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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Haemogregarina spp. in a wild population from Podocnemis unifilis Troschel, 1848 in the Brazilian Amazonia.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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The study objectives were to characterize the morphology of the parasitic forms and describe the prevalence and intensity of Haemogregarina spp. in a population of the turtle Podocnemis unifilis as well as to examine the relationships between parasitism and turtle variables such as gender, size, and weight. Samples were taken in the Tapajós and Jamanxim rivers, Itaituba, Pará state, Brazil. Blood was collected from the tail vein of 72 P. unifilis specimens, including 35 males, 36 females, and one unsexed juvenile. The prevalence of Haemogregarina spp. was 98 % (n?=?71). The mean parasite intensity of Haemogregarina spp. was 118 (1-582) parasites/2000 blood cells (6 %). There was no significant difference in the mean parasite intensity between male (137.68?±?121.8, n?=?35) and female turtles (101.42?±?123.59, n?=?35). There was no relationship between parasite intensity and carapace length. Although the relationship between parasite intensity and host body weight was significant, the relationship was weak. This is the first study on Haemogregarina parasitism with a relatively high number of turtles in Brazil.
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Functional dissociation of ventral frontal and dorsomedial default mode network components during resting state and emotional autobiographical recall.
Hum Brain Mapp
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Humans spend a substantial share of their lives mind-wandering. This spontaneous thinking activity usually comprises autobiographical recall, emotional, and self-referential components. While neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that a specific brain "default mode network" (DMN) is consistently engaged by the "resting state" of the mind, the relative contribution of key cognitive components to DMN activity is still poorly understood. Here we used fMRI to investigate whether activity in neural components of the DMN can be differentially explained by active recall of relevant emotional autobiographical memories as compared with the resting state. Our study design combined emotional autobiographical memory, neutral memory and resting state conditions, separated by a serial subtraction control task. Shared patterns of activation in the DMN were observed in both emotional autobiographical and resting conditions, when compared with serial subtraction. Directly contrasting autobiographical and resting conditions demonstrated a striking dissociation within the DMN in that emotional autobiographical retrieval led to stronger activation of the dorsomedial core regions (medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex), whereas the resting state condition engaged a ventral frontal network (ventral striatum, subgenual and ventral anterior cingulate cortices) in addition to the IPL. Our results reveal an as yet unreported dissociation within the DMN. Whereas the dorsomedial component can be explained by emotional autobiographical memory, the ventral frontal one is predominantly associated with the resting state proper, possibly underlying fundamental motivational mechanisms engaged during spontaneous unconstrained ideation.
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[Social participation and health in Brazil: a systematic review on the topic].
Cien Saude Colet
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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The process of democratization of Brazil contributed to the emergence of management councils and thematic conferences in the context of public health policies. The scope of this article was to conduct a systematic review of the literature in order to establish the factors associated with the process of institutionalization of these democratic areas. The following databases were researched: LILACS, IBECS, MEDLINE, SciELO, PAHO, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Social Science and EBSCO. For the composition of the sample of 25 articles, the following key words were used: Social Control, Social Participation, Consumer Participation, Community Participation, Public Participation, Citizen Participation, Political Participation, Participative Management, Participative Democracy, Deliberative Democracy with Health Councils and Health Conferences. The results found synthesize a set of categories that has impacted the participatory public spaces: political representation and qualification, relationships among the social actors, institutional design, political culture, discourses about health/disease and the debate about democracy. The findings help to move forward in the understanding of such institutions, fostering the construction of alternatives committed to the strengthening of democracy in Brazil.
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Microsatellite analysis supports clonal propagation and reduced divergence of Trypanosoma vivax from asymptomatic to fatally infected livestock in South America compared to West Africa.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Mechanical transmission of the major livestock pathogen Trypanosoma vivax by other biting flies than tsetse allows its spread from Africa to the New World. Genetic studies are restricted to a small number of isolates and based on molecular markers that evolve too slowly to resolve the relationships between American and West African populations and, thus, unable us to uncover the recent history of T. vivax in the New World.
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New species of Creagrutus Günther (Characiformes: Characidae) from rio Tapajós basin, Brazil, with comments on its phylogenetic position.
Zootaxa
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Creagrutus nigrotaeniatus n. sp. is described from the rio Juruena basin, upper rio Tapajós system, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Creagrutus nigrotaeniatus differs from its congeners by having the dentigerous surface of the premaxilla longitudinally elongate from ventral view, 4-5 post-anal scales and 2-4 maxillary teeth. The new species also has the anterior margin of hyomandibula straight or slightly concave which is a unique condition within the genus, and possesses a series of non-exclusive osteological modifications (e.g. medial opening of the dentary foramen located distinctly anteroventral to the tip of Meckel's cartilage; anterior portion of the laterosensory canal segment in first infraorbital terminating distinctly posterior to the anterior margin of this bone; presence of the third posttemporal fossa within the epioccipital; one epural present). A comparison with Caiapobrycon tucurui is provided and the placement of the new species within Creagrutus and its close relationship with C. cracentis, C. gephyrus, and C. maxillaris are discussed.
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[A methodology to implement preventive actions against harmful drug use in the context of primary health care in Latin America].
Rev. Panam. Salud Publica
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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To develop a methodology to implement practices of prevention against the use of alcohol and other drugs in the context of primary health care (PHC) that will contribute to the debate about policies and actions in Latin American countries.
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Are fish paratenic natural hosts of the caiman haemoparasite Hepatozoon caimani?
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
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The susceptibility of two fish and four mosquito species to the Caiman yacare haemoparasite Hepatozoon caimani was experimentally investigated. Mosquitoes belonging to four species (Aedes fluviatilis, Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus) were blood-fed on two naturally infected C. yacare from the Central-West Region of Brazil that exhibited distinct levels of parasitaemia: caimans A (11.05 %) and B (1.25 %). None of the engorged A. fluviatilis, A. albopictus or A. aegypti mosquitoes fed on caiman A survived for the duration of the sporogonic cycle; the great majority of the engorged mosquitoes died within 48 h of the blood meal. All A. aegypti fed on caiman B were negative, whereas 91.3 % of dissected C. quinquefasciatus fed on the same caiman contained oocysts. Characid fish-Metynnis sp. and Astyanax sp.-were individually fed with C. quinquefasciatus females previously engorged (21-23 days) on caiman B. No parasite was found in the Astyanax fish. By contrast, 100 % of the Metynnis fish depicted numerous cysts harbouring cystozoites identical to those of H. caimani, even more than 8 months after the ingestion of the infected mosquitoes. The cysts were located near the veins of the liver and, in some cases, close to the tunica intima of these vessels. No inflammatory reaction was observed. Gametocytes were observed in the blood smears of juvenile caimans that had ingested infected fish 9-12 weeks earlier. The potential role of fish as paratenic vertebrate hosts of H. caimani in nature is discussed.
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Metazoan endoparasites of Pygocentrus nattereri (Characiformes: Serrasalminae) in the Negro River, Pantanal, Brazil.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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In the period of October 2007 to August 2008, 152 specimens of Pygocentrus nattereri were caught in the Negro River in the Nhecolândia region, central Pantanal wetland, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The specimens were necropsied and a total of 4,212 metazoan endoparasites were recovered, belonging to 10 taxons: Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus, Philometridae gen. sp., Eustrongylides sp., Brevimulticaecum sp., Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda), Echinorhynchus paranensis (Acanthocephala), Leiperia gracile, Sebekia oxycephala, Subtriquetra sp. 1 and Subtriquetra sp. 2 (Pentastomida). This is the first record of two parasite species from P. nattereri: E. paranensis and L. gracile.
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Real-Time fMRI Pattern Decoding and Neurofeedback Using FRIEND: An FSL-Integrated BCI Toolbox.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The demonstration that humans can learn to modulate their own brain activity based on feedback of neurophysiological signals opened up exciting opportunities for fundamental and applied neuroscience. Although EEG-based neurofeedback has been long employed both in experimental and clinical investigation, functional MRI (fMRI)-based neurofeedback emerged as a promising method, given its superior spatial resolution and ability to gauge deep cortical and subcortical brain regions. In combination with improved computational approaches, such as pattern recognition analysis (e.g., Support Vector Machines, SVM), fMRI neurofeedback and brain decoding represent key innovations in the field of neuromodulation and functional plasticity. Expansion in this field and its applications critically depend on the existence of freely available, integrated and user-friendly tools for the neuroimaging research community. Here, we introduce FRIEND, a graphic-oriented user-friendly interface package for fMRI neurofeedback and real-time multivoxel pattern decoding. The package integrates routines for image preprocessing in real-time, ROI-based feedback (single-ROI BOLD level and functional connectivity) and brain decoding-based feedback using SVM. FRIEND delivers an intuitive graphic interface with flexible processing pipelines involving optimized procedures embedding widely validated packages, such as FSL and libSVM. In addition, a user-defined visual neurofeedback module allows users to easily design and run fMRI neurofeedback experiments using ROI-based or multivariate classification approaches. FRIEND is open-source and free for non-commercial use. Processing tutorials and extensive documentation are available.
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Arterial spin labeling measurements of cerebral perfusion territories in experimental ischemic stroke.
Transl Stroke Res
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
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Collateral circulation, defined as the supplementary vascular network that maintains cerebral blood flow (CBF) when the main vessels fail, constitutes one important defense mechanism of the brain against ischemic stroke. In the present study, continuous arterial spin labeling (CASL) was used to quantify CBF and obtain perfusion territory maps of the major cerebral arteries in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and their normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) controls. Results show that both WKY and SHR have complementary, yet significantly asymmetric perfusion territories. Right or left dominances were observed in territories of the anterior (ACA), middle and posterior cerebral arteries, and the thalamic artery. Magnetic resonance angiography showed that some of the asymmetries were correlated with variations of the ACA. The leptomeningeal circulation perfusing the outer layers of the cortex was observed as well. Significant and permanent changes in perfusion territories were obtained after temporary occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery in both SHR and WKY, regardless of their particular dominance. However, animals with right dominance presented a larger volume change of the left perfusion territory (23?±?9%) than animals with left dominance (7?±?5%, P?
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Anurans as paratenic hosts in the transmission of Hepatozoon caimani to caimans Caiman yacare and Caiman latirostris.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2011
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Prevalence of Hepatozoon caimani has been reported in 76% of caimans Caiman yacare from the Pantanal region. Culex (Melanoconion) spp. mosquitoes were recently identified as natural vectors of this parasite. However, culicids are not typically eaten by crocodilians, suggesting that the main transmission route is through ingestion of insectivorous vertebrates, such as anurans. The susceptibility of wild frogs Leptodactylus chaquensis, Leptodactylus podicipinus and Scinax nasicus to infection by H. caimani was verified. Wild-caught anurans were force fed with sporulated oocysts from laboratory-bred Culex (Melanoconion) mosquitoes. Frogs were killed 30 days postinfection, and their internal organs were fed to caimans C. yacare and Caiman latirostris. Cystozoites were identified in fresh liver impression smears of L. chaquensis. C. yacare fed on anuran organ presented gametocytes in peripheral blood circulation between 74 and 80 days postinoculation (dpi). Gametocytes were also verified in C. latirostris fed on the internal organs of L. podicipinus and S. nasicus between 60-70 and 69-75 dpi, respectively. Since frogs used in experiment are sympatric with C. yacare and C. latirostris and may occur in the diet of these caimans, the results suggest these amphibians are paratenic hosts in the natural transmission cycle of H. caimani in Pantanal.
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Multilocus phylogeographical analysis of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) genotypes from sympatric cattle and water buffalo populations supports evolutionary host constraint and close phylogenetic relationships with genotypes found in other ruminants.
Int. J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2011
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Species of the subgenus Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) have been reported in cattle and other domestic and wild ruminants worldwide. A previous study in Brazil found at least four genotypes infecting cattle (Bos taurus), but only one in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). However, the small number of isolates examined from buffalo, all inhabiting nearby areas, has precluded evaluation of their diversity, host associations and geographical structure. To address these questions, we evaluated the genetic diversity and phylogeographical patterns of 25 isolates from water buffalo and 28 from cattle from four separate locations in Brazil and Venezuela. Multigene phylogenetic analyses of ssrRNA, internal transcribed spacer of rDNA (ITSrDNA), 5SrRNA, glycosomal glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH), mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cyt b), spliced leader (SL) and cathepsin L-like (CATL) sequences positioned all isolates from sympatric and allopatric buffalo populations into the highly homogeneous genotype TthIA, while the cattle isolates were assigned to three different genotypes, all distinct from TthIA. Polymorphisms in all of these sequences separated the trypanosomes infecting water buffalo, cattle, sheep, antelope and deer, and suggested that they correspond to separate species. Congruent phylogenies inferred with all genes indicated a predominant clonal structure of the genotypes. The multilocus analysis revealed one monophyletic assemblage formed exclusively by trypanosomes of ruminants, which corresponds to the subgenus T. (Megatrypanum). The high degree of host specificity, evidenced by genotypes exclusive to each ruminant species and lack of genotype shared by different host species, suggested that the evolutionary history of trypanosomes of this subgenus was strongly constrained by their ruminant hosts. However, incongruence between ruminant and trypanosome phylogenies did not support host-parasite co-evolution, indicating that host switches have occurred across ruminants followed by divergences, giving rise to new trypanosome genotypes adapted exclusively to one host species.
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Magnetic resonance imaging quantification of regional cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reactivity to carbon dioxide in normotensive and hypertensive rats.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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Hypertension afflicts 25% of the general population and over 50% of the elderly. In the present work, arterial spin labeling MRI was used to non-invasively quantify regional cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebrovascular resistance and CO(2) reactivity in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and in normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY), at two different ages (3 months and 10 months) and under the effects of two anesthetics, ?-chloralose and 2% isoflurane (1.5 MAC). Repeated CBF measurements were highly consistent, differing by less than 10% and 18% within and across animals, respectively. Under ?-chloralose, whole brain CBF at normocapnia did not differ between groups (young WKY: 61 ± 3ml/100g/min; adult WKY: 62 ± 4ml/100g/min; young SHR: 70 ± 9ml/100g/min; adult SHR: 69 ± 8ml/100g/min), indicating normal cerebral autoregulation in SHR. At hypercapnia, CBF values increased significantly, and a linear relationship between CBF and PaCO(2) levels was observed. In contrast, 2% isoflurane impaired cerebral autoregulation. Whole brain CBF in SHR was significantly higher than in WKY rats at normocapnia (young SHR: 139 ± 25ml/100g/min; adult SHR: 104 ± 23ml/100g/min; young WKY: 55± 9ml/100g/min; adult WKY: 71 ± 19ml/100g/min). CBF values increased significantly with increasing CO(2); however, there was a clear saturation of CBF at PaCO(2) levels greater than 70mmHg in both young and adult rats, regardless of absolute CBF values, suggesting that isoflurane interferes with the vasodilatory mechanisms of CO(2). This behavior was observed for both cortical and subcortical structures. Under either anesthetic, CO(2) reactivity values in adult SHR were decreased, confirming that hypertension, when combined with age, increases cerebrovascular resistance and reduces cerebrovascular compliance.
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Metazoan endoparasites of Serrasalmus marginatus (Characiformes: Serrasalminae) in the Negro River, Pantanal, Brazil.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2011
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In order to inventory the metazoan endoparasites of Serrasalmus marginatus, 91 specimens were examined. They were captured in the Negro River in Pantanal wetland, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Central-Western Brazil, from October 2007 to August 2008. Parasites of six taxa were recovered: Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus, Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda), metacercarial type Diplostomulum (Digenea), Brevimulticaecum sp. (Nematoda) and Sebekia oxycephala, Subtriquetra sp. 1 and Subtriquetra sp. 2 (Pentastomida). The latter five species are reported for the first time in S. marginatus.
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Caiman-biting mosquitoes and the natural vectors of Hepatozoon caimani in Brazil.
J. Med. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2010
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Mosquitoes that feed on crocodilians are poorly known, despite the potential role of these exothermic animals as reservoirs of arboviruses. In this article, we assessed the frequency, abundance, and temporal variation of caiman-biting mosquitoes as well as searched for the natural vectors of the blood parasite of caimans, Hepatozoon caimani, in the Pantanal area of central-western Brazil from captures conducted bimonthly from September 2006 to September 2007 and in February 2008. A total of 5,272 mosquitoes belonging to 10 species of five genera was caught on caimans. The most abundant species were Culex (Melanoconion) theobaldi, Mansonia (Mansonia) titillans, Mansonia (Man.) humeralis, and Mansonia (Man.) amazonensis, which together accounted for 80% of all sampled individuals. Other blood-feeding Melanoconion species were also found quite frequently on caimans, including Culex clarki, Culex idottus, and Culex bastagarius. Oocysts of H. caimani were exclusively detected in Culex species, mainly in individuals of the subgenus Melanoconion, and we accomplished experimental transmission from naturally infected mosquitoes to uninfected Caiman yacare. The highest infection rates were observed in Cx. theobaldi (0.55%), which is therefore indicated as the primary vector of H. caimani. In addition, because the above mentioned Melanoconion and Mansonia species are abundant, widespread, and have a broad set of hosts, including crocodilians, they may be suggested as potential vectors of arboviruses, such as West Nile virus, in the Southern Cone in South America.
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First report of coenurosis in sheep in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2010
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This paper reports the first case of coenurosis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. This disease is caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia multiceps (Leske, 1780). The animal in which the disease was diagnosed was an 18-month-old ewe from an endemic area of Southern Brazil as an imported animal among a group of 30 sheep. The clinic-pathological condition was that commonly found in herbivores affected by the disease, especially sheep. Apathy, nystagmus, intermittent blindness, circling and pressing head against obstacles were the neurological signs reported. The necropsy showed that a brain lesion in the subcortex of the right hemisphere was a bladder-like cyst measuring 4 cm in diameter filled with a translucent fluid with a large number of white spherules (protoscolices) floating. In addition to the identification of the Coenurus cerebralis protoscolices, the brain tissue lesion was histopathologically described.
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Neuropathic pain profile: the basic neurological exam of 33 patients.
Rev Bras Anestesiol
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2010
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Very few texts in the literature approach the neurologic exam of patients with neuropathic pain (NP). The objective of this study was to evaluate the profile of patients with NP through the neurological exam.
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Cysteine proteases of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) theileri: cathepsin L-like gene sequences as targets for phylogenetic analysis, genotyping diagnosis.
Parasitol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2010
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Although Trypanosomatheileri and allied trypanosomes are the most widespread trypanosomes in bovids little is known about proteolytic enzymes in these species. We have characterized genes encoding for cathepsin L-like (CATL) cysteine proteases from isolates of cattle, water buffalo and deer that largely diverged from homologues of other trypanosome species. Analysis of 78 CATL catalytic domain sequences from 22 T. theileri trypanosomes disclosed 6 genotypes tightly clustered together into the T. theileri clade. The CATL genes in these trypanosomes are organized in tandem arrays of approximately 1.7kb located in 2 chromosomal bands of 600-720kb. A diagnostic PCR assay targeting CATL sequences detected T. theileri of all genotypes from cattle, buffaloes and cervids and also from tabanid vectors. Expression of T. theileri cysteine proteases was demonstrated by proteolytic activity in gelatin gels and hydrolysis of Z-Phe-Arg-AMC substrate. Results from this work agree with previous data using ribosomal and spliced leader genes demonstrating that CATL gene sequences are useful for diagnosis, population genotyping and evolutionary studies of T. theileri trypanosomes.
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Cathepsin L-like genes of Trypanosoma vivax from Africa and South America--characterization, relationships and diagnostic implications.
Mol. Cell. Probes
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2009
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We characterized sequences from genes encoding cathepsin L-like (CatL-like) cysteine proteases from African and South American isolates of Trypanosoma vivax and T. vivax-like organisms, and evaluated their suitability as genetic markers for population structure analysis and diagnosis. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences corresponding to CatL-like catalytic domains revealed substantial polymorphism, and clades of sequences (TviCatL1-9) were separated by large genetic distances. TviCatL1-4 sequences were from cattle isolates from West Africa (Nigeria and Burkina Faso) and South America (Brazil and Venezuela), which belonged to the same T. vivax genotype. T. vivax-like genotypes from East Africa showed divergent sequences, including TviCatL5-7 for isolates from Mozambique and TviCatL8-9 for an isolate from Kenya. Phylogenetic analysis of CatL-like gene data supported the relationships among trypanosome species reflected in the phylogenies based on the analysis of small subunit (SSU) of ribosomal RNA gene sequence data. The discovery of different CatL-like sequences for each genotype, defined previously by ribosomal DNA data, indicate that these sequences provide useful targets for epidemiological and population genetic studies. Regions in CatL-like sequences shared by all T. vivax genotypes but not by other trypanosomes allowed the establishment of a specific and sensitive diagnostic PCR for epidemiological studies in South America and Africa.
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Phylogeographical, ecological and biological patterns shown by nuclear (ssrRNA and gGAPDH) and mitochondrial (Cyt b) genes of trypanosomes of the subgenus Schizotrypanum parasitic in Brazilian bats.
Int. J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2009
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The genetic diversity and phylogeographical patterns of Trypanosoma species that infect Brazilian bats were evaluated by examining 1043 bats from 63 species of seven families captured in Amazonia, the Pantanal, Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest biomes of Brazil. The prevalence of trypanosome-infected bats, as estimated by haemoculture, was 12.9%, resulting in 77 cultures of isolates, most morphologically identified as Trypanosoma cf. cruzi, classified by barcoding using partial sequences from ssrRNA gene into the subgenus Schizotrypanum and identified as T. cruzi (15), T. cruzi marinkellei (37) or T. cf. dionisii (25). Phylogenetic analyses using nuclear ssrRNA, glycosomal glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) and mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene sequences generated three clades, which clustered together forming the subgenus Schizotrypanum. In addition to vector association, bat trypanosomes were related by the evolutionary history, ecology and phylogeography of the bats. Trypanosoma cf. dionisii trypanosomes (32.4%) infected 12 species from four bat families captured in all biomes, from North to South Brazil, and clustered with T. dionisii from Europe despite being separated by some genetic distance. Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei (49.3%) was restricted to phyllostomid bats from Amazonia to the Pantanal (North to Central). Trypanosoma cruzi (18.2%) was found mainly in vespertilionid and phyllostomid bats from the Pantanal/Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest (Central to Southeast), with a few isolates from Amazonia.
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Absence of peritumoral fibrosis or inflammatory infiltrate may be related to clinical progression of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.
Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2009
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Rio Grande do Norte (RN) shows the highest relative incidence of papillary carcinomas in Brazil. To analyze histological features that might be associated with this incidence, the authors compared thyroid glands from 463 autopsies performed in RN with 427 surgical and autopsy glands previously studied in Sao Paulo (SP). The authors found 41 papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMs) in 35 glands (8.1%), an incidence similar to the one reported in SP (7.8%). However, PTMs were predominantly nonencapsulated nonsclerosing at microscopy (44.0%), in contrast with SP where these types of lesion represented only 4 out of 32 PTMs (12.5%; P = .0046). The authors suggest that these nonencapsulated lesions with no sign of inflammation may represent an early stage that may evolve to clinical cancers, contributing to the high incidence of clinically differentiated thyroid carcinomas observed in RN.
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Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging of cerebral blood flow using arterial spin labeling.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2009
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Modern functional neuroimaging techniques, including positron emission tomography, optical imaging of intrinsic signals, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) rely on a tight coupling between neural activity and cerebral blood flow (CBF) to visualize brain activity using CBF as a surrogate marker. Because the spatial and temporal resolution of neuroimaging modalities is ultimately determined by the spatial and temporal specificity of the underlying hemodynamic signals, characterization of the spatial and temporal profiles of the hemodynamic response to focal brain stimulation is of paramount importance for the correct interpretation and quantification of functional data. The ability to properly measure and quantify CBF with MRI is a major determinant of progress in our understanding of brain function. We review the dynamic arterial spin labeling (DASL) method to measure CBF and the CBF functional response with high temporal resolution.
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Comparison of indirect ELISA based on recombinant protein NcSRS2 and IFAT for detection of Neospora caninum antibodies in sheep.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2009
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Neospora caninum, an Apicomplexan parasite that can causes abortion, is responsible for considerable economic and reproductive losses in livestock. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether recombinant NcSRS2 is a suitable indirect ELISA antigen for determining specific immune response to N. caninum in sheep. A total of 441 serum samples were subjected to IFAT and rNcSRS2 based-ELISA, with both tests performing similarly. The sensitivity and specificity of indirect ELISA were 98.6 and 98.3%, respectively. The kappa index shows 0.98 concordance between the two tests, which is considered excellent. Seroprevalences of 30.8 and 32.0% were detected by IFAT and indirect ELISA, respectively, showing these tests did not differ significantly on this measure (p > 0.05). Serological analysis showed that HisG tag was detected by Western Blotting recognizing rNcSRS2 protein. The potential value of rNcSRS2-based ELISA as a highly specific and sensitive tool for serological diagnosis is also supported by the strong agreement found between IFAT and ELISA. The results support the potential use of recombinant protein NcSRS2 as an antigen in indirect ELISA in sheep.
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A neural signature of affiliative emotion in the human septohypothalamic area.
J. Neurosci.
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Comparative studies have established that a number of structures within the rostromedial basal forebrain are critical for affiliative behaviors and social attachment. Lesion and neuroimaging studies concur with the importance of these regions for attachment and the experience of affiliation in humans as well. Yet it remains obscure whether the neural bases of affiliative experiences can be differentiated from the emotional valence with which they are inextricably associated at the experiential level. Here we show, using functional MRI, that kinship-related social scenarios evocative of affiliative emotion induce septal-preoptic-anterior hypothalamic activity that cannot be explained by positive or negative emotional valence alone. Our findings suggest that a phylogenetically conserved ensemble of basal forebrain structures, especially the septohypothalamic area, may play a key role in enabling human affiliative emotion. Our finding of a neural signature of human affiliative experience bears direct implications for the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning impaired affiliative experiences and behaviors in neuropsychiatric conditions.
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Molecular phylogenetic redefinition of Herpetomonas (Kinetoplastea, Trypanosomatidae), a genus of insect parasites associated with flies.
Protist
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In order to review the taxonomy of the genus Herpetomonas through phylogenetic and morphological analyses we barcoded 527 insect trypanosomatids by sequencing the V7V8 region of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. Fifty two flagellates, 90% of them from Diptera, revealed to be related to known species of Herpetomonas. Sequences of entire glycosomal glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) and SSU rRNA genes were employed for phylogenetic inferences including representatives of all genera of Trypanosomatidae. In the resulting phylogenetic trees, the selected flagellates clustered into a monophyletic assemblage that we are considering as the redefined genus Herpetomonas. Internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) rDNA sequences and putative secondary structures of this region were compared for evaluation of inter- and intraspecific variability. The flagellates were classified in six already known species and five new species. In addition, two Leptomonas spp. were moved to Herpetomonas, now comprising 13 valid species, while four species were excluded from the genus. Light and electron microscopy revealed the extreme polymorphism of Herpetomonas, hindering genus and species identification by morphological characteristics. Our findings also showed that some species of Herpetomonas are generalist parasites of flies and appear to be as cosmopolitan as their hosts.
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Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging detects mossy fiber sprouting in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy.
Epilepsia
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Mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) is a frequent finding following status epilepticus (SE). The present study aimed to test the feasibility of using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) to detect MFS in the chronic phase of the well-established pilocarpine (Pilo) rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE).
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Parenting styles and alcohol consumption among Brazilian adolescents.
J Health Psychol
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This study evaluates the correlation between alcohol consumption in adolescence and parenting styles of socialization among Brazilian adolescents. The sample was composed of 273 adolescents, 58% whom were males. Instruments were: 1) Sociodemographic Questionnaire; 2) Demand and Responsiveness Scales; 3) Drug Use Screening Inventory (DUSI). Study analyses employed multiple correspondence analysis and logistic regression.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.