Interictal high frequency oscillations (HFOs) in the 40-200 Hz range have been identified in scalp electroencephalography (EEG) recordings of patients with focal epilepsy. HFOs usually co-occur with interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs), and are specific and accurate markers for the epileptic focus, but the brain regions involved when HFOs are generated are unknown. We investigated this question with combined EEG-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), measuring the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal, and examined HFOs in the gamma (40-80 Hz) and ripple (80-200 Hz) bands.
We studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) differences in resting-state networks between patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and healthy subjects. To avoid any a priori hypothesis, we use a data-driven analysis assessing differences between groups independently of structures involved. Shared and specific independent component analysis (SSICA) is an exploratory method based on independent component analysis, which performs between-group network comparison. It extracts and classifies components (networks) in those common between groups and those specific to one group. Resting fMRI data were collected from 10 healthy subjects and 10 MTLE patients. SSICA was applied multiple times with altered initializations and different numbers of specific components. This resulted in many components specific to patients and to controls. Spatial clustering identified the reliable resting-state networks among all specific components in each group. For each reliable specific network, power spectrum analysis was performed on reconstructed time-series to estimate connectivity in each group and differences between groups. Two reliable networks, corresponding to statistically significant clusters robustly detected with clustering were labeled as specific to MTLE and one as specific to the control group. The most reliable MTLE network included hippocampus and amygdala bilaterally. The other MTLE network included the postcentral gyri and temporal poles. The control-specific network included bilateral precuneus, anterior cingulate, thalamus, and parahippocampal gyrus. Results indicated that the two MTLE networks show increased connectivity in patients, whereas the control-specific network shows decreased connectivity in patients. Our findings complement results from seed-based connectivity analysis (1). The pattern of changes in connectivity between mesial temporal lobe structures and other areas may help us understand the cognitive impairments often reported in patients with MTLE.
Simultaneous electroencephalography/functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG/fMRI) recording can noninvasively map in the whole brain the hemodynamic response following an interictal epileptic discharge. EEG/fMRI is gaining interest as a presurgical evaluation tool. This study aims to determine how hemodynamic responses related to epileptic activity can help predict surgical outcome in patients considered for epilepsy surgery.
In EEG-fMRI studies, BOLD responses related to interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) are most often the expected positive response (activation) but sometimes a surprising negative response (deactivation). The significance of deactivation in the region of IED generation is uncertain. The aim of this study was to determine if BOLD deactivation was caused by specific IED characteristics. Among focal epilepsy patients who underwent 3T EEG-fMRI from 2006 to 2011, those with negative BOLD having a maximum t-value in the IED generating region were selected. As controls, subjects with maximum activation in the IED generating region were selected. We established the relationship between the type of response (activation/deactivation) and (1) presence of slow wave in the IEDs, (2) lobe of epileptic focus, (3) occurrence as isolated events or bursts, (4) spatial extent of the EEG discharge. Fifteen patients with deactivation and 15 with activation were included. The IEDs were accompanied by a slow wave in 87 % of patients whose primary BOLD was a deactivation and only in 33 % of patients with activation. In the deactivation group, the epileptic focus was more frequently in the posterior quadrant and involved larger cortical areas, whereas in the activation group it was more frequently temporal. IEDs were more frequently of long duration in the deactivation group. The main factor responsible for focal deactivations is the presence of a slow wave, which is the likely electrographic correlate of prolonged inhibition. This adds a link to the relationship between electrophysiological and BOLD activities.
Functional neuroimaging studies of epilepsy patients often show, at the time of epileptic activity, deactivation in default mode network (DMN) regions, which is hypothesized to reflect altered consciousness. We aimed to study the metabolic and electrophysiological correlates of these changes in the DMN regions. We studied six epilepsy patients that underwent scalp EEG-fMRI and later stereotaxic intracerebral EEG (SEEG) sampling regions of DMN (posterior cingulate cortex, Pre-cuneus, inferior parietal lobule, medial prefrontal cortex and dorsolateral frontal cortex) as well as non-DMN regions. SEEG recordings were subject to frequency analyses comparing sections with interictal epileptic discharges (IED) to IED-free baselines in the IED-generating region, DMN and non-DMN regions. EEG-fMRI and SEEG were obtained at rest. During IEDs, EEG-fMRI demonstrated deactivation in various DMN nodes in 5 of 6 patients, most frequently the pre-cuneus and inferior parietal lobule, and less frequently the other DMN nodes. SEEG analyses demonstrated decrease in gamma power (50-150 Hz), and increase in the power of lower frequencies (<30 Hz) at times of IEDs, in at least one DMN node in all patients. These changes were not apparent in the non-DMN regions. We demonstrate that, at the time of IEDs, DMN regions decrease their metabolic demand and undergo an EEG change consisting of decreased gamma and increased lower frequencies. These findings, specific to DMN regions, confirm in a pathological condition a direct relationship between DMN BOLD activity and EEG activity. They indicate that epileptic activity affects the DMN, and therefore may momentarily reduce the consciousness level and cognitive reserve.
Two-dimensional temporal clustering analysis (2D-TCA) is a relatively new functional MRI (fMRI) based technique that breaks blood oxygen level dependent activity into separate components based on timing and has shown potential for localizing epileptic activity independently of electroencephalography (EEG). 2D-TCA has only been applied to detect epileptic activity in a few studies and its limits in detecting activity of various forms (i.e. activation size, amplitude, and frequency) have not been investigated. This study evaluated 2D-TCAs ability to detect various forms of both simulated epileptic activity and EEG-fMRI activity detected in patients. When applied to simulated data, 2D-TCA consistently detected activity in 6min runs containing 5 spikes/run, 10 spikes/run, and one 5s long event with hemodynamic response function amplitudes of at least 1.5%, 1.25%, and 1% above baseline respectively. When applied to patient data, while detection of interictal spikes was inconsistent, 2D-TCA consistently produced results similar to those obtained by EEG-fMRI when at least 2 prolonged interictal events (a few seconds each) occurred during the run. However, even for such cases it was determined that 2D-TCA can only be used to validate localization by other means or to create hypotheses as to where activity may occur, as it also detects changes not caused by epileptic activity.
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease that can affect the nervous system. Cranial neuropathies are the most frequent presentation of neurosarcoidosis. Involvement of the peripheral nervous system is less common. The presentation is usually subacute or chronic sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy, whereas acute polyradiculopathy is extremely rare. We report a case of Guillain-Barré-like syndrome probably secondary to sarcoidosis. A review of the literature revealed 9 similar cases. The possibility of a Guillain-Barré-like syndrome as a presenting symptom of sarcoidosis should be considered, especially in patients with atypical features such as cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis.
We had reported that immune cells from relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) patients secrete low levels of BDNF and that there is a defective regulation of its secretion via DC40. We now studied the effect of interferon-beta (IFN-beta1) on the secretion and regulation of BDNF from immune cells in patients with RR-MS. The PBMCs of IFN-beta1a treated RR-MS patients secreted higher BDNF levels vs. untreated patients. Anti CD40 mAb stimulation of PBMCs of IFN-beta1a treated patients upregulated the BDNF levels. There was no significant effect of CD40 stimulation on PBMCs of untreated patients. CD40(+) expression on CD14(+) cells was higher in IFN-beta treated patients vs. untreated patients. In vitro treatment with IFN-beta1a of PBMCs from healthy controls and untreated patients led to a significant increase in CD40 expression on CD14(+) cells in both groups. The addition of IFN-beta1a to CD40 stimulated PBMCs of untreated patients restored the up regulatory effect of CD40 stimulation on BDNF levels. Therefore, reduced BDNF secretion from PBMCs and defective regulation effect of CD40 stimulation on BDNF levels in untreated RR-MS are reversible by therapy with IFN-beta1a.
In idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), a normal electroencephalogram between generalized spike and wave (GSW) discharges is believed to reflect normal brain function. However, some studies indicate that even excluding GSW-related errors, IGE patients perform poorly on sustained attention task, the deficit being worse as a function of disease duration. We hypothesized that at least in a subset of structures which are normally involved in sustained attention, resting-state functional connectivity (FC) is different in IGE patients compared to controls and that some of the changes are related to disease duration.
To assess the extent of brain involvement during focal epileptic activity, we studied patterns of cortical and subcortical metabolic changes coinciding with interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) using group analysis of simultaneous electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) scans in patients with focal epilepsy.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.