Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) genetics is a paradigm for the study and understanding of multigenic disorders. Association between Down syndrome and HSCR suggests that genetic factors that predispose to HSCR map to chromosome 21. To identify these additional factors, we performed a dose-dependent association study on chromosome 21 in Down syndrome patients with HSCR. Assessing 10,895 SNPs in 26 Caucasian cases and their parents led to identify two associated SNPs (rs2837770 and rs8134673) at chromosome-wide level. Those SNPs, which were located in intron 3 of the DSCAM gene within a 19 kb-linkage disequilibrium block region were in complete association and are consistent with DSCAM expression during enteric nervous system development. We replicated the association of HSCR with this region in an independent sample of 220 non-syndromic HSCR Caucasian patients and their parents. At last, we provide the functional rationale to the involvement of DSCAM by network analysis and assessment of SOX10 regulation. Our results reveal the involvement of DSCAM as a HSCR susceptibility locus, both in Down syndrome and HSCR isolated cases. This study further ascertains the chromosome-scan dose-dependent methodology used herein as a mean to map the genetic bases of other sub-phenotypes both in Down syndrome and other aneuploidies.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS), although efficient to detect genes involved in complex diseases, are not designed to measure the real effect of the genes. This is illustrated here by the example of IL2RA in multiple sclerosis (MS). Association between IL2RA and MS is clearly established, although the functional variation is still unknown: the effect of IL2RA might be better described by several SNPs than by a single one. This study investigates whether a pair of SNPs better explains the observed linkage and association data than a single SNP. In total, 522 trio families and 244 affected sib-pairs were typed for 26 IL2RA SNPs. For each SNP and pairs of SNPs, the phased genotypes of patients and controls were compared to determine the SNP set offering the best risk discrimination. Consistency between the genotype risks provided by the retained set and the identical by descent allele sharing in affected sib-pairs was assessed. After controlling for multiple testing, the set of SNPs rs2256774 and rs3118470, provides the best discrimination between the case and control genotype distributions (P-corrected=0.009). The relative risk between the least and most at-risk genotypes is 3.54 with a 95% confidence interval of [2.14-5.94]. Furthermore, the linkage information provided by the allele sharing between affected sibs is consistent with the retained set (P=0.80) but rejects the SNP reported in the literature (P=0.006). Establishing a valid modeling of a disease gene is essential to test its potential interaction with other genes and to reconstruct the pathophysiological pathways.
The spliceosome, a ribonucleoprotein complex that includes proteins and small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), catalyzes RNA splicing through intron excision and exon ligation to produce mature messenger RNAs, which, in turn serve as templates for protein translation. We identified four point mutations in the U4atac snRNA component of the minor spliceosome in patients with brain and bone malformations and unexplained postnatal death [microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type 1 (MOPD 1) or Taybi-Linder syndrome (TALS); Mendelian Inheritance in Man ID no. 210710]. Expression of a subgroup of genes, possibly linked to the disease phenotype, and minor intron splicing were affected in cell lines derived from TALS patients. Our findings demonstrate a crucial role of the minor spliceosome component U4atac snRNA in early human development and postnatal survival.
Numerous genome-wide analyses on common multifactorial diseases have been recently published in providing, for each associated Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP), an Odds Ratio (OR), either for one of the susceptibility variant allele versus none, or for two copies of it versus one copy. Besides the poor information attached to these measures, it is a simplistic idea to reduce the effect of a gene to the one of an allele or of an haplotype. It is a far cry from detecting a signal indicating the presence of a causative factor in a genomic region to its identification and the important task of estimating the disease risk due to it. The contrast between cases and controls may be used for the estimation of the genotype relative risks. However, the same population distribution of a marker can be coupled with different modes of inheritance of the trait, and hence different risk estimates. Other sources of information, in particular at familial level must be used and can be crucial in discriminating the genotypes according to the disease risk. Illustration is given on two susceptibility factors to Rheumatoid Arthritis: HLA and PTPN22. In both cases, thanks to the sharing of parental alleles in affected sibs, a refining of the modeling was obtained. Tezenas du Montcel et al. (Arthritis Rheum 52:1063-1068, 2005) show that six HLA genotypes can be distinguished with different RA risks. One HLA genotype confers a risk 6.6-fold higher than another HLA genotype. For PTPN22, Bourgey et al. (BMC Proc 1 (Suppl 1):S37, 2007) show that observed data is not explained by a single variant as initially reported and that using the information on 3 SNPs discriminates the genotypic relative risks (GRRs) from 1 to 4.7.
Idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is a spine disorder of unknown origin with 1.5-3% prevalence in the general population. Besides the large multifactorial-form sample of IS, there is a good evidence for the existence of a monogenic subgroup in which the disease is inherited in a dominant manner. However, results from literature suggest a strong heterogeneity in the locations of the mutated genes. Using a high-resolution genome-wide scan, we performed linkage analyses in three large multigenerational IS families compatible with dominant inheritance including 9-12 affected members or obligate carriers. In two of these families, our results suggested intra-familial genetic heterogeneity, whereas, in the other, we observed a perfect marker disease co-segregation in two regions at 3q12.1 and 5q13.3. We can state that one of these two locations is a novel IS disease gene locus, as the probability of having this perfect co-segregation twice by chance in the genome is very low (P=0.001). Lastly, in all three families studied, linkage to the previously mapped dominant IS loci on chromosomes 19p13.3, 17p11.2, 9q34, 17q25 and 18q is unlikely, confirming that there is a high genetic heterogeneity within the subgroup of dominant forms of IS.
Multiple sclerosis is a common disease of the central nervous system in which the interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typically results in intermittent neurological disturbance followed by progressive accumulation of disability. Epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors are primarily responsible for the substantially increased frequency of the disease seen in the relatives of affected individuals, and systematic attempts to identify linkage in multiplex families have confirmed that variation within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) exerts the greatest individual effect on risk. Modestly powered genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have enabled more than 20 additional risk loci to be identified and have shown that multiple variants exerting modest individual effects have a key role in disease susceptibility. Most of the genetic architecture underlying susceptibility to the disease remains to be defined and is anticipated to require the analysis of sample sizes that are beyond the numbers currently available to individual research groups. In a collaborative GWAS involving 9,772 cases of European descent collected by 23 research groups working in 15 different countries, we have replicated almost all of the previously suggested associations and identified at least a further 29 novel susceptibility loci. Within the MHC we have refined the identity of the HLA-DRB1 risk alleles and confirmed that variation in the HLA-A gene underlies the independent protective effect attributable to the class I region. Immunologically relevant genes are significantly overrepresented among those mapping close to the identified loci and particularly implicate T-helper-cell differentiation in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis.
A recent investigation reported, for the first time, an association between variants in the IFIH1-GCA-KCNH7 locus and multiple sclerosis (MS). We sought to replicate this genetic association in MS with a new independent MS cohort composed of French Caucasian MS trio families. The two most significant IFIH1 single nucleotide polymorphisms, rs1990760 and rs2068330, reported as involved in MS susceptibility, were genotyped in 591 French Caucasian MS trio families, and analyzed using the transmission/disequilibrium test. No association with MS was found (rs1990760, P=0.45 and rs2068330, P=0.27). Similarly, no significant association was detected after stratification for HLA-DRB1*1501 carriers. Reasons that may explain this discrepancy between the original report and our study are discussed.
Hirschsprung disease (HSCR, aganglionic megacolon) is a complex and heterogeneous disease with an incidence of 1 in 5000 live births. Despite the multifactorial determination of HSCR in the vast majority of cases, there is a monogenic subgroup for which private rare RET coding sequence mutations with high penetrance are found (45% of HSCR familial cases). An asymmetrical parental origin is observed for RET coding sequence mutations with a higher maternal inheritance. A parent-of-origin effect is usually assumed. Here we show that a differential reproductive rate for males and females also leads to an asymmetrical parental origin, which was never considered as a possible explanation till now. In the case of HSCR, we show a positive association between penetrance of the mutation and parental transmission asymmetry: no parental transmission asymmetry is observed in sporadic RET CDS mutation carrier cases for which penetrance of the mutation is low, whereas a parental transmission asymmetry is observed in affected sib-pairs for which penetrance of the mutation is higher. This allows us to conclude that the explanation for this parental asymmetry is that more severe mutations have resulted in a differential reproductive rate between male and female carriers.
We propose a new test for rare variant mapping, based on an affected sib-pair sample and a control sample. In each sib-pair, only the index case needs to be sequenced, and the number of alleles shared identical-by-descent between the sibs is used as complementary information. The test makes use of both association and linkage information. We compare this test to the Armitage test on case-control data, with cases either from the general population of cases or from a sample of cases having an affected sib.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.