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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
2-Aminothiazolones as anti-HIV agents that act as gp120-CD4 inhibitors.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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We report here the synthesis of 2-aminothiazolones along with their biological properties as novel anti-HIV agents. Such compounds have proven to act through the inhibition of the gp120-CD4 protein-protein interaction that occurs at the very early stage of the HIV-1 entry process. No cytotoxicity was found for these compounds, and broad antiviral activities against laboratory strains and pseudotyped viruses were documented. Docking simulations have also been applied to predict the mechanism, at the molecular level, by which the inhibitors were able to interact within the Phe43 cavity of HIV-1 gp120. Furthermore, a preliminary absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) evaluation was performed. Overall, this study led the basis for the development of more potent HIV entry inhibitors.
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In vitro phenotypes to elvitegravir and dolutegravir in primary macrophages and lymphocytes of clonal recombinant viral variants selected in patients failing raltegravir.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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The cross-resistance profiles of elvitegravir and dolutegravir on raltegravir-resistant variants is still controversial or not available in macrophages and lack extensive evaluations on wide panels of clonal variants. Thus, a complete evaluation in parallel with all currently available integrase inhibitors (INIs) was performed.
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Infection and coinfection of human rhinovirus C in stem cell transplant recipients.
Clin. Dev. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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In 54 adult stem cell transplant recipients, the presence and persistence of human rhinoviruses (including the novel lineage C) were evaluated by molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis, independently from respiratory symptoms. In the same group of patients, the presence of other coinfecting respiratory pathogens, including the novel enterovirus 109, was also evaluated.
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Residual viraemia does not influence 1 year virological rebound in HIV-infected patients with HIV RNA persistently below 50 copies/mL.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2011
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It is currently debated whether patients with residual viraemia are at higher risk of virological failure than those attaining <1 HIV RNA copy/mL. We therefore investigated the effect of residual viraemia on virological rebound.
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Cross-resistance profile of the novel integrase inhibitor Dolutegravir (S/GSK1349572) using clonal viral variants selected in patients failing raltegravir.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
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Novel integrase inhibitors are in advanced clinical development, and cross-resistance data are needed to consider the possibility to plan a sequential usage within this class of antiretroviral drugs. Ex vivo phenotypic assays were conducted on 11 wild-type and 27 fully replicating recombinant viruses obtained from 11 patients failing previous raltegravir-containing regimens. Dolutegravir maintained its activity in vitro on viruses with mutations in position 143 and 155. However, viruses with mutation Q148R associated with secondary mutations and the combination Q148H+G140S were instead associated with a reduced level of susceptibility to dolutegravir in vitro.
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The new and less toxic protease inhibitor saquinavir-NO maintains anti-HIV-1 properties in vitro indistinguishable from those of the parental compound saquinavir.
Antiviral Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2011
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Although, the antiviral activity, tolerability and convenience of protease inhibitors have improved significantly in recent years, toxicity-associated adverse events including diarrhea, lipid alterations, disturbance of glucose homeostasis and liver enzyme elevations still remain a major concern during treatment of HIV-1 patients. We have recently shown that the covalent attachment of the NO moiety to the HIV-1 protease inhibitor saquinavir (Saq-NO) reduces its toxicity. In this study, we evaluated in vitro the anti-HIV activity of Saq-NO vs. its parental compound Saq. Site directed mutants with the most frequently identified Saq associated resistance mutations and their combinations were generated on proviral AD8-based backbones. Phenotypic assays were conducted using wild type clinical isolates and fully replicating recombinant viruses with Saq and Saq-NO in parallel on purified CD4+ T cells. The following recombinant viruses were generated and tested: L33F, M46I, G48V, I54V, I84V + L90M, M46I + L90M, G48V + L90M, M46I + I54V + L90M, L33F + M46I + L90M. The fold change resistance compared to the wild type viruses was between 1.3 and 7 for all single mutants, between 3.4 and 20 for double mutants and between 16.7 and 28.5 for viruses carrying three mutations for both compounds. The results clearly demonstrate that Saq-NO maintains an anti-HIV-1 profile very similar to that of Saq. The possibility to reduce Saq associated side effects and to increase the concentration of the drug in vivo may allow a higher and possibly more effective dosage of Saq-NO in HIV-1-infected patients and to increase the genetic barrier of this PI thus impairing the selection of resistant clones.
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Raltegravir, maraviroc, etravirine: an effective protease inhibitor and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-sparing regimen for salvage therapy in HIV-infected patients with triple-class experience.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2010
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We prospectively evaluated 28 triple-class experienced HIV-1-infected patients harbouring R5 virus, who received maraviroc, raltegravir and etravirine. By on-treatment analysis, 26 (92%) had less than 50 copies HIV-RNA/ml at week 48. The median (interquartile range) 48-week increase in CD4 cell counts was 267 (136-355) cells/microl. Three serious adverse events occurred: one recurrence of mycobacterial spondylodiscitis, one anal cancer, one Hodgkin lymphoma. Although long-term safety needs further study, this protease inhibitor and nucleoside analogue-sparing regimen showed sustained efficacy.
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Monoclonal antibodies isolated from human B cells neutralize a broad range of H1 subtype influenza A viruses including swine-origin Influenza virus (S-OIV).
Virology
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2010
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The new H1N1 swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV) strain is a global health problem. The elucidation of the virus-host relationship is crucial for the control of the new infection. Two human monoclonal antibody Fab fragments (HMab) neutralizing the novel H1N1 influenza strain at very low concentrations were cloned before the emergence of S-OIV from a patient who had a broad-range H1N1 serum neutralizing activity. The two HMabs neutralized all tested H1N1 strains, including S-OIV and a swine strain with IC(50) ranging from 2 to 7 microg/ml. Data demonstrate that infection with previously circulating H1N1 strains can elicit antibodies neutralizing S-OIV. Finally, the human genes coding for the neutralizing HMabs could be used for generating full human monoclonal IgGs that can be safely administered being potentially useful in the prophylaxis and the treatment of this human infection.
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Quantitative HIV-1 proviral DNA detection: a multicentre analysis.
New Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2010
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Despite the widespread use of molecular biology techniques, standardized methods for the measurement of HIV-1 proviral DNA are currently lacking and several discordant results are still present in different studies. To assess the clinical meaning of the proviral DNA load, a study group comprising seven different laboratories was set up to standardize a HIV-1 proviral DNA quantification method able to assess the DNA proviral load of the most relevant circulating HIV-1 subtypes. Reference samples (24 cellular samples infected with HIV-1 clade B, and 40 samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells containing different concentrations of plasmids expressing different HIV-1 clades) were distributed and tested blindly. All laboratories employed hTERT gene as housekeeping gene and primers within the gag gene to quantify different HIV-1 clades. Inter-laboratory results did not differ statistically but showed only minor variations concerning HIV-1 DNA amounts and different HIV clades, with a good agreement among the laboratories participating in the study. Since test standardization represents a key step for future application in clinical practice, further studies of the patients samples are in progress to establish the real meaning and utility of the proviral DNA load for clinical management of HIV-1 infected patients.
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Genotypic/phenotypic patterns of HIV-1 integrase resistance to raltegravir.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2010
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To understand the dynamic viral evolution observed during failure on raltegravir-containing regimens, we studied the genotypic and phenotypic patterns of resistance to raltegravir and the residual replication capacity (rRC) of HIV-1 variants selected in vivo.
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Antigen-driven evolution of B lymphocytes in coronary atherosclerotic plaques.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2009
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Recent data indicated that adaptive immunity is involved in the process of atherogenesis. Oligoclonal recruitment of T lymphocytes has been described in coronary plaques of patients with acute coronary syndrome. However, the nature of immune response remains to be determined. In the present study, we examined the Ab response in six coronary plaques obtained by endoluminal directional atherectomy. The IgG1/kappa-coding gene repertoires of B lymphocytes present in circulating blood and in coronary plaques were cloned and analyzed. In all of the six plaques, we observed 1) a skewed usage of heavy and light IgG1/kappa Ab-coding genes, 2) an oligoclonal distribution of V(K), J(K), and V(H), D(H), and J(H) genes with overrepresentation of some rarely used IgG genes, and 3) the unequivocal signs of Ag-driven clonal expansion and evolution of B cells. The data document for the first time the presence of a local Ag-driven clonal evolution of B cells in human atherosclerotic plaques.
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Molecular cloning of the first human monoclonal antibodies neutralizing with high potency swine-origin influenza A pandemic virus (S-OIV).
New Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2009
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The pandemic caused by the new H1N1 swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV) strain is a worldwide health emergency and alternative therapeutic and prophylactic options are greatly needed. Two human monoclonal antibody Fab fragments (HMab) neutralizing the novel H1N1 influenza strain at very low concentrations were cloned from a patient who had a broad-range anti-H1N1 serum neutralizing activity. The two HMabs neutralized S-OIV with an IC50 of 2.8 and 4 microg/mL. The genes coding for the neutralizing HMabs could be used for generating full human monoclonal IgGs that can be safely administered with the potentially of representing a novel drug to be used in the prophylaxis and the treatment of this human infection. This is the first report of molecular cloning of human monoclonal antibodies against the new pandemic swine-origin influenza virus.
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Dynamic patterns of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase gene evolution in patients failing raltegravir-based salvage therapies.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2009
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: Evaluate HIV-1 subtype B integrase gene evolution in patients failing raltegravir (RAL)-based savage regimens by clonal analysis of the replicating viral quasispecies.
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Dynamic features of the selective pressure on the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 CD4-binding site in a group of long term non progressor (LTNP) subjects.
Retrovirology
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2009
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The characteristics of intra-host human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) env evolution were evaluated in untreated HIV-1-infected subjects with different patterns of disease progression, including 2 normal progressor [NP], and 5 Long term non-progressor [LTNP] patients. High-resolution phylogenetic analysis of the C2-C5 env gene sequences of the replicating HIV-1 was performed in sequential samples collected over a 3-5 year period; overall, 301 HIV-1 genomic RNA sequences were amplified from plasma samples, cloned, sequenced and analyzed. Firstly, the evolutionary rate was calculated separately in the 3 codon positions. In all LTNPs, the 3rd codon mutation rate was equal or even lower than that observed at the 1st and 2nd positions (p = 0.016), thus suggesting strong ongoing positive selection. A Bayesian approach and a maximum-likelihood (ML) method were used to estimate the rate of virus evolution within each subject and to detect positively selected sites respectively. A great number of N-linked glycosylation sites under positive selection were identified in both NP and LTNP subjects. Viral sequences from 4 of the 5 LTNPs showed extensive positive selective pressure on the CD4-binding site (CD4bs). In addition, localized pressure in the area of the IgG-b12 epitope, a broad neutralizing human monoclonal antibody targeting the CD4bs, was documented in one LTNP subject, using a graphic colour grade 3-dimensional visualization. Overall, the data shown here documenting high selective pressure on the HIV-1 CD4bs of a group of LTNP subjects offers important insights for planning novel strategies for the immune control of HIV-1 infection.
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The role of infections and coinfections with newly identified and emerging respiratory viruses in children.
Virol. J.
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Acute respiratory infections are a major cause of morbidity in children both in developed and developing countries. A wide range of respiratory viruses, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza A and B viruses, parainfluenza viruses (PIVs), adenovirus, rhinovirus (HRV), have repeatedly been detected in acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in children in the past decades. However, in the last ten years thanks to progress in molecular technologies, newly discovered viruses have been identified including human Metapneumovirus (hMPV), coronaviruses NL63 (HcoV-NL63) and HKU1 (HcoV-HKU1), human Bocavirus (HBoV), new enterovirus (HEV), parechovirus (HpeV) and rhinovirus (HRV) strains, polyomaviruses WU (WUPyV) and KI (KIPyV) and the pandemic H1N1v influenza A virus. These discoveries have heavily modified previous knowledge on respiratory infections mainly highlighting that pediatric population is exposed to a variety of viruses with similar seasonal patterns. In this context establishing a causal link between a newly identified virus and the disease as well as an association between mixed infections and an increase in disease severity can be challenging. This review will present an overview of newly recognized as well as the main emerging respiratory viruses and seek to focus on the their contribution to infection and co-infection in LRTIs in childhood.
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Epidemiological, molecular and clinical features of enterovirus 109 infection in children and in adult stem cell transplant recipients.
Virol. J.
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A novel human enterovirus (HEV) type within the species HEV-C, named EV109, was discovered from cases of respiratory illness in Nicaragua in September 2010. The aim of this study, was to retrospectively examine the presence and the role of EV109 in respiratory samples from two patients populations; infants below the age of 2 years, hospitalized for acute respiratory diseases (ARDs) and adult hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients.
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Cross-reacting antibacterial auto-antibodies are produced within coronary atherosclerotic plaques of acute coronary syndrome patients.
PLoS ONE
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Coronary atherosclerosis, the main condition predisposing to acute myocardial infarction, has an inflammatory component caused by stimuli that are yet unknown. We molecularly investigated the nature of the immune response within human coronary lesion in four coronary plaques obtained by endoluminal atherectomy from four patients. We constructed phage-display libraries containing the IgG1/kappa antibody fragments produced by B-lymphocytes present in each plaque. By immunoaffinity, we selected from these libraries a monoclonal antibody, arbitrarily named Fab7816, able to react both with coronary and carotid atherosclerotic tissue samples. We also demonstrated by confocal microscopy that this monoclonal antibody recognized human transgelin type 1, a cytoskeleton protein involved in atherogenesis, and that it co-localized with fibrocyte-like cells transgelin+, CD68+, CD45+ in human sections of coronary and carotid plaques. In vitro fibrocytes obtained by differentiating CD14+ cells isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells also interacted with Fab7816, thus supporting the hypothesis of a specific recognition of fibrocytes into the atherosclerotic lesions. Interestingly, the same antibody, cross-reacted with the outer membrane proteins of Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae (and possibly with homologous proteins of other enterobacteriaceae present in the microbiota). From all the other three libraries, we were able to clone, by immunoaffinity selection, human monoclonal antibodies cross-reacting with bacterial outer membrane proteins and with transgelin. These findings demonstrated that in human atherosclerotic plaques a local cross-reactive immune response takes place.
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A phage display vector optimized for the generation of human antibody combinatorial libraries and the molecular cloning of monoclonal antibody fragments.
New Microbiol.
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A novel phagemid vector, named pCM, was optimized for the cloning and display of antibody fragment (Fab) libraries on the surface of filamentous phage. This vector contains two long DNA "stuffer" fragments for easier differentiation of the correctly cut forms of the vector. Moreover, in pCM the fragment at the heavy-chain cloning site contains an acid phosphatase-encoding gene allowing an easy distinction of the Escherichia coli cells containing the unmodified form of the phagemid versus the heavy-chain fragment coding cDNA. In pCM transcription of heavy-chain Fd/gene III and light chain is driven by a single lacZ promoter. The light chain is directed to the periplasm by the ompA signal peptide, whereas the heavy-chain Fd/coat protein III is trafficked by the pelB signal peptide. The phagemid pCM was used to generate a human combinatorial phage display antibody library that allowed the selection of a monoclonal Fab fragment antibody directed against the nucleoprotein (NP) of Influenza A virus.
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Viral tropism by geno2pheno as a tool for predicting CD4 decrease in HIV-1-infected naive patients with high CD4 counts.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
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To investigate the value of tropism (determined by genotypic testing) to predict CD4 depletion in HIV-infected antiretroviral-naive patients with high CD4 counts.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.