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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Emerging and re-emerging virus infections in neonates and young pediatric patients.
Early Hum. Dev.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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The epidemiology of virus infections has changed dramatically in Europe in recent years due to ecologic, anthropologic and biologic factors such as: i) climate modifications, ii) global exchange of goods and international travel, iii) increased immigration flux from Africa, South America, the Middle East and Asia, iv) reduction of cultivated areas, and v) emergence and re-emergence of human viruses from zoonotic reservoirs. In addition, recent technical advancements have allowed the identification of previously unrecognized autochthonous viral species. Thus, at present, the technical and cultural challenge is to recognize infections caused by viruses not normally circulating in our geographical region (both as imported cases or potential local outbreaks), sustained by recently discovered autochthonous viruses or due to recognized viruses which are no longer widespread in Western Europe due to past vaccination campaigns.
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Persistent human cosavirus infection in lung transplant recipient, Italy.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Human cosavirus is a novel picornavirus recently identified in feces from children in southern Asia. We report infection with human cosavirus in a patient in the Mediterranean area. The patient was an adult double lung transplant recipient who had chronic diarrhea associated with persistent infection with human cosavirus.
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Multiple clusters of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus circulating in severe cases of influenza during the 2010-2011 season: a phylogenetic and molecular analysis of the neuraminidase gene.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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The molecular characterization of circulating influenza A viruses is crucial to detect mutations potentially involved in increased virulence, drug resistance and immune escape. A molecular and phylogenetic analysis of A(H1N1)pdm09 neuraminidase (NA) gene sequences from different patient categories defined according to the severity of influenza infection were analyzed. A total of 126 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 positive samples from patients with severe infections in comparison with those with moderate and mild infections was performed in Lombardy (Northern Italy, nearly 10 million inhabitants) during the 2010-2011 season. NA sequences included in this study segregated into five distinct clusters. Nineteen amino acid substitutions were detected exclusively in NA sequences of viruses identified in patients with severe or moderate influenza infection. Three of them (F74S, S79P, E287K) were observed in virus strains with the 222G/N hemagglutinin mutation. None of NA sequences under study had mutations related to the resistance to the NA inhibitors. Four out of 126 (3.2%) NA sequences from patients with severe infection lost a N-linked glycosylation site due to the change from N to K at residue 386. Two additional N-linked glycosylation sites in the NA stalk region (residues 42 and 44) were found in 12 (9.5%) NA sequences. Sporadic NA mutations were detected in NA viral sequences from critically ill patients, and no variants with reduced sensitivity to NA inhibitors were observed either in treated or untreated patients.
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Molecular detection of gastrointestinal viral infections in hospitalized patients.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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Gastrointestinal viral syndromes are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. Etiological agents include a large number of viruses encompassing several orders, families, and genera. During the period April 2011 to April 2012, 689 stool samples from as many patients hospitalized at the Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo of Pavia exhibiting gastrointestinal syndromes were examined for the presence of rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, adenovirus, rhinovirus, enterovirus, parechovirus, bocavirus, coronavirus, sapovirus, cosavirus, and aichi virus using polymerase chain reaction assays. Gastrointestinal viral agents were detected in 246 (36%) patients of the 689 analyzed. Adenovirus and norovirus were the most common viruses in this cohort, while aichi virus was the only gastrointestinal agent not detected. Surprisingly, rhinovirus was one of the most frequently detected viruses. However, a potential association with gastroenteritis remains to be confirmed.
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Imported hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in an Italian traveller returning from Cuba.
New Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome is endemic in Europe and Asia, while hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is endemic in Northern, Central and Southern America. The first case of imported HCPS involving an Italian traveller returning from Cuba is reported.
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Genetic divergence of influenza A NS1 gene in pandemic 2009 H1N1 isolates with respect to H1N1 and H3N2 isolates from previous seasonal epidemics.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2010
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The Influenza A pandemic sustained by a new H1N1 variant (H1N1v) started in Mexico and the USA at the end of April 2009 spreading worldwide in a few weeks. In this study we investigate the variability of the NS1 gene of the pandemic H1N1v strain with respect to previous seasonal strains circulating in humans and the potential selection of virus variants through isolation in cell culture.
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Enterovirus genotype EV-104 in humans, Italy, 2008-2009.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2010
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In an epidemiologic investigation of respiratory infections in Italy, October 2008-September 2009, we tested samples from patients for respiratory viruses. Human enterovirus genotype EV-104 (identified in Switzerland) was found in 3 immunocompromised and 2 immunocompetent patients. EV-104 is closely related to human rhinoviruses; thus, both types of viruses should be sought in respiratory syndromes.
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Viremic Dengue virus infections in travellers: potential for local outbreak in Northern Italy.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2010
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Dengue virus infection is a growing global problem and reports of outbreaks in Asia and Latin America as well as sporadic infections in international travellers are increasing. Two imported cases of serotype-1 Dengue virus infection in a Northern Italy region with high density of Aedes albopictus vector are described: a 27-year-old man returning from Bali and a 25-years-old woman returning from Brazil. In both patients, viremia lasted for several days before disappearance. These cases stress the importance of investigating Dengue virus infections in febrile travellers, point to the potential for local outbreak of Dengue virus infection and emphasize the necessity of maintaining surveillance in non-endemic countries.
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First case in Italy of acquired resistance to oseltamivir in an immunocompromised patient with influenza A/H1N1v infection.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2010
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A pandemic influenza A/H1N1v strain with the neuraminidase H274Y mutation was detected in nasal secretions of a 2-year-old leukemic patient with influenza-like illness after 18 days of treatment with oseltamivir. At baseline, no drug-resistant virus was found, while 4 days after treatment initiation a mixture of wild-type and mutated virus was detected. After treatment interruption, the wild type influenza virus re-emerged and became prevalent in nasal secretions after a few days, suggesting the lower fitness of the mutated virus strain. The patient slowly improved concurrently with a decrease in virus load, which resulted negative 42 days after diagnosis. No other drug-resistant influenza A/H1N1v virus strains have been detected in Italy (up to the end of November 2009) since the first case of the novel A/H1N1v virus was identified in the country (May 2009).
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Reconstruction of the evolutionary dynamics of the A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus in Italy during the pandemic and post-pandemic phases.
PLoS ONE
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The aim of this study was to reconstruct the evolutionary dynamics of the A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus in Italy during two epidemic seasons (2009/2010 and 2010/2011) in the light of the forces driving the evolution of the virus. Nearly six thousands respiratory specimens were collected from patients with influenza-like illness within the framework of the Italian Influenza Surveillance Network, and the A(H1N1)pdm09 hemagglutinin (HA) gene was amplified and directly sequenced from 227 of these. Phylodynamic and phylogeographical analyses were made using a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, and codon-specific positive selection acting on the HA coding sequence was evaluated. The global and local phylogenetic analyses showed that all of the Italian sequences sampled in the post-pandemic (2010/2011) season grouped into at least four highly significant Italian clades, whereas those of the pandemic season (2009/2010) were interspersed with isolates from other countries at the tree root. The time of the most recent common ancestor of the strains circulating in the pandemic season in Italy was estimated to be between the spring and summer of 2009, whereas the Italian clades of the post-pandemic season originated in the spring of 2010 and showed radiation in the summer/autumn of the same year; this was confirmed by a Bayesian skyline plot showing the biphasic growth of the effective number of infections. The local phylogeography analysis showed that the first season of infection originated in Northern Italian localities with high density populations, whereas the second involved less densely populated localities, in line with a gravity-like model of geographical dispersion. Two HA sites, codons 97 and 222, were under positive selection. In conclusion, the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus was introduced into Italy in the spring of 2009 by means of multiple importations. This was followed by repeated founder effects in the post-pandemic period that originated specific Italian clades.
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Comparison of immunologic and molecular assays for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal viral infections.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
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The performance of immunochromatographic and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (RIDA®QUICK and RIDASCREEN®, R-Biopharm) was compared with real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction techniques for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal viral infections. The sensitivity of the immunologic methods was comparable to polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of rotavirus and astrovirus, while it was reduced for detection of norovirus and adenovirus.
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Human parechovirus infections in patients admitted to hospital in Northern Italy, 2008-2010.
J. Med. Virol.
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Human parechoviruses (HPeVs) infection is associated with a wide range of clinical syndromes such as respiratory, gastrointestinal, neurologic diseases, and neonatal sepsis-like illness. The main objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of HPeVs infection in hospitalized patients in a period of 2 years. Respiratory samples from 3,525 patients with respiratory syndrome, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 340 patients with neurologic syndrome as well as CSF and plasma samples from five neonatal patients with sepsis-like illness collected from October 2008 to 2010 were tested retrospectively using HPeV-specific real-time RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of VP3/VP1 region was performed on the positive samples. Fourteen out of 3,525 (0.4%) patients with respiratory syndrome and five out of five patients with sepsis-like illness were positive for HPeV. In 3/5 patients with sepsis-like illness multiple samples (e.g., stool, plasma, CSF, or respiratory samples) were available, and HPeV was found in all specimens. In contrast, no positive CSF was detected among the 340 patients with neurologic syndromes. Eleven patients (57.9%) were infected with HPeV1 strain, 7 (36.8%) with HPeV3, and 1 (5.3%) with HPeV6 strains. Ten of the 14 HPeV patients with respiratory syndrome were co-infected with other respiratory viruses (eight with rhinovirus and two with coronavirus OC43). All five patients with sepsis-like illness were less than 1 month of age and were infected with HPeV3. Although not circulating at high frequency and unlikely to cause respiratory syndrome, HPeV was associated with severe clinical syndromes in a minority of newborns.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.