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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate: interobserver reproducibility survey of 39 urologic pathologists.
Ann Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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The diagnosis of intraductal carcinoma (IDC) of the prostate remains subjective because 3 sets of diagnostic criteria are in use. An internet survey was compiled from 38 photomicrographs showing duct proliferations: 14 signed out as high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), 17 IDC, and 7 invasive cribriform/ductal carcinoma. Each image was assessed for the presence of 9 histologic criteria ascribed to IDC. Thirty-nine respondents were asked to rate images as (1) benign/reactive, (2) HGPIN, (3) borderline between HGPIN and IDC, (4) IDC, or (5) invasive cribriform/ductal carcinoma. Intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.68. There was 70% overall agreement with HGPIN, 43% with IDC, and 73% with invasive carcinoma (P < .001, ?(2)). Respondents considered 19 (50%) of 38 cases as IDC candidates, of which 5 (26%) had a two-thirds consensus for IDC; two-thirds consensus for either borderline or IDC was reached in 9 (47%). Two-thirds consensus other than IDC was reached in the remaining 19 of 38 cases, with 15 supporting HGPIN and 4 supporting invasive carcinoma. Findings that differed across diagnostic categories were lumen-spanning neoplastic cells (P < .001), 2× benign duct diameters (P < .001), duct space contours (round, irregular, and branched) (P < .001), papillary growth (P = .048), dense cribriform or solid growth (both P = .023), and comedonecrosis (P = .015). When the 19 of 38 images that attained consensus for HGPIN or invasive carcinoma were removed from consideration, lack of IDC consensus was most often attributable to only loose cribriform growth (5/19), central nuclear maturation (5/19), or comedonecrosis (3/19). Of the 9 histologic criteria, only 1 retained significant correlation with a consensus diagnosis of IDC: the presence of solid areas (P = .038). One case that attained IDC consensus had less than 2× duct enlargement yet still had severe nuclear atypia and nucleomegaly. Six fold nuclear enlargement was not significant (P = .083), although no image had both 6× nuclei and papillary or loose cribriform growth: a combination postulated as sufficient criteria for IDC. Finally, 20.5% of respondents agreed that an isolated diagnosis of IDC on needle biopsy warrants definitive therapy, 20.5% disagreed, and 59.0% considered the decision to depend upon clinicopathologic variables. Although IDC diagnosis remains challenging, we propose these criteria: a lumen-spanning proliferation of neoplastic cells in preexisting ducts with a dense cribriform or partial solid growth pattern. Solid growth, in any part of the duct space, emerges as the most reproducible finding to rule in a diagnosis of IDC. Comedonecrosis is a rarer finding, but in most cases, it should rule in IDC. Duct space enlargement to greater than 2× the diameter of the largest, adjacent benign spaces is usually present in IDC, although there may be rare exceptions.
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[Pathological consideration of indolent and clinically non-significant prostate cancer definition].
Arch. Esp. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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Serum PSA determination has provoked a great increase of prostatic biopsies and detection of neoplasias that passed inadvertent in the past. When these neoplasias are excised a non-negligible number of them have low biologic aggressiveness and may be considered as indolent or clinically non-significant, so that the possibility of conservative attitude is taken into consideration.
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Current patterns of presentation and treatment of renal masses: a clinical research office of the endourological society prospective study.
J. Endourol.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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To assess epidemiologic characteristics, clinical and pathologic patterns of presentation, and treatment strategies in a contemporary population with renal masses (RMs).
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Juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis: a bilateral and synchronous case. Should testis-sparing surgery be mandatory?
Urology
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Granulosa cell tumor of the testis is an infrequent stromal cell tumor that can be distinguished into adult and juvenile, the latter being more common. Juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis is a rare pathologic finding, accounting for 1.2%-3.9% of prepubertal testicular tumors. It is considered as a benign stromal sex cord tumor and is usually unilateral. Although radical surgery was previously considered the treatment of choice, testis-sparing surgery is now recommended in all cases where applicable. We report a bilateral synchronous juvenile granulosa cell tumor in a 6-month-old child treated with testis-sparing surgery and provide a review of the literature.
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The International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grading system for renal cell carcinoma and other prognostic parameters.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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The International Society of Urological Pathology 2012 Consensus Conference made recommendations regarding classification, prognostic factors, staging, and immunohistochemical and molecular assessment of adult renal tumors. Issues relating to prognostic factors were coordinated by a workgroup who identified tumor morphotype, sarcomatoid/rhabdoid differentiation, tumor necrosis, grading, and microvascular invasion as potential prognostic parameters. There was consensus that the main morphotypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) were of prognostic significance, that subtyping of papillary RCC (types 1 and 2) provided additional prognostic information, and that clear cell tubulopapillary RCC was associated with a more favorable outcome. For tumors showing sarcomatoid or rhabdoid differentiation, there was consensus that a minimum proportion of tumor was not required for diagnostic purposes. It was also agreed upon that the underlying subtype of carcinoma should be reported. For sarcomatoid carcinoma, it was further agreed upon that if the underlying carcinoma subtype was absent the tumor should be classified as a grade 4 unclassified carcinoma with a sarcomatoid component. Tumor necrosis was considered to have prognostic significance, with assessment based on macroscopic and microscopic examination of the tumor. It was recommended that for clear cell RCC the amount of necrosis should be quantified. There was consensus that nucleolar prominence defined grades 1 to 3 of clear cell and papillary RCCs, whereas extreme nuclear pleomorphism or sarcomatoid and/or rhabdoid differentiation defined grade 4 tumors. It was agreed upon that chromophobe RCC should not be graded. There was consensus that microvascular invasion should not be included as a staging criterion for RCC.
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The reasons behind variation in Gleason grading of prostatic biopsies: areas of agreement and misconception among 266 European pathologists.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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The Gleason scoring system underwent revision at the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) conference in 2005. It is not known how uropathologists have interpreted its recommendations.
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Searching for urine biomarkers of bladder cancer recurrence using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry metabolomics approach.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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The incidence and rate of recurrence of bladder cancer is high, particularly in developed countries, however current methods for diagnosis are limited to detecting high-grade tumours using often invasive methods. A panel of biomarkers to characterise tumours of different grades that could also distinguish between patients exhibiting the disease with first incidence or recurrence could be useful for bladder cancer diagnostics. In this study, potential metabolic biomarkers have been discovered through mass spectrometry based metabolomics of urine. Pre-treatment urine samples were collected from 48 patients diagnosed of urothelial bladder cancer. Patients were followed-up through the hospital pathological charts to identify whether and when the disease recurred or progressed. Subsequently, they were classified according to whether or not they suffered a tumour recurrence (recurrent or stable) as well as their risk group according to tumour grade and stage. Identified metabolites have been analysed in terms of disease characteristics (tumour stage and recurrence) and have provided an insight into bladder cancer progression. Using both liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry, a total of 27 metabolite features were highlighted as significantly different between patient groups. Some, for example histidine, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan have been previously linked with bladder cancer, however until now their connection with bladder cancer progression has not been previously reported. The candidate biomarkers revealed in this study could be useful in the clinic for diagnosis of bladder cancer and, through characterising the stage of the disease, could also be useful in prognostics.
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Standardization of Gleason grading among 337 European pathologists.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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? The 2005 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) modification of Gleason grading recommended that the highest grade should always be included in the Gleason score (GS) in prostate biopsies. We analysed the impact of this recommendation on reporting of GS 6 versus 7.
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An interobserver reproducibility study on invasiveness of bladder cancer using virtual microscopy and heatmaps.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2013
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The distinction between non-invasive (pTa) and invasive (pT1) non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is subject to considerable interobserver variation. We aimed to generate a teaching set of images based on the diagnostic opinions of a panel of expert genitourinary pathologists.
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[Progress in the pathologic study of small renal masses. Can diagnostic accuracy be improved?].
Arch. Esp. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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Early diagnosis of renal masses has resulted in most of them being smaller than in the past, so that up to 61% of masses diagnosed are ? 4 cm. Due to this fact the term small renal mass (SRM) has been forged, and there is a search to determine their biology. The objective of this article is to detail the possible help of pathology in this task.
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Identification of prefoldin amplification (1q23.3-q24.1) in bladder cancer using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) arrays of urinary DNA.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Array-CGH represents a comprehensive tool to discover genomic disease alterations that could potentially be applied to body fluids. In this report, we aimed at applying array-CGH to urinary samples to characterize bladder cancer.
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Handling and reporting of nephrectomy specimens for adult renal tumours: a survey by the European Network of Uropathology.
J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2011
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To collect information on current practices of European pathologists for the handling and reporting of nephrectomy specimens with renal tumours.
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Female gender and carcinoma in situ in the prostatic urethra are prognostic factors for recurrence, progression, and disease-specific mortality in T1G3 bladder cancer patients treated with bacillus Calmette-Guérin.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2011
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Controversy exists over the most important prognostic factors in T1 high-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients treated with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG).
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Current pathology keys of renal cell carcinoma.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in adults comprises a heterogeneous group of tumours with variable clinical outcomes that range from indolent to overtly malignant. The application of molecular genetic techniques to the study of renal neoplasms has resulted in an improved classification of these entities and a better understanding of the biologic mechanisms responsible for tumour development and progression. The current 2004 World Health Organisation classification of adult renal epithelial neoplasms has expanded rapidly with new categories recently incorporated.
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Clinical predictive factors of poor outcome in patients with stage pT0 disease at radical cystectomy.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2011
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We evaluated new pre-cystectomy predictive factors for outcomes in patients with no evidence of residual tumor at cystectomy (pT0).
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EAU guidelines on testicular cancer: 2011 update.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2011
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On behalf of the European Association of Urology (EAU), guidelines for the diagnosis, therapy, and follow-up of testicular cancer were established.
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Flat urothelial carcinoma in situ of the bladder with glandular differentiation.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2011
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We present the clinicopathologic and immunonohistochemical features of 25 cases of flat urothelial carcinoma in situ with glandular differentiation. Previously, cases on this category have been reported as in situ adenocarcinoma (a term not currently preferred). Fourteen of 25 cases had concurrent conventional urothelial carcinoma in situ. Five of the cases were primary carcinoma in situ with glandular differentiation; twenty cases of secondary carcinoma in situ with glandular differentiation were associated with urothelial carcinoma alone (n = 11) or with glandular differentiation (n = 7), discohesive (n = 1) or micropapillary carcinoma (n = 1). The individual tumor cells were columnar. The architectural pattern of the carcinoma in situ with glandular differentiation consisted of 1 or more papillary, flat or cribriform glandular patterns. Univariate statistical analysis showed no survival differences between urothelial carcinoma in situ with glandular differentiation and conventional urothelial carcinoma in situ (log-rank 0.810; P = .368). Carcinoma in situ with glandular differentiation showed high ki-67 index and p53 accumulation, high nuclear and cytoplasmic p16 expression and diffuse PTEN expression, a phenotype that also characterized concurrent conventional carcinoma in situ. MUC5A, MUC2, CK20, and c-erbB2 were positive in all 25 cases of urothelial carcinoma in situ with glandular differentiation, and CDX-2 was present in 19 cases; MUC1, CK7, or 34?E12 was focally present in 21, 19, and 18 cases, respectively. MUC1core was negative in all cases. We concluded that urothelial carcinoma in situ with glandular differentiation is a variant of carcinoma in situ that follows the natural history of conventional urothelial carcinoma in situ. The immunophenotype suggests urothelial origin with the expression of MUC5A and CDX2 as signature for glandular differentiation.
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Laparoscopic management of spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage.
Urol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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Wünderlichs syndrome is a spontaneous nontraumatic massive retroperitoneal hemorrhage. It is usually secondary to a renal neoplasm, with angiomyolipoma being the most frequent followed by renal cell carcinoma. The management of spontaneous retroperitoneal bleeding varies depending on the hemodynamic status of the patient. We present the first report of a transperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomy in a patient with spontaneous retroperitoneal active bleeding secondary to a right renal mass.
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Evaluation of the methylation status of tumour suppressor genes for predicting bacillus Calmette-Guérin response in patients with T1G3 high-risk bladder tumours.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2011
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Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is a standard treatment for reducing tumour recurrence and delaying progression of high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder tumours. However, it is not clear yet which patients are more likely to respond to BCG.
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KISS1 methylation and expression as tumor stratification biomarkers and clinical outcome prognosticators for bladder cancer patients.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2011
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KISS1 is a metastasis suppressor gene that is lost in several malignancies, including bladder cancer. We tested the epigenetic silencing hypothesis and evaluated the biological influence of KISS1 methylation on its expression and clinical relevance in bladder cancer. KISS1 hypermethylation was frequent in bladder cancer cells analyzed by methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing and was associated with low gene expression, being restored in vitro by demethylating azacytidine. Hypermethylation was also frequently observed in a large series of bladder tumors (83.1%, n = 804). KISS1 methylation was associated with increasing stage (P = 0.001) and tumor grade (P = 0.010). KISS1 methylation was associated with low KISS1 transcript expression by quantitative RT-PCR (P = 0.037). KISS1 transcript expression was also associated with histopathological tumor stage (P < 0.0005). Low transcript expression alone (P = 0.003) or combined with methylation (P = 0.019) was associated with poor disease-specific survival (n = 205). KISS1 transcript expression remained an independent prognosticator in multivariate analyses (P = 0.017). KISS1 hypermethylation was identified in bladder cancer, providing a potential mechanistic explanation (epigenetic silencing) for the observed loss of KISS1 in uroepithelial malignancies. Associations of KISS1 methylation and its expression with histopathological variables and poor survival suggest the utility of incorporating KISS1 measurement using paraffin-embedded material for tumor stratification and clinical outcome prognosis of patients with uroepithelial neoplasias.
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Interactive digital slides with heat maps: a novel method to improve the reproducibility of Gleason grading.
Virchows Arch.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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Our aims were to analyze reporting of Gleason pattern (GP) 3 and 4 prostate cancer with the ISUP 2005 Gleason grading and to collect consensus cases for standardization. We scanned 25 prostate biopsy cores diagnosed as Gleason score (GS) 6-7. Fifteen genitourinary pathologists graded the digital slides and circled GP 4 and 5 in a slide viewer. Grading difficulty was scored as 1-3. GP 4 components were classified as type 1 (cribriform), 2 (fused), or 3 (poorly formed glands). A GS of 5-6, 7 (3?+?4), 7 (4?+?3), and 8-9 was given in 29%, 41%, 19%, and 10% (mean GS 6.84, range 6.44-7.36). In 15 cases, at least 67% of observers agreed on GS groups (consensus cases). Mean interobserver weighted kappa for GS groups was 0.43. Mean difficulty scores in consensus and non-consensus cases were 1.44 and 1.66 (p?=?0.003). Pattern 4 types 1, 2, and 3 were seen in 28%, 86%, and 67% of GP 4. All three coexisted in 16% (11% and 23% in consensus and non-consensus cases, p?=?0.03). Average estimated and calculated %GP 4/5 were 29% and 16%. After individual review, the experts met to analyze diagnostic difficulties. Areas of GP 4 and 5 were displayed as heat maps, which were helpful for identifying contentious areas. A key problem was to agree on minimal criteria for small foci of GP 4. In summary, the detection threshold for GP 4 in NBX needs to be better defined. This set of consensus cases may be useful for standardization.
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The case for conservative management in the treatment of patients with non-muscle-invasive micropapillary bladder carcinoma without carcinoma in situ.
Can J Urol
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2010
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Micropapillary carcinoma is a rare pathologic variant of urothelial cell carcinoma. Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been reported to be ineffective and to entail an increased risk of development of non-organ-confined, metastatic disease. We assess the treatment response and disease progression in patients with micropapillary carcinoma of the bladder.
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Centrosome clustering and cyclin D1 gene amplification in double minutes are common events in chromosomal unstable bladder tumors.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2010
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Aneuploidy, centrosome abnormalities and gene amplification are hallmarks of chromosome instability (CIN) in cancer. Yet there are no studies of the in vivo behavior of these phenomena within the same bladder tumor.
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Impact of prostate cancer multifocality on its biology and treatment.
J. Endourol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2010
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Any focal therapy requires correct localization of the lesion; consequently, much effort is now devoted to accurate characterization of the spatial distribution of the tumor within the prostate. One of the greatest difficulties in the localization of prostate cancer is its frequent multifocality, but prostate cancer is unifocal in 13% to 43.7% of cases and unilateral in 19.2%. In cases of multifocality, it seems that the index tumor is the biologic driving force behind the malignant potential of prostate cancer. Not only is the Gleason score of the secondary nodes lower than that of the index node, but 80% of the secondary nodes are smaller than 0.5 cc and almost all extraprostatic extensions are associated with the largest cancers. While current evaluation with 12 to 18 core biopsies may be adequate to determine the index lesion, transperineal three-dimensional mapping biopsy of the prostate should be undertaken if greater accuracy is needed.
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Bladder preservation strategy based on combined therapy in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer: management and results at long-term follow-up.
Urol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2010
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To evaluate a bladder preservation strategy in patients with either muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) or development of MIBC cancer due to progression of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC).
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Neoadjuvant temsirolimus effectiveness in downstaging advanced non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2010
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A 35-year-old woman presented with a 12-cm right renal mass with retroperitoneal lymph node involvement and pulmonary and bone metastases. Renal mass biopsy revealed an unclassified high-grade non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with eosinophilic cells. Due to the extent of the disease, neoadjuvant temsirolimus was initiated. After 6 wk of treatment, a significant downstaging of the disease and complete disappearance of the metastases were noticed on computed tomography scan. Three months later, a laparoscopic radical nephrectomy and lymphadenectomy was performed. Final pathology confirmed a high-grade non-clear cell RCC, with necrotic changes on lymph node specimens, pT1bN0Mx.
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Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, lipid cell variant: clinicopathologic findings and LOH analysis.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2010
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In this report, we present the clinicopathologic features of 27 cases of the lipid cell variant of urothelial bladder carcinoma. This is a rare variant of bladder cancer recognized by the current WHO classification of urologic tumors. The lipid cell component varied from 10% to 50% of the tumor specimen; in 11 cases the lipid cell component composed greater than 30% of the tumor. The architectural pattern of the tumor varied from solid expansile to infiltrative nests. The large epithelial tumor cells had an eccentrically placed nucleus and abundant vacuolated cytoplasm resembling signetring lipoblasts. Mucin stains were negative in all the cases. Typical features of high grade conventional urothelial carcinoma were present in all the cases with micropapillary or plasmacytoid carcinoma in 2 and 1 cases, respectively; extensive squamous or glandular differentiation was present in 2 additional cases. Most neoplastic cells had nuclei of intermediate nuclear grade with occasional nuclear pleomorphism. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the lipid cell component was positive for cytokeratins 7, 20, CAM 5.2, high molecular weight (34ssE12) and AE1/AE3, epithelial membrane antigen, and thrombomodulin; vimentin and S100 protein were negative. The loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis was done on 8 cases using 4 polymorphic microsatellite markers (D9S171, D9S177, IFNA, and TP 53); LOH at least in 1 marker was present in 6 cases. The LOH results were the same for lipid variant and conventional urothelial carcinoma. Pathologic stage was Ta (n=1), T1 (=2), T2, at least (n=7), T3a (n=4), T3b (n=8), and T4a (n=5). Electron microcopy analysis based on 2 cases supported lipid content in tumor cells. Follow-up information was available in all the cases, ranging from 6 to 58 months (mean, 28 mo). Sixteen of the patients died of disease at 16 to 58 months (mean, 33 mo) and 8 patients were alive with disease at 8 to 25 months (mean, 22 mo). Another 3 patients died of other causes at 6 to 15 months (mean, 10 mo). In summary, lipid cell urothelial bladder carcinoma is typically associated with advanced stage high-grade urothelial carcinoma, in which the prognosis is poor and clonally related to the concurrent conventional urothelial carcinoma. In limited samples, it may be misdiagnosed as liposarcoma, sarcomatoid carcinoma (carcinosarcoma), or signetring cell carcinoma. Morphologic distinction from other malignant neoplasms with lipid cell phenotype is critical for its clinical management.
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Differential protein expression profiling by iTRAQ-two-dimensional LC-MS/MS of human bladder cancer EJ138 cells transfected with the metastasis suppressor KiSS-1 gene.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2010
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KiSS-1 is a metastasis suppressor gene reported to be involved in the progression of several solid neoplasias. The loss of KiSS-1 gene expression has been shown to be inversely correlated with increasing tumor stage, distant metastases, and poor overall survival in bladder tumors. To identify the molecular pathways associated with the metastasis suppressor role of KiSS-1 in bladder cancer, we carried out a proteomics analysis of bladder cancer cells (EJ138) transiently transfected with a vector encompassing the full-length KiSS-1 gene using an iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation) approach. Protein extracts collected after 24- and 48-h transfection were fractionated and cleaved with trypsin, and the resulting peptides were labeled with iTRAQ reagents. The labeled peptides were separated by strong cation exchange and reversed phase LC and analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Three software packages were utilized for data analysis: ProteinPilot for identification and quantification of differentially expressed proteins, Protein Center for gene ontology analysis, and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis to provide insight into biological networks. Comparative analysis among transfected, mock, and empty vector-exposed cells identified 1529 proteins with high confidence (>99%) showing high correlation rates among replicates (70%). The involvement of the identified proteins in biological networks served to characterize molecular pathways associated with KiSS-1 expression and to select critical candidates for verification analyses by Western blot using independent transfected replicates. As part of complementary clinical validation strategies, immunohistochemical analyses of proteins regulated by KiSS-1, such as Filamin A, were performed on bladder tumors spotted onto tissue microarrays (n = 280). In summary, our study not only served to uncover molecular mechanisms associated with the metastasis suppressor role of KiSS-1 in bladder cancer but also to reveal the biomarker role of Filamin A in bladder cancer progression and clinical outcome.
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EAU penile cancer guidelines 2009.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2010
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Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis is a relatively rare but ominous disease.
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Developments in the pathology of penile squamous cell carcinomas.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2010
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Most penile cancers are squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) originating in the epithelium covering glans, coronal sulcus, and foreskin. Several histologic subtypes have been described, each with distinctive clinicopathologic and outcome features. The most common subtype is the usual SCC, representing one half to two thirds of penile carcinomas. Penile verruciform tumors encompass verrucous, warty (condylomatous), and papillary, not otherwise specified, carcinomas. As a group, verruciform tumors are low grade, with low metastatic and mortality rates. In contrast, basaloid and sarcomatoid carcinomas are among the most aggressive penile tumors. Other SCC variants, such as carcinoma cuniculatum and pseudohyperplastic, adenosquamous and acantholytic carcinomas, are rare. The most relevant clinicopathologic and outcome features are outlined for each of these SCC subtypes, and an algorithm that might aid the pathologist in the histologic classification is presented. In addition, recommendations for handling penile cancer specimens, frozen section specimens, and pathology reports are provided.
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Cytological punctures in the diagnosis of renal tumours: a study on accuracy and reproducibility.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2009
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Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is under consideration as an auxiliary preoperative diagnostic technique in the diagnosis of renal masses. However, reports for FNA are contradictory with regard to diagnostic accuracy and applicability.
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The diagnostic yield of immediate postcryoablation biopsies of small renal masses.
J. Endourol.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2009
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To evaluate the diagnostic feasibility and reproducibility of immediate postcryoablation biopsies of small renal masses.
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The European Network of Uropathology: a novel mechanism for communication between pathologists.
Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2009
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In pathology there is a need to rapidly disseminate professional information to the appropriate target groups. This is a surprisingly difficult task on an international level. Therefore, the European Network of Uropathology (ENUP) was recently organized by the Uropathology Working Group of the European Society of Pathology. The purposes were to establish a channel for distribution of information about uropathology, such as guidelines, consensus documents, meetings and courses; to organize research collaborations; and to set up mechanisms for survey studies. ENUP has recruited a total of 374 individual members from 338 pathology laboratories in 15 Western European countries. E-mail is used for all communication, and studies are carried out through interactive Web sites. Information e-mails are sent regularly, and 2 Web-based surveys on handling and reporting of urologic specimens have been conducted. Here we report on the methods used to organize this novel information network. We think that ENUP could serve as a model for other fields of pathology and other geographic regions.
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Recurrence at three months and high-grade recurrence as prognostic factor of progression in multivariate analysis of T1G2 bladder tumors.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2009
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To evaluate the risk factors for disease progression in the frequent subgroup of Stage T1G2 (World Health Organization 1973) bladder tumors using an analysis of a large cohort of patients with Stage T1G2 disease.
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Comparative genomic hybridization analysis reveals new different subgroups in early-stage bladder tumors.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2009
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To classify bladder tumors according to their genomic imbalances and evaluate their association with patients outcome.
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Diagnostic problems in the subtyping of renal tumors encountered by five pathologists.
Pathol. Res. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2009
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The diagnostic problems in the subtyping of renal tumors were evaluated by a panel of five pathologists studying a set of selected tumors. Five pathologists independently assessed a single hematoxylin-and-eosin (HE)-stained slide from 28 selected renal tumors. After this independent assessment, the pathologists reevaluated and discussed all discordant cases. Additional HE-stained sections and immunohistochemically (IHC) stained slides were available. The generalized kappa for interobserver agreement was calculated. After independent assessment of the HE-stained slides, the five pathologists unanimously reached an agreement in the decision between malignant and benign in 82% of the cases. Fifty percent of the cases were correctly subclassified. The overall generalized kappa value for the five pathologists was 0.320 (CI 95% 0.090-0.551), which is considered a moderate agreement. A 100% agreement was reached for all 28 cases after examination of more slides from different tumor areas and IHC-stained sections. An accurate histologic distinction between benign and malignant renal tumors is possible on one HE-stained section. Correct assignment of the subtype is difficult on one slide alone and relies on IHC-markers and additional slides. Tumors composed of an eosinophilic cell type and tumors with a papillary growth pattern were the major causes of an incorrect diagnosis on an HE-stained section alone.
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Protein expression patterns of ezrin are predictors of progression in T1G3 bladder tumours treated with nonmaintenance bacillus Calmette-Guérin.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2009
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Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is a standard treatment for reducing tumour recurrence and delaying progression of high-risk, non-muscle-invasive bladder tumours. However, it is not clear yet which patients are more likely to be responders to BCG.
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Prostate needle biopsy processing: a survey of laboratory practice across Europe.
J. Clin. Pathol.
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To determine the degree of variation in the handling of prostate needle biopsies (PBNx) in laboratories across Europe.
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Rare tumors of the testis and mesothelial proliferation in the tunica vaginalis.
Tumori
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An increasing number of rare testicular tumors have been recognized in the recent years with a wide and heterogeneous spectrum of morphologies. The utility of ancillary studies, including immunohistochemistry, is often limited and is important for the pathologists to be aware of these entities, because they require a comprehensive pathological and clinical approach for an appropriate treatment.
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Utility of whole slide imaging and virtual microscopy in prostate pathology.
APMIS
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Whole slide imaging (WSI) has been used in conjunction with virtual microscopy (VM) for training or proficiency testing purposes, multicentre research, remote frozen section diagnosis and to seek specialist second opinion in a number of organ systems. The feasibility of using WSI/VM for routine surgical pathology reporting has also been explored. In this review, we discuss the utility and limitations of WSI/VM technology in the histological assessment of specimens from the prostate. Features of WSI/VM that are particularly well suited to assessment of prostate pathology include the ability to examine images at different magnifications as well as to view histology and immunohistochemistry side-by-side on the screen. Use of WSI/VM would also solve the difficulty in obtaining multiple identical copies of small lesions in prostate biopsies for teaching and proficiency testing. It would also permit annotation of the virtual slides, and has been used in a study of inter-observer variation of Gleason grading to facilitate precise identification of the foci on which grading decisions had been based. However, the large number of sections examined from each set of prostate biopsies would greatly increase time required for scanning as well as the size of the digital file, and would also be an issue if digital archiving of prostate biopsies is contemplated. Z-scanning of glass slides, a process that increases scanning time and file size would be required to permit focusing a virtual slide up and down to assess subtle nuclear features such as nucleolar prominence. The common use of large blocks to process prostatectomy specimens would also be an issue, as few currently available scanners can scan such blocks. A major component of proficiency testing of prostate biopsy assessment involves screening of the cores to detect small atypical foci. However, screening virtual slides of wavy fragmented prostate cores using a computer mouse aided by an overview image is very different from screening glass slides using a microscope stage. Hence, it may be more appropriate in this setting to mark the lesional area and focus only on the interpretation component of competency testing. Other issues limiting the use of digital pathology in prostate pathology include the cost of high quality slide scanners for WSI and high resolution monitors for VM as well as the requirement for fast Internet connection as even a subtle delay in presentation of images on the screen may be very disturbing for a pathologist used to the rapid viewing of glass slides under a microscope. However, these problems are likely to be overcome by technological advances in the future.
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Unclassified renal cell carcinoma: a report of 56 cases.
BJU Int.
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Whats known on the subject? and What does the study add? Unclassified RCC represents 0.7-5.7% of renal tumours. Limited reported data from two series suggests that unclassified RCC is an aggressive form of RCC, mainly because most cases are at an advanced stage at presentation, but overall and cancer-specific survival were not significantly different between unclassified and clear-cell RCC in an additional series of 38 patients. Our study of 56 cases of unclassified RCC describes the pathological features that can be applied to predict prognosis on a daily basis. In particular nuclear grade, TNM classification, tumour coagulative necrosis, tumour size, microvascular invasion and 2004 WHO histotype are independent predictors of disease-free and cancer-specific survival.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.