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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Chronic alcohol administration causes expression of calprotectin and RAGE altering the distribution of zinc ions in mouse testis.
Syst Biol Reprod Med
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Abstract Several studies reported that chronic alcohol consumption alters the intestinal mucosa barrier, and subsequent entrance of endotoxins into the bloodstream. In many tissues endotoxin exposure causes the expression of calprotectin (CP) and the receptor for advanced glycation -end products (RAGE). In this study we investigated whether chronic alcohol administration causes expression of CP and RAGE in mouse testis. The distribution of free and loosely bound Zn(2+) (FLB-Zn(2+)) in the testicular tissues was also evaluated. Alcohol-induced testicular damage was documented by measuring testosterone blood levels and by light and electron microscope studies. Twenty mice were treated daily for three weeks with 3.0?g/kg of a 25% solution of alcohol. Ten mice were treated in the same period of time with a solution of maltose dextrins, isocaloric to alcohol. Twenty untreated mice were used as controls. Alcohol treated mice showed diffuse expression of CP and RAGE in the interstitial cells. RAGE was found also in the basal compartment of the seminiferous tubules. Depletion of FLB-Zn(2+) was observed in the adluminal compartment of the seminiferous tubules. Expression of CP and RAGE was not found in control mice and maltose dextrin treated mice. Our results indicated novel mechanisms by which alcohol acts in testis. Indeed, CP and RAGE may cause the generation of oxidants and inflammatory mediators, with negative impact on testicular functions. Depletion of FLB-Zn(2+) may contribute to the dysregulation of spermatogenesis.
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The role of autophagy in epileptogenesis and in epilepsy-induced neuronal alterations.
J Neural Transm
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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Recent evidence suggests that autophagy alterations are present in a variety of neurological disorders. These range from neurodegenerative diseases to acute neurological insults. Thus, despite a role of autophagy was investigated in a variety of neurological diseases, only recently these studies included epilepsy. This was fostered by the evidence that rapamycin, a powerful autophagy inducer, strongly modulates a variety of seizure models and epilepsies. These findings were originally interpreted as the results of the inhibition exerted by rapamycin on the molecular complex named "mammalian Target of Rapamycin" (mTOR). Recently, an increasing number of papers demonstrated that mTOR inhibition produces a strong activation of the autophagy machinery. In this way, it is now increasingly recognized that what was once defined as mTORpathy in epileptogenesis may be partially explained by abnormalities in the autophagy machinery. The present review features a brief introductory statement about the autophagy machinery and discusses the involvement of autophagy in seizures and epilepsies. An emphasis is posed on evidence addressing both pros and cons making it sometime puzzling and sometime evident, the role of autophagy in the epileptic brain.
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Cell to cell spreading of misfolded proteins as a therapeutic target in motor neuron disease.
Curr. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Despite a number of genetic mutations and molecular mechanisms are recognized to participate in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), such a devastating neurological disorder still lacks a substantial cure. The present manuscript rather than a general overview of potential therapeutic approaches focuses on novel research findings detailing novel molecular mechanisms which appear to be promising for developing future ALS therapeutics. A special emphasis is given to the abnormal autophagy status and to those autophagy substrates which aggregate in the form of misfolded proteins. In fact, as reviewed in the first part of the manuscript, altered autophagy pathway is present in most genetic mutations responsible for familial ALS. These mutations impair clearance of autophagy substrates, which determines accumulation of giant altered mitochondria and misfolded proteins. Therefore, a considerable piece of the review is dedicated to unconventional processing of misfolded proteins leading to unconventional protein secretions which may underlie a prionoid cellto- cell spreading of ALS neuropathology. The intimate mechanisms regulating these steps are analyzed in order to comprehend which potential therapeutic targets might be considered in future studies. At the same time, negative findings concerning recent trials are explained in light of novel disease mechanisms. In the final part of the review the replacement therapy with focal stem cells implantation is discussed in relationship with toxic mechanisms operating in the intercellular space of the spinal cord and motor-related areas.
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Region-specific DNA alterations in focally induced seizures.
J Neural Transm
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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We induced brief secondarily generalized seizures of limbic origin in Sprague-Dawley rats by bicuculline microinfusion into the anterior piriform cortex. After 1 h or 5 days we performed comet assay, a sensitive marker for DNA damage, within entorhinal cortex, hippocampus (limbic areas recruited by seizure spreading) and striatum (which is not recruited). DNA damage occurred selectively in the ipsilateral entorhinal cortex and hippocampus at 1 h, but not at 5 days. These data shed new light on molecular genetics as a marker during limbic seizures, the most common in epileptic patients.
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Effects of vitamin B12 on the corneal nerve regeneration in rats.
Exp. Eye Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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The study was designed to investigate the effects of a new ophthalmic solution containing 0.05% vitamin B12 0.05% on corneal nerve regeneration in rats after corneal injury. Eyes of anesthetized male Wistar rats were subjected to corneal injury by removing the corneal epithelium with corneal brush (Algerbrush). After the epithelial debridement, the right eye of each animal received the instillation of one drop of the ophthalmic solution containing vitamin B12 0.05% plus taurine 0.5% and sodium hyaluronate 0.5% four time per day for 10 or 30 days. Left eyes were used as control and treated with solution containing taurine 0.5% and sodium hyaluronate 0.5% alone following the same regimen. Fluorescein staining by slit-lamp and morphological analysis was used to determine corneal wound healing. Immunohistochemistry, immunoblot and confocal microscopy were used to examine corneal re-innervation. Slit-lamp and histological analyses showed that re-epithelization of the corneas was accelerated in rats treated with vitamin B12. A clear-cut difference between the two groups of rats was seen after 10 days of treatment, whereas a near-to-complete re-epithelization was observed in both groups at 30 days. Vitamin B12 treatment had also a remarkable effect on corneal re-innervation, as shown by substantial increased in the expression of neurofilament 160 and ?-III tubulin at both 10 and 30 days. The presence of SV2A-positive nerve endings suggests the presence of synapse-like specialized structures in corneal epithelium of the eye treated with vitamin B12. Our findings suggest that vitamin B12 treatment represents a powerful strategy to accelerate not only re-epithelization but also corneal re-innervation after mechanical injury.
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Lithium improves survival of PC12 pheochromocytoma cells in high-density cultures and after exposure to toxic compounds.
Int J Cell Biol
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Autophagy is an evolutionary conserved mechanism that allows for the degradation of long-lived proteins and entire organelles which are driven to lysosomes for digestion. Different kinds of stressful conditions such as starvation are able to induce autophagy. Lithium and rapamycin are potent autophagy inducers with different molecular targets. Lithium stimulates autophagy by decreasing the intracellular myo-inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate levels, while rapamycin acts through the inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). The correlation between autophagy and cell death is still a matter of debate especially in transformed cells. In fact, the execution of autophagy can protect cells from death by promptly removing damaged organelles such as mitochondria. Nevertheless, an excessive use of the autophagic machinery can drive cells to death via a sort of self-cannibalism. Our data show that lithium (used within its therapeutic window) stimulates the overgrowth of the rat Pheochromocytoma cell line PC12. Besides, lithium and rapamycin protect PC12 cells from toxic compounds such as thapsigargin and trimethyltin. Taken together these data indicate that pharmacological activation of autophagy allows for the survival of Pheochromocytoma cells in stressful conditions such as high-density cultures and exposure to toxins.
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Plastic changes in the spinal cord in motor neuron disease.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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In the present paper, we analyze the cell number within lamina X at the end stage of disease in a G93A mouse model of ALS; the effects induced by lithium; the stem-cell like phenotype of lamina X cells during ALS; the differentiation of these cells towards either a glial or neuronal phenotype. In summary we found that G93A mouse model of ALS produces an increase in lamina X cells which is further augmented by lithium administration. In the absence of lithium these nestin positive stem-like cells preferentially differentiate into glia (GFAP positive), while in the presence of lithium these cells differentiate towards a neuron-like phenotype ( ? III-tubulin, NeuN, and calbindin-D28K positive). These effects of lithium are observed concomitantly with attenuation in disease progression and are reminiscent of neurogenetic effects induced by lithium in the subependymal ventricular zone of the hippocampus.
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The effects of locus coeruleus and norepinephrine in methamphetamine toxicity.
Curr Neuropharmacol
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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The activity of locus coeruleus (LC) neurons has been extensively investigated in a variety of behavioural states. In fact this norepinephrine (NE)-containing nucleus modulates many physiological and pathological conditions including the sleep-waking cycle, movement disorders, mood alterations, convulsive seizures, and the effects of drugs such as psychostimulants and opioids. This review focuses on the modulation exerted by central NE pathways on the behavioural and neurotoxic effects produced by the psychostimulant methamphetamine, essentially the modulation of the activity of mesencephalic dopamine (DA) neurons. In fact, although NE in itself mediates some behavioural effects induced by methamphetamine, NE modulation of DA release is pivotal for methamphetamine-induced behavioural states and neurotoxicity. These interactions are discussed on the basis of the state of the art of the functional neuroanatomy of central NE- and DA systems. Emphasis is given to those brain sites possessing a remarkable overlapping of both neurotransmitters.
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Transmission of prions within the gut and towards the central nervous system.
Prion
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
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The prion protein is a glycoprotein characterized by a folded ?-helical structure that, under pathological conditions, misfolds and aggregates into its infectious isoform as ?-sheet rich amyloidic deposits. The accumulation of the abnormal protein is responsible for a group of progressive and fatal disorders characterized by vacuolation, gliosis, and spongiform degeneration. Prion disorders are characterized by a triple aetiology: familial, sporadic or acquired, although most cases are sporadic. The mechanisms underlying prion neurotoxicity remain controversial, while novel findings lead to hypothesize intriguing pathways responsible for prion spreading. The present review aims to examine the involvement of the gastrointestinal tract and hypothesizes the potential mechanisms underlying cell-to-cell transmission of the prion protein. In particular, a special emphasis is posed on the mechanisms of prion transmission within the gut and towards the central nervous system. The glycation of prion protein to form advanced glycation end-products (AGE) interacting with specific receptors placed on neighboring cells (RAGE) represents the key hypothesis to be discussed.
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The role of locus coeruleus in the antiepileptic activity induced by vagus nerve stimulation.
Eur. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
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Stimulation of the vagus nerve produces antiepileptic effects. This is used clinically to treat drug-refractory epilepsies. The mechanisms responsible for these effects depend on the activation of vagal afferents reaching the nucleus of the solitary tract. This review focuses on the neuroanatomy of the nucleus of the solitary tract and its relation with the nucleus locus coeruleus as a preferential anatomical substrate in producing antiepileptic effects. In fact, following the transient or permanent inactivation of locus coeruleus neurons, some antiepileptic effects of vagus nerve stimulation are lost. The activation of locus coeruleus per se is known to limit the spread of a seizure and the duration of a variety of seizure types. This is due to the fine chemical neuroanatomy of norepinephrine pathways that arise from the locus coeruleus, which produce widespread changes in cortical areas. These changes may be sustained by norepinephrine alone, or in combination with its co-transmitters. In addition, vagus nerve stimulation may prevent seizures by activating the serotonin-containing dorsal raphe neurons.
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3-(Fur-2-yl)-10-(2-phenylethyl)-[1,2,4]triazino[4,3-a]benzimidazol-4(10H)-one, a novel adenosine receptor antagonist with A(2A)-mediated neuroprotective effects.
ACS Chem Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2011
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In this study, compound FTBI (3-(2-furyl)-10-(2-phenylethyl)[1,2,4]triazino[4,3-a]benzimidazol-4(10H)-one) was selected from a small library of triazinobenzimidazole derivatives as a potent A(2A) adenosine receptor (AR) antagonist and tested for its neuroprotective effects against two different kinds of dopaminergic neurotoxins, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) and methamphetamine (METH), in rat PC12 and in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell lines. FTBI, in a concentration range corresponding to its affinity for A(2A) AR subtype, significantly increased the number of viable PC12 cells after their exposure to METH and, to a similar extent, to MPP+, as demonstrated in both trypan blue exclusion assay and in cytological staining. These neuroprotective effects were also observed with a classical A(2A) AR antagonist, ZM241385, and appeared to be completely counteracted by the AR agonist, NECA, supporting A(2A) ARs are directly involved in FTBI-mediated effects. Similarly, in human SH-SY5Y cells, FTBI was able to prevent cell toxicity induced by MPP+ and METH, showing that this A(2A) AR antagonist has a neuroprotective effect independently by the specific cell model. Altogether these results demonstrate that the A(2A) AR blockade mediates cell protection against neurotoxicity induced by dopaminergic neurotoxins in dopamine containing cells, supporting the potential use of A(2A) AR antagonists in dopaminergic degenerative diseases including Parkinsons disease.
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Genotype-, aging-dependent abnormal caspase activity in Huntington disease blood cells.
J Neural Transm
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2011
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Huntingtons Disease (HD) is caused by trinucleotide CAG repeat expansion >36 in huntingtin (htt), a protein with several documented functions. The elongated polyglutamine (polyQ) stretch in the N-terminal region of htt leads to dysfunctional and degenerative events in neurons and peripheral tissues. In this study, by extending the analysis to several caspase activities (i.e. caspase 2, 3, 6, 8 and 9), we describe genotype- and time- dependent caspase activity abnormalities, decreased cell viability and a large set of alterations in mitochondria morphology, in cultured blood cells from HD patients. Patients homozygous for CAG repeat mutations and heterozygous with high size mutations causing juvenile onset (JHD) presented significantly increased caspase 2, 3, 6, 8 and 9 activities, decreased cell viability and pronounced morphological abnormalities, compared with cells carrying low mutation size and controls. After cyanide treatment, all caspases increased their activities in homozygous and highly expanded heterozygous cells, caspase 8 and 9 increased also in those cells carrying low-size mutations, remarking their key role as caspase initiators in HD. The remarkable ageing-dependent abnormalities in peripheral cells carrying particularly toxic mutations (i.e. homozygotes and JHDs blood cells) points out the potential dependence of clinical HD development and progression on either mutated htt dosage or missing wild type htt. Peripheral tissues (i.e. blood cells) may theoretically represent an important tool for studying HD mechanisms and searching for new biomarkers, according to the patients genotype.
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Future therapeutical strategies dictated by pre-clinical evidence in ALS.
Arch Ital Biol
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2011
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Classic concepts on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis led to define the disease as a selective degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons. At present such selectivity is questioned by novel findings. For instance, the occurrence of frontotemporal dementia is now increasingly recognized in the course of ALS. Again, areas outside the central nervous system are targeted in ALS. In keeping with motor areas other cell types surrounding motor neurons such as glia and interneurons are key in the pathogenesis of ALS. This multiple cell involvement may be due to a prion-like diffusion of specific misfolded proteins which are altered in ALS. This is the case of FUS and TDP-43 which harbor a prion domain prone to pathological misfolding. These misfolded proteins are metabolized by the autophagy, but in ALS there is evidence for a specific deficit of autophagy which impedes the clearance of these proteins. These concepts lead to re-analyze the potential therapeutics of ALS. In fact, mere cell substitution (stem cell) therapy appears insufficient to contrast all the alterations in the various pathways affected by ALS. Although preclinical data speed the application of stem cells in human clinical trials, several hurdles limit their translation into new therapies. Future treatments are expected to consider the need to target both motor neurons and neighboring cells which may contribute to the diffusion and persistence of the disease. On this basis the present manuscript describes which future strategies need to be pursued in order to design optimal therapeutic trial in ALS.
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Strategies for clinical approach to neurodegeneration in Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Arch Ital Biol
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2011
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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive and ultimately fatal neurodegenerative disorder of unknown aetiology that involves the loss of upper and lower motor neurons in the cerebral cortex, brainstem and spinal cord. Significant progress in understanding the cellular mechanisms of motor neuron degeneration in ALS has not been matched with the development of therapeutic strategies to prevent disease progression, and riluzole remains the only available therapy, with only marginal effects on disease survival. More recently alterations of mRNA processing in genetically defined forms of ALS, as those related to TDP-43 and FUS-TLS gene mutations have provided important insights into the molecular networks implicated in the disease pathogenesis. Here we review some of the recent progress in promoting therapeutic strategies for neurodegeneration.
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Protein clearing pathways in ALS.
Arch Ital Biol
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2011
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In the present review a large amount of experimental and clinical studies on ALS are discussed in an effort to dissect common pathogenic mechanisms which may provide novel information and potential therapeutic strategies for motor neuron degeneration.Protein clearing systems play a critical role in motor neuron survival during excitotoxic stress, aging and neurodegenerative disorders. Among various mechanisms which clear proteins from the cell recent studies indicate autophagy as the most prominent pathway to promote survival of motor neurons.Autophagy regulates the clearance of damaged mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and misfolded proteins in eukaryotic cells. Upon recruitment of the autophagy pathway, an autophagosome is produced and directed towards lysosomal degradation.Here we provide evidence that in both genetic and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, the most common motor neuron disorder) a defect in the autophagy machinery is common. In fact, swollen, disrupted mitochondria and intracellular protein aggregates accumulate within affected motor neurons. These structures localize within double membrane vacuoles, autophagosomes, which typically cluster in perinuclear position. In keeping with this, when using autophagy inhibitors or suppressing autophagy promoting genes, motor symptoms and motor neuron death are accelerated. Conversely stimulation of autophagy alleviates motor neuron degeneration.Therefore, autophagy represents an important target when developing novel treatments in ALS.
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Autophagy activation in glutamate-induced motor neuron loss.
Arch Ital Biol
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2011
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Recent literature demonstrated that exposure to excitatory amino acid in specific experimental conditions might produce a defect in the autophagy pathway. Such an effect was observed in motor neurons exposed chronically to glutamate agonists. On the other hand, it is well known that glutamate induces motor neuron death and this is supposed to play a key role in the physiopathology of motor neuron loss in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Similarly, a defective recruitment of autophagy was recently documented in ALS. In the present study we found that exposure of motor neurons to kainic acid produces intracellular changes associated with defective autophagy. In this experimental conditions, pharmacological activation of autophagy rescues the loss of motor neurons.
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Introducing Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Arch Ital Biol
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2011
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Introducing ALS at present times leads to re-define the concept of motor neuron selectivity which characterizes this disorder. In fact, multiple systems including skin, liver, and bone marrow are altered in ALS patients. The motor neuron is still the focus of the disorder and the extended pathology did not modify the concept of ALS as a devastating disorder based on motor neuron loss. Nonetheless, the involvement of non-motor neurons as well as areas outside the central nervous system leads to a different perspective to understand the causes, pathophysiology and therapy of ALS. For this reason a specific issue is dedicated to understand whether intersecting basic, pre-clinical and clinical knowledge of ALS may lead to a coherent novel scenario allowing to translate basic findings into clinical practice. Several pre-clinical issues described in this volume appear robust enough to indicate that we should modify a number of approaches when designing future therapeutic strategies. Similarly, novel investigations based on altered cell to cell communication are needed to further progress in understanding amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
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Spinal cord and parkinsonism: neuromorphological evidences in humans and experimental studies.
J. Chem. Neuroanat.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2011
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The involvement of the spinal cord in parkinsonism is becoming more and more evident based on human autopsies and on experimental models, obtained using specific neurotoxins or genetic manipulations. Besides Parkinson disease, other degenerative disorders characterized by parkinsonism, involve the spinal cord, and multiple neurotransmitters, apart dopamine, are altered in parkinsonism, also in their spinal projections. In the present review we discuss spinal cord pathology of different genetic or toxic experimental models of parkinsonism, as well as the neuropathological reports from autoptic cases of sporadic Parkinson disease and of other neurodegenerative conditions, overlapping with parkinsonism. Furthermore, anatomical distribution of alpha-synuclein in the spinal cord and coeruleo-spinal projections are reviewed, at the light of their possible involvement in spinal neurons degeneration. All these evidences call for an anatomical stemmed novel approach to understand specific features of parkinsonism, which might be due to such an involvement of the spinal cord. Moreover they suggest a common neurodegenerative process, underlying distinct neurodegenerative disorders, to which spinal neurons could be the more sensible.
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The chemical neuroanatomy of vagus nerve stimulation.
J. Chem. Neuroanat.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2010
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In this short overview a reappraisal of the anatomical connections of vagal afferents is reported. The manuscript moves from classic neuroanatomy to review details of vagus nerve anatomy which are now becoming more and more relevant for clinical outcomes (i.e. the therapeutic use of vagus nerve stimulation). In drawing such an updated odology of central vagal connections the anatomical basis subserving the neurochemical effects of vagal stimulation are addressed. In detail, apart from the thalamic projection of central vagal afferents, the monoaminergic systems appear to play a pivotal role. Stemming from the chemical neuroanatomy of monoamines such as serotonin and norepinephrine the widespread effects of vagal stimulation on cerebral cortical activity are better elucidated. This refers both to the antiepileptic effects and most recently to the beneficial effects of vagal stimulation in mood and cognitive disorders.
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Intracellular pathways underlying the effects of lithium.
Behav Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2010
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This is a short overview focusing on the biochemical interactions underlying the protective effects of lithium at the neuronal level. These include lithium modulation of autophagy, growth factors, excitotoxicity, and a variety of mechanisms underlying cell death, neurogenesis, and neuronal differentiation. All these effects represent the result of a multifaceted pharmacology, which is becoming more and more complex. Nonetheless, when trying to dissect the various mechanisms of action of lithium, two primary targets emerge: glycogen synthase kinase 3beta and phosphatidylinositol phosphatase. The numerous lithium effects on biochemical systems are placed downstream of these two main mechanisms. At several steps, these mechanisms interconnect to each other, thus making it difficult to keep distinct the biochemical cascades promoted by lithium. In this way, it is not surprising that, despite being described as different phenomena at the behavioral level, molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of lithium on mood, motor activity, and sensitization overlap with those responsible for neuroprotection and neurorestoration. It is likely that the ancestral role of this ion as a modulator of cell survival, cell growth, movement, and mood is the consequence of a few molecular mechanisms operating in different neuronal networks, where a variety of cascade events take place. This review is an attempt to elucidate the primary effects of lithium to interconnect the simpler targets to the most complex pharmacological effects.
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MPTP-induced parkinsonism extends to a subclass of TH-positive neurons in the gut.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2010
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Gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction occurs frequently in early Parkinsons disease (PD) and it is supposed to anticipate motor symptoms. About 80% of PD patients suffer from constipation before the onset of movement disorders. Despite such a high prevalence of gut impairment in PD, the molecular mechanisms remain poorly investigated. This is also due to the scarcity of experimental studies. In the present work, we tried to reproduce digestive abnormalities observed in PD patients by administering the parkinsonism-inducing neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6,-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to C57BL mice. We show that in these mice, MPTP (20mg/kg × 3) while producing the classic striatal dopamine (DA) denervation, persistently delays colonic motility, produces constipation, and reduces the number of enteric TH-positive neurons. The loss of TH-positive cells in the gut is selectively due to the disappearance of DA neurons within both myenteric and mostly submucosal plexus in the intestine, while no change is detected in the esophagus and stomach. In contrast, norepinephrine (NE) neurons are not affected. These data were confirmed by immunohistochemistry and by HPLC showing the significant loss of DA levels while NE and 5-HT content was not affected. Dopamine cell loss was associated with increased ?-synuclein levels. These functional, biochemical, and morphological findings extend the PD-mimicking effects of MPTP to GI dysfunctions and provide a useful experimental model to understand gut dysfunction in PD and to find effective treatments for digestive symptoms.
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Expression of 3-nitrotyrosine, a marker for peroxynitrite, in nasal polyps of nonatopic patients.
Med. Sci. Monit.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2010
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Several works have reported that nitric oxide and free oxygen radicals are up-regulated in nasal polyposis. This study aimed to assess the distribution of peroxynitrite in nasal polyps from nonatopic patients. Occurrence of peroxynitrite also was analyzed in relation with eosinophil infiltration and epithelial alterations.
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The role of autophagy: what can be learned from the genetic forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2010
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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by loss of motor neurons both in the brain and spinal cord, which dramatically reduces life expectancy. ALS occurs either in familial ALS or, more frequently, in sporadic ALS forms. Several mechanisms have been postulated to underlie motor neuron death. In the present paper, starting from some of the genes related to familial ALS, we overview and discuss their potential role in modifying of the physiological clearance of altered proteins and organelles in motor neurons. Special emphasis is placed on the role of autophagy, which seems to prevail as a protein clearing system over other multienzymatic pathways such as the proteasome within motor neurons. The evidence which links an altered autophagy to the onset of motor neuron death proposes that this biochemical pathway might represent a final common mechanism underlying both inherited and sporadic forms of ALS. In light of these findings we also analyze the potential significance of a novel association between ALS, altered autophagy, and mutations of nuclear proteins such as TAR-DNA-Binding Protein 43 and fused in sarcoma/translated in liposarcoma. Such an association appears to be critical since it is now well demonstrated that all sporadic and most familiar forms of ALS are characterized by altered deposition and mislocalization of TAR-DNA-Binding Protein 43. These novel insights into the pathogenesis of ALS may lead to the identification of novel strategies to promote motor neuron survival.
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Does autophagy worsen or improve the survival of dopaminergic neurons?
Parkinsonism Relat. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2009
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In eukaryotic cells intracellular components are mainly degraded by autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Autophagy is more flexible compared with the ubiquitin-proteasome system and it is involved in the degradation of long-lived proteins and organelles, such as mitochondria, which cannot be degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome. Although autophagy is able to compensate for ubiquitin-proteasome dysfunction, the opposite does not occur. Autophagy is frequently involved in neurodegeneration; however, there is no consensus on its role in cell survival, as it can be either neuroprotective or neurotoxic. With respect to dopaminergic neurons, there is evidence that autophagy occurs during damage to substantia nigra neurons such as in Parkinsons disease. Moreover, a variety of inherited forms of Parkinsons disease are characterized by mutated proteins that belong to the autophagy pathway. Inhibition of autophagy precipitates dopaminergic cell death, whereas autophagy activation rescues the death of nigral dopaminergic neurons induced by proteasome inhibitors. Taken together, this evidence suggests that autophagy improves the survival of dopaminergic cells.
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Intermittent Dopaminergic stimulation causes behavioral sensitization in the addicted brain and parkinsonism.
Int. Rev. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2009
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The gold standard therapy for Parkinsons disease (PD) consists in chronic administration of pulses of the dopamine (DA) precursor l-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA). Although the main brain area which is DA-deficient is the dorsal striatum (more the putamen than the caudate nucleus), other DA-innervated brain regions (i.e., the ventral striatum and other limbic areas) are affected by systemic administration of l-DOPA. While such a therapy produces an increase in synaptic and nonsynaptic DA, which replace the neurotransmitter deficiency, peaks of extracellular DA in the course of disease progression produce abnormal involuntary movements related to behavioral sensitization. Methamphetamine (METH), a widely abused drug, is known to produce behavioral sensitization, related to DA release (more in the ventral than dorsal striatum as well as other limbic regions). The present review discusses the overlapping between these treatments, based on pulses of DA stimulation with an emphasis on the class of DA receptors; signal transduction pathways; rearranged expression of neurotransmitters, cotransmitters, and their receptors coupled with ultrastructural changes. In fact, all these levels of synaptic plasticity show a surprising homology following these treatments, posing the mechanisms of behavioral sensitization during DA-replacement therapy in PD very close to the neurobiological mechanisms operating during METH abuse. In line with this view is the growing evidence of addictive behaviors in PD patients during the course of DA-replacement therapy.
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The role of autophagy on the survival of dopamine neurons.
Curr Top Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2009
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Autophagy is the mechanism through which cells degrade oxidized membranes-organelles and mis/unfolded proteins, in this latter function cooperating with the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UP system). Although autophagy has been known for a long time, its involvement in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases has been investigated only recently. The most fascinating data are very recent and show an impressive connection between proteins that are mutated in different forms of familial Parkinsons Disease (PD) and the critical role that these proteins play in the physiology of the Autophagy (ATG) pathway. This evidence is supported by neuropathological data showing at the ultrastructural level, the occurrence of an altered ATG in the dopamine (DA) neurons of the Substantia Nigra of patients affected by PD. Accordingly, by using experimental models of PD the involvement of ATG is documented as well. In particular, administration of the DA neurotoxin methamphetamine produces damage to DA-containing cells which is exacerbated and results in neuronal cell death when the ATG pathway is inhibited, thus confirming ATG as a critical pathway for the survival of DA neurons. In the present manuscript, after describing the general molecular and cellular features of ATG, we give a short overview of the most relevant aspects concerning the involvement of ATG in the pathogenesis of PD. We further propose that the ATG and the UP systems might converge in the formation of a so-called "autophagoproteasome" which might represent an early ultrastructure witnessing the presence of an ongoing degeneration within DA cells.
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Correlation between changes in CSF dopamine turnover and development of dyskinesia in Parkinsons disease.
Parkinsonism Relat. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2009
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To assess possible differences in dopamine metabolism that could parallel disease progression in Parkinsons disease (PD), we measured dopamine (DA) and its metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in PD patients at different stages of disease: de novo (DEN), advanced not showing dyskinesias (ADV), and advanced with dyskinesias (DYS). DA, homovanillic acid (HVA) and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) were significantly higher in DEN patients compared with other groups. A negative exponential correlation related DA level and disease duration. The HVA/DA ratio was significantly higher in the ADV and DYS group than that found in DEN group. Our data show that disease progression produces an early large decay of DA levels, followed by a stabilization. On the contrary, a late change in DA turnover (increased HVA/DA ratio) is documented in patients with longer disease duration. Our results suggest that the appearance of dyskinesia may not be related to a further loss of DA terminals but to a different, abnormal, DA turnover.
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A systematic study of brainstem motor nuclei in a mouse model of ALS, the effects of lithium.
Neurobiol. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2009
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Transgenic mice expressing the human superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD-1) mutant at position 93 (G93A) develop a phenotype resembling amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In fact, G93A mice develop progressive motor deficits which finally lead to motor palsy and death. This is due to the progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. Although a similar loss is reported for specific cranial motor nuclei, only a few studies so far investigated degeneration in a few brainstem nuclei. We recently reported that chronic lithium administration delays onset and duration of the disease, while reducing degeneration of spinal motor neuron. In the present study, we extended this investigation to all somatic motor nuclei of the brain stem in the G93A mice and we evaluated whether analogous protective effects induced by lithium in the spinal cord were present at the brain stem level. We found that all motor but the oculomotor nuclei were markedly degenerated in G93A mice, and chronic treatment with lithium significantly attenuated neurodegeneration in the trigeminal, facial, ambiguus, and hypoglossal nuclei. Moreover, in the hypoglossal nucleus, we found that recurrent collaterals were markedly lost in G93A mice while they were rescued by chronic lithium administration.
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Abnormal morphology of peripheral cell tissues from patients with Huntington disease.
J Neural Transm
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2009
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We investigated the genotype-dependency of morphological abnormalities in peripheral cells from Huntington disease (HD) patients. Cell cultures derived from skin and muscle biopsies showed a different set of abnormalities depending on the genotype (i.e. heterozygous and homozygous for CAG mutations) and the tissue (i.e. fibroblasts and myoblasts). In general, homozygotes cell lines showed massive ultrastructural damage of specific cell organelles compared with age matched control. These consist of vacuolization, deranged crests and matrix found within giant mitochondria. In addition, enlarged endoplasmic reticulum and the occurrence of numerous autophagic vacuoles, which were similar to those occurring in neurons within affected brain areas, were described. Despite a comparable dose-dependency on mitochondrial changes, this kind of alterations differ in fibroblasts compared with myoblasts. In fact, the internal mitochondrial structure was merely lost in myoblasts, while it shows pathological re-organization within fibroblasts, where altered crests appear as multilamellar circles. These data indicate that ultrastructural abnormalities from peripheral tissues of HD patients can be used as potential disease markers which are easier to get than autoptic brains. Moreover, the occurrence of ultrastructural cell pathology reminiscent of neuronal degeneration in HD, suggests the use of human peripheral cells as a tool to investigate the pathogenic cascade subsequent to huntingtin dysregulation.
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Autophagy, lithium, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Muscle Nerve
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2009
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In this article we provide an overview of the intersection between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and the autophagy pathway and discuss the potential protective effects of lithium through mechanisms that recruit autophagy and other effects. The autophagy pathway is recruited during motor neuron (MN) death both in vitro and in vivo. Despite a few controversial issues concerning the significance (detrimental/protective) of autophagy in ALS, recent findings indicate a protective role. Lithium in low doses is a well-known autophagy inducer that clears misfolded proteins and altered mitochondria from MNs. Moreover, lithium preserves mitochondria and sustains their genesis. This effect is replicated by rapamycin, which is an autophagy inducer but with a different mechanism from lithium. Lithium also increases the number of Renshaw cells that are affected early during the progression of experimental ALS. Again, lithium has been reported to decrease glial proliferation in the ALS spinal cord and induces sprouting in corticospinal fibers. Muscle Nerve 40: 173-194, 2009.
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Lack of alpha 1b-adrenergic receptor protects against epileptic seizures.
Epilepsia
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2009
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The role of alpha 1b-adrenergic receptor (alpha 1b-AR) in relation with neuronal degeneration, drug addiction, and seizure susceptibility has recently emerged. In particular, mice that overexpress alpha 1b-AR undergo spontaneous epileptic seizures and progressive neuronal loss in a variety of brain areas. Therefore, one should expect that the blockade of alpha 1b-AR leads to anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects. However, the lack of alpha 1b-AR antagonists does not allow testing of this hypothesis.
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Rapamycin inhibits the growth of glioblastoma.
Brain Res.
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The molecular target of rapamycin (mTOR) is up-regulated in glioblastoma (GBM) and this is associated with the rate of cell growth, stem cell proliferation and disease relapse. Rapamycin is a powerful mTOR inhibitor and strong autophagy inducer. Previous studies analyzed the effects of rapamycin in GBM cell lines. However, to our knowledge, no experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of rapamycin neither in primary cells derived from GBM patients nor in vivo in brain GBM xenograft. These data are critical to get a deeper insight into the effects of such adjuvant therapy in GBM patients. In the present study, various doses of rapamycin were tested in primary cell cultures from GBM patients. These effects were compared with that obtained by the same doses of rapamycin in GBM cell lines (U87Mg). The effects of rapamycin were also evaluated in vivo, in brain tumors developed from mouse xenografts. Rapamycin, starting at the dose of 10nm inhibited cell growth both in U87Mg cell line and primary cell cultures derived from various GBM patients. When administered in vivo to brain xenografts in nude mice rapamycin almost doubled the survival time of mice and inhibited by more than 95% of tumor volume.
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Effects of bevacizumab on neuronal viability of retinal ganglion cells in rats.
Brain Res.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of single and repeated intravitreal injections of bevacizumab on various retinal layers focusing more on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in healthy rats. Male Wistar rats were treated with intravitreal injection of bevacizimab (4 ?L) within right eye. Left eyes were injected with the same volume of balanced salt solution (BSS) and used as control. Ten rats received a single intravitreal injection and ten rats had three injections, with seven days time interval. Histological and immunohistochemical evaluations and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay were performed in order to find out if some degree of apoptosis could occur on RGCs. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses showed that bevacizumab induces neuronal loss compared to control eyes, after multiple injections. RGCs apoptosis after multiple treatments was demonstrated to occur by TUNEL, Annexin V and Bax assays. The loss of ganglion cells following repeated injections was confirmed and quantified by the decrease in RGC specific protein Brn3a measured by western blotting in ten additional rats. The present results need to be considered when multiple intravitreal injection of bevacizumab are performed to treat retinal diseases.
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Lack or inhibition of dopaminergic stimulation induces a development increase of striatal tyrosine hydroxylase-positive interneurons.
PLoS ONE
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We examined the role of endogenous dopamine (DA) in regulating the number of intrinsic tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH(+)) striatal neurons using mice at postnatal day (PND) 4 to 8, a period that corresponds to the developmental peak in the number of these neurons. We adopted the strategy of depleting endogenous DA by a 2-day treatment with ?-methyl-p-tyrosine (?MpT, 150 mg/kg, i.p.). This treatment markedly increased the number of striatal TH(+) neurons, assessed by stereological counting, and the increase was highly correlated to the extent of DA loss. Interestingly, TH(+) neurons were found closer to the clusters of DA fibers after DA depletion, indicating that the concentration gradient of extracellular DA critically regulates the distribution of striatal TH(+) neurons. A single i.p. injection of the D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390 (0.1 mg/kg), the D2/D3 receptor antagonist, raclopride (0.1 mg/kg), or the D4 receptor antagonist, L-745,870 (5 mg/kg) in mice at PND4 also increased the number of TH(+) neurons after 4 days. Treatment with the D1-like receptor agonist SKF38393 (10 mg/kg) or with the D2-like receptor agonist, quinpirole (1 mg/kg) did not change the number of TH(+) neurons. At least the effects of SCH23390 were prevented by a combined treatment with SKF38393. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that striatal TH(+) neurons expressed D2 and D4 receptors, but not D1 receptors. Moreover, treatment with the ?4?2 receptor antagonist dihydro-?-erythroidine (DH?E) (3.2 mg/kg) also increased the number of TH(+) neurons. The evidence that DH?E mimicked the action of SCH23390 in increasing the number of TH(+) neurons supports the hypothesis that activation of D1 receptors controls the number of striatal TH(+) neurons by enhancing the release of acetylcholine. These data demonstrate for the first time that endogenous DA negatively regulates the number of striatal TH(+) neurons by direct and indirect mechanisms mediated by multiple DA receptor subtypes.
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Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy.
Daniel J Klionsky, Fábio C Abdalla, Hagai Abeliovich, Robert T Abraham, Abraham Acevedo-Arozena, Khosrow Adeli, Lotta Agholme, Maria Agnello, Patrizia Agostinis, Julio A Aguirre-Ghiso, Hyung Jun Ahn, Ouardia Ait-Mohamed, Slimane Ait-Si-Ali, Takahiko Akematsu, Shizuo Akira, Hesham M Al-Younes, Munir A Al-Zeer, Matthew L Albert, Roger L Albin, Javier Alegre-Abarrategui, Maria Francesca Aleo, Mehrdad Alirezaei, Alexandru Almasan, Maylin Almonte-Becerril, Atsuo Amano, Ravi Amaravadi, Shoba Amarnath, Amal O Amer, Nathalie Andrieu-Abadie, Vellareddy Anantharam, David K Ann, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, Hiroshi Aoki, Nadezda Apostolova, Giuseppe Arancia, John P Aris, Katsuhiko Asanuma, Nana Y O Asare, Hisashi Ashida, Valerie Askanas, David S Askew, Patrick Auberger, Misuzu Baba, Steven K Backues, Eric H Baehrecke, Ben A Bahr, Xue-Yuan Bai, Yannick Bailly, Robert Baiocchi, Giulia Baldini, Walter Balduini, Andrea Ballabio, Bruce A Bamber, Edward T W Bampton, Gábor Bánhegyi, Clinton R Bartholomew, Diane C Bassham, Robert C Bast, Henri Batoko, Boon-Huat Bay, Isabelle Beau, Daniel M Béchet, Thomas J Begley, Christian Behl, Christian Behrends, Soumeya Bekri, Bryan Bellaire, Linda J Bendall, Luca Benetti, Laura Berliocchi, Henri Bernardi, Francesca Bernassola, Sébastien Besteiro, Ingrid Bhatia-Kiššová, Xiaoning Bi, Martine Biard-Piechaczyk, Janice S Blum, Lawrence H Boise, Paolo Bonaldo, David L Boone, Beat C Bornhauser, Karina R Bortoluci, Ioannis Bossis, Fréderic Bost, Jean-Pierre Bourquin, Patricia Boya, Michaël Boyer-Guittaut, Peter V Bozhkov, Nathan R Brady, Claudio Brancolini, Andreas Brech, Jay E Brenman, Ana Brennand, Emery H Bresnick, Patrick Brest, Dave Bridges, Molly L Bristol, Paul S Brookes, Eric J Brown, John H Brumell, Nicola Brunetti-Pierri, Ulf T Brunk, Dennis E Bulman, Scott J Bultman, Geert Bultynck, Lena F Burbulla, Wilfried Bursch, Jonathan P Butchar, Wanda Buzgariu, Sérgio P Bydlowski, Ken Cadwell, Monika Cahova, Dongsheng Cai, Jiyang Cai, Qian Cai, Bruno Calabretta, Javier Calvo-Garrido, Nadine Camougrand, Michelangelo Campanella, Jenny Campos-Salinas, Eleonora Candi, Lizhi Cao, Allan B Caplan, Simon R Carding, Sandra M Cardoso, Jennifer S Carew, Cathleen R Carlin, Virginie Carmignac, Leticia A M Carneiro, Serena Carra, Rosario A Caruso, Giorgio Casari, Caty Casas, Roberta Castino, Eduardo Cebollero, Francesco Cecconi, Jean Celli, Hassan Chaachouay, Han-Jung Chae, Chee-Yin Chai, David C Chan, Edmond Y Chan, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang, Chi-Ming Che, Ching-Chow Chen, Guang-Chao Chen, Guo-Qiang Chen, Min Chen, Quan Chen, Steve S-L Chen, WenLi Chen, Xi Chen, Xiangmei Chen, Xiequn Chen, Ye-Guang Chen, Yingyu Chen, Yongqiang Chen, Yu-Jen Chen, Zhixiang Chen, Alan Cheng, Christopher H K Cheng, Yan Cheng, Heesun Cheong, Jae-Ho Cheong, Sara Cherry, Russ Chess-Williams, Zelda H Cheung, Eric Chevet, Hui-Ling Chiang, Roberto Chiarelli, Tomoki Chiba, Lih-Shen Chin, Shih-Hwa Chiou, Francis V Chisari, Chi Hin Cho, Dong-Hyung Cho, Augustine M K Choi, DooSeok Choi, Kyeong Sook Choi, Mary E Choi, Salem Chouaib, Divaker Choubey, Vinay Choubey, Charleen T Chu, Tsung-Hsien Chuang, Sheau-Huei Chueh, Taehoon Chun, Yong-Joon Chwae, Mee-Len Chye, Roberto Ciarcia, Maria R Ciriolo, Michael J Clague, Robert S B Clark, Peter G H Clarke, Robert Clarke, Patrice Codogno, Hilary A Coller, María I Colombo, Sergio Comincini, Maria Condello, Fabrizio Condorelli, Mark R Cookson, Graham H Coombs, Isabelle Coppens, Ramón Corbalán, Pascale Cossart, Paola Costelli, Safia Costes, Ana Coto-Montes, Eduardo Couve, Fraser P Coxon, James M Cregg, José L Crespo, Marianne J Cronjé, Ana Maria Cuervo, Joseph J Cullen, Mark J Czaja, Marcello D'Amelio, Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud, Lester M Davids, Faith E Davies, Massimo De Felici, John F de Groot, Cornelis A M de Haan, Luisa De Martino, Angelo De Milito, Vincenzo De Tata, Jayanta Debnath, Alexei Degterev, Benjamin Dehay, Lea M D Delbridge, Francesca Demarchi, Yi Zhen Deng, Jörn Dengjel, Paul Dent, Donna Denton, Vojo Deretic, Shyamal D Desai, Rodney J Devenish, Mario Di Gioacchino, Gilbert Di Paolo, Chiara Di Pietro, Guillermo Díaz-Araya, Inés Díaz-Laviada, Maria T Diaz-Meco, Javier Diaz-Nido, Ivan Dikic, Savithramma P Dinesh-Kumar, Wen-Xing Ding, Clark W Distelhorst, Abhinav Diwan, Mojgan Djavaheri-Mergny, Svetlana Dokudovskaya, Zheng Dong, Frank C Dorsey, Victor Dosenko, James J Dowling, Stephen Doxsey, Marlène Dreux, Mark E Drew, Qiuhong Duan, Michel A Duchosal, Karen Duff, Isabelle Dugail, Madeleine Durbeej, Michael Duszenko, Charles L Edelstein, Aimee L Edinger, Gustavo Egea, Ludwig Eichinger, N Tony Eissa, Suhendan Ekmekcioglu, Wafik S El-Deiry, Zvulun Elazar, Mohamed Elgendy, Lisa M Ellerby, Kai Er Eng, Anna-Mart Engelbrecht, Simone Engelender, Jekaterina Erenpreisa, Ricardo Escalante, Audrey Esclatine, Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen, Lucile Espert, Virginia Espina, Huizhou Fan, Jia Fan, Qi-Wen Fan, Zhen Fan, Shengyun Fang, Yongqi Fang, Manolis Fanto, Alessandro Fanzani, Thomas Farkas, Jean-Claude Farré, Mathias Faure, Marcus Fechheimer, Carl G Feng, Jian Feng, Qili Feng, Youji Feng, László Fésüs, Ralph Feuer, Maria E Figueiredo-Pereira, Gian Maria Fimia, Diane C Fingar, Steven Finkbeiner, Toren Finkel, Kim D Finley, Filomena Fiorito, Edward A Fisher, Paul B Fisher, Marc Flajolet, Maria L Florez-McClure, Salvatore Florio, Edward A Fon, Francesco Fornai, Franco Fortunato, Rati Fotedar, Daniel H Fowler, Howard S Fox, Rodrigo Franco, Lisa B Frankel, Marc Fransen, José M Fuentes, Juan Fueyo, Jun Fujii, Kozo Fujisaki, Eriko Fujita, Mitsunori Fukuda, Ruth H Furukawa, Matthias Gaestel, Philippe Gailly, Malgorzata Gajewska, Brigitte Galliot, Vincent Galy, Subramaniam Ganesh, Barry Ganetzky, Ian G Ganley, Fen-Biao Gao, George F Gao, Jinming Gao, Lorena Garcia, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Mikel Garcia-Marcos, Marjan Garmyn, Andrei L Gartel, Evelina Gatti, Mathias Gautel, Thomas R Gawriluk, Matthew E Gegg, Jiefei Geng, Marc Germain, Jason E Gestwicki, David A Gewirtz, Saeid Ghavami, Pradipta Ghosh, Anna M Giammarioli, Alexandra N Giatromanolaki, Spencer B Gibson, Robert W Gilkerson, Michael L Ginger, Henry N Ginsberg, Jakub Golab, Michael S Goligorsky, Pierre Golstein, Candelaria Gomez-Manzano, Ebru Goncu, Céline Gongora, Claudio D Gonzalez, Ramon Gonzalez, Cristina González-Estévez, Rosa Ana González-Polo, Elena Gonzalez-Rey, Nikolai V Gorbunov, Sharon Gorski, Sandro Goruppi, Roberta A Gottlieb, Devrim Gozuacik, Giovanna Elvira Granato, Gary D Grant, Kim N Green, Aleš Gregorc, Frédéric Gros, Charles Grose, Thomas W Grunt, Philippe Gual, Jun-Lin Guan, Kun-Liang Guan, Sylvie M Guichard, Anna S Gukovskaya, Ilya Gukovsky, Jan Gunst, Asa B Gustafsson, Andrew J Halayko, Amber N Hale, Sandra K Halonen, Maho Hamasaki, Feng Han, Ting Han, Michael K Hancock, Malene Hansen, Hisashi Harada, Masaru Harada, Stefan E Hardt, J Wade Harper, Adrian L Harris, James Harris, Steven D Harris, Makoto Hashimoto, Jeffrey A Haspel, Shin-Ichiro Hayashi, Lori A Hazelhurst, Congcong He, You-Wen He, Marie-Josee Hebert, Kim A Heidenreich, Miep H Helfrich, Gudmundur V Helgason, Elizabeth P Henske, Brian Herman, Paul K Herman, Claudio Hetz, Sabine Hilfiker, Joseph A Hill, Lynne J Hocking, Paul Hofman, Thomas G Hofmann, Jörg Höhfeld, Tessa L Holyoake, Ming-Huang Hong, David A Hood, Gökhan S Hotamisligil, Ewout J Houwerzijl, Maria Høyer-Hansen, Bingren Hu, Chien-An A Hu, Hong-Ming Hu, Ya Hua, Canhua Huang, Ju Huang, Shengbing Huang, Wei-Pang Huang, Tobias B Huber, Won-Ki Huh, Tai-Ho Hung, Ted R Hupp, Gang Min Hur, James B Hurley, Sabah N A Hussain, Patrick J Hussey, Jung Jin Hwang, Seungmin Hwang, Atsuhiro Ichihara, Shirin Ilkhanizadeh, Ken Inoki, Takeshi Into, Valentina Iovane, Juan L Iovanna, Nancy Y Ip, Yoshitaka Isaka, Hiroyuki Ishida, Ciro Isidoro, Ken-Ichi Isobe, Akiko Iwasaki, Marta Izquierdo, Yotaro Izumi, Panu M Jaakkola, Marja Jäättelä, George R Jackson, William T Jackson, Bassam Janji, Marina Jendrach, Ju-Hong Jeon, Eui-Bae Jeung, Hong Jiang, Hongchi Jiang, Jean X Jiang, Ming Jiang, Qing Jiang, Xuejun Jiang, Alberto Jiménez, Meiyan Jin, Shengkan Jin, Cheol O Joe, Terje Johansen, Daniel E Johnson, Gail V W Johnson, Nicola L Jones, Bertrand Joseph, Suresh K Joseph, Annie M Joubert, Gábor Juhász, Lucienne Juillerat-Jeanneret, Chang Hwa Jung, Yong-Keun Jung, Kai Kaarniranta, Allen Kaasik, Tomohiro Kabuta, Motoni Kadowaki, Katarina Kågedal, Yoshiaki Kamada, Vitaliy O Kaminskyy, Harm H Kampinga, Hiromitsu Kanamori, Chanhee Kang, Khong Bee Kang, Kwang Il Kang, Rui Kang, Yoon-A Kang, Tomotake Kanki, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti, Haruo Kanno, Anumantha G Kanthasamy, Arthi Kanthasamy, Vassiliki Karantza, Gur P Kaushal, Susmita Kaushik, Yoshinori Kawazoe, Po-Yuan Ke, John H Kehrl, Ameeta Kelekar, Claus Kerkhoff, David H Kessel, Hany Khalil, Jan A K W Kiel, Amy A Kiger, Akio Kihara, Deok Ryong Kim, Do-Hyung Kim, Dong-Hou Kim, Eun-Kyoung Kim, Hyung-Ryong Kim, Jae-Sung Kim, Jeong Hun Kim, Jin Cheon Kim, John K Kim, Peter K Kim, Seong Who Kim, Yong-Sun Kim, Yonghyun Kim, Adi Kimchi, Alec C Kimmelman, Jason S King, Timothy J Kinsella, Vladimir Kirkin, Lorrie A Kirshenbaum, Katsuhiko Kitamoto, Kaio Kitazato, Ludger Klein, Walter T Klimecki, Jochen Klucken, Erwin Knecht, Ben C B Ko, Jan C Koch, Hiroshi Koga, Jae-Young Koh, Young Ho Koh, Masato Koike, Masaaki Komatsu, Eiki Kominami, Hee Jeong Kong, Wei-jia Kong, Viktor I Korolchuk, Yaichiro Kotake, Michael I Koukourakis, Juan B Kouri Flores, Attila L Kovács, Claudine Kraft, Dimitri Krainc, Helmut Krämer, Carole Kretz-Remy, Anna M Krichevsky, Guido Kroemer, Rejko Krüger, Oleg Krut, Nicholas T Ktistakis, Chia-Yi Kuan, Róza Kucharczyk, Ashok Kumar, Raj Kumar, Sharad Kumar, Mondira Kundu, Hsing-Jien Kung, Tino Kurz, Ho Jeong Kwon, Albert R La Spada, Frank Lafont, Trond Lamark, Jacques Landry, Jon D Lane, Pierre Lapaquette, Jocelyn F Laporte, Lajos László, Sergio Lavandero, Josée N Lavoie, Robert Layfield, Pedro A Lazo, Weidong Le, Laurent Le Cam, Daniel J Ledbetter, Alvin J X Lee, Byung-Wan Lee, Gyun Min Lee, Jongdae Lee, Ju-Hyun Lee, Michael Lee, Myung-Shik Lee, Sug Hyung Lee, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Patrick Legembre, Renaud Legouis, Michael Lehmann, Huan-Yao Lei, Qun-Ying Lei, David A Leib, José Leiro, John J Lemasters, Antoinette Lemoine, Maciej S Lesniak, Dina Lev, Victor V Levenson, Beth Levine, Efrat Levy, Faqiang Li, Jun-lin Li, Lian Li, Sheng Li, Weijie Li, Xue-Jun Li, Yan-Bo Li, Yi-Ping Li, Chengyu Liang, Qiangrong Liang, Yung-Feng Liao, Pawel P Liberski, Andrew Lieberman, Hyunjung J Lim, Kah-Leong Lim, Kyu Lim, Chiou-Feng Lin, Fu-Cheng Lin, Jian Lin, Jiandie D Lin, Kui Lin, Wan-Wan Lin, Weei-Chin Lin, Yi-Ling Lin, Rafael Linden, Paul Lingor, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz, Michael P Lisanti, Paloma B Liton, Bo Liu, Chun-Feng Liu, Kaiyu Liu, Leyuan Liu, Qiong A Liu, Wei Liu, Young-Chau Liu, Yule Liu, Richard A Lockshin, Chun-Nam Lok, Sagar Lonial, Benjamin Loos, Gabriel Lopez-Berestein, Carlos Lopez-Otin, Laura Lossi, Michael T Lotze, Péter Low, Binfeng Lu, Bingwei Lu, Bo Lu, Zhen Lu, Fredéric Luciano, Nicholas W Lukacs, Anders H Lund, Melinda A Lynch-Day, Yong Ma, Fernando Macian, Jeff P MacKeigan, Kay F Macleod, Frank Madeo, Luigi Maiuri, Maria Chiara Maiuri, Davide Malagoli, May Christine V Malicdan, Walter Malorni, Na Man, Eva-Maria Mandelkow, Stéphen Manon, Irena Manov, Kai Mao, Xiang Mao, Zixu Mao, Philippe Marambaud, Daniela Marazziti, Yves L Marcel, Katie Marchbank, Piero Marchetti, Stefan J Marciniak, Mateus Marcondes, Mohsen Mardi, Gabriella Marfè, Guillermo Mariño, Maria Markaki, Mark R Marten, Seamus J Martin, Camille Martinand-Mari, Wim Martinet, Marta Martinez-Vicente, Matilde Masini, Paola Matarrese, Saburo Matsuo, Raffaele Matteoni, Andreas Mayer, Nathalie M Mazure, David J McConkey, Melanie J McConnell, Catherine McDermott, Christine McDonald, Gerald M McInerney, Sharon L McKenna, BethAnn McLaughlin, Pamela J McLean, Christopher R McMaster, G Angus McQuibban, Alfred J Meijer, Miriam H Meisler, Alicia Meléndez, Thomas J Melia, Gerry Melino, Maria A Mena, Javier A Menendez, Rubem F S Menna-Barreto, Manoj B Menon, Fiona M Menzies, Carol A Mercer, Adalberto Merighi, Diane E Merry, Stefania Meschini, Christian G Meyer, Thomas F Meyer, Chao-Yu Miao, Jun-Ying Miao, Paul A M Michels, Carine Michiels, Dalibor Mijaljica, Ana Milojkovic, Saverio Minucci, Clelia Miracco, Cindy K Miranti, Ioannis Mitroulis, Keisuke Miyazawa, Noboru Mizushima, Baharia Mograbi, Simin Mohseni, Xavier Molero, Bertrand Mollereau, Faustino Mollinedo, Takashi Momoi, Iryna Monastyrska, Martha M Monick, Mervyn J Monteiro, Michael N Moore, Rodrigo Mora, Kevin Moreau, Paula I Moreira, Yuji Moriyasu, Jorge Moscat, Serge Mostowy, Jeremy C Mottram, Tomasz Motyl, Charbel E-H Moussa, Sylke Müller, Sylviane Muller, Karl Münger, Christian Münz, Leon O Murphy, Maureen E Murphy, Antonio Musarò, Indira Mysorekar, Eiichiro Nagata, Kazuhiro Nagata, Aimable Nahimana, Usha Nair, Toshiyuki Nakagawa, Kiichi Nakahira, Hiroyasu Nakano, Hitoshi Nakatogawa, Meera Nanjundan, Naweed I Naqvi, Derek P Narendra, Masashi Narita, Miguel Navarro, Steffan T Nawrocki, Taras Y Nazarko, Andriy Nemchenko, Mihai G Netea, Thomas P Neufeld, Paul A Ney, Ioannis P Nezis, Huu Phuc Nguyen, Daotai Nie, Ichizo Nishino, Corey Nislow, Ralph A Nixon, Takeshi Noda, Angelika A Noegel, Anna Nogalska, Satoru Noguchi, Lucia Notterpek, Ivana Novak, Tomoyoshi Nozaki, Nobuyuki Nukina, Thorsten Nürnberger, Beat Nyfeler, Keisuke Obara, Terry D Oberley, Salvatore Oddo, Michinaga Ogawa, Toya Ohashi, Koji Okamoto, Nancy L Oleinick, F Javier Oliver, Laura J Olsen, Stefan Olsson, Onya Opota, Timothy F Osborne, Gary K Ostrander, Kinya Otsu, Jing-hsiung James Ou, Mireille Ouimet, Michael Overholtzer, Bulent Ozpolat, Paolo Paganetti, Ugo Pagnini, Nicolas Pallet, Glen E Palmer, Camilla Palumbo, Tianhong Pan, Theocharis Panaretakis, Udai Bhan Pandey, Zuzana Papackova, Issidora Papassideri, Irmgard Paris, Junsoo Park, Ohkmae K Park, Jan B Parys, Katherine R Parzych, Susann Patschan, Cam Patterson, Sophie Pattingre, John M Pawelek, Jianxin Peng, David H Perlmutter, Ida Perrotta, George Perry, Shazib Pervaiz, Matthias Peter, Godefridus J Peters, Morten Petersen, Goran Petrovski, James M Phang, Mauro Piacentini, Philippe Pierre, Valérie Pierrefite-Carle, Gérard Pierron, Ronit Pinkas-Kramarski, Antonio Piras, Natik Piri, Leonidas C Platanias, Stefanie Pöggeler, Marc Poirot, Angelo Poletti, Christian Poüs, Mercedes Pozuelo-Rubio, Mette Prætorius-Ibba, Anil Prasad, Mark Prescott, Muriel Priault, Nathalie Produit-Zengaffinen, Ann Progulske-Fox, Tassula Proikas-Cezanne, Serge Przedborski, Karin Przyklenk, Rosa Puertollano, Julien Puyal, Shu-Bing Qian, Liang Qin, Zheng-Hong Qin, Susan E Quaggin, Nina Raben, Hannah Rabinowich, Simon W Rabkin, Irfan Rahman, Abdelhaq Rami, Georg Ramm, Glenn Randall, Felix Randow, V Ashutosh Rao, Jeffrey C Rathmell, Brinda Ravikumar, Swapan K Ray, Bruce H Reed, John C Reed, Fulvio Reggiori, Anne Regnier-Vigouroux, Andreas S Reichert, John J Reiners, Russel J Reiter, Jun Ren, Jose L Revuelta, Christopher J Rhodes, Konstantinos Ritis, Elizete Rizzo, Jeffrey Robbins, Michel Roberge, Hernan Roca, Maria C Roccheri, Stéphane Rocchi, H Peter Rodemann, Santiago Rodríguez de Córdoba, Bärbel Rohrer, Igor B Roninson, Kirill Rosen, Magdalena M Rost-Roszkowska, Mustapha Rouis, Kasper M A Rouschop, Francesca Rovetta, Brian P Rubin, David C Rubinsztein, Klaus Ruckdeschel, Edmund B Rucker, Assaf Rudich, Emil Rudolf, Nelson Ruiz-Opazo, Rossella Russo, Tor Erik Rusten, Kevin M Ryan, Stefan W Ryter, David M Sabatini, Junichi Sadoshima, Tapas Saha, Tatsuya Saitoh, Hiroshi Sakagami, Yasuyoshi Sakai, Ghasem Hoseini Salekdeh, Paolo Salomoni, Paul M Salvaterra, Guy Salvesen, Rosa Salvioli, Anthony M J Sanchez, José A Sánchez-Alcázar, Ricardo Sánchez-Prieto, Marco Sandri, Uma Sankar, Poonam Sansanwal, Laura Santambrogio, Shweta Saran, Sovan Sarkar, Minnie Sarwal, Chihiro Sasakawa, Ausra Sasnauskiene, Miklós Sass, Ken Sato, Miyuki Sato, Anthony H V Schapira, Michael Scharl, Hermann M Schätzl, Wiep Scheper, Stefano Schiaffino, Claudio Schneider, Marion E Schneider, Regine Schneider-Stock, Patricia V Schoenlein, Daniel F Schorderet, Christoph Schüller, Gary K Schwartz, Luca Scorrano, Linda Sealy, Per O Seglen, Juan Segura-Aguilar, Iban Seiliez, Oleksandr Seleverstov, Christian Sell, Jong Bok Seo, Duska Separovic, Vijayasaradhi Setaluri, Takao Setoguchi, Carmine Settembre, John J Shacka, Mala Shanmugam, Irving M Shapiro, Eitan Shaulian, Reuben J Shaw, James H Shelhamer, Han-Ming Shen, Wei-Chiang Shen, Zu-Hang Sheng, Yang Shi, Kenichi Shibuya, Yoshihiro Shidoji, Jeng-Jer Shieh, Chwen-Ming Shih, Yohta Shimada, Shigeomi Shimizu, Takahiro Shintani, Orian S Shirihai, Gordon C Shore, Andriy A Sibirny, Stan B Sidhu, Beata Sikorska, Elaine C M Silva-Zacarin, Alison Simmons, Anna Katharina Simon, Hans-Uwe Simon, Cristiano Simone, Anne Simonsen, David A Sinclair, Rajat Singh, Debasish Sinha, Frank A Sinicrope, Agnieszka Sirko, Parco M Siu, Efthimios Sivridis, Vojtech Skop, Vladimir P Skulachev, Ruth S Slack, Soraya S Smaili, Duncan R Smith, María S Soengas, Thierry Soldati, Xueqin Song, Anil K Sood, Tuck Wah Soong, Federica Sotgia, Stephen A Spector, Claudia D Spies, Wolfdieter Springer, Srinivasa M Srinivasula, Leonidas Stefanis, Joan S Steffan, Ruediger Stendel, Harald Stenmark, Anastasis Stephanou, Stephan T Stern, Cinthya Sternberg, Björn Stork, Peter Stralfors, Carlos S Subauste, Xinbing Sui, David Sulzer, Jiaren Sun, Shi-Yong Sun, Zhi-Jun Sun, Joseph J Y Sung, Kuninori Suzuki, Toshihiko Suzuki, Michele S Swanson, Charles Swanton, Sean T Sweeney, Lai-King Sy, Gyorgy Szabadkai, Ira Tabas, Heinrich Taegtmeyer, Marco Tafani, Krisztina Takács-Vellai, Yoshitaka Takano, Kaoru Takegawa, Genzou Takemura, Fumihiko Takeshita, Nicholas J Talbot, Kevin S W Tan, Keiji Tanaka, Kozo Tanaka, Daolin Tang, Dingzhong Tang, Isei Tanida, Bakhos A Tannous, Nektarios Tavernarakis, Graham S Taylor, Gregory A Taylor, J Paul Taylor, Lance S Terada, Alexei Terman, Gianluca Tettamanti, Karin Thevissen, Craig B Thompson, Andrew Thorburn, Michael Thumm, Fengfeng Tian, Yuan Tian, Glauco Tocchini-Valentini, Aviva M Tolkovsky, Yasuhiko Tomino, Lars Tönges, Sharon A Tooze, Cathy Tournier, John Tower, Roberto Towns, Vladimir Trajkovic, Leonardo H Travassos, Ting-Fen Tsai, Mario P Tschan, Takeshi Tsubata, Allan Tsung, Boris Turk, Lorianne S Turner, Suresh C Tyagi, Yasuo Uchiyama, Takashi Ueno, Midori Umekawa, Rika Umemiya-Shirafuji, Vivek K Unni, Maria I Vaccaro, Enza Maria Valente, Greet Van den Berghe, Ida J van der Klei, Wouter van Doorn, Linda F van Dyk, Marjolein van Egmond, Leo A van Grunsven, Peter Vandenabeele, Wim P Vandenberghe, Ilse Vanhorebeek, Eva C Vaquero, Guillermo Velasco, Tibor Vellai, Jose Miguel Vicencio, Richard D Vierstra, Miquel Vila, Cécile Vindis, Giampietro Viola, Maria Teresa Viscomi, Olga V Voitsekhovskaja, Clarissa von Haefen, Marcela Votruba, Keiji Wada, Richard Wade-Martins, Cheryl L Walker, Craig M Walsh, Jochen Walter, Xiang-Bo Wan, Aimin Wang, Chenguang Wang, Dawei Wang, Fan Wang, Fen Wang, Guanghui Wang, Haichao Wang, Hong-Gang Wang, Horng-Dar Wang, Jin Wang, Ke Wang, Mei Wang, Richard C Wang, Xinglong Wang, Xuejun Wang, Ying-Jan Wang, Yipeng Wang, Zhen Wang, Zhigang Charles Wang, Zhinong Wang, Derick G Wansink, Diane M Ward, Hirotaka Watada, Sarah L Waters, Paul Webster, Lixin Wei, Conrad C Weihl, William A Weiss, Scott M Welford, Long-Ping Wen, Caroline A Whitehouse, J Lindsay Whitton, Alexander J Whitworth, Tom Wileman, John W Wiley, Simon Wilkinson, Dieter Willbold, Roger L Williams, Peter R Williamson, Bradly G Wouters, Chenghan Wu, Dao-Cheng Wu, William K K Wu, Andreas Wyttenbach, Ramnik J Xavier, Zhijun Xi, Pu Xia, Gengfu Xiao, Zhiping Xie, Zhonglin Xie, Da-zhi Xu, Jianzhen Xu, Liang Xu, Xiaolei Xu, Ai Yamamoto, Akitsugu Yamamoto, Shunhei Yamashina, Michiaki Yamashita, Xianghua Yan, Mitsuhiro Yanagida, Dun-Sheng Yang, Elizabeth Yang, Jin-Ming Yang, Shi Yu Yang, Wannian Yang, Wei Yuan Yang, Zhifen Yang, Meng-Chao Yao, Tso-Pang Yao, Behzad Yeganeh, Wei-Lien Yen, Jia-Jing Yin, Xiao-Ming Yin, Ook-Joon Yoo, Gyesoon Yoon, Seung-Yong Yoon, Tomohiro Yorimitsu, Yuko Yoshikawa, Tamotsu Yoshimori, Kohki Yoshimoto, Ho Jin You, Richard J Youle, Anas Younes, Li Yu, Long Yu, Seong-Woon Yu, Wai Haung Yu, Zhi-Min Yuan, Zhenyu Yue, Cheol-Heui Yun, Michisuke Yuzaki, Olga Zabirnyk, Elaine Silva-Zacarin, David Zacks, Eldad Zacksenhaus, Nadia Zaffaroni, Zahra Zakeri, Herbert J Zeh, Scott O Zeitlin, Hong Zhang, Hui-Ling Zhang, Jianhua Zhang, Jing-Pu Zhang, Lin Zhang, Long Zhang, Ming-Yong Zhang, Xu Dong Zhang, Mantong Zhao, Yi-Fang Zhao, Ying Zhao, Zhizhuang J Zhao, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Boris Zhivotovsky, Qing Zhong, Cong-Zhao Zhou, Changlian Zhu, Wei-Guo Zhu, Xiao-feng Zhu, Xiongwei Zhu, Yuangang Zhu, Teresa Zoladek, Wei-Xing Zong, Antonio Zorzano, Jürgen Zschocke, Brian Zuckerbraun.
Autophagy
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In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
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Loss of spinal motor neurons and alteration of alpha-synuclein immunostaining in MPTP induced Parkinsonism in mice.
J. Chem. Neuroanat.
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1-Methyl, 4-phenyl, 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropiridine (MPTP) is a neurotoxin, widely used to produce experimental models of Parkinson Disease in rodents and primates. Although dopaminergic neurons are the most sensitive to MPTP neurotoxicity, different neuronal subtypes are affected. Among these, recent studies indicate that MPTP may produce pathological effects on spinal neurons. In fact, MPTP activates apoptotic proteins within the spinal cord and in particular within the motor neurons, suggesting commonalities between Parkinson Disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. In order to assess this point, in the present study we measured whether MPTP produces motor neurons loss. We chose a dose of MPTP (20 mg/kg × 3, 2 h apart), which in C57BL/6N mice was able to induce a massive nigrostriatal damage. Since both Parkinson Disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis are characterized by altered alpha-synuclein immunostaining, this protein was also evaluated within spinal motor neurons, following MPTP administration. Three different monoclonal antibodies, recognizing distinct epitopes in the sequence of alpha-synuclein were used. Severe dopaminergic cell loss was quantified by stereology within the substantia nigra pars compacta, along with marked decrease of striatal tyrosine hydroxylase densitometry. The same doses of MPTP also caused a significant motor neuron loss in the spinal cord (roughly 30%). Spared motor neurons appeared often dysmorphic and vacuolated and possessed altered alpha-synuclein immunostaining. This latter finding extended to other cell types of the spinal cord. These data indicate that MPTP, apart from being a dopaminergic neurotoxin, produces also motor neuron death, thus bridging experimental Parkinsonism and motor neuron disease.
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Motor neuron pathology and behavioral alterations at late stages in a SMA mouse model.
Brain Res.
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Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neurogenetic autosomal recessive disorder characterized by degeneration of lower motor neurons. The validation of appropriate animal models is key in fostering SMA research. Recent studies set up an animal model showing long survival and slow disease progression. This model is knocked out for mouse SMN (Smn(-/-)) gene and carries a human mutation of the SMN1 gene (SMN1A2G), along with human SMN2 gene. In the present study we used this knock out double transgenic mouse model (SMN2(+/+); Smn(-/-); SMN1A2G(+/-)) to characterize the spinal cord pathology along with motor deficit at prolonged survival times. In particular, motor neuron loss was established stereologically (44.77%) after motor deficit reached a steady state. At this stage, spared motor neurons showed significant cell body enlargement. Moreover, similar to what was described in patients affected by SMA we found neuronal heterotopy (almost 4% of total motor neurons) in the anterior white matter. The delayed disease progression was likely to maintain fair motor activity despite a dramatic loss of large motor neurons. This provides a wonderful tool to probe novel drugs finely tuning the survival of motor neurons. In fact, small therapeutic effects protracted over considerable time intervals (even more than a year) are expected to be magnified.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.