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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Prevalence and correlates of gout in a large cohort of patients with chronic kidney disease: the German Chronic Kidney Disease (GCKD) study.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Reduced kidney function is a risk factor for hyperuricaemia and gout, but limited information on the burden of gout is available from studies of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We therefore examined the prevalence and correlates of gout in the large prospective observational German Chronic Kidney Disease (GCKD) study.
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Heme Oxygenase-1 Gene Promoter Microsatellite Polymorphism Is Associated With Progressive Atherosclerosis and Incident Cardiovascular Disease.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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The enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) exerts cytoprotective effects in response to various cellular stressors. A variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in the HO-1 gene promoter region has previously been linked to cardiovascular disease. We examined this association prospectively in the general population.
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Disease burden and risk profile in referred patients with moderate chronic kidney disease: composition of the German Chronic Kidney Disease (GCKD) cohort.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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A main challenge for targeting chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the heterogeneity of its causes, co-morbidities and outcomes. Patients under nephrological care represent an important reference population, but knowledge about their characteristics is limited.
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EasyStrata: evaluation and visualization of stratified genome-wide association meta-analysis data.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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The R package EasyStrata facilitates the evaluation and visualization of stratified genome-wide association meta-analyses (GWAMAs) results. It provides (i) statistical methods to test and account for between-strata difference as a means to tackle gene-strata interaction effects and (ii) extended graphical features tailored for stratified GWAMA results. The software provides further features also suitable for general GWAMAs including functions to annotate, exclude or highlight specific loci in plots or to extract independent subsets of loci from genome-wide datasets. It is freely available and includes a user-friendly scripting interface that simplifies data handling and allows for combining statistical and graphical functions in a flexible fashion. Availability: EasyStrata is available for free (under the GNU General Public License v3) from our Web site www.genepi-regensburg.de/easystrata and from the CRAN R package repository cran.r-project.org/web/packages/EasyStrata/.
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Mortality and Incidence of Renal Replacement Therapy in People With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus-A Three Decade Long Prospective Observational Study in the Lainz T1DM Cohort.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Context and Objective: We investigated long term mortality, requirement for renal replacement therapy (RRT), and incidence of other late diabetic complications in an observational cohort study of 641 people with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Design: A prospective observational cohort study is used. Setting: The study was conducted at the Tertiary Diabetes Centre in Vienna, Austria. Patients: A cohort with all people with T1DM (n = 641, 47% females, 30 ± 11 years) attending their annual diabetes review was created in 1983-1984. Biomedical data were collected. Main Outcome Measures: In 2013 we investigated mortality rates and incidence rates of RRT by record linkage with national registries and incidence of other major diabetes complications by questionnaire. Results: 156 (24%) patients died [mortality rate: 922 (95%CI: 778-1066) per 100000 person years]. Fifty-five (8.6%) received RRT [incidence rate: 335 (95%CI: 246-423) per 100000 person years]. The 380 questionnaires (78% return rate) recorded cardiac events, strokes, limb amputations, and/or blindness, affecting 21.8% of survivors. Mortality and incidence of RRT increased in each quartile of baseline HbA1c, with the lowest rates in the quartile with HbA1c ?6.5% (48 mmol/mol)(p < 0.05). Conclusions: In people with established type 1 diabetes who were observed for almost three decades, the overall mortality was 24% and the incidence of renal replacement therapy was 8.6%, with a 21.8% combined incidence rate of the other hard endpoints in the surviving people. A clear linear relationship between early glycemic control and the later development of end stage renal disease and mortality has been found.
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Plasma Concentrations of Afamin Are Associated with the Prevalence and Development of Metabolic Syndrome.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2014
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-Afamin is a human plasma vitamin E-binding glycoprotein primarily expressed in the liver and secreted into the bloodstream. Since little is known about (patho)-physiological functions of afamin, we decided to identify phenotypes associated with afamin by investigating transgenic mice overexpressing the human afamin gene and performing large-scale human epidemiological studies.
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Competitive Interaction Between Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 And Asymmetric Dimethylarginine in Patients With CKD.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Both fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) are associated with progression of CKD. We tested the hypothesis that ADMA and FGF23 are interactive factors for CKD progression in a cohort of 758 patients with CKD in Southern Europe (mean eGFR±SD, 36±13 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) and in a central European cohort of 173 patients with CKD (MMKD study, mean eGFR, 64±39 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)). In the first cohort, 214 patients had renal events (decrease in eGFR of >30%, dialysis, or kidney transplantation) during a 3-year follow-up. Both intact FGF-23 and ADMA predicted the incidence rate of renal events in unadjusted and adjusted analyses (P<0.001). There was a strong competitive interaction between FGF-23 and ADMA in the risk of renal events (P<0.01 in adjusted analyses); the risk associated with raised ADMA levels was highest in patients with low FGF-23 levels. These results were confirmed in the MMKD cohort, in which FGF-23 level was again an effect modifier of the relationship between plasma ADMA level and renal events (doubling of baseline serum creatinine, dialysis, or kidney transplantation) in the adjusted analyses (P<0.01). Furthermore, in the MMKD cohort there was a parallel, independent competitive interaction between symmetric dimethylarginine level and c-terminal FGF-23 level for the risk for renal events (P=0.001). These findings indicate that the association of ADMA level with the risk of CKD progression is modified by FGF-23 level and provide further evidence that dysregulation of the nitric oxide system is involved in CKD progression.
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Modifying effect of a common polymorphism in the interleukin-6 promoter on the relationship between long-term exposure to traffic-related particulate matter and heart rate variability.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been associated with an increase in many inflammatory markers, including interleukin 6 (IL6). Air pollution exposure has also been suggested to induce an imbalance in the autonomic nervous system (ANS), such as a decrease in heart rate variability (HRV). In this study we aimed to investigate the modifying effect of polymorphisms in a major proinflammatory marker gene, interleukin 6 (IL6), on the relationship between long-term exposure to traffic-related PM10 (TPM10) and HRV.
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Modification of the Association between PM10 and Lung Function Decline by Cadherin 13 Polymorphisms in the SAPALDIA Cohort: A Genome-Wide Interaction Analysis.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Background: Both air pollution and genetic variation have been shown to affect lung function. Their interaction has not been studied on a genome-wide scale to date. Objectives: We aimed to identify, in an agnostic fashion, genes that modify the association between long-term air pollution exposure and annual lung function decline in an adult population-based sample. Methods: A two-stage genome-wide interaction study was performed. The discovery (N=763) and replication samples (N=3,896) were derived from the multi-centric SAPALDIA cohort (Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung Disease in Adults). Annual rate of decline in the forced mid expiratory flow (FEF25-75) was the main endpoint. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to identify potential multiplicative interactions between genotypes and 11-year cumulative PM10 exposure. Results: We identified a cluster of variants intronic to the CDH13 gene as the only locus with genome-wide significant interactions. The strongest interaction was observed for rs2325934 (P=8.8x10(-10)). Replication of the interaction between this CDH13 variant and cumulative PM10 exposure on annual decline in FEF25-75 was successful (P=0.008). The interaction was not sensitive to adjustment for smoking or body weight. Conclusions: CDH13 is functionally linked to the adipokine adiponectin, an inflammatory regulator. Future studies need to confirm the interaction and assess how the result relates to previously observed interactions between air pollution and obesity on respiratory function.
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Association of adiponectin and leptin with relative telomere length in seven independent cohorts including 11,448 participants.
Eur. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Oxidative stress and inflammation are major contributors to accelerated age-related relative telomere length (RTL) shortening. Both conditions are strongly linked to leptin and adiponectin, the most prominent adipocyte-derived protein hormones. As high leptin levels and low levels of adiponectin have been implicated in inflammation, one expects adiponectin to be positively associated with RTL while leptin should be negatively associated. Within the ENGAGE consortium, we investigated the association of RTL with adiponectin and leptin in seven independent cohorts with a total of 11,448 participants. We performed partial correlation analysis on Z-transformed RTL and LN-transformed leptin/adiponectin, adjusting for age and sex. In extended models we adjusted for body mass index (BMI) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Adiponectin showed a borderline significant association with RTL. This appeared to be determined by a single study and when the outlier study was removed, this association disappeared. The association between RTL and leptin was highly significant (r = -0.05; p = 1.81 × 10(-7)). Additional adjustment for BMI or CRP did not change the results. Sex-stratified analysis revealed no difference between men and women. Our study suggests that high leptin levels are associated with short RTL.
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Genetic polymorphisms at SIRT1 and FOXO1 are associated with carotid atherosclerosis in the SAPHIR cohort.
BMC Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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BackgroundSIRT1 and FOXO1 interact with each other in multiple pathways regulating aging, metabolism and resistance to oxidative stress and control different pathways involved in atherosclerotic process. It is not known, if genetic polymorphisms (SNPs) at the SIRT1 and FOXO1 have an influence on carotid atherosclerosis.MethodsIntima-media thickness (IMT) was measured on the common and internal carotid arteries. Morphological alterations of the carotid arteries and size of these alterations were included in the B-score grading on a five point scale. Eleven SNPs at SIRT1 and FOXO1 gene loci were genotyped in the SAPHIR cohort (n = 1742). The association of each SNP with common carotid IMT, internal carotid IMT and B-score was analyzed using linear regression models.ResultsA significant association was found between common carotid IMT and two SNPs at FOXO1 - rs2297627, rs10507486 (beta = -0.00168, p = 0.0007 and beta = -0.00144, p = 0.0008 respectively) and at least a trend for rs12413112 at SIRT1 (beta = 0.00061, p = 0.0157) using an additive model adjusting for age and sex. Additional adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and markers (BMI, smoking status, hypertension, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, hsCRP) even improved the strength of this association (p = 0.0037 for SIRT1 and p = 0.0002 for both SNPs at FOXO1). Analysis for internal carotis IMT and B-score did not reveal any significant association. One haplotype in FOXO1 showed a moderate effect on common carotid IMT and B-score in comparison to the reference haplotype of this gene. Several SNPs within SIRT1 showed differential effects for men and women with higher effect sizes for women: rs3740051 on all three investigated phenotypes (interaction p-value = 0.0069); rs2236319 on common and internal carotid IMT (interaction p-value = 0.0083), rs1082310, rs2273773 on common carotid IMT and rs1467568 on B-score (interaction p-value = 0.0007). The latter was significant in women only (betawomen = 0.111, pwomen = 0.00008; betamen = -0.009, pmen = 0.6464).ConclusionsThis study demonstrated associations of genetic variations at the SIRT1 and FOXO1 loci with carotid atherosclerosis and highlighted the need for further investigation by functional studies.
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Discovery of serum biomarkers of ovarian cancer using complementary proteomic profiling strategies.
Proteomics Clin Appl
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Ovarian cancer is a devastating disease and biomarkers for its early diagnosis are urgently required. Serum may be a valuable source of biomarkers that may be revealed by proteomic profiling. Herein, complementary serum protein profiling strategies were employed for discovery of biomarkers that could discriminate cases of malignant and benign ovarian cancer.
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Genetic association study of QT interval highlights role for calcium signaling pathways in myocardial repolarization.
Dan E Arking, Sara L Pulit, Lia Crotti, Pim van der Harst, Patricia B Munroe, Tamara T Koopmann, Nona Sotoodehnia, Elizabeth J Rossin, Michael Morley, Xinchen Wang, Andrew D Johnson, Alicia Lundby, Daniel F Gudbjartsson, Peter A Noseworthy, Mark Eijgelsheim, Yuki Bradford, Kirill V Tarasov, Marcus Dörr, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Annukka M Lahtinen, Ilja M Nolte, Albert Vernon Smith, Joshua C Bis, Aaron Isaacs, Stephen J Newhouse, Daniel S Evans, Wendy S Post, Daryl Waggott, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Andrew A Hicks, Lewin Eisele, David Ellinghaus, Caroline Hayward, Pau Navarro, Sheila Ulivi, Toshiko Tanaka, David J Tester, Stéphanie Chatel, Stefan Gustafsson, Meena Kumari, Richard W Morris, Asa T Naluai, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Alexander Kluttig, Bernhard Strohmer, Andrie G Panayiotou, Maria Torres, Michael Knoflach, Jaroslav A Hubacek, Kamil Slowikowski, Soumya Raychaudhuri, Runjun D Kumar, Tamara B Harris, Lenore J Launer, Alan R Shuldiner, Alvaro Alonso, Joel S Bader, Georg Ehret, Hailiang Huang, W H Linda Kao, James B Strait, Peter W Macfarlane, Morris Brown, Mark J Caulfield, Nilesh J Samani, Florian Kronenberg, Johann Willeit, , J Gustav Smith, Karin H Greiser, Henriette Meyer zu Schwabedissen, Karl Werdan, Massimo Carella, Leopoldo Zelante, Susan R Heckbert, Bruce M Psaty, Jerome I Rotter, Ivana Kolčić, Ozren Polašek, Alan F Wright, Maura Griffin, Mark J Daly, David O Arnar, Hilma Holm, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Joshua C Denny, Dan M Roden, Rebecca L Zuvich, Valur Emilsson, Andrew S Plump, Martin G Larson, Christopher J O'Donnell, Xiaoyan Yin, Marco Bobbo, Adamo P d'Adamo, AnnaMaria Iorio, Gianfranco Sinagra, Angel Carracedo, Steven R Cummings, Michael A Nalls, Antti Jula, Kimmo K Kontula, Annukka Marjamaa, Lasse Oikarinen, Markus Perola, Kimmo Porthan, Raimund Erbel, Per Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Hagen Kälsch, Markus M Nöthen, Marcel den Hoed, Ruth J F Loos, Dag S Thelle, Christian Gieger, Thomas Meitinger, Siegfried Perz, Annette Peters, Hanna Prucha, Moritz F Sinner, Melanie Waldenberger, Rudolf A de Boer, Lude Franke, Pieter A van der Vleuten, Britt Maria Beckmann, Eimo Martens, Abdennasser Bardai, Nynke Hofman, Arthur A M Wilde, Elijah R Behr, Chrysoula Dalageorgou, John R Giudicessi, Argelia Medeiros-Domingo, Julien Barc, Florence Kyndt, Vincent Probst, Alice Ghidoni, Roberto Insolia, Robert M Hamilton, Stephen W Scherer, Jeffrey Brandimarto, Kenneth Margulies, Christine E Moravec, Fabiola Del Greco M, Christian Fuchsberger, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Wai K Lee, Graham C M Watt, Harry Campbell, Sarah H Wild, Nour E El Mokhtari, Norbert Frey, Folkert W Asselbergs, Irene Mateo Leach, Gerjan Navis, Maarten P van den Berg, Dirk J van Veldhuisen, Manolis Kellis, Bouwe P Krijthe, Oscar H Franco, Albert Hofman, Jan A Kors, André G Uitterlinden, Jacqueline C M Witteman, Lyudmyla Kedenko, Claudia Lamina, Ben A Oostra, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Edward G Lakatta, Antonella Mulas, Marco Orrù, David Schlessinger, Manuela Uda, Marcello R P Markus, Uwe Völker, Harold Snieder, Timothy D Spector, Johan Arnlöv, Lars Lind, Johan Sundström, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Mika Kivimäki, Mika Kähönen, Nina Mononen, Olli T Raitakari, Jorma S Viikari, Vera Adamkova, Stefan Kiechl, María Brión, Andrew N Nicolaides, Bernhard Paulweber, Johannes Haerting, Anna F Dominiczak, Fredrik Nyberg, Peter H Whincup, Aroon D Hingorani, Jean-Jacques Schott, Connie R Bezzina, Erik Ingelsson, Luigi Ferrucci, Paolo Gasparini, James F Wilson, Igor Rudan, Andre Franke, Thomas W Mühleisen, Peter P Pramstaller, Terho J Lehtimäki, Andrew D Paterson, Afshin Parsa, Yongmei Liu, Cornelia M van Duijn, David S Siscovick, Vilmundur Gudnason, Yalda Jamshidi, Veikko Salomaa, Stephan B Felix, Serena Sanna, Marylyn D Ritchie, Bruno H Stricker, Kari Stefansson, Laurie A Boyer, Thomas P Cappola, Jesper V Olsen, Kasper Lage, Peter J Schwartz, Stefan Kääb, Aravinda Chakravarti, Michael J Ackerman, Arne Pfeufer, Paul I W de Bakker, Christopher Newton-Cheh.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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The QT interval, an electrocardiographic measure reflecting myocardial repolarization, is a heritable trait. QT prolongation is a risk factor for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD) and could indicate the presence of the potentially lethal mendelian long-QT syndrome (LQTS). Using a genome-wide association and replication study in up to 100,000 individuals, we identified 35 common variant loci associated with QT interval that collectively explain ?8-10% of QT-interval variation and highlight the importance of calcium regulation in myocardial repolarization. Rare variant analysis of 6 new QT interval-associated loci in 298 unrelated probands with LQTS identified coding variants not found in controls but of uncertain causality and therefore requiring validation. Several newly identified loci encode proteins that physically interact with other recognized repolarization proteins. Our integration of common variant association, expression and orthogonal protein-protein interaction screens provides new insights into cardiac electrophysiology and identifies new candidate genes for ventricular arrhythmias, LQTS and SCD.
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Haptoglobin 2-2 genotype is not associated with cardiovascular risk in subjects with elevated glycohemoglobin-results from the Bruneck Study.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Haptoglobin (Hp) is an abundant plasma protein with antioxidant properties. The Hp 2-2 genotype has previously been linked to coronary heart disease risk in individuals with elevated glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). We investigated the association of Hp and HbA1c with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the longitudinal, population-based Bruneck Study.
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Lipoprotein (a) concentrations, apolipoprotein (a) phenotypes, and peripheral arterial disease in three independent cohorts.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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The relevance of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] concentrations and low-molecular-weight (LMW) apo(a) phenotypes in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) has only been investigated by few studies. Therefore, we analysed this association in three independent cohorts and performed a Mendelian Randomization approach using instrumental variable regression.
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Correlation between a positive family risk score and peripheral artery disease in one case-control and two population-based studies.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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To evaluate the association between a family history of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases or risk factors and the presence of peripheral artery disease (PAD).
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Discrimination and net reclassification of cardiovascular risk with lipoprotein(a): prospective 15-year outcomes in the Bruneck Study.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Recent studies showed that lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a causal risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, whether Lp(a) modifies clinical risk assessment was not established.
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Follow-up on genome-wide main effects: do polymorphisms modify the air pollution effect on lung function decline in adults?
Environ Int
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Improved air quality has been found associated with attenuated age-related decline in lung function. But whether genetic polymorphisms strongly associated with lung function play a modifying role in this attenuation process has so far not been investigated. We selected ten single nucleotide polymorphisms derived from the largest genome-wide association studies on lung function and examined whether they modified the association between the change in exposure to particulate matter ?10?m (?PM10) and lung function decline. 4310 participants from the SAPALDIA cohort provided valid spirometry measurements, a detailed pulmonary health questionnaire both at baseline and 11years later as well as blood samples for genetic testing. Spatially and temporally resolved air pollution exposures were assigned on an individual level based on participants' residences. Statistically significant interactions of moderate strength with ?PM10 were detected for rs2284746. Individuals with the CC genotype had a 21ml slower annual decline of the mid expiratory flow per 10?g/m(3) PM10 reduction over an 10-year period, while the benefits of CG and GG carriers were smaller (14 and 7ml per year, respectively; Pinteraction=0.04). The attenuated annual decline in the percentage of the forced expiratory volume in one second relative to the forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) was also increased with the presence of each C-allele (Pinteraction=0.009). We observed further suggestive interactions of similar magnitude in never-smokers, but none of the results would remain statistically significant after correction for multiple testing. We could not find strong evidence that lung function benefits from improved air quality are modified by polymorphisms associated with lung function level in large meta-analyzed genome-wide association studies.
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Leucocyte telomere length and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: new prospective cohort study and literature-based meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Short telomeres have been linked to various age-related diseases. We aimed to assess the association of telomere length with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in prospective cohort studies.
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A systematic evaluation of short tandem repeats in lipid candidate genes: riding on the SNP-wave.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Structural genetic variants as short tandem repeats (STRs) are not targeted in SNP-based association studies and thus, their possible association signals are missed. We systematically searched for STRs in gene regions known to contribute to total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels in two independent studies (KORA F4, n?=?2553 and SAPHIR, n?=?1648), resulting in 16 STRs that were finally evaluated. In a combined dataset of both studies, the sum of STR alleles was regressed on each phenotype, adjusted for age and sex. The association analyses were repeated for SNPs in a 200 kb region surrounding the respective STRs in the KORA F4 Study. Three STRs were significantly associated with total cholesterol (within LDLR, the APOA1/C3/A4/A5/BUD13 gene region and ABCG5/8), five with HDL cholesterol (3 within CETP, one in LPL and one inAPOA1/C3/A4/A5/BUD13), three with LDL cholesterol (LDLR, ABCG5/8 and CETP) and two with triglycerides (APOA1/C3/A4/A5/BUD13 and LPL). None of the investigated STRs, however, showed a significant association after adjusting for the lead or adjacent SNPs within that gene region. The evaluated STRs were found to be well tagged by the lead SNP within the respective gene regions. Therefore, the STRs reflect the association signals based on surrounding SNPs. In conclusion, none of the STRs contributed additionally to the SNP-based association signals identified in GWAS on lipid traits.
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Serum bilirubin is associated with lung function in a Swiss general population sample.
Eur. Respir. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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Bilirubin is a strong antioxidant. Increased serum levels were associated with respiratory disease and mortality risk. We studied the association of bilirubin with lung function in the SAPALDIA cohort.Associations between natural logarithmized bilirubin and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC, and mean forced expiratory flow between 25%-75% of FVC (FEF25-75) were tested using multiple linear regression in the whole study population (n=4195) and strata of ever smoking and high body mass index (BMI, defined by the highest distribution quartile). Associations were retested with single nucleotide polymorphism rs6742078, a genetic determinant of bilirubin.High bilirubin levels were significantly associated with higher FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75 overall. Upon stratification, significant associations persisted in ever smokers, amounting to 1.1 percent (95%-confidence interval 0.1 to 2.2) increase in FEV1/FVC, and 116.2 mL·sec(-1) (-15.9 to 248.4) in FEF25-75 per interquartile range of bilirubin exposure in smokers with high BMI. Associations were positive but non -significant in never smokers with high BMI. Similarly, rs6742078 genotype TT was associated with increased FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75.Our results suggest a possible protective role of bilirubin on lung tissue, which could be important for prevention and therapy.
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Common variants in mendelian kidney disease genes and their association with renal function.
Afshin Parsa, Christian Fuchsberger, Anna Köttgen, Conall M O'Seaghdha, Cristian Pattaro, Mariza de Andrade, Daniel I Chasman, Alexander Teumer, Karlhans Endlich, Matthias Olden, Ming-Huei Chen, Adrienne Tin, Young J Kim, Daniel Taliun, Man Li, Mary Feitosa, Mathias Gorski, Qiong Yang, Claudia Hundertmark, Meredith C Foster, Nicole Glazer, Aaron Isaacs, Madhumathi Rao, Albert V Smith, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Maksim Struchalin, Toshiko Tanaka, Guo Li, Shih-Jen Hwang, Elizabeth J Atkinson, Kurt Lohman, Marilyn C Cornelis, Asa Johansson, Anke Tönjes, Abbas Dehghan, Vincent Couraki, Elizabeth G Holliday, Rossella Sorice, Zoltan Kutalik, Terho Lehtimäki, Tonu Esko, Harshal Deshmukh, Sheila Ulivi, Audrey Y Chu, Federico Murgia, Stella Trompet, Medea Imboden, Barbara Kollerits, Giorgio Pistis, Tamara B Harris, Lenore J Launer, Thor Aspelund, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Braxton D Mitchell, Eric Boerwinkle, Helena Schmidt, Edith Hofer, Frank Hu, Ayse Demirkan, Ben A Oostra, Stephen T Turner, Jingzhong Ding, Jeanette S Andrews, Barry I Freedman, Franco Giulianini, Wolfgang Koenig, Thomas Illig, Angela Döring, H-Erich Wichmann, Lina Zgaga, Tatijana Zemunik, Mladen Boban, Cosetta Minelli, Heather E Wheeler, Wilmar Igl, Ghazal Zaboli, Sarah H Wild, Alan F Wright, Harry Campbell, David Ellinghaus, Ute Nöthlings, Gunnar Jacobs, Reiner Biffar, Florian Ernst, Georg Homuth, Heyo K Kroemer, Matthias Nauck, Sylvia Stracke, Uwe Völker, Henry Völzke, Peter Kovacs, Michael Stumvoll, Reedik Mägi, Albert Hofman, André G Uitterlinden, Fernando Rivadeneira, Yurii S Aulchenko, Ozren Polašek, Nick Hastie, Veronique Vitart, Catherine Helmer, Jie Jin Wang, Bénédicte Stengel, Daniela Ruggiero, Sven Bergmann, Mika Kähönen, Jorma Viikari, Tiit Nikopensius, Michael Province, Helen Colhoun, Alex Doney, Antonietta Robino, Bernhard K Krämer, Laura Portas, Ian Ford, Brendan M Buckley, Martin Adam, Gian-Andri Thun, Bernhard Paulweber, Margot Haun, Cinzia Sala, Paul Mitchell, Marina Ciullo, Peter Vollenweider, Olli Raitakari, Andres Metspalu, Colin Palmer, Paolo Gasparini, Mario Pirastu, J Wouter Jukema, Nicole M Probst-Hensch, Florian Kronenberg, Daniela Toniolo, Vilmundur Gudnason, Alan R Shuldiner, Josef Coresh, Reinhold Schmidt, Luigi Ferrucci, Cornelia M van Duijn, Ingrid Borecki, Sharon L R Kardia, Yongmei Liu, Gary C Curhan, Igor Rudan, Ulf Gyllensten, James F Wilson, Andre Franke, Peter P Pramstaller, Rainer Rettig, Inga Prokopenko, Jacqueline Witteman, Caroline Hayward, Paul M Ridker, Murielle Bochud, Iris M Heid, David S Siscovick, Caroline S Fox, W Linda Kao, Carsten A Böger.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Many common genetic variants identified by genome-wide association studies for complex traits map to genes previously linked to rare inherited Mendelian disorders. A systematic analysis of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes responsible for Mendelian diseases with kidney phenotypes has not been performed. We thus developed a comprehensive database of genes for Mendelian kidney conditions and evaluated the association between common genetic variants within these genes and kidney function in the general population. Using the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man database, we identified 731 unique disease entries related to specific renal search terms and confirmed a kidney phenotype in 218 of these entries, corresponding to mutations in 258 genes. We interrogated common SNPs (minor allele frequency >5%) within these genes for association with the estimated GFR in 74,354 European-ancestry participants from the CKDGen Consortium. However, the top four candidate SNPs (rs6433115 at LRP2, rs1050700 at TSC1, rs249942 at PALB2, and rs9827843 at ROBO2) did not achieve significance in a stage 2 meta-analysis performed in 56,246 additional independent individuals, indicating that these common SNPs are not associated with estimated GFR. The effect of less common or rare variants in these genes on kidney function in the general population and disease-specific cohorts requires further research.
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Causes and consequences of lipoprotein(a) abnormalities in kidney disease.
Clin. Exp. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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Lipoprotein(a) is one of the strongest genetically determined risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and patients with chronic kidney disease have major disturbances in lipoprotein(a) metabolism. Concentrations are increased and are influenced by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the amount of proteinuria. The reason for this elevation can be increased synthesis, as is the case for patients with nephrotic syndrome or those treated by peritoneal dialysis. In hemodialysis patients, a catabolic block is the reason for this elevation. The elevated concentrations might contribute to the tremendous cardiovascular risk in this particular population. In particular, the genetically determined small apolipoprotein(a) isoforms are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular events and total mortality.
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Causal and synthetic associations of variants in the SERPINA gene cluster with alpha1-antitrypsin serum levels.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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Several infrequent genetic polymorphisms in the SERPINA1 gene are known to substantially reduce concentration of alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) in the blood. Since low AAT serum levels fail to protect pulmonary tissue from enzymatic degradation, these polymorphisms also increase the risk for early onset chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The role of more common SERPINA1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in respiratory health remains poorly understood. We present here an agnostic investigation of genetic determinants of circulating AAT levels in a general population sample by performing a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 1392 individuals of the SAPALDIA cohort. Five common SNPs, defined by showing minor allele frequencies (MAFs) >5%, reached genome-wide significance, all located in the SERPINA gene cluster at 14q32.13. The top-ranking genotyped SNP rs4905179 was associated with an estimated effect of ? = -0.068 g/L per minor allele (P = 1.20*10(-12)). But denser SERPINA1 locus genotyping in 5569 participants with subsequent stepwise conditional analysis, as well as exon-sequencing in a subsample (N = 410), suggested that AAT serum level is causally determined at this locus by rare (MAF<1%) and low-frequent (MAF 1-5%) variants only, in particular by the well-documented protein inhibitor S and Z (PI S, PI Z) variants. Replication of the association of rs4905179 with AAT serum levels in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (N = 8273) was successful (P<0.0001), as was the replication of its synthetic nature (the effect disappeared after adjusting for PI S and Z, P = 0.57). Extending the analysis to lung function revealed a more complex situation. Only in individuals with severely compromised pulmonary health (N = 397), associations of common SNPs at this locus with lung function were driven by rarer PI S or Z variants. Overall, our meta-analysis of lung function in ever-smokers does not support a functional role of common SNPs in the SERPINA gene cluster in the general population.
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Analytical characterization and clinical evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for measurement of afamin in human plasma.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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Comparative proteomics has recently identified afamin, the newest member of the albumin gene family, as a potential biomarker for ovarian cancer. The aim of this study was the analytical and clinical evaluation of a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of afamin in human plasma.
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Mendelian randomization studies do not support a causal role for reduced circulating adiponectin levels in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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Adiponectin is strongly inversely associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, but its causal role remains controversial. We used a Mendelian randomization approach to test the hypothesis that adiponectin causally influences insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. We used genetic variants at the ADIPOQ gene as instruments to calculate a regression slope between adiponectin levels and metabolic traits (up to 31,000 individuals) and a combination of instrumental variables and summary statistics-based genetic risk scores to test the associations with gold-standard measures of insulin sensitivity (2,969 individuals) and type 2 diabetes (15,960 case subjects and 64,731 control subjects). In conventional regression analyses, a 1-SD decrease in adiponectin levels was correlated with a 0.31-SD (95% CI 0.26-0.35) increase in fasting insulin, a 0.34-SD (0.30-0.38) decrease in insulin sensitivity, and a type 2 diabetes odds ratio (OR) of 1.75 (1.47-2.13). The instrumental variable analysis revealed no evidence of a causal association between genetically lower circulating adiponectin and higher fasting insulin (0.02 SD; 95% CI -0.07 to 0.11; N = 29,771), nominal evidence of a causal relationship with lower insulin sensitivity (-0.20 SD; 95% CI -0.38 to -0.02; N = 1,860), and no evidence of a relationship with type 2 diabetes (OR 0.94; 95% CI 0.75-1.19; N = 2,777 case subjects and 13,011 control subjects). Using the ADIPOQ summary statistics genetic risk scores, we found no evidence of an association between adiponectin-lowering alleles and insulin sensitivity (effect per weighted adiponectin-lowering allele: -0.03 SD; 95% CI -0.07 to 0.01; N = 2,969) or type 2 diabetes (OR per weighted adiponectin-lowering allele: 0.99; 95% CI 0.95-1.04; 15,960 case subjects vs. 64,731 control subjects). These results do not provide any consistent evidence that interventions aimed at increasing adiponectin levels will improve insulin sensitivity or risk of type 2 diabetes.
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Family history of diabetes is associated with higher risk for prediabetes: a multicentre analysis from the German Center for Diabetes Research.
Diabetologia
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2013
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Prediabetes is a collective term for different subphenotypes (impaired glucose tolerance [IGT] and/or impaired fasting glucose [IFG]) with different pathophysiologies. A positive family history for type 2 diabetes (FHD) is associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes. We assumed that it would also associate with prediabetes, but wondered whether all subphenotypes are related to a positive family history.
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Lipoprotein kinetics in male hemodialysis patients treated with atorvastatin.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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In vivo metabolism of atherogenic apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins is severely impaired in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD), resulting in markedly prolonged residence times of these particles. It is unclear whether treatment with statins improves LDL kinetics in HD patients as is known for the general population. Therefore, this kinetic study assessed apoB-containing lipoproteins in these patients.
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The association of relative telomere length with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease: results from the CAVASIC study.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Short telomere length has been described to be associated with biological aging including atherosclerosis phenotypes. However, information in patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is sparse. We therefore aimed to investigate whether inter-individual differences in relative telomere length (RTL) are associated with symptomatic PAD.
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The shared allelic architecture of adiponectin levels and coronary artery disease.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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A large body of epidemiologic data strongly suggests an association between excess adiposity and coronary artery disease (CAD). Low adiponectin levels, a hormone secreted only from adipocytes, have been associated with an increased risk of CAD in observational studies. However, these associations cannot clarify whether this relationship is causal or due to a shared set of causal factors or even confounding. Genome-wide association studies have identified common variants that influence adiponectin levels, providing valuable tools to examine the genetic relationship between adiponectin and CAD.
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SNPflow: a lightweight application for the processing, storing and automatic quality checking of genotyping assays.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) play a prominent role in modern genetics. Current genotyping technologies such as Sequenom iPLEX, ABI TaqMan and KBioscience KASPar made the genotyping of huge SNP sets in large populations straightforward and allow the generation of hundreds of thousands of genotypes even in medium sized labs. While data generation is straightforward, the subsequent data conversion, storage and quality control steps are time-consuming, error-prone and require extensive bioinformatic support. In order to ease this tedious process, we developed SNPflow. SNPflow is a lightweight, intuitive and easily deployable application, which processes genotype data from Sequenom MassARRAY (iPLEX) and ABI 7900HT (TaqMan, KASPar) systems and is extendible to other genotyping methods as well. SNPflow automatically converts the raw output files to ready-to-use genotype lists, calculates all standard quality control values such as call rate, expected and real amount of replicates, minor allele frequency, absolute number of discordant replicates, discordance rate and the p-value of the HWE test, checks the plausibility of the observed genotype frequencies by comparing them to HapMap/1000-Genomes, provides a module for the processing of SNPs, which allow sex determination for DNA quality control purposes and, finally, stores all data in a relational database. SNPflow runs on all common operating systems and comes as both stand-alone version and multi-user version for laboratory-wide use. The software, a user manual, screenshots and a screencast illustrating the main features are available at http://genepi-snpflow.i-med.ac.at.
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Associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria with mortality and renal failure by sex: a meta-analysis.
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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To assess for the presence of a sex interaction in the associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and end stage renal disease.
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Reproductive factors and its association with peripheral arterial disease in women aged 52-81 years: the KORA F4 study.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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Sex differences in the onset of cardiovascular disease disappear in the postmenopause, suggesting that reproductive factors could be influential. The aim of the present study was to examine the possible association between reproductive parameters and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in a female population-based sample.
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Polymorphisms in the gene regions of the adaptor complex LAMTOR2/LAMTOR3 and their association with breast cancer risk.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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The late endosomal LAMTOR complex serves as a convergence point for both the RAF/MEK/ERK and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways. Interestingly, both of these signalling cascades play a significant role in the aetiology of breast cancer. Our aim was to address the possible role of genetic polymorphisms in LAMTOR2 and LAMTOR3 as genetic risk factors for breast cancer.
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Comparison and evaluation of cardiac biomarkers in patients with intermittent claudication: results from the CAVASIC study.
Clin. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Plasma concentrations of the peptides midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM), midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), and C-terminal endothelin-1 precursor fragment (CT-proET-1) are increased in various cardiovascular conditions. However, there is limited information about the association and comparative performance of these peptides in peripheral arterial disease (PAD).
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Blockade of receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B (RANKL) signaling improves hepatic insulin resistance and prevents development of diabetes mellitus.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Hepatic insulin resistance is a driving force in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is tightly coupled with excessive storage of fat and the ensuing inflammation within the liver. There is compelling evidence that activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and downstream inflammatory signaling pathways systemically and in the liver are key events in the etiology of hepatic insulin resistance and ?-cell dysfunction, although the molecular mechanisms involved are incompletely understood. We here test the hypothesis that receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL), a prototypic activator of NF-?B, contributes to this process using both an epidemiological and experimental approach. In the prospective population-based Bruneck Study, a high serum concentration of soluble RANKL emerged as a significant (P<0.001) and independent risk predictor of T2DM manifestation. In close agreement, systemic or hepatic blockage of RANKL signaling in genetic and nutritional mouse models of T2DM resulted in a marked improvement of hepatic insulin sensitivity and amelioration or even normalization of plasma glucose concentrations and glucose tolerance. Overall, this study provides evidence for a role of RANKL signaling in the pathogenesis of T2DM. If so, translation to the clinic may be feasible given current pharmacological strategies to lower RANKL activity to treat osteoporosis.
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microRNAs in nociceptive circuits as predictors of future clinical applications.
Front Mol Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Neuro-immune alterations in the peripheral and central nervous system play a role in the pathophysiology of chronic pain, and non-coding RNAs - and microRNAs (miRNAs) in particular - regulate both immune and neuronal processes. Specifically, miRNAs control macromolecular complexes in neurons, glia and immune cells and regulate signals used for neuro-immune communication in the pain pathway. Therefore, miRNAs may be hypothesized as critically important master switches modulating chronic pain. In particular, understanding the concerted function of miRNA in the regulation of nociception and endogenous analgesia and defining the importance of miRNAs in the circuitries and cognitive, emotional and behavioral components involved in pain is expected to shed new light on the enigmatic pathophysiology of neuropathic pain, migraine and complex regional pain syndrome. Specific miRNAs may evolve as new druggable molecular targets for pain prevention and relief. Furthermore, predisposing miRNA expression patterns and inter-individual variations and polymorphisms in miRNAs and/or their binding sites may serve as biomarkers for pain and help to predict individual risks for certain types of pain and responsiveness to analgesic drugs. miRNA-based diagnostics are expected to develop into hands-on tools that allow better patient stratification, improved mechanism-based treatment, and targeted prevention strategies for high risk individuals.
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Homoarginine and progression of chronic kidney disease: results from the Mild to Moderate Kidney Disease Study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Homoarginine is an amino acid derivative mainly synthesized in the kidney. It is suggested to increase nitric oxide availability, enhance endothelial function and to protect against cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to investigate the relation between homoarginine, kidney function and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD).
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Association between chromosome 9p21 variants and the ankle-brachial index identified by a meta-analysis of 21 genome-wide association studies.
Joanne M Murabito, Charles C White, Maryam Kavousi, Yan V Sun, Mary F Feitosa, Vijay Nambi, Claudia Lamina, Arne Schillert, Stefan Coassin, Joshua C Bis, Linda Broer, Dana C Crawford, Nora Franceschini, Ruth Frikke-Schmidt, Margot Haun, Suzanne Holewijn, Jennifer E Huffman, Shih-Jen Hwang, Stefan Kiechl, Barbara Kollerits, May E Montasser, Ilja M Nolte, Megan E Rudock, Andrea Senft, Alexander Teumer, Pim van der Harst, Veronique Vitart, Lindsay L Waite, Andrew R Wood, Christina L Wassel, Devin M Absher, Matthew A Allison, Najaf Amin, Alice Arnold, Folkert W Asselbergs, Yurii Aulchenko, Stefania Bandinelli, Maja Barbalic, Mladen Boban, Kristin Brown-Gentry, David J Couper, Michael H Criqui, Abbas Dehghan, Martin den Heijer, Benjamin Dieplinger, Jingzhong Ding, Marcus Dörr, Christine Espinola-Klein, Stephan B Felix, Luigi Ferrucci, Aaron R Folsom, Gustav Fraedrich, Quince Gibson, Robert Goodloe, Grgo Gunjaca, Meinhard Haltmayer, Gerardo Heiss, Albert Hofman, Arne Kieback, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Ivana Kolčić, Iftikhar J Kullo, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Karl J Lackner, Xiaohui Li, Wolfgang Lieb, Kurt Lohman, Christa Meisinger, David Melzer, Emile R Mohler, Ivana Mudnic, Thomas Mueller, Gerjan Navis, Friedrich Oberhollenzer, Jeffrey W Olin, Jeff O'Connell, Christopher J O'Donnell, Walter Palmas, Brenda W Penninx, Astrid Petersmann, Ozren Polašek, Bruce M Psaty, Barbara Rantner, Ken Rice, Fernando Rivadeneira, Jerome I Rotter, Adrie Seldenrijk, Marietta Stadler, Monika Summerer, Toshiko Tanaka, Anne Tybjaerg-Hansen, André G Uitterlinden, Wiek H van Gilst, Sita H Vermeulen, Sarah H Wild, Philipp S Wild, Johann Willeit, Tanja Zeller, Tatijana Zemunik, Lina Zgaga, Themistocles L Assimes, Stefan Blankenberg, Eric Boerwinkle, Harry Campbell, John P Cooke, Jacqueline de Graaf, David Herrington, Sharon L R Kardia, Braxton D Mitchell, Anna Murray, Thomas Münzel, Anne B Newman, Ben A Oostra, Igor Rudan, Alan R Shuldiner, Harold Snieder, Cornelia M van Duijn, Uwe Völker, Alan F Wright, H-Erich Wichmann, James F Wilson, Jacqueline C M Witteman, Yongmei Liu, Caroline Hayward, Ingrid B Borecki, Andreas Ziegler, Kari E North, L Adrienne Cupples, Florian Kronenberg.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2011
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Genetic determinants of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) remain largely unknown. To identify genetic variants associated with the ankle-brachial index (ABI), a noninvasive measure of PAD, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association study data from 21 population-based cohorts.
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Genetic associations with lipoprotein subfractions provide information on their biological nature.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2011
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Adverse levels of lipoproteins are highly heritable and constitute risk factors for cardiovascular outcomes. Hitherto, genome-wide association studies revealed 95 lipid-associated loci. However, due to the small effect sizes of these associations large sample numbers (>100 000 samples) were needed. Here we show that analyzing more refined lipid phenotypes, namely lipoprotein subfractions, can increase the number of significantly associated loci compared with bulk high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein analysis in a study with identical sample numbers. Moreover, lipoprotein subfractions provide novel insight into the human lipid metabolism. We measured 15 lipoprotein subfractions (L1-L15) in 1791 samples using (1)H-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy. Using cluster analyses, we quantified inter-relationships among lipoprotein subfractions. Additionally, we analyzed associations with subfractions at known lipid loci. We identified five distinct groups of subfractions: one (L1) was only marginally captured by serum lipids and therefore extends our knowledge of lipoprotein biochemistry. During a lipid-tolerance test, L1 lost its special position. In the association analysis, we found that eight loci (LIPC, CETP, PLTP, FADS1-2-3, SORT1, GCKR, APOB, APOA1) were associated with the subfractions, whereas only four loci (CETP, SORT1, GCKR, APOA1) were associated with serum lipids. For LIPC, we observed a 10-fold increase in the variance explained by our regression models. In conclusion, NMR-based fine mapping of lipoprotein subfractions provides novel information on their biological nature and strengthens the associations with genetic loci. Future clinical studies are now needed to investigate their biomedical relevance.
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Interaction of time-varying albumin and phosphorus on mortality in incident dialysis patients.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2011
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Hypoalbuminemia and hyperphosphatemia have been shown to be strong predictors of mortality in dialysis patients that might not be independent from each other. We prospectively investigated the relationship and interaction between serum albumin and phosphorus with all-cause mortality in an inception cohort of incident dialysis patients.
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The German Chronic Kidney Disease (GCKD) study: design and methods.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2011
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasingly recognized as a global health problem. The conditions leading to CKD, the health impact of CKD and the prognosis differ markedly between affected individuals. In particular, renal failure and cardiovascular mortality are competing risks for CKD patients. Opportunities for targeted intervention are very limited so far and require an improved understanding of the natural course of CKD, of the risk factors associated with various clinical end points and co-morbidities as well as of the underlying pathogenic mechanisms.
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Look beyond ones own nose: combination of information from publicly available sources reveals an association of GATA4 polymorphisms with plasma triglycerides.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2011
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GATA4iKO mice exhibit impeded triglyceride absorption from intestine and decreased plasma triglyceride levels. Data in humans are lacking. We hypothesized that triglyceride levels might also be regulated by polymorphisms in the GATA4 gene in humans. We used publicly available data from different sources to evaluate this hypothesis. Our approach is a more often applicable advance to uncover associations and their functional implications which would have been otherwise missed by standard genome-wide association studies (GWAS).
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Coumarins and survival in incident dialysis patients.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2011
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The benefit and risk of oral anticoagulation in dialysis patients are debated controversially.
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Human metabolic individuality in biomedical and pharmaceutical research.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many risk loci for complex diseases, but effect sizes are typically small and information on the underlying biological processes is often lacking. Associations with metabolic traits as functional intermediates can overcome these problems and potentially inform individualized therapy. Here we report a comprehensive analysis of genotype-dependent metabolic phenotypes using a GWAS with non-targeted metabolomics. We identified 37 genetic loci associated with blood metabolite concentrations, of which 25 show effect sizes that are unusually high for GWAS and account for 10-60% differences in metabolite levels per allele copy. Our associations provide new functional insights for many disease-related associations that have been reported in previous studies, including those for cardiovascular and kidney disorders, type 2 diabetes, cancer, gout, venous thromboembolism and Crohns disease. The study advances our knowledge of the genetic basis of metabolic individuality in humans and generates many new hypotheses for biomedical and pharmaceutical research.
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A genome-wide screen for interactions reveals a new locus on 4p15 modifying the effect of waist-to-hip ratio on total cholesterol.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2011
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Recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies described 95 loci controlling serum lipid levels. These common variants explain ?25% of the heritability of the phenotypes. To date, no unbiased screen for gene-environment interactions for circulating lipids has been reported. We screened for variants that modify the relationship between known epidemiological risk factors and circulating lipid levels in a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) data from 18 population-based cohorts with European ancestry (maximum N?=?32,225). We collected 8 further cohorts (N?=?17,102) for replication, and rs6448771 on 4p15 demonstrated genome-wide significant interaction with waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR) on total cholesterol (TC) with a combined P-value of 4.79×10(-9). There were two potential candidate genes in the region, PCDH7 and CCKAR, with differential expression levels for rs6448771 genotypes in adipose tissue. The effect of WHR on TC was strongest for individuals carrying two copies of G allele, for whom a one standard deviation (sd) difference in WHR corresponds to 0.19 sd difference in TC concentration, while for A allele homozygous the difference was 0.12 sd. Our findings may open up possibilities for targeted intervention strategies for people characterized by specific genomic profiles. However, more refined measures of both body-fat distribution and metabolic measures are needed to understand how their joint dynamics are modified by the newly found locus.
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Discovery of sexual dimorphisms in metabolic and genetic biomarkers.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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Metabolomic profiling and the integration of whole-genome genetic association data has proven to be a powerful tool to comprehensively explore gene regulatory networks and to investigate the effects of genetic variation at the molecular level. Serum metabolite concentrations allow a direct readout of biological processes, and association of specific metabolomic signatures with complex diseases such as Alzheimers disease and cardiovascular and metabolic disorders has been shown. There are well-known correlations between sex and the incidence, prevalence, age of onset, symptoms, and severity of a disease, as well as the reaction to drugs. However, most of the studies published so far did not consider the role of sexual dimorphism and did not analyse their data stratified by gender. This study investigated sex-specific differences of serum metabolite concentrations and their underlying genetic determination. For discovery and replication we used more than 3,300 independent individuals from KORA F3 and F4 with metabolite measurements of 131 metabolites, including amino acids, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, acylcarnitines, and C6-sugars. A linear regression approach revealed significant concentration differences between males and females for 102 out of 131 metabolites (p-values<3.8×10(-4); Bonferroni-corrected threshold). Sex-specific genome-wide association studies (GWAS) showed genome-wide significant differences in beta-estimates for SNPs in the CPS1 locus (carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 1, significance level: p<3.8×10(-10); Bonferroni-corrected threshold) for glycine. We showed that the metabolite profiles of males and females are significantly different and, furthermore, that specific genetic variants in metabolism-related genes depict sexual dimorphism. Our study provides new important insights into sex-specific differences of cell regulatory processes and underscores that studies should consider sex-specific effects in design and interpretation.
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Differences between human plasma and serum metabolite profiles.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2011
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Human plasma and serum are widely used matrices in clinical and biological studies. However, different collecting procedures and the coagulation cascade influence concentrations of both proteins and metabolites in these matrices. The effects on metabolite concentration profiles have not been fully characterized.
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A genome-wide association study of metabolic traits in human urine.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2011
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We present a genome-wide association study of metabolic traits in human urine, designed to investigate the detoxification capacity of the human body. Using NMR spectroscopy, we tested for associations between 59 metabolites in urine from 862 male participants in the population-based SHIP study. We replicated the results using 1,039 additional samples of the same study, including a 5-year follow-up, and 992 samples from the independent KORA study. We report five loci with joint P values of association from 3.2 × 10(-19) to 2.1 × 10(-182). Variants at three of these loci have previously been linked with important clinical outcomes: SLC7A9 is a risk locus for chronic kidney disease, NAT2 for coronary artery disease and genotype-dependent response to drug toxicity, and SLC6A20 for iminoglycinuria. Moreover, we identify rs37369 in AGXT2 as the genetic basis of hyper-?-aminoisobutyric aciduria.
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Genome-wide association and large-scale follow up identifies 16 new loci influencing lung function.
María Soler Artigas, Daan W Loth, Louise V Wain, Sina A Gharib, Ma'en Obeidat, Wenbo Tang, Guangju Zhai, Jing Hua Zhao, Albert Vernon Smith, Jennifer E Huffman, Eva Albrecht, Catherine M Jackson, David M Evans, Gemma Cadby, Myriam Fornage, Ani Manichaikul, Lorna M Lopez, Toby Johnson, Melinda C Aldrich, Thor Aspelund, Inês Barroso, Harry Campbell, Patricia A Cassano, David J Couper, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Nora Franceschini, Melissa Garcia, Christian Gieger, Gauti Kjartan Gislason, Ivica Grković, Christopher J Hammond, Dana B Hancock, Tamara B Harris, Adaikalavan Ramasamy, Susan R Heckbert, Markku Heliövaara, Georg Homuth, Pirro G Hysi, Alan L James, Stipan Janković, Bonnie R Joubert, Stefan Karrasch, Norman Klopp, Beate Koch, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Lenore J Launer, Yongmei Liu, Laura R Loehr, Kurt Lohman, Ruth J F Loos, Thomas Lumley, Khalid A Al Balushi, Wei Q Ang, R Graham Barr, John Beilby, John D Blakey, Mladen Boban, Vesna Boraska, Jonas Brisman, John R Britton, Guy G Brusselle, Cyrus Cooper, Ivan Curjuric, Santosh Dahgam, Ian J Deary, Shah Ebrahim, Mark Eijgelsheim, Clyde Francks, Darya Gaysina, Raquel Granell, Xiangjun Gu, John L Hankinson, Rebecca Hardy, Sarah E Harris, John Henderson, Amanda Henry, Aroon D Hingorani, Albert Hofman, Patrick G Holt, Jennie Hui, Michael L Hunter, Medea Imboden, Karen A Jameson, Shona M Kerr, Ivana Kolčić, Florian Kronenberg, Jason Z Liu, Jonathan Marchini, Tricia McKeever, Andrew D Morris, Anna-Carin Olin, David J Porteous, Dirkje S Postma, Stephen S Rich, Susan M Ring, Fernando Rivadeneira, Thierry Rochat, Avan Aihie Sayer, Ian Sayers, Peter D Sly, George Davey Smith, Akshay Sood, John M Starr, André G Uitterlinden, Judith M Vonk, S Goya Wannamethee, Peter H Whincup, Cisca Wijmenga, O Dale Williams, Andrew Wong, Massimo Mangino, Kristin D Marciante, Wendy L McArdle, Bernd Meibohm, Alanna C Morrison, Kari E North, Ernst Omenaas, Lyle J Palmer, Kirsi H Pietiläinen, Isabelle Pin, Ozren Pola Sbreve Ek, Anneli Pouta, Bruce M Psaty, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Taina Rantanen, Samuli Ripatti, Jerome I Rotter, Igor Rudan, Alicja R Rudnicka, Holger Schulz, So-Youn Shin, Tim D Spector, Ida Surakka, Veronique Vitart, Henry Völzke, Nicholas J Wareham, Nicole M Warrington, H-Erich Wichmann, Sarah H Wild, Jemma B Wilk, Matthias Wjst, Alan F Wright, Lina Zgaga, Tatijana Zemunik, Craig E Pennell, Fredrik Nyberg, Diana Kuh, John W Holloway, H Marike Boezen, Debbie A Lawlor, Richard W Morris, Nicole Probst-Hensch, , Jaakko Kaprio, James F Wilson, Caroline Hayward, Mika Kähönen, Joachim Heinrich, Arthur W Musk, Deborah L Jarvis, Sven Gläser, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Bruno H Ch Stricker, Paul Elliott, George T O'Connor, David P Strachan, Stephanie J London, Ian P Hall, Vilmundur Gudnason, Martin D Tobin.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
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Pulmonary function measures reflect respiratory health and are used in the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We tested genome-wide association with forced expiratory volume in 1 second and the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity in 48,201 individuals of European ancestry with follow up of the top associations in up to an additional 46,411 individuals. We identified new regions showing association (combined P < 5 × 10(-8)) with pulmonary function in or near MFAP2, TGFB2, HDAC4, RARB, MECOM (also known as EVI1), SPATA9, ARMC2, NCR3, ZKSCAN3, CDC123, C10orf11, LRP1, CCDC38, MMP15, CFDP1 and KCNE2. Identification of these 16 new loci may provide insight into the molecular mechanisms regulating pulmonary function and into molecular targets for future therapy to alleviate reduced lung function.
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Meta analysis of candidate gene variants outside the LPA locus with Lp(a) plasma levels in 14,500 participants of six White European cohorts.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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Both genome-wide association studies and candidate gene studies have reported that the major determinant of plasma levels of the Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] reside within the LPA locus on chromosome 6. We have used data from the HumanCVD BeadChip to explore the contribution of other candidate genes determining Lp(a) levels.
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CUBN is a gene locus for albuminuria.
Carsten A Böger, Ming-Huei Chen, Adrienne Tin, Matthias Olden, Anna Köttgen, Ian H de Boer, Christian Fuchsberger, Conall M O'Seaghdha, Cristian Pattaro, Alexander Teumer, Ching-Ti Liu, Nicole L Glazer, Man Li, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Toshiko Tanaka, Carmen A Peralta, Zoltan Kutalik, Jian'an Luan, Jing Hua Zhao, Shih-Jen Hwang, Ermeg Akylbekova, Holly Kramer, Pim van der Harst, Albert V Smith, Kurt Lohman, Mariza de Andrade, Caroline Hayward, Barbara Kollerits, Anke Tönjes, Thor Aspelund, Erik Ingelsson, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Lenore J Launer, Tamara B Harris, Alan R Shuldiner, Braxton D Mitchell, Dan E Arking, Nora Franceschini, Eric Boerwinkle, Josephine Egan, Dena Hernandez, Muredach Reilly, Raymond R Townsend, Thomas Lumley, David S Siscovick, Bruce M Psaty, Bryan Kestenbaum, Talin Haritunians, Sven Bergmann, Peter Vollenweider, Gérard Waeber, Vincent Mooser, Dawn Waterworth, Andrew D Johnson, Jose C Florez, James B Meigs, Xiaoning Lu, Stephen T Turner, Elizabeth J Atkinson, Tennille S Leak, Knut Aasarød, Frank Skorpen, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Thomas Illig, Jens Baumert, Wolfgang Koenig, Bernhard K Krämer, Olivier Devuyst, Josyf C Mychaleckyj, Cosetta Minelli, Stephan J L Bakker, Lyudmyla Kedenko, Bernhard Paulweber, Stefan Coassin, Karlhans Endlich, Heyo K Kroemer, Reiner Biffar, Sylvia Stracke, Henry Völzke, Michael Stumvoll, Reedik Mägi, Harry Campbell, Veronique Vitart, Nicholas D Hastie, Vilmundur Gudnason, Sharon L R Kardia, Yongmei Liu, Ozren Polašek, Gary Curhan, Florian Kronenberg, Inga Prokopenko, Igor Rudan, Johan Arnlöv, Stein Hallan, Gerjan Navis, , Afshin Parsa, Luigi Ferrucci, Josef Coresh, Michael G Shlipak, Shelley B Bull, Nicholas J Paterson, H-Erich Wichmann, Nicholas J Wareham, Ruth J F Loos, Jerome I Rotter, Peter P Pramstaller, L Adrienne Cupples, Jacques S Beckmann, Qiong Yang, Iris M Heid, Rainer Rettig, Albert W Dreisbach, Murielle Bochud, Caroline S Fox, W H L Kao.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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Identification of genetic risk factors for albuminuria may alter strategies for early prevention of CKD progression, particularly among patients with diabetes. Little is known about the influence of common genetic variants on albuminuria in both general and diabetic populations. We performed a meta-analysis of data from 63,153 individuals of European ancestry with genotype information from genome-wide association studies (CKDGen Consortium) and from a large candidate gene study (CARe Consortium) to identify susceptibility loci for the quantitative trait urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) and the clinical diagnosis microalbuminuria. We identified an association between a missense variant (I2984V) in the CUBN gene, which encodes cubilin, and both UACR (P = 1.1 × 10(-11)) and microalbuminuria (P = 0.001). We observed similar associations among 6981 African Americans in the CARe Consortium. The associations between this variant and both UACR and microalbuminuria were significant in individuals of European ancestry regardless of diabetes status. Finally, this variant associated with a 41% increased risk for the development of persistent microalbuminuria during 20 years of follow-up among 1304 participants with type 1 diabetes in the prospective DCCT/EDIC Study. In summary, we identified a missense CUBN variant that associates with levels of albuminuria in both the general population and in individuals with diabetes.
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Association of eGFR-Related Loci Identified by GWAS with Incident CKD and ESRD.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2011
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Family studies suggest a genetic component to the etiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end stage renal disease (ESRD). Previously, we identified 16 loci for eGFR in genome-wide association studies, but the associations of these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for incident CKD or ESRD are unknown. We thus investigated the association of these loci with incident CKD in 26,308 individuals of European ancestry free of CKD at baseline drawn from eight population-based cohorts followed for a median of 7.2 years (including 2,122 incident CKD cases defined as eGFR <60ml/min/1.73m(2) at follow-up) and with ESRD in four case-control studies in subjects of European ancestry (3,775 cases, 4,577 controls). SNPs at 11 of the 16 loci (UMOD, PRKAG2, ANXA9, DAB2, SHROOM3, DACH1, STC1, SLC34A1, ALMS1/NAT8, UBE2Q2, and GCKR) were associated with incident CKD; p-values ranged from p?=?4.1e-9 in UMOD to p?=?0.03 in GCKR. After adjusting for baseline eGFR, six of these loci remained significantly associated with incident CKD (UMOD, PRKAG2, ANXA9, DAB2, DACH1, and STC1). SNPs in UMOD (OR?=?0.92, p?=?0.04) and GCKR (OR?=?0.93, p?=?0.03) were nominally associated with ESRD. In summary, the majority of eGFR-related loci are either associated or show a strong trend towards association with incident CKD, but have modest associations with ESRD in individuals of European descent. Additional work is required to characterize the association of genetic determinants of CKD and ESRD at different stages of disease progression.
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The association of mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin and mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide with mortality in an incident dialysis cohort.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2011
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High levels of the plasma peptides mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) and mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) are associated with clinical outcomes in the general population. Data in patients with chronic kidney disease are sparse. We therefore investigated the association of MR-proANP and MR-proADM levels with all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality, CV events and peripheral arterial disease in 201 incident dialysis patients of the INVOR-Study prospectively followed for a period of up to more than 7 years. The overall mortality rate was 43%, thereof 43% due to CV events. Both baseline MR-proANP and MR-proADM were associated with higher risk of all-cause (HR?=?1.44, p?=?0.001 and HR?=?1.32, p?=?0.002, respectively) and CV mortality (HR?=?1.75, p<0.001 and HR?=?1.41, p?=?0.007, respectively) after adjustment for age, sex, previous CV events, diabetes mellitus and time-dependent type of renal replacement therapy. We then stratified patients in high risk (both peptides in the upper tertile), intermediate risk (only one of the two peptides in the upper tertile) and low risk (none in the upper tertile). Although demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were similar among the intermediate and high risk group, to be with both parameters in the upper tertile was associated with a 3-fold higher risk for all-cause (HR?=?2.87, p<0.001) and CV mortality (HR?=?3.58, p?=?0.001). In summary, among incident dialysis patients MR-proANP and MR-proADM were shown to be associated with all-cause and CV mortality, with the highest risk when both parameters were in the upper tertiles.
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Mirror extreme BMI phenotypes associated with gene dosage at the chromosome 16p11.2 locus.
Sébastien Jacquemont, Alexandre Reymond, Flore Zufferey, Louise Harewood, Robin G Walters, Zoltan Kutalik, Danielle Martinet, Yiping Shen, Armand Valsesia, Noam D Beckmann, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Marco Belfiore, Sonia Bouquillon, Dominique Campion, Nicole de Leeuw, Bert B A de Vries, Tonu Esko, Bridget A Fernandez, Fernando Fernandez-Aranda, José Manuel Fernández-Real, Mònica Gratacòs, Audrey Guilmatre, Juliane Hoyer, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, R Frank Kooy, Ants Kurg, Cédric Le Caignec, Katrin Männik, Orah S Platt, Damien Sanlaville, Mieke M van Haelst, Sergi Villatoro Gomez, Faida Walha, Bai-Lin Wu, Yongguo Yu, Azzedine Aboura, Marie-Claude Addor, Yves Alembik, Stylianos E Antonarakis, Benoit Arveiler, Magalie Barth, Nathalie Bednarek, Frédérique Béna, Sven Bergmann, Mylène Beri, Laura Bernardini, Bettina Blaumeiser, Dominique Bonneau, Armand Bottani, Odile Boute, Han G Brunner, Dorothée Cailley, Patrick Callier, Jean Chiesa, Jacqueline Chrast, Lachlan Coin, Charles Coutton, Jean-Marie Cuisset, Jean-Christophe Cuvellier, Albert David, Bénédicte de Freminville, Bruno Delobel, Marie-Ange Delrue, Bénédicte Demeer, Dominique Descamps, Gérard Didelot, Klaus Dieterich, Vittoria Disciglio, Martine Doco-Fenzy, Séverine Drunat, Bénédicte Duban-Bedu, Christèle Dubourg, Julia S El-Sayed Moustafa, Paul Elliott, Brigitte H W Faas, Laurence Faivre, Anne Faudet, Florence Fellmann, Alessandra Ferrarini, Richard Fisher, Elisabeth Flori, Lukas Forer, Dominique Gaillard, Marion Gérard, Christian Gieger, Stefania Gimelli, Giorgio Gimelli, Hans J Grabe, Agnès Guichet, Olivier Guillin, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Delphine Heron, Loyse Hippolyte, Muriel Holder, Georg Homuth, Bertrand Isidor, Sylvie Jaillard, Zdenek Jaros, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, Géraldine Joly Helas, Philippe Jonveaux, Satu Kaksonen, Boris Keren, Anita Kloss-Brandstätter, Nine V A M Knoers, David A Koolen, Peter M Kroisel, Florian Kronenberg, Audrey Labalme, Emilie Landais, Elisabetta Lapi, Valérie Layet, Solenn Legallic, Bruno Leheup, Barbara Leube, Suzanne Lewis, Josette Lucas, Kay D MacDermot, Páll Magnússon, Christian Marshall, Michèle Mathieu-Dramard, Mark I McCarthy, Thomas Meitinger, Maria Antonietta Mencarelli, Giuseppe Merla, Alexandre Moerman, Vincent Mooser, Fanny Morice-Picard, Mafalda Mucciolo, Matthias Nauck, Ndeye Coumba Ndiaye, Ann Nordgren, Laurent Pasquier, Florence Petit, Rolph Pfundt, Ghislaine Plessis, Evica Rajcan-Separovic, Gian Paolo Ramelli, Anita Rauch, Roberto Ravazzolo, André Reis, Alessandra Renieri, Cristóbal Richart, Janina S Ried, Claudine Rieubland, Wendy Roberts, Katharina M Roetzer, Caroline Rooryck, Massimiliano Rossi, Evald Saemundsen, Véronique Satre, Claudia Schurmann, Engilbert Sigurdsson, Dimitri J Stavropoulos, Hreinn Stefansson, Carola Tengström, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Francisco J Tinahones, Renaud Touraine, Louis Vallée, Ellen van Binsbergen, Nathalie Van der Aa, Catherine Vincent-Delorme, Sophie Visvikis-Siest, Peter Vollenweider, Henry Völzke, Anneke T Vulto-van Silfhout, Gérard Waeber, Carina Wallgren-Pettersson, Robert M Witwicki, Simon Zwolinksi, Joris Andrieux, Xavier Estivill, James F Gusella, Omar Gústafsson, Andres Metspalu, Stephen W Scherer, Kari Stefansson, Alexandra I F Blakemore, Jacques S Beckmann, Philippe Froguel.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2011
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Both obesity and being underweight have been associated with increased mortality. Underweight, defined as a body mass index (BMI) ??18.5?kg?per?m(2) in adults and ??-2 standard deviations from the mean in children, is the main sign of a series of heterogeneous clinical conditions including failure to thrive, feeding and eating disorder and/or anorexia nervosa. In contrast to obesity, few genetic variants underlying these clinical conditions have been reported. We previously showed that hemizygosity of a ?600-kilobase (kb) region on the short arm of chromosome 16 causes a highly penetrant form of obesity that is often associated with hyperphagia and intellectual disabilities. Here we show that the corresponding reciprocal duplication is associated with being underweight. We identified 138 duplication carriers (including 132 novel cases and 108 unrelated carriers) from individuals clinically referred for developmental or intellectual disabilities (DD/ID) or psychiatric disorders, or recruited from population-based cohorts. These carriers show significantly reduced postnatal weight and BMI. Half of the boys younger than five years are underweight with a probable diagnosis of failure to thrive, whereas adult duplication carriers have an 8.3-fold increased risk of being clinically underweight. We observe a trend towards increased severity in males, as well as a depletion of male carriers among non-medically ascertained cases. These features are associated with an unusually high frequency of selective and restrictive eating behaviours and a significant reduction in head circumference. Each of the observed phenotypes is the converse of one reported in carriers of deletions at this locus. The phenotypes correlate with changes in transcript levels for genes mapping within the duplication but not in flanking regions. The reciprocal impact of these 16p11.2 copy-number variants indicates that severe obesity and being underweight could have mirror aetiologies, possibly through contrasting effects on energy balance.
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Lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher albuminuria are associated with mortality and end-stage renal disease. A collaborative meta-analysis of kidney disease population cohorts.
Kidney Int.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2011
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We studied here the independent associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria with mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We performed a collaborative meta-analysis of 13 studies totaling 21,688 patients selected for CKD of diverse etiology. After adjustment for potential confounders and albuminuria, we found that a 15 ml/min per 1.73 m² lower eGFR below a threshold of 45 ml/min per 1.73 m² was significantly associated with mortality and ESRD (pooled hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.47 and 6.24, respectively). There was significant heterogeneity between studies for both HR estimates. After adjustment for risk factors and eGFR, an eightfold higher albumin- or protein-to-creatinine ratio was significantly associated with mortality (pooled HR 1.40) without evidence of significant heterogeneity and with ESRD (pooled HR 3.04), with significant heterogeneity between HR estimates. Lower eGFR and more severe albuminuria independently predict mortality and ESRD among individuals selected for CKD, with the associations stronger for ESRD than for mortality. Thus, these relationships are consistent with CKD stage classifications based on eGFR and suggest that albuminuria provides additional prognostic information among individuals with CKD.
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Association of HbA1c values with mortality and cardiovascular events in diabetic dialysis patients. The INVOR study and review of the literature.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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Improved glycemic control reduces complications in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). However, it is discussed controversially whether patients with diabetes mellitus and end-stage renal disease benefit from strict glycemic control.
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Epidemiologic evidence of barometric pressure changes inducing increased reporting of oral pain.
Eur J Pain
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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The daily patient flow at dental emergency departments is subject to fluctuations. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether meteorological parameters were associated with the number of patients reporting acute pain in the oral cavity.
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APOL1 variants and kidney disease. There is no such thing as a free lunch.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2011
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A recent study by Genovese et al. unraveled the findings of the intensively discussed gene region around MYH9 and its association with non-diabetic chronic kidney disease in African-Americans. First, it is not the genetic variation in MYH9 but in the neighbouring APOL1 that causes the strong association with disease in African-Americans and second, the study showed strong evidence for a positive selection against vulnerability for Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense infection but at the price of a higher susceptibility of non-diabetic chronic kidney disease. This overview reviews the findings and the possible impact of the study mentioned above as well as of related studies.
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Hemoglobin variability does not predict mortality in European hemodialysis patients.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2010
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Patients with CKD exhibit significant within-patient hemoglobin (Hb) level variability, especially with the use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) and iron. Analyses of dialysis cohorts in the United States produced conflicting results regarding the association of Hb variability with patient outcomes. Here, we determined Hb variability in 5037 European hemodialysis (HD) patients treated over 2 years to identify predictors of high variability and to evaluate its association with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. We assessed Hb variability with various methods using SD, residual SD, time-in-target (11.0 to 12.5 g/dl), fluctuation across thresholds, and area under the curve (AUC). Hb variability was significantly greater among incident patients than prevalent patients. Compared with previously described cohorts in the United States, residual SD was similar but fluctuations above target were less frequent. Using logistic regression, age, body mass index, CVD history, dialysis vintage, serum albumin, Hb, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) use, ESA use, dialysis access type, dialysis access change, and hospitalizations were significant predictors of high variability. Multivariable adjusted Cox regression showed that SD, residual SD, time-in-target, and AUC did not predict all-cause or CVD mortality during a median follow-up of 12.4 months (IQR: 7.7 to 17.4). However, patients with consistently low levels of Hb (<11 g/dl) and those who fluctuated between the target range and <11 g/dl had increased risks for death (RR 2.34; 95% CI: 1.24 to 4.41 and RR 1.74; 95% CI: 1.00 to 3.04, respectively). In conclusion, although Hb variability is common in European HD patients, it does not independently predict mortality.
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Somatic mutations throughout the entire mitochondrial genome are associated with elevated PSA levels in prostate cancer patients.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2010
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The genetic etiology of prostate cancer, the most common form of male cancer in western countries, is complex and the interplay of disease genes with environmental factors is far from being understood. Studies on somatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have become an important aspect of cancer research because these mutations might have functional consequences and/or might serve as biosensors for tumor detection and progression. We sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome (16,569 bp) from 30 prospectively collected pairs of macrodissected cancerous and benign cells from prostate cancer patients and compared their genetic variability. Given recent concerns regarding the authenticity of newly discovered mtDNA mutations, we implemented a high-quality procedure for mtDNA whole-genome sequencing. In addition, the mitochondrial genes MT-CO2, MT-CO3, MT-ATP6, and MT-ND6 were sequenced in further 35 paired samples from prostate cancer patients. We identified a total of 41 somatic mutations in 22 out of 30 patients: the majority of these mutations have not previously been observed in the human phylogeny. The presence of somatic mutations in transfer RNAs (tRNAs) was found to be associated with elevated PSA levels (14.25 ± 5.44 versus 7.15 ± 4.32 ng/ml; p = 0.004). The level and degree of heteroplasmy increased with increasing tumor activity. In summary, somatic mutations in the mitochondrial genome are frequent events in prostate cancer. Mutations mapping to mitochondrial tRNAs, ribosomal RNAs, and protein coding genes might impair processes that occur within the mitochondrial compartment (e.g., transcription, RNA processing, and translation) and might finally affect oxidative phosphorylation.
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Investigation and functional characterization of rare genetic variants in the adipose triglyceride lipase in a large healthy working population.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2010
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Recent studies demonstrated a strong influence of rare genetic variants on several lipid-related traits. However, their impact on free fatty acid (FFA) plasma concentrations, as well as the role of rare variants in a general population, has not yet been thoroughly addressed. The adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is encoded by the PNPLA2 gene and catalyzes the rate-limiting step of lipolysis. It represents a prominent candidate gene affecting FFA concentrations. We therefore screened the full genomic region of ATGL for mutations in 1,473 randomly selected individuals from the SAPHIR (Salzburg Atherosclerosis Prevention program in subjects at High Individual Risk) Study using a combined Ecotilling and sequencing approach and functionally investigated all detected protein variants by in-vitro studies. We observed 55 novel mostly rare genetic variants in this general population sample. Biochemical evaluation of all non-synonymous variants demonstrated the presence of several mutated but mostly still functional ATGL alleles with largely varying residual lipolytic activity. About one-quarter (3 out of 13) of the investigated variants presented a marked decrease or total loss of catalytic function. Genetic association studies using both continuous and dichotomous approaches showed a shift towards lower plasma FFA concentrations for rare variant carriers and an accumulation of variants in the lower 10%-quantile of the FFA distribution. However, the generally rather small effects suggest either only a secondary role of rare ATGL variants on the FFA levels in the SAPHIR population or a recessive action of ATGL variants. In contrast to these rather small effects, we describe here also the first patient with "neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy" (NLSDM) with a point mutation in the catalytic dyad, but otherwise intact protein.
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Haplotype misclassification resulting from statistical reconstruction and genotype error, and its impact on association estimates.
Ann. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2010
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Haplotypes are an important concept for genetic association studies, but involve uncertainty due to statistical reconstruction from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes and genotype error. We developed a re-sampling approach to quantify haplotype misclassification probabilities and implemented the MC-SIMEX approach to tackle this as a 3 x 3 misclassification problem. Using a previously published approach as a benchmark for comparison, we evaluated the performance of our approach by simulations and exemplified it on real data from 15 SNPs of the APM1 gene. Misclassification due to reconstruction error was small for most, but notable for some, especially rarer haplotypes. Genotype error added misclassification to all haplotypes resulting in a non-negligible drop in sensitivity. In our real data example, the bias of association estimates due to reconstruction error alone reached -48.2% for a 1% genotype error, indicating that haplotype misclassification should not be ignored if high genotype error can be expected. Our 3 x 3 misclassification view of haplotype error adds a novel perspective to currently used methods based on genotype intensities and expected number of haplotype copies. Our findings give a sense of the impact of haplotype error under realistic scenarios and underscore the importance of high-quality genotyping, in which case the bias in haplotype association estimates is negligible.
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Telomere length and risk of incident cancer and cancer mortality.
JAMA
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2010
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Telomeres are essential to preserve the integrity of the genome. Critically short telomeres lead to replicative cell senescence and chromosomal instability and may thereby increase cancer risk.
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HaploGrep: a fast and reliable algorithm for automatic classification of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups.
Hum. Mutat.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2010
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An ongoing source of controversy in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) research is based on the detection of numerous errors in mtDNA profiles that led to erroneous conclusions and false disease associations. Most of these controversies could be avoided if the samples haplogroup status would be taken into consideration. Knowing the mtDNA haplogroup affiliation is a critical prerequisite for studying mechanisms of human evolution and discovering genes involved in complex diseases, and validating phylogenetic consistency using haplogroup classification is an important step in quality control. However, despite the availability of Phylotree, a regularly updated classification tree of global mtDNA variation, the process of haplogroup classification is still time-consuming and error-prone, as researchers have to manually compare the polymorphisms found in a population sample to those summarized in Phylotree, polymorphism by polymorphism, sample by sample. We present HaploGrep, a fast, reliable and straight-forward algorithm implemented in a Web application to determine the haplogroup affiliation of thousands of mtDNA profiles genotyped for the entire mtDNA or any part of it. HaploGrep uses the latest version of Phylotree and offers an all-in-one solution for quality assessment of mtDNA profiles in clinical genetics, population genetics and forensics. HaploGrep can be accessed freely at http://haplogrep.uibk.ac.at.
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Metabolic footprint of diabetes: a multiplatform metabolomics study in an epidemiological setting.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2010
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Metabolomics is the rapidly evolving field of the comprehensive measurement of ideally all endogenous metabolites in a biological fluid. However, no single analytic technique covers the entire spectrum of the human metabolome. Here we present results from a multiplatform study, in which we investigate what kind of results can presently be obtained in the field of diabetes research when combining metabolomics data collected on a complementary set of analytical platforms in the framework of an epidemiological study.
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Cellular aging reflected by leukocyte telomere length predicts advanced atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease risk.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2010
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To determine the association between leukocyte telomere length (TL) and atherosclerosis and its clinical sequelae stroke and myocardial infarction.
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Serum iPTH, calcium and phosphate, and the risk of mortality in a European haemodialysis population.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2010
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A number of US observational studies reported an increased mortality risk with higher intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), calcium and/or phosphate. The existence of such a link in a European haemodialysis population was explored as part of the Analysing Data, Recognising Excellence and Optimising Outcomes (ARO) Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Research Initiative.
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