Abstract Significance: Among the NADPH oxidases, the dual oxidases, DUOX1 and DUOX2, constitute a distinct subfamily initially called thyroid oxidases, based on their high level of expression in thyroid tissue. Genetic alterations causing inherited hypothyroidism clearly demonstrate their physiological implication in thyroid hormonogenesis. However, a growing list of biological functions triggered by DUOX-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) in highly differentiated mucosae have recently emerged. Recent Advances: A role of DUOX enzymes as ROS providers for lactoperoxidase-mediated killing of invading pathogens has been well established and a role in bacteria chemorepulsion has been proposed. Control of DUOX expression and activity by inflammatory molecules and immune receptor activation consolidates their contributions to innate immune defense of mucosal surfaces. Recent studies conducted in ancestral organisms have identified effectors of DUOX redox signaling involved in wound healing including epithelium regeneration and leukocyte recruitment. Moreover, local generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by DUOX has also been suggested to constitute a positive feedback loop to promote receptor signaling activation. Critical Issues: A correct balance between H2O2 generation and detoxification mechanisms must be properly maintained to avoid oxidative damages. Overexpression of DUOX genes has been associated with an increasing number of chronic inflammatory diseases. Furthermore, H2O2-mediated DNA damage supports a mutagenic function promoting tumor development. Future Directions: Despite the high sequence similarity shared between DUOX1 and DUOX2, the two isoforms present distinct regulations, tissue expression and catalytic functions. The phenotypic characterization of novel DUOX/DUOXA invalidated animal models will be very useful for defining their medical importance in pathological conditions. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.
Radiation is an established cause of thyroid cancer, and growing evidence supports a role for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in spontaneous thyroid carcinogenesis. Little is known about the molecular programs activated by these agents in thyrocytes.
Airway epithelial cells are key initial innate immune responders in the fight against respiratory viruses, primarily via the secretion of antiviral and proinflammatory cytokines that act in an autocrine/paracrine fashion to trigger the establishment of an antiviral state. It is currently thought that the early antiviral state in airway epithelial cells primarily relies on IFN? secretion and the subsequent activation of the interferon-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) transcription factor complex, composed of STAT1, STAT2 and IRF9, which regulates the expression of a panoply of interferon-stimulated genes encoding proteins with antiviral activities. However, the specific pathways engaged by the synergistic action of different cytokines during viral infections, and the resulting physiological outcomes are still ill-defined. Here, we unveil a novel delayed antiviral response in the airways, which is initiated by the synergistic autocrine/paracrine action of IFN? and TNF?, and signals through a non-canonical STAT2- and IRF9-dependent, but STAT1-independent cascade. This pathway ultimately leads to the late induction of the DUOX2 NADPH oxidase expression. Importantly, our study uncovers that the development of the antiviral state relies on DUOX2-dependent H2O2 production. Key antiviral pathways are often targeted by evasion strategies evolved by various pathogenic viruses. In this regard, the importance of the novel DUOX2-dependent antiviral pathway is further underlined by the observation that the human respiratory syncytial virus is able to subvert DUOX2 induction.
Stroma cell-derived factor-1? (SDF-1?) is a cardioprotective chemokine, acting through its G-protein coupled receptor CXCR4. In experimental acute myocardial infarction, administration of SDF-1? induces an early improvement of systolic function which is difficult to explain solely by an anti-apoptotic and angiogenic effect. We wondered whether SDF-1? signaling might have direct effects on calcium transients and beating frequency.Primary rat neonatal cardiomyocytes were culture-expanded and characterized by immunofluorescence staining. Calcium sparks were studied by fluorescence microscopy after calcium loading with the Fluo-4 acetoxymethyl ester sensor. The cardiomyocyte enriched cellular suspension expressed troponin I and CXCR4 but was vimentin negative. Addition of SDF-1? in the medium increased cytoplasmic calcium release. The calcium response was completely abolished by using a neutralizing anti-CXCR4 antibody and partially suppressed and delayed by preincubation with an inositol triphosphate receptor (IP3R) blocker, but not with a ryanodine receptor (RyR) antagonist. Calcium fluxes induced by caffeine, a RyR agonist, were decreased by an IP3R blocker. Treatment with forskolin or SDF-1? increased cardiomyocyte beating frequency and their effects were additive. In vivo, treatment with SDF-1? increased left ventricular dP/dtmax.These results suggest that in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes, the SDF-1?/CXCR4 signaling increases calcium transients in an IP3-gated fashion leading to a positive chronotropic and inotropic effect.
Production of reactive oxygen species, often by NADPH (reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidases, plays a role in the signaling responses of cells to many receptor stimuli. Here, we describe the function of the calcium-dependent, nonphagocytic NADPH oxidase Duox1 in primary human CD4(+) T cells and cultured T cell lines. Duox1 bound to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor 1 and was required for early T cell receptor (TCR)-stimulated production of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) through a pathway that was dependent on TCR-proximal kinases. Transient or stable knockdown of Duox1 inhibited TCR signaling, especially phosphorylation of tyrosine-319 of zeta chain-associated protein kinase of 70 kilodaltons (ZAP-70), store-operated entry of calcium ions (Ca(2+)), and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase. The production of cytokines was also inhibited by knockdown of Duox1. Duox1-mediated inactivation of Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 promoted the phosphorylation of ZAP-70 and its association with the Src family tyrosine kinase Lck and the CD3zeta chain of the TCR complex. Thus, we suggest that activation of Duox1, downstream of proximal TCR signals, generates H(2)O(2) that acts in a positive feedback loop to enhance and sustain further TCR signaling.
Dual oxidases (DUOX) 1 and 2 are components of the thyroid H(2)O(2)-generating system. H(2)O(2) is used by thyroperoxidase to oxidize iodide for thyroid hormonogenesis. Mutations in the DUOX2 gene have been described in transient and permanent congenital thyroid dyshormonogenesis. We report here a novel genetic defect causing congenital hypothyroidism in a French-Canadian patient. At neonatal screening, the patient had high TSH and low total T(4) levels. (99m)Tc scan showed a normally shaped orthotopic but mildly enlarged thyroid gland, suggesting dyshormonogenesis. Thyroxine treatment was given from 1 month to 17 years, after which it was stopped for re-evaluation and the patient remained euthyroid. The transient congenital hypothyroidism phenotype prompted us to screen for mutations in DUOX2 and DUOXA2 genes using the PCR-amplified direct sequencing method. We found complete inactivation of DUOX2 caused by a partial genomic deletion of one allele inherited from the mother associated with a paternally inherited missense mutation (c.4552G>A, p.Gly1518Ser). The deleted fragment encompasses the entire COOH-terminal end which is responsible for the NADPH-oxidase activity. The Gly1518Ser DUOX2 protein is expressed at the cell surface of transfected cells albeit at low level, but it is non-functional. This study provides further evidence that the permanent or transient nature of congenital hypothyroidism is not directly related to the number of inactivated DUOX2 alleles, suggesting the existence of other pathophysiological factors.
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are considered as one of the primary causes of cancer but their induction by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is still controversial. In this work, we studied whether the high levels of H(2)O(2) produced in the thyroid to oxidize iodide could induce DNA modifications. Scores of DNA damage, in terms of strand breaks, were obtained by comet assay (alkaline condition for single-strand breaks (SSBs) and neutral condition for DSBs). We demonstrated that in a rat thyroid cell line (PCCl3), non-lethal concentrations of H(2)O(2) (0.1-0.5 mmol/l) as well as irradiation (1-10 Gy) provoked a large number of SSBs ( approximately 2-3 times control DNA damage values) but also high levels of DSBs (1.2-2.3 times control DNA damage values). We confirmed the generation of DSBs in this cell line and also in human thyroid in primary culture and in pig thyroid slices by measuring phosphorylation of histone H2AX. L-Buthionine-sulfoximine, an agent that depletes cells of glutathione, decreased the threshold to observe H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage. Moreover, we showed that DNA breaks induced by H(2)O(2) were more slowly repaired than those induced by irradiation. In conclusion, H(2)O(2) causes SSBs and DSBs in thyroid cells. DSBs are produced in amounts comparable with those observed after irradiation but with a slower repair. These data support the hypothesis that the generation of H(2)O(2) in thyroid could also play a role in mutagenesis particularly in the case of antioxidant defense deficiency.
Dual oxidases were initially identified as NADPH oxidases producing H(2)O(2) necessary for thyroid hormone biosynthesis. The crucial role of Duox2 has been demonstrated in patients suffering from partial iodide organification defect caused by bi-allelic mutations in the DUOX2 gene. However, the Duox1 function in thyroid remains elusive. We optimized a functional assay by co-expressing Duox1 or Duox2 with their respective maturation factors, DuoxA1 and DuoxA2, to compare their intrinsic enzymatic activities under stimulation of the major signaling pathways active in the thyroid in relation to their membrane expression. We showed that basal activity of both Duox isoenzymes depends on calcium and functional EF-hand motifs. However, the two oxidases are differentially regulated by activation of intracellular signaling cascades. Duox1 but not Duox2 activity is stimulated by forskolin (EC(50) = 0.1 microm) via protein kinase A-mediated Duox1 phosphorylation on serine 955. In contrast, phorbol esters induce Duox2 phosphorylation via protein kinase C activation associated with high H(2)O(2) generation (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate EC(50) = 0.8 nm). These results were confirmed in human thyroid cells, suggesting that Duox1 is also involved in thyroid hormonogenesis. Our data provide, for the first time, detailed insights into the mechanisms controlling the activation of Duox1-2 proteins and reveal additional phosphorylation-mediated regulation.
The dual oxidases (DUOX) 1 and 2 constitute the major components of the thyroid H(2)O(2)-generating system required for thyroid hormone synthesis. With their maturation factor, DUOXA1 or DUOXA2, they share the same bidirectional promoter allowing coexpression of DUOX/DUOXA in the same tissue. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating their transcription in the human thyroid gland are not well characterized yet. Inflammatory molecules associated with autoimmune thyroid diseases have been shown to repress the thyroid function by down-regulating the expression of the major thyroid differentiation markers. These findings led us to investigate the effects of the main cytokines involved in Hashimoto thyroiditis (IFN-?) and Graves diseases (IL-4/IL-13) on the transcriptional regulation of DUOX and their corresponding DUOXA genes in thyroid cells. Human thyrocytes exposed to the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 showed up-regulation of DUOX2 and DUOXA2 genes but not DUOX1/DUOXA1. The DUOX2/DUOXA2 induction was rapid and associated with a significant increase of calcium-stimulated extracellular H(2)O(2) generation. IFN-? treatment inhibited DUOX gene expression and repressed the Th2 cytokine-dependent DUOX2/DUOXA2 expression. In another DUOX-expressing model, the human intestinal Caco-2 cell line, expression of DUOX2 and DUOXA2 mRNA was also positively modulated by IL-4 and IL-13. Analysis of the IL-4 signaling pathway revealed that the JAK1-STAT6 cascade activated by the IL-4 type 2 receptor is required for DUOX2/DUOXA2 induction. The present data open new perspectives for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of thyroid autoimmune diseases considering DUOX2-mediated oxidative damages.
A deliberate generation of ROS is now recognized to be achieved by specific NADPH oxidases (NOX). Dual oxidases (DUOXs) are Ca(2+)-activated NOXs and operate as H(2)O(2)-generators in various tissues. A tight regulation is however required to avoid ROS overproduction that can rapidly be harmful to biological systems. DUOX activator (DUOXA) proteins act as organizing elements for surface expression and activity of the DUOX enzymes. To study DUOX activation by the maturation factors, chimeric DUOXA proteins were generated by replacing particular domains between DUOXA1 and DUOXA2. Their impact on DUOX function and membrane expression were explored in a reconstituted heterologous cell system composed of COS-7 cells. We have shown that the COOH-terminal end of DUOXA1 is responsible for DUOX1-dependent H(2)O(2) generation. The NH(2)-terminal tail of DUOXA2 is critical to specify the type of ROS released by DUOX2, hydrogen peroxide or superoxide. Native DUOXA2 would constrain DUOX2 to produce H(2)O(2). However, alterations of the DUOXA2 NH(2)-terminal domain modify DUOX2 activity triggering superoxide leaking. Our results demonstrate that specific domains of the DUOX maturation factors promote the activation of DUOXs as well as the type of ROS generated by the oxidases.
Dual Oxidases (DUOX) 1 and 2 are efficiently expressed in thyroid, gut, lung and immune system. The function and the regulation of these enzymes in mammals are still largely unknown. We report here that DUOX 1 and 2 are expressed in human neuroblastoma SK-N-BE cells as well as in a human oligodendrocyte cell line (MO3-13) and in rat brain and they are induced by platelet derived growth factor (PDGF). The levels of DUOX 1 and 2 proteins and mRNAs are induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the membrane NADPH oxidase. As to the mechanism, we find that PDGF stimulates membrane NADPH oxidase to produce ROS, which stabilize DUOX1 and 2 mRNAs and increases the levels of the proteins. Silencing of gp91(phox) (NOX2), or of the other membrane subunit of NADPH oxidase, p22(phox), blocks PDGF induction of DUOX1 and 2. These data unravel a novel mechanism of regulation of DUOX enzymes by ROS and identify a circuitry linking NADPH oxidase activity to DUOX1 and 2 levels in neuroblastoma cells.
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