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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Commercial Lysogeny Broth culture media and oxidative stress: a cautious tale.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Lysogeny Broth (LB), most often misnamed Luria-Bertani medium, ranks among the most commonly used growth media in microbiology. Surprisingly, we observed that oxidative levels vary with the commercial origin of the LB ready to use powder. Indeed, growth on solid media of Escherichia coli and Salmonella derivatives lacking antioxidative stress defenses, such as oxyR mutant devoid of the H2O2-sensing transcriptional activator or Hpx(-) strains lacking catalases and peroxidases, exhibit different phenotypes on LB-Sigma or LB-Difco. Using gene fusion and exogenously added catalase, we found that LB-Sigma contains higher levels of H2O2 than LB-Difco. Also we observed differences in population counts of 82 clinical and environmental isolates of E. coli, depending on the LB used. Further investigations revealed a significant influence of the commercial origin of agar as well. Besides being a warning to the wide population of LB users, our observations provide researchers in the oxidative stress field with a tool to appreciate the severity of mutations in antioxidative stress defenses.
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Biosynthesis and physiology of coenzyme Q in bacteria.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Ubiquinone, also called coenzyme Q, is a lipid subject to oxido-reduction cycles. It functions in the respiratory electron transport chain and plays a pivotal role in energy generating processes. In this review, we focus on the biosynthetic pathway and physiological role of ubiquinone in bacteria. We present the studies which, within a period of five decades, led to the identification and characterization of the genes named ubi and involved in ubiquinone production in Escherichia coli. When available, the structures of the corresponding enzymes are shown and their biological function is detailed. The phenotypes observed in mutants deficient in ubiquinone biosynthesis are presented, either in model bacteria or in pathogens. A particular attention is given to the role of ubiquinone in respiration, modulation of two-component activity and bacterial virulence. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 18th European Bioenergetic Conference.
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ubiJ, a New Gene Required for Aerobic Growth and Proliferation in Macrophage, Is Involved in Coenzyme Q Biosynthesis in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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Ubiquinone (coenzyme Q or Q8) is a redox active lipid which functions in the respiratory electron transport chain and plays a crucial role in energy-generating processes. In both Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, the yigP gene is located between ubiE and ubiB, all three being likely to constitute an operon. In this work, we showed that the uncharacterized yigP gene was involved in Q8 biosynthesis in both strains, and we have renamed it ubiJ. Under aerobic conditions, an ubiJ mutant was found to be impaired for Q8 biosynthesis and for growth in rich medium but did not present any defect anaerobically. Surprisingly, the C-terminal 50 amino acids, predicted to interact with lipids, were sufficient to restore Q8 biosynthesis and growth of the ubiJ mutant. Salmonella ubiE and ubiB mutants were impaired in Q8 biosynthesis and in respiration using different electron acceptors. Moreover, ubiE, ubiJ, and ubiB mutants were all impaired for Salmonella intracellular proliferation in macrophages. Taken together, our data establish an important role for UbiJ in Q8 biosynthesis and reveal an unexpected link between Q8 and virulence. They also emphasize that Salmonella organisms in an intracellular lifestyle rely on aerobic respiration to survive and proliferate within macrophages.
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Ferredoxin competes with bacterial frataxin in binding to the desulfurase IscS.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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The bacterial iron-sulfur cluster (isc) operon is an essential machine that is highly conserved from bacteria to primates and responsible for iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis. Among its components are the genes for the desulfurase IscS that provides sulfur for cluster formation, and a specialized ferredoxin (Fdx) whose role is still unknown. Preliminary evidence suggests that IscS and Fdx interact but nothing is known about the binding site and the role of the interaction. Here, we have characterized the interaction using a combination of biophysical tools and mutagenesis. By modeling the Fdx·IscS complex based on experimental restraints we show that Fdx competes for the binding site of CyaY, the bacterial ortholog of frataxin and sits in a cavity close to the enzyme active site. By in vivo mutagenesis in bacteria we prove the importance of the surface of interaction for cluster formation. Our data provide the first structural insights into the role of Fdx in cluster assembly.
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Fe-S cluster biosynthesis controls uptake of aminoglycosides in a ROS-less death pathway.
Science
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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All bactericidal antibiotics were recently proposed to kill by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, causing destabilization of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters and generating Fenton chemistry. We find that the ROS response is dispensable upon treatment with bactericidal antibiotics. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Fe-S clusters are required for killing only by aminoglycosides. In contrast to cells, using the major Fe-S cluster biosynthesis machinery, ISC, cells using the alternative machinery, SUF, cannot efficiently mature respiratory complexes I and II, resulting in impendence of the proton motive force (PMF), which is required for bactericidal aminoglycoside uptake. Similarly, during iron limitation, cells become intrinsically resistant to aminoglycosides by switching from ISC to SUF and down-regulating both respiratory complexes. We conclude that Fe-S proteins promote aminoglycoside killing by enabling their uptake.
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ubiI, a new gene in Escherichia coli coenzyme Q biosynthesis, is involved in aerobic C5-hydroxylation.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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Coenzyme Q (ubiquinone or Q) is a redox-active lipid found in organisms ranging from bacteria to mammals in which it plays a crucial role in energy-generating processes. Q biosynthesis is a complex pathway that involves multiple proteins. In this work, we show that the uncharacterized conserved visC gene is involved in Q biosynthesis in Escherichia coli, and we have renamed it ubiI. Based on genetic and biochemical experiments, we establish that the UbiI protein functions in the C5-hydroxylation reaction. A strain deficient in ubiI has a low level of Q and accumulates a compound derived from the Q biosynthetic pathway, which we purified and characterized. We also demonstrate that UbiI is only implicated in aerobic Q biosynthesis and that an alternative enzyme catalyzes the C5-hydroxylation reaction in the absence of oxygen. We have solved the crystal structure of a truncated form of UbiI. This structure shares many features with the canonical FAD-dependent para-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase and represents the first structural characterization of a monooxygenase involved in Q biosynthesis. Site-directed mutagenesis confirms that residues of the flavin binding pocket of UbiI are important for activity. With our identification of UbiI, the three monooxygenases necessary for aerobic Q biosynthesis in E. coli are known.
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Reprint of: Iron/sulfur proteins biogenesis in prokaryotes: formation, regulation and diversity.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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Iron/sulfur centers are key cofactors of proteins intervening in multiple conserved cellular processes, such as gene expression, DNA repair, RNA modification, central metabolism and respiration. Mechanisms allowing Fe/S centers to be assembled, and inserted into polypeptides have attracted much attention in the last decade, both in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Basic principles and recent advances in our understanding of the prokaryotic Fe/S biogenesis ISC and SUF systems are reviewed in the present communication. Most studies covered stem from investigations in Escherichia coli and Azotobacter vinelandii. Remarkable insights were brought about by complementary structural, spectroscopic, biochemical and genetic studies. Highlights of the recent years include scaffold mediated assembly of Fe/S cluster, A-type carriers mediated delivery of clusters and regulatory control of Fe/S homeostasis via a set of interconnected genetic regulatory circuits. Also, the importance of Fe/S biosynthesis systems in mediating soft metal toxicity was documented. A brief account of the Fe/S biosynthesis systems diversity as present in current databases is given here. Moreover, Fe/S biosynthesis factors have themselves been the object of molecular tailoring during evolution and some examples are discussed here. An effort was made to provide, based on the E. coli system, a general classification associating a given domain with a given function such as to help next search and annotation of genomes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Metals in Bioenergetics and Biomimetics Systems.
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In vivo [Fe-S] cluster acquisition by IscR and NsrR, two stress regulators in Escherichia coli.
Mol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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The multi-proteins Isc and Suf systems catalyse the biogenesis of [Fe-S] proteins. Here we investigate how NsrR and IscR, transcriptional regulators that sense NO and [Fe-S] homeostasis, acquire their [Fe-S] clusters under both normal and iron limitation conditions. Clusters directed at the apo-NsrR and apo-IscR proteins are built on either of the two scaffolds, IscU or SufB. However, differences arise in [Fe-S] delivery steps. In the case of NsrR, scaffolds deliver clusters to either one of the two ATCs, IscA and SufA, and, subsequently, to the non-Isc non-Suf ATC, ErpA. Nevertheless, a high level of SufA can bypass the requirement for ErpA. In the case of IscR, several routes occur. One does not include assistance of any ATC. Others implicate ATCs IscA or ErpA, but, surprisingly, SufA was totally absent from any IscR maturation pathways. Both IscR and NsrR have the intrinsic capacity to sense iron limitation. However, NsrR appeared to be efficiently matured by Isc and Suf, thereby preventing NsrR to act as a physiologically relevant iron sensor. This work emphasizes that different maturation pathways arise as a function of the apo-target considered, possibly in relation with the type of cluster, [2Fe-2S] versus [4Fe-4S], it binds.
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Iron/sulfur proteins biogenesis in prokaryotes: formation, regulation and diversity.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2013
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Iron/sulfur centers are key cofactors of proteins intervening in multiple conserved cellular processes, such as gene expression, DNA repair, RNA modification, central metabolism and respiration. Mechanisms allowing Fe/S centers to be assembled, and inserted into polypeptides have attracted much attention in the last decade, both in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Basic principles and recent advances in our understanding of the prokaryotic Fe/S biogenesis ISC and SUF systems are reviewed in the present communication. Most studies covered stem from investigations in Escherichia coli and Azotobacter vinelandii. Remarkable insights were brought about by complementary structural, spectroscopic, biochemical and genetic studies. Highlights of the recent years include scaffold mediated assembly of Fe/S cluster, A-type carriers mediated delivery of clusters and regulatory control of Fe/S homeostasis via a set of interconnected genetic regulatory circuits. Also, the importance of Fe/S biosynthesis systems in mediating soft metal toxicity was documented. A brief account of the Fe/S biosynthesis systems diversity as present in current databases is given here. Moreover, Fe/S biosynthesis factors have themselves been the object of molecular tailoring during evolution and some examples are discussed here. An effort was made to provide, based on the E. coli system, a general classification associating a given domain with a given function such as to help next search and annotation of genomes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Metals in Bioenergetics and Biomimetics Systems.
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The sRNA RyhB regulates the synthesis of the Escherichia coli methionine sulfoxide reductase MsrB but not MsrA.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Controlling iron homeostasis is crucial for all aerobically grown living cells that are exposed to oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS), as free iron increases the production of ROS. Methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msr) are key enzymes in repairing ROS-mediated damage to proteins, as they reduce oxidized methionine (MetSO) residues to methionine. E. coli synthesizes two Msr, A and B, which exhibit substrate diastereospecificity. The bacterial iron-responsive small RNA (sRNA) RyhB controls iron metabolism by modulating intracellular iron usage. We show in this paper that RyhB is a direct regulator of the msrB gene that encodes the MsrB enzyme. RyhB down-regulates msrB transcripts along with Hfq and RNaseE proteins since mutations in the ryhB, fur, hfq, or RNaseE-encoded genes resulted in iron-insensitive expression of msrB. Our results show that RyhB binds to two sequences within the short 5UTR of msrB mRNA as identified by reverse transcriptase and RNase and lead (II) protection assays. Toeprinting analysis shows that RyhB pairing to msrB mRNA prevents efficient ribosome binding and thereby inhibits translation initiation. In vivo site directed-mutagenesis experiments in the msrB 5UTR region indicate that both RyhB-pairing sites are required to decrease msrB expression. Thus, this study suggests a novel mechanism of translational regulation where a same sRNA can basepair to two different locations within the same mRNA species. In contrast, expression of msrA is not influenced by changes in iron levels.
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The cyst-dividing bacterium Ramlibacter tataouinensis TTB310 genome reveals a well-stocked toolbox for adaptation to a desert environment.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2011
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Ramlibacter tataouinensis TTB310(T) (strain TTB310), a betaproteobacterium isolated from a semi-arid region of South Tunisia (Tataouine), is characterized by the presence of both spherical and rod-shaped cells in pure culture. Cell division of strain TTB310 occurs by the binary fission of spherical "cyst-like" cells ("cyst-cyst" division). The rod-shaped cells formed at the periphery of a colony (consisting mainly of cysts) are highly motile and colonize a new environment, where they form a new colony by reversion to cyst-like cells. This unique cell cycle of strain TTB310, with desiccation tolerant cyst-like cells capable of division and desiccation sensitive motile rods capable of dissemination, appears to be a novel adaptation for life in a hot and dry desert environment. In order to gain insights into strain TTB310s underlying genetic repertoire and possible mechanisms responsible for its unusual lifestyle, the genome of strain TTB310 was completely sequenced and subsequently annotated. The complete genome consists of a single circular chromosome of 4,070,194 bp with an average G+C content of 70.0%, the highest among the Betaproteobacteria sequenced to date, with total of 3,899 predicted coding sequences covering 92% of the genome. We found that strain TTB310 has developed a highly complex network of two-component systems, which may utilize responses to light and perhaps a rudimentary circadian hourglass to anticipate water availability at the dew time in the middle/end of the desert winter nights and thus direct the growth window to cyclic water availability times. Other interesting features of the strain TTB310 genome that appear to be important for desiccation tolerance, including intermediary metabolism compounds such as trehalose or polyhydroxyalkanoate, and signal transduction pathways, are presented and discussed.
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Sensing and adaptation to low pH mediated by inducible amino acid decarboxylases in Salmonella.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2011
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During the course of infection, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium must successively survive the harsh acid stress of the stomach and multiply into a mild acidic compartment within macrophages. Inducible amino acid decarboxylases are known to promote adaptation to acidic environments. Three low pH inducible amino acid decarboxylases were annotated in the genome of S. Typhimurium, AdiA, CadA and SpeF, which are specific for arginine, lysine and ornithine, respectively. In this study, we characterized and compared the contributions of those enzymes in response to acidic challenges. Individual mutants as well as a strain deleted for the three genes were tested for their ability (i) to survive an extreme acid shock, (ii) to grow at mild acidic pH and (iii) to infect the mouse animal model. We showed that the lysine decarboxylase CadA had the broadest range of activity since it both had the capacity to promote survival at pH 2.3 and growth at pH 4.5. The arginine decarboxylase AdiA was the most performant in protecting S. Typhimurium from a shock at pH 2.3 and the ornithine decarboxylase SpeF conferred the best growth advantage under anaerobiosis conditions at pH 4.5. We developed a GFP-based gene reporter to monitor the pH of the environment as perceived by S. Typhimurium. Results showed that activities of the lysine and ornithine decarboxylases at mild acidic pH did modify the local surrounding of S. Typhimurium both in culture medium and in macrophages. Finally, we tested the contribution of decarboxylases to virulence and found that these enzymes were dispensable for S. Typhimurium virulence during systemic infection. In the light of this result, we examined the genomes of Salmonella spp. normally responsible of systemic infection and observed that the genes encoding these enzymes were not well conserved, supporting the idea that these enzymes may be not required during systemic infection.
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Salmonella detoxifying enzymes are sufficient to cope with the host oxidative burst.
Mol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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The oxidative burst produced by the NADPH oxidase (Phox) is an essential weapon used by host cells to eradicate engulfed pathogens. In Salmonella typhimurium, oxidative stress resistance has been previously proposed to be mediated by the pathogenicity island 2 type III secretion system (T3SS-2), periplasmic superoxide dismutases and cytoplasmic catalases/peroxidases. Here, we fused an OxyR-dependent promoter to the gfp to build the ahpC-gfp transcriptional fusion. This reporter was used to monitor hydrogen peroxide levels as sensed by Salmonella during the course of an infection. We showed that the expression of this fusion was under the exclusive control of reactive oxygen species produced by the host. The ahpC-gfp expression was noticeably modified in the absence of bacterial periplasmic superoxide dismutases or cytoplasmic catalases/peroxidases. Surprisingly, inactivation of the T3SS-2 had no effect on the ahpC-gfp expression. All together, these results led to a model in which Salmonella resistance relies on its arsenal of detoxifying enzymes to cope with Phox-mediated oxidative stress.
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Fe-S clusters, fragile sentinels of the cell.
Curr. Opin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2011
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Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are ubiquitous cofactors present in a myriad of proteins controlling processes as diverse as DNA replication, photosynthesis, respiration and gene regulation. Their assembly and delivery into apo-proteins are catalysed by different multi-protein systems conserved throughout prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Because so many cellular processes are dependent upon Fe-S proteins, alteration of the Fe-S clusters or of the systems that make them has profound impact on cellular physiology. The present review aims at covering and discussing those situations wherein these highly efficient redox sensitive cofactors turn from faithful sentinels into enfeebled assistants or, worse, into dangerous insiders.
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A genetic analysis of the response of Escherichia coli to cobalt stress.
Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2010
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Cobalt can be toxic and the way cells adapt to its presence is largely unknown. Here we carried out a transcriptomic analysis of Escherichia coli exposed to cobalt. A limited number of genes were either up- or downregulated. Upregulated genes include the isc and the nfuA genes encoding Fe/S biogenesis assisting factors, and the rcnA gene encoding a cobalt efflux system. Downregulated genes are implicated in anaerobic metabolism (narK, nirB, hybO, grcA), metal transport (feoB, nikA), sulfate/thiosulfate import (cysP), and one is of unknown function (yeeE). Cobalt regulation of isc, nfuA, hybO, cysP and yeeE genes was found to involve IscR, a Fe/S transcriptional regulator. Previously, the Suf Fe/S biogenesis machinery was found to be important for cobalt stress adaptation, but suf genes did not show up in the microarray analysis. Therefore, we used qRT-PCR analysis and found that cobalt induced the suf operon expression. Moreover, kinetic analysis of the cobalt-mediated induction of the suf operon expression allowed us to propose that cobalt toxicity is caused first by impaired Fe/S biogenesis, followed by decreased iron bioavailability and eventually oxidative stress.
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Building Fe-S proteins: bacterial strategies.
Nat. Rev. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2010
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The broad range of cellular activities carried out by Fe-S proteins means that they have a central role in the life of most organisms. At the interface between biology and chemistry, studies of bacterial Fe-S protein biogenesis have taken advantage of the specific approaches of each field and have begun to reveal the molecular mechanisms involved. The multiprotein systems that are required to build Fe-S proteins have been identified, but the in vivo roles of some of the components remain to be clarified. The way in which cellular Fe-S cluster trafficking pathways are organized remains a key issue for future studies.
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The CsdA cysteine desulphurase promotes Fe/S biogenesis by recruiting Suf components and participates to a new sulphur transfer pathway by recruiting CsdL (ex-YgdL), a ubiquitin-modifying-like protein.
Mol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2009
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Cysteine desulphurases are primary sources of sulphur that can eventually be used for Fe/S biogenesis or thiolation of various cofactors and tRNA. Escherichia coli contains three such enzymes, IscS, SufS and CsdA. The importance of IscS and SufS in Fe/S biogenesis is well established. The physiological role of CsdA in contrast remains uncertain. We provide here additional evidences for a functional redundancy between the three cysteine desulphurases in vivo. In particular, we show that a deficiency in isoprenoid biosynthesis is the unique cause of the lethality of the iscS sufS mutant. Moreover, we show that CsdA is engaged in two separate sulphur transfer pathways. In one pathway, CsdA interacts functionally with SufE-SufBCD proteins to assist Fe/S biogenesis. In another pathway, CsdA interacts with CsdE and a newly discovered protein, which we called CsdL, resembling E1-like proteins found in ubiquitin-like modification systems. We propose this new pathway to allow synthesis of an as yet to be discovered thiolated compound.
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Redundant hydrogen peroxide scavengers contribute to Salmonella virulence and oxidative stress resistance.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2009
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Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is an intracellular pathogen that can survive and replicate within macrophages. One of the host defense mechanisms that Salmonella encounters during infection is the production of reactive oxygen species by the phagocyte NADPH oxidase. Among them, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) can diffuse across bacterial membranes and damage biomolecules. Genome analysis allowed us to identify five genes encoding H(2)O(2) degrading enzymes: three catalases (KatE, KatG, and KatN) and two alkyl hydroperoxide reductases (AhpC and TsaA). Inactivation of the five cognate structural genes yielded the HpxF(-) mutant, which exhibited a high sensitivity to exogenous H(2)O(2) and a severe survival defect within macrophages. When the phagocyte NADPH oxidase was inhibited, its proliferation index increased 3.7-fold. Moreover, the overexpression of katG or tsaA in the HpxF(-) background was sufficient to confer a proliferation index similar to that of the wild type in macrophages and a resistance to millimolar H(2)O(2) in rich medium. The HpxF(-) mutant also showed an attenuated virulence in a mouse model. These data indicate that Salmonella catalases and alkyl hydroperoxide reductases are required to degrade H(2)O(2) and contribute to the virulence. This enzymatic redundancy highlights the evolutionary strategies developed by bacterial pathogens to survive within hostile environments.
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Iron-sulfur (Fe/S) protein biogenesis: phylogenomic and genetic studies of A-type carriers.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2009
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Iron sulfur (Fe/S) proteins are ubiquitous and participate in multiple biological processes, from photosynthesis to DNA repair. Iron and sulfur are highly reactive chemical species, and the mechanisms allowing the multiprotein systems ISC and SUF to assist Fe/S cluster formation in vivo have attracted considerable attention. Here, A-Type components of these systems (ATCs for A-Type Carriers) are studied by phylogenomic and genetic analyses. ATCs that have emerged in the last common ancestor of bacteria were conserved in most bacteria and were acquired by eukaryotes and few archaea via horizontal gene transfers. Many bacteria contain multiple ATCs, as a result of gene duplication and/or horizontal gene transfer events. Based on evolutionary considerations, we could define three subfamilies: ATC-I, -II and -III. Escherichia coli, which has one ATC-I (ErpA) and two ATC-IIs (IscA and SufA), was used as a model to investigate functional redundancy between ATCs in vivo. Genetic analyses revealed that, under aerobiosis, E. coli IscA and SufA are functionally redundant carriers, as both are potentially able to receive an Fe/S cluster from IscU or the SufBCD complex and transfer it to ErpA. In contrast, under anaerobiosis, redundancy occurs between ErpA and IscA, which are both potentially able to receive Fe/S clusters from IscU and transfer them to an apotarget. Our combined phylogenomic and genetic study indicates that ATCs play a crucial role in conveying ready-made Fe/S clusters from components of the biogenesis systems to apotargets. We propose a model wherein the conserved biochemical function of ATCs provides multiple paths for supplying Fe/S clusters to apotargets. This model predicts the occurrence of a dynamic network, the structure and composition of which vary with the growth conditions. As an illustration, we depict three ways for a given protein to be matured, which appears to be dependent on the demand for Fe/S biogenesis.
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Erwinia chrysanthemi iron metabolism: the unexpected implication of the inner membrane platform within the type II secretion system.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2009
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The type II secretion (T2S) system is an essential device for Erwinia chrysanthemi virulence. Previously, we reported the key role of the OutF protein in forming, along with OutELM, an inner membrane platform in the Out T2S system. Here, we report that OutF copurified with five proteins identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight analysis as AcsD, TogA, SecA, Tsp, and DegP. The AcsD protein was known to be involved in the biosynthesis of achromobactin, which is a siderophore important for E. chrysanthemi virulence. The yeast two-hybrid system allowed us to gain further evidence for the OutF-AcsD interaction. Moreover, we showed that lack of OutF produced a pleiotropic phenotype: (i) altered production of the two siderophores of E. chrysanthemi, achromobactin and chrysobactin; (ii) hypersensitivity to streptonigrin, an iron-activated antibiotic; (iii) increased sensitivity to oxidative stress; and (iv) absence of the FbpA-like iron-binding protein in the periplasmic fraction. Interestingly, outE and outL mutants also exhibited similar phenotypes, but, outD and outJ mutants did not. Moreover, using the yeast two-hybrid system, several interactions were shown to occur between components of the T2S system inner membrane platform (OutEFL) and proteins involved in achromobactin production (AcsABCDE). The OutL-AcsD interaction was also demonstrated by Ni(2+) affinity chromatography. These results fully confirm our previous view that the T2S machinery is made up of three discrete blocks. The OutEFLM-forming platform is proposed to be instrumental in two different processes essential for virulence, protein secretion and iron homeostasis.
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Sposensor: a whole-bacterial biosensor that uses immobilized Bacillus subtilis spores and a one-step incubation/detection process.
J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2009
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A generic whole-cell bacterial sensor called sposensor was developed with immobilized spores from engineered Bacillus subtilis. Sposensor contains two different types of spores: reporting spores that contain a reporter gene fused to a promoter responding to a compound to be detected, and control spores use to monitor cell germination and viability. A one-step incubation/detection process was developed to meet the constraints of on-site analysis. Spores were directly incubated with culture medium containing the compound to be detected. beta-Galactosidase was chosen as a reporter protein in both cases and its activity followed by a colorimetric assay. Results showed that sposensor was efficient in detecting two different compounds, a metal (Zn(2+)) and a peptidic antibiotic (bacitracin). Owing to the stability and robustness of spores, sposensor is a very efficient and easy tool to manipulate for analyzing the presence of toxic compounds in natural settings.
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Molecular organization, biochemical function, cellular role and evolution of NfuA, an atypical Fe-S carrier.
Mol. Microbiol.
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Biosynthesis of iron-sulphur (Fe-S) proteins is catalysed by multi-protein systems, ISC and SUF. However, non-ISC, non-SUF Fe-S biosynthesis factors have been described, both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Here we report in vitro and in vivo investigations of such a non-ISC, non SUF component, the Nfu proteins. Phylogenomic analysis allowed us to define four subfamilies. Escherichia coli NfuA is within subfamily II. Most members of this subfamily have a Nfu domain fused to a degenerate A-type carrier domain (ATC*) lacking Fe-S cluster co-ordinating Cys ligands. The Nfu domain binds a [4Fe-4S] cluster while the ATC* domain interacts with NuoG (a complex I subunit) and aconitase B (AcnB). In vitro, holo-NfuA promotes maturation of AcnB. In vivo, NfuA is necessary for full activity of complex I under aerobic growth conditions, and of AcnB in the presence of superoxide. NfuA receives Fe-S clusters from IscU/HscBA and SufBCD scaffolds and eventually transfers them to the ATCs IscA and SufA. This study provides significant information on one of the Fe-S biogenesis factors that has been often used as a building block by ISC and/or SUF synthesizing organisms, including bacteria, plants and animals.
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Evolution of Fe/S cluster biogenesis in the anaerobic parasite Blastocystis.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
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Iron/sulfur cluster (ISC)-containing proteins are essential components of cells. In most eukaryotes, Fe/S clusters are synthesized by the mitochondrial ISC machinery, the cytosolic iron/sulfur assembly system, and, in photosynthetic species, a plastid sulfur-mobilization (SUF) system. Here we show that the anaerobic human protozoan parasite Blastocystis, in addition to possessing ISC and iron/sulfur assembly systems, expresses a fused version of the SufC and SufB proteins of prokaryotes that it has acquired by lateral transfer from an archaeon related to the Methanomicrobiales, an important lineage represented in the human gastrointestinal tract microbiome. Although components of the Blastocystis ISC system function within its anaerobic mitochondrion-related organelles and can functionally replace homologues in Trypanosoma brucei, its SufCB protein has similar biochemical properties to its prokaryotic homologues, functions within the parasites cytosol, and is up-regulated under oxygen stress. Blastocystis is unique among eukaryotic pathogens in having adapted to its parasitic lifestyle by acquiring a SUF system from nonpathogenic Archaea to synthesize Fe/S clusters under oxygen stress.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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