In the elderly, degenerative changes in the lumbar spine are common, contributing to falsely elevated bone mineral density (BMD) values. The parathyroid hormone (PTH) system plays an important role in the regulation of bone turnover and we explore the hypothesis that polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes in this pathway (PTH, PTHLH, PTH1R and PTH2R) contribute to degenerative manifestations of the spine in elderly women. The study included 1,004 Swedish women aged 75 years from the population-based OPRA cohort who attended follow-up at 5 and 10 years. Lumbar spine BMD was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and each individual vertebra was evaluated visually on the DXA image for apparent degenerative manifestations. Six SNPs in PTH and 3 SNPs each in PTH1R, PTH2R and PTHLH were analysed. Among women with degenerative manifestations at the lumbar spine, there was an over-representation at baseline of those carrying the PTH2R SNP rs897083 A-allele (p = 0.0021; odds ratio 1.5 95 % CI 1.2-2.0) and across the duration of follow-up (p = 0.0008). No association was observed between degenerative manifestations and variation in the other genes. None of the PTH hormone system genes were associated with vertebral fracture. Variation in the PTH2R gene (Chr2q34, rs897083) may contribute to the age-associated degenerative manifestations that develop at the lumbar spine.
Quantitative ultrasound of the heel captures heel bone properties that independently predict fracture risk and, with bone mineral density (BMD) assessed by X-ray (DXA), may be convenient alternatives for evaluating osteoporosis and fracture risk. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) studies to assess the genetic determinants of heel broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA; n = 14 260), velocity of sound (VOS; n = 15 514) and BMD (n = 4566) in 13 discovery cohorts. Independent replication involved seven cohorts with GWA data (in silico n = 11 452) and new genotyping in 15 cohorts (de novo n = 24 902). In combined random effects, meta-analysis of the discovery and replication cohorts, nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) had genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10(-8)) associations with heel bone properties. Alongside SNPs within or near previously identified osteoporosis susceptibility genes including ESR1 (6q25.1: rs4869739, rs3020331, rs2982552), SPTBN1 (2p16.2: rs11898505), RSPO3 (6q22.33: rs7741021), WNT16 (7q31.31: rs2908007), DKK1 (10q21.1: rs7902708) and GPATCH1 (19q13.11: rs10416265), we identified a new locus on chromosome 11q14.2 (rs597319 close to TMEM135, a gene recently linked to osteoblastogenesis and longevity) significantly associated with both BUA and VOS (P < 8.23 × 10(-14)). In meta-analyses involving 25 cohorts with up to 14 985 fracture cases, six of 10 SNPs associated with heel bone properties at P < 5 × 10(-6) also had the expected direction of association with any fracture (P < 0.05), including three SNPs with P < 0.005: 6q22.33 (rs7741021), 7q31.31 (rs2908007) and 10q21.1 (rs7902708). In conclusion, this GWA study reveals the effect of several genes common to central DXA-derived BMD and heel ultrasound/DXA measures and points to a new genetic locus with potential implications for better understanding of osteoporosis pathophysiology.
Osteoporosis is characterized by reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture risk. Fat mass is a determinant of bone strength and both phenotypes have a strong genetic component. In this study, we examined the association between obesity associated polymorphisms (SNPs) with body composition, BMD, Ultrasound (QUS), fracture and biomarkers (Homocysteine (Hcy), folate, Vitamin D and Vitamin B12) for obesity and osteoporosis. Five common variants: rs17782313 and rs1770633 (melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R); rs7566605 (insulin induced gene 2 (INSIG2); rs9939609 and rs1121980 (fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) were genotyped in 2 cohorts of Swedish women: PEAK-25 (age 25, n?=?1061) and OPRA (age 75, n?=?1044). Body mass index (BMI), total body fat and lean mass were strongly positively correlated with QUS and BMD in both cohorts (r(2)?=?0.2-0.6). MC4R rs17782313 was associated with QUS in the OPRA cohort and individuals with the minor C-allele had higher values compared to T-allele homozygotes (TT vs. CT vs.
Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common variants in genes associated with variation in bone mineral density (BMD), although most have been carried out in combined samples of older women and men. Meta-analyses of these results have identified numerous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of modest effect at genome-wide significance levels in genes involved in both bone formation and resorption, as well as other pathways. We performed a meta-analysis restricted to premenopausal white women from four cohorts (n?=?4061 women, aged 20 to 45 years) to identify genes influencing peak bone mass at the lumbar spine and femoral neck. After imputation, age- and weight-adjusted bone-mineral density (BMD) values were tested for association with each SNP. Association of an SNP in the WNT16 gene (rs3801387; p?=?1.7?×?10(-9) ) and multiple SNPs in the ESR1/C6orf97 region (rs4870044; p?=?1.3?×?10(-8) ) achieved genome-wide significance levels for lumbar spine BMD. These SNPs, along with others demonstrating suggestive evidence of association, were then tested for association in seven replication cohorts that included premenopausal women of European, Hispanic-American, and African-American descent (combined n?=?5597 for femoral neck; n?=?4744 for lumbar spine). When the data from the discovery and replication cohorts were analyzed jointly, the evidence was more significant (WNT16 joint p?=?1.3?×?10(-11) ; ESR1/C6orf97 joint p?=?1.4?×?10(-10) ). Multiple independent association signals were observed with spine BMD at the ESR1 region after conditioning on the primary signal. Analyses of femoral neck BMD also supported association with SNPs in WNT16 and ESR1/C6orf97 (p?1?×?10(-5) ). Our results confirm that several of the genes contributing to BMD variation across a broad age range in both sexes have effects of similar magnitude on BMD of the spine in premenopausal women. These data support the hypothesis that variants in these genes of known skeletal function also affect BMD during the premenopausal period.
Smoking is associated with postmenopausal bone loss and fracture, but the effect of smoking on bone in younger women is unclear. Peak bone mass is an important determinant for fracture risk; therefore, our aim was to evaluate the association between smoking and bone mass in 25-year-old women, specifically the influence of daily cigarette consumption and total exposure, duration, age at starting smoking, and time since smoking cessation on bone density and fracture risk. Smoking and bone mineral density (BMD) data were available for 1,054 women from the PEAK-25 cohort. Analyses comparing current smokers with women who never smoked were performed using number of cigarettes per day, pack-years, smoking duration, age smoking started, and, for former smokers, age at quitting. BMD did not differ between never, former, and current smokers; and the relative fracture risk in smokers was not significant (relative risk [RR] = 1.2, 95 % confidence interval 0.8-1.9). Among current smokers, BMD decreased with a dose response as cigarette consumption increased (femoral neck p = 0.037). BMD was not significantly lower in young women who had smoked for long duration or started smoking early (p = 0.07-0.64); long duration and early start were associated with higher body mass index (BMI; p = 0.038). Lower BMD persisted up to 24 months after smoking cessation (p = 0.027-0.050), becoming comparable to never-smokers after 24 months. Hip BMD was negatively associated with smoking and dose-dependent on cigarette consumption. Smoking duration was not associated with BMD, although young women with a long smoking history had higher BMI, which might attenuate the adverse effects from smoking.
The aims of this study were to provide normative data for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 25-yr-old women and evaluate whether young adult Swedish women have bone mineral density (BMD) comparable with DXA manufacturer reference values and other equivalent populations. BMD at all sites was measured in the population-based Peak-25 cohort (n = 1061 women; age, 25.5 ± 0.2yr). BMD values were standardized (sBMD) and compared against the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and other cohorts. Based on the DXA manufacturer-supplied reference values, Z-scores were 0.54 ± 0.98 (femoral neck [FN]), 0.47 ± 0.96 (total hip [TH]), and 0.32 ± 1.03 (lumbar spine [LS]). In comparison with other studies, sBMD was higher in the Peak-25 cohort (FN, 1.5%-8.3%; TH, 3.9%-9.2%; and LS, 2.4%-6.5%) with the exception of trochanter-sBMD which was 2.5% lower compared with NHANES III. The concordance in identifying those in the lowest or highest quartile of BMD was highest between hip measurements (low, 71%-78% and high, 70%-84%), corresponding discordance of 0%-1%. At this age, the correlation between DXA sites was strong (r = 0.62-0.94). BMD in Swedish young adult women is generally higher than has been reported in other equivalently aged European and North American cohorts and suggests that the high fracture incidence in Sweden is not explained by lower peak bone mass. The use of nonregional-specific DXA reference data could contribute to misdiagnosed osteoporosis in elderly women.
Osteoporosis is a common complex disorder in postmenopausal women leading to changes in the micro-architecture of bone and increased risk of fracture. Members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) gene family regulates the development and physiology of bone through the Wnt/?-catenin (Wnt) pathway that in turn cross-talks with the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway. In two cohorts of Swedish women: OPRA (n=1002; age 75 years) and PEAK-25 (n=1005; age 25 years), eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from Wnt pathway genes (LRP4; LRP5; G protein-coupled receptor 177, GPR177) were analyzed for association with Bone Mineral Density (BMD), rate of bone loss, hip geometry, quantitative ultrasound and fracture. Additionally, interaction of LRP4 with LRP5, GPR177 and BMP2 were analyzed. LRP4 (rs6485702) was associated with higher total body (TB) and lumbar spine (LS) BMD in the PEAK-25 cohort (p=0.006 and 0.005 respectively), and interaction was observed with LRP5 (p=0.007) and BMP2 (p=0.004) for TB BMD. LRP4 also showed significant interaction with LRP5 for femoral neck (FN) and LS BMD in this cohort. In the OPRA cohort, LRP4 polymorphisms were associated with significantly lower fracture incidence overall (p=0.008-0.001) and fewer hip fractures (rs3816614, p=0.006). Significant interaction in the OPRA cohort was observed for LRP4 with BMP2 and GPR177 for FN BMD as well as for rate of bone loss at TB and FN (p=0.007-0.0001). In conclusion, LRP4 and interaction between LRP4 and genes in the Wnt and BMP signaling pathways modulate bone phenotypes including peak bone mass and fracture, the clinical endpoint of osteoporosis.
Susceptibility to osteoporotic fracture is influenced by genetic factors that can be dissected by whole-genome linkage analysis in experimental animal crosses. The aim of this study was to characterize quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for biomechanical and two-dimensional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) phenotypes in reciprocal F2 crosses between diabetic GK and normo-glycemic F344 rat strains and to identify possible co-localization with previously reported QTLs for bone size and structure. The biomechanical measurements of rat tibia included ultimate force, stiffness and work to failure while DXA was used to characterize tibial area, bone mineral content (BMC) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD). F2 progeny (108 males, 98 females) were genotyped with 192 genome-wide markers followed by sex- and reciprocal cross-separated whole-genome QTL analyses. Significant QTLs were identified on chromosome 8 (tibial area; logarithm of odds (LOD)?=?4.7 and BMC; LOD?=?4.1) in males and on chromosome 1 (stiffness; LOD?=?5.5) in females. No QTLs showed significant sex-specific interactions. In contrast, significant cross-specific interactions were identified on chromosome 2 (aBMD; LOD?=?4.7) and chromosome 6 (BMC; LOD?=?4.8) for males carrying F344mtDNA, and on chromosome 15 (ultimate force; LOD?=?3.9) for males carrying GKmtDNA, confirming the effect of reciprocal cross on osteoporosis-related phenotypes. By combining identified QTLs for biomechanical-, size- and qualitative phenotypes (pQCT and 3D CT) from the same population, overlapping regions were detected on chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 10. These are strong candidate regions in the search for genetic risk factors for osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis is a major health problem affecting more than 75 million people throughout Europe, the United States, and Japan. Epidemiologic studies have determined that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. We have investigated the association between polymorphisms at the osteocalcin locus and variables linked to bone health. Osteocalcin provides a link between bone and energy metabolism, hence its potential importance as an osteoporosis candidate gene. In this study, we included a total of 996 women (all aged 75 years) from the Osteoporosis Prospective Risk Assessment (OPRA) cohort. We sequenced the osteocalcin gene along with flanking regions to search for novel coding polymorphisms. We also analyzed four polymorphisms selected from within and flanking regions of the osteocalcin gene to study their association with serum total osteocalcin levels (S-TotalOC), total-body (TB) bone mineral density (BMD), fracture, TB fat mass, and body mass index (BMI). The promoter polymorphism rs1800247 was significantly associated with S-TotalOC (p = .012) after controlling for BMI and TB BMD. The polymorphism rs1543297 was significantly associated with prospectively occurring fractures (p = .008). In a model taking into account rs1543297 and rs1800247, along with TB BMD, BMI, smoking, and S-TotalOC, the polymorphisms together were able to identify an additional 6% of women who sustained a fracture (p = .02). We found no association between the polymorphisms and TB BMD, BMI, or TB fat mass. In conclusion, polymorphisms in and around the osteocalcin locus are significantly associated with S-TotalOC and fracture. Genotyping at the osteocalcin locus could add valuable information in the identification of women at risk of osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis is a severe condition in postmenopausal women and a common cause of fracture. Osteoporosis is a complex disease with a strong genetic impact, but susceptibility is determined by many genes with modest effects and environmental factors. Only a handful of genes consistently associated with osteoporosis have been identified so far. Inflammation affects bone metabolism by interfering with the interplay between bone resorption and formation, and many inflammatory mediators are involved in natural bone remodeling. The cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been shown to affect bone density in rodents, and polymorphisms in the human MIF promoter are associated with inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. We investigated the association of polymorphisms in the MIF gene with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone loss in 1002 elderly women using MIF promoter polymorphisms MIF-CATT(5-8) and rs755622(G/C) located -794 and -173 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site. Bone loss was estimated both by the change in BMD over 5 years and by the levels of bone resorption markers in serum measured at four occasions during a 5-year period. The MIF-CATT(7)/rs755622(C) haplotype was associated with increased rate of bone loss during 5 years at the femoral neck (p<0.05) and total hip (p<0.05). In addition, the MIF-CATT(7)/rs755622(C) haplotype carriers had higher levels of the bone turnover marker serum C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (S-CTX-I, p<0.01) during the 5 year follow-up period. There was no association between MIF-CATT(7)/rs755622(C) and baseline BMD at femoral neck, total hip or lumbar spine. We conclude that MIF promoter polymorphisms have modest effects on bone remodeling and are associated with the rate of bone loss in elderly women.
The F344 rat carries alleles contributing to bone fragility while the GK rat spontaneously develops type-2 diabetes. These characteristics make F344×GK crosses well suited for the identification of genes related to bone size and allow for future investigation on the association with type-2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for bone size phenotypes measured by a new application of three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) and to investigate the effects of sex- and reciprocal cross. Tibia from male and female GK and F344 rats, representing the parental, F1 and F2 generations, were examined with 3DCT and analyzed for: total and cortical volumetric BMD, straight and curved length, peri- and endosteal area at mid-shaft. F2 progeny (108 male and 98 female) were genotyped with 192 genome-wide microsatellite markers (average distance 10 cM). Sex- and reciprocal cross-separated QTL analyses were performed for the identification of QTLs linked to 3DCT phenotypes and true interactions were confirmed by likelihood ratio analysis in all F2 animals. Several genome-wide significant QTLs were found in the sex- and reciprocal cross-separated progeny on chromosomes (chr) 1, 3, 4, 9, 10, 14, and 17. Overlapping QTLs for both males and females in the (GK×F344)F2 progeny were located on chr 1 (39-67 cM). This region confirms previously reported pQCT QTLs and overlaps loci for fasting glucose. Sex separated linkage analysis confirmed a male specific QTL on chr 9 (67-82 cM) for endosteal area at the fibula site. Analyses separating the F2 population both by sex and reciprocal cross identified cross specific QTLs on chr 14 (males) and chr 3 and 4 (females). Two loci, chr 4 and 6, are unique to 3DCT and separate from pQCT generated loci. The 3DCT method was highly reproducible and provided high precision measurements of bone size in the rat enabling identification of new sex- and cross-specific loci. The QTLs on chr 1 indicate potential genetic association between bone-related phenotypes and traits affecting type-2 diabetes. The results illustrate the complexity of the genetic architecture of bone size phenotypes and demonstrate the importance of complementary methods for bone analysis.
Osteoclast activity and the fine balance between bone formation and resorption is affected by inflammatory factors such as cytokines and T lymphocyte activity, mediated by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, in turn regulated by the MHC class II transactivator (MHC2TA). We investigated the effect of functional polymorphisms in the MHC2TA gene (CIITA), and two additional genes; C-type lectin domain 16A (CLEC16A), in linkage disequilibrium with CIITA and Interferon-? (IFNG), an inducer of CIITA; on bone density, bone resorption markers, bone loss and fracture risk in 75 year-old women followed for up to 10 years (OPRA n = 1003) and in young adult women (PEAK-25 n = 999). CIITA was associated with BMD at age 75 (lumbar spine p = 0.011; femoral neck (FN) p = 0.049) and age 80 (total body p = 0.015; total hip p = 0.042; FN p = 0.028). Carriers of the CIITA rs3087456(G) allele had 1.8-3.4% higher BMD and displayed increased rate of bone loss between age 75 and 80 (FN p = 0.013; total hip p = 0.030; total body p = 3.8E(-5)). Despite increasing bone loss, the rs3087456(G) allele was protective against incident fracture overall (p = 0.002), osteoporotic fracture and hip fracture. Carriers of CLEC16A and IFNG variant alleles had lower BMD (p<0.05) and ultrasound parameters and a lower risk of incident fracture (CLEC16A, p = 0.011). In 25-year old women, none of the genes were associated with BMD. In conclusion, variation in inflammatory genes CIITA, CLEC-16A and INFG appear to contribute to bone phenotypes in elderly women and suggest a role for low-grade inflammation and MHC class II expression for osteoporosis pathogenesis.
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