role.
The frequency of massive pulmonary hemorrhages seems to be increasing in different geographic areas; however, there is no clear explanation for this trend. Although data on the pathogenesis of such complications are scarce, recent research indicates a potential role of autoimmunity and/or multifactorial mechanisms. However, much information is already available on the disturbance of hemostasis and blood vessels in leptospirosis-related literature, even if some contradictory concepts coexist. The purpose of this review is to integrate both new and classical information from human and animal studies on severe pulmonary forms of leptospirosis and disorders of hemostasis and blood vessels. We propose that the involvement of blood vessels in leptospirosis must be understood as a sepsis-like, diffuse process of endothelial activation/damage rather than as a classical systemic vasculitis. Pulmonary hemorrhages are most likely multifactorial and there has recently been evidence against the role of autoimmunity; however, further investigation of strain variations, exposure to hydrocarbons and association with renal dysfunction is required. Thrombocytopenia is a consistent feature of leptospirosis but it is not clear whether it is attributable to sepsis-related mechanisms. In addition, further investigation is required to define whether platelet function is activated or inhibited during severe leptospirosis.
Magnolia ovata (A.St.-Hil.) Spreng (formerly Talauma ovata), known as "pinha-do-brejo" or "baguaçu", is a large tree widely distributed in Brazil. Its trunk bark has been used in folk medicine against fever. However, no data have been published to support the antipyretic ethnopharmacological use. This study investigated the antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects of the ethanolic extract (EEMO), dichloromethane fraction (DCM), and the isolated compound costunolide.
The purpose of this in vitro study was to quantify the alterations on human root dentin permeability after exposure to different acid fruit juices and to evaluate the effect of toothbrushing with electric or sonic toothbrush after acid exposure. The root dentin of 50 extracted third molars was exposed with a high speed bur. Crowns were sectioned above the cementoenamel junction and root fragments were used to prepare dentin specimens. Specimens were randomly assigned to 5 groups according to the fruit juice (kiwifruit, starfruit, green apple, pineapple and acerolla). Each specimen was connected to a hydraulic pressure apparatus to measure root dentin permeability using fluid filtration method after the following sequential steps: I) conditioning with 37% phosphoric acid for 30 s, II) root scaling, III) exposure to acid fruit juices for 5 min and IV) electric or sonic toothbrushing without dentifrice for 3 min. Data were analyzed statistically by the Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests at 5% significance level. All fruit juices promoted a significant increase of dentin permeability while toothbrushing decreased it significantly (p<0.05). It may be concluded that all acid fruit juices increased root dentin permeability, while toothbrushing without dentifrice after acid exposure decreased the permeability. The toothbrush mechanism (electric or sonic) had no influence on the decrease of root dentin permeability.
This study aims to characterize the communication process among nursing assistants who work in vehicles of the basic life support of the mobile emergency service, in the coordination of this service, and in the unified medical regulation service in a city of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. This descriptive and qualitative research used the thematic content analysis for data analysis. Semi-structured interviews were used for the data collection, which was held in January, 2010. Results show diffculties in communication with both the medical regulation service and the coordination. Among the most highlighted aspects are failures during the radio transmission, lack of qualified radio operators, difficult access to the coordination and lack of supervision by nurses. However, it was possible to detect solutions that aim to improve the communication ana consequently, the service offered by the mobile emergency service.
?-glucan is an important polysaccharide due to its medicinal properties of stimulating the immune system and preventing chronic diseases such as cancer. The aim of the present study was to determine the anticlastogenic effect of ?-glucan in cells exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UV). Chromosome aberration assay was performed in drug-metabolizing cells (HTC) and non drug-metabolizing cells (CHO-K1 and repair-deficient CHO-xrs5), using different treatment protocols. Continuous treatment (UV + ?-glucan) was not effective in reducing the DNA damage only in CHO-xrs5 cells. However, the pre-treatment protocol (?-glucan before UV exposition) was effective in reducing DNA damage only in CHO-K1 cells. In post-treatment (?-glucan after UV exposition) did not show significative anticlastogenic effects, although there was a tendency toward prevention. The data suggest that ?-glucan has more than one action mechanism, being capable of exerting desmutagenic as well as bio-antimutagenic action. The findings also suggest that the presence of the xenobiotic metabolizing system can reduce the chemopreventive capacity of ?-glucan. Therefore, these results indicate that ?-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be used in the prevention and/or reduction of DNA damage.
Piper aleyreanum is a small tree that is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, mostly in North and South America, and is used as an immunomodulator, analgesic and antidepressant in folk medicine.
Adenosine and its metabolite, inosine, have been described as molecules that participate in regulation of inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of adenosine and inosine in a mouse model of carrageenan-induced pleurisy as well as the participation of adenosine receptors in this response. Injection of carrageenan into the pleural cavity induced an acute inflammatory response characterized by leukocyte migration, pleural exudation, and increased release of interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor-? in pleural exudates. The treatment with adenosine (0.3-100 mg/kg, i.p.) and inosine (0.1-300 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before carrageenan injection reduced significantly all these parameters analyzed. Our results also demonstrated that A(2A) and A(2B) receptors seem to mediate the adenosine and inosine effects observed, since pretreatment with selective antagonists of adenosine A(2A) (ZM241385) and A(2B) (alloxazine) receptors, reverted the inhibitory effects of adenosine and inosine in pleural inflammation. The involvement of A(2) receptors was reinforced with adenosine receptor agonist CGS21680 treatment, since its anti-inflammatory effects were reversed completely and partially with ZM241385 and alloxazine injection, respectively. Moreover, the combined treatment with subeffective dose of adenosine (0.3 mg/kg) and inosine (1.0 mg/kg) induced a synergistic anti-inflammatory effect. Thus, based on these findings, we propose that inosine contributes with adenosine to exert anti-inflammatory effects in pleural inflammation, reinforcing the notion that endogenous nucleosides play an important role in controlling inflammatory diseases. This effect is likely mediated by the activation of adenosine A(2) subtype receptors and inhibition of production or release of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
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