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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Do apolipoproteins improve coronary risk prediction in subjects with metabolic syndrome? Insights from the North Italian Brianza cohort study.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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We assessed predictive abilities and clinical utility of CVD risk algorithms including ApoB and ApoAI among non-diabetic subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS).
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Long-term prediction of major coronary or ischaemic stroke event in a low-incidence Southern European population: model development and evaluation of clinical utility.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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To develop a long-term prediction model of first major cardiovascular event and to assess its clinical utility in a low-incidence European population.
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T-wave axis deviation and left ventricular hypertrophy interaction in diabetes and hypertension.
J Electrocardiol
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Electrocardiographic signs of left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG-LVH) and T-wave axis (TA) deviation are independent predictors of fatal and non fatal events. We assessed the prevalence of ECG-LVH, TA abnormalities and their combination according to the presence or absence of diabetes and/or hypertension in a large sample of the adult general Italian population. Data from 10,184 women (54 ± 11 years) and 8775 men (54 ± 11 years) were analyzed from the Moli-sani cohort, a database of randomly recruited adults (age >35) from the general population of Molise, a central region of Italy that includes collection of standard 12-lead resting ECG. Subjects with previous myocardial infarction, angina, cerebrovascular disease or left bundle brunch block or missing values for TA or ECG-LVH have been excluded. TA was measured from the standard 12-lead ECG and it was defined as the rotation of the T wave in the frontal plane as computed by a proprietary algorithm (CalECG/Bravo, AMPS-LLC, NY). ECG-LVH was defined as Sokolow Lyon voltage (SLv) >35 mm or Cornell voltage duration Product (CP) >= 2440 mm*ms. Among subjects with ECG-LVH, prevalence of hypertension was 59.0% and 49.7%, respectively for men and women, whereas that of diabetes was 10.7% and 5.7%. In hypertensives, TA was normal in 72.3% of subjects, borderline in 24.8% and abnormal in 2.9%. In diabetics, TA was normal in 70.4% of subjects, borderline in 26.5% and abnormal in 3.1%. In both hypertensive and diabetic subjects, the prevalence of ECG-LVH, was significantly greater in subjects with borderline or abnormal TA. Hypertension was an independent predictor of abnormal TA (odd ratio: 1.38, P = .025). These results suggest that hypertension might play a relevant role in the pathogenesis of TA deviation.
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Prevention of postoperative atrial fibrillation in open heart surgery patients by preoperative supplementation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: an updated meta-analysis.
J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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Several randomized clinical trials evaluated whether preoperative supplementation of omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids protects against postoperative atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery, a condition associated with increased cardiac and cerebral mortality. However, their efficacy remains still controversial. An updated meta-analysis was performed to clarify if preoperative n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation prevents postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
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Understanding the links among neuromedin U gene, beta2-adrenoceptor gene and bone health: an observational study in European children.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Neuromedin U, encoded by the NMU gene, is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that regulates both energy metabolism and bone mass. The beta-2 adrenergic receptor, encoded by the ADRB2 gene, mediates several effects of catecholamine hormones and neurotransmitters in bone. We investigated whether NMU single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes, as well as functional ADRB2 SNPs, are associated with bone stiffness in children from the IDEFICS cohort, also evaluating whether NMU and ADRB2 interact to affect this trait. A sample of 2,274 subjects (52.5% boys, age 6.2 ± 1.8 years) from eight European countries, having data on calcaneus bone stiffness index (SI, mean of both feet) and genotyping (NMU gene: rs6827359, rs12500837, rs9999653; ADRB2 gene: rs1042713, rs1042714), was studied. After false discovery rate adjustment, SI was significantly associated with all NMU SNPs. rs6827359 CC homozygotes showed the strongest association (recessive model, ?=?-1.8, p=0.006). Among the five retrieved haplotypes with frequencies higher than 1% (range 2.0-43.9%), the CCT haplotype (frequency=39.7%) was associated with lower SI values (dominant model, ?=?-1.0, p=0.04) as compared to the most prevalent haplotype. A non-significant decrease in SI was observed in in ADRB2 rs1042713 GG homozygotes, while subjects carrying SI-lowering genotypes at both SNPs (frequency?=?8.4%) showed much lower SI than non-carriers (?=?-3.9, p<0.0001; p for interaction=0.025). The association was more evident in preschool girls, in whom SI showed a curvilinear trend across ages. In subgroup analyses, rs9999653 CC NMU or both GG ADRB2 genotypes were associated with either lower serum calcium or ?-CrossLaps levels (p=0.01). This study in European children shows, for the first time in humans, a role for NMU gene through interaction with ADRB2 gene in bone strength regulation, more evident in preschool girls.
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Platelet-leukocyte interactions in thrombosis.
Thromb. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2011
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Activated platelets may adhere to leukocytes and form circulating mixed aggregates. The latter are considered a reliable marker of a prothrombotic state and are associated with several cardiovascular conditions. The molecular mechanisms responsible of this cellular interaction include a central role of platelet P-selectin and of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), its counter receptor on leukocytes in a signaling cascade, resulting in the activation of the beta-2 integrin Mac-1 and in the firm adhesion between the two cell types. The interaction of P-selectin with PSGL-1 also induces upregulation of leukocyte tissue factor, biosynthesis of several cytokines and other inflammatory reactions, thereby contributing to the thrombotic progression. In this review the main determinants of mixed aggregate formation, the heritability component, the major pathological conditions associated with higher levels of mixed aggregates in the circulation will be discussed. Besides current anti-platelet or antithrombotic drugs, natural compounds, such as the polyphenols present in vegetable foods and red wine, have been tested for their inhibitory effect on mixed aggregate formation. The promising results shown by studies in vitro and in experimental animal models, remain to be carefully investigated in humans. Platelet-leukocyte aggregates provide a novel link between inflammation and thrombosis, two central processes in atherogenesis. A better understanding of the role of platelet-leukocyte interactions in athero-thrombosis will be instrumental for the progress of prevention and treatment of ischaemic cardiovascular disease.
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From candidate gene to genome-wide association studies in cardiovascular disease.
Thromb. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2011
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Continuous updating of the genotyping technology has led to improvement of genetic study design. The recent advances in technology coupled with the advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms have allowed a more comprehensive examination of the role of genetics, environment and their interaction in determining the individual risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Initial candidate gene studies identified a limited number of polymorphisms associated with disease, explaining only a minor part of trait variance. Furthermore, results were not often concordant, with meta-analyses not reaching the statistical power to confirm an association in many cases. The advent of the genome-wide design furnished an enormous quantity of information and decreased time of genotyping, while increased complexity of analyses and costs. Their results were more concordant, even when they suggested associations between CVD and polymorphisms distant from codifying regions or in genes involved in previously unsuspected pathways. Future results from genome-wide studies coupled with results from functional studies and investigation on gene-environment interactions will allow improvement of cardiovascular risk assessment and discovery of new targets for therapy and prevention. In this review, a brief history of cardiovascular genetics is reported, from candidate gene to genome wide association studies, that led to the identification of association between CVD and SNPs in the 9p21 region, firstly thought a gene desert without importance.
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White blood cell count, sex and age are major determinants of heterogeneity of platelet indices in an adult general population: results from the MOLI-SANI project.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2011
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The understanding of non-genetic regulation of platelet indices--platelet count, plateletcrit, mean platelet volume, and platelet distribution width--is limited. The association of these platelet indices with a number of biochemical, environmental and clinical variables was studied in a large cohort of the general population.
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A systematic review evaluating the methodological aspects of meta-analyses of genetic association studies in cancer research.
Eur. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2010
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Meta-analyses and Individual Patient Data (IPD) meta-analyses of genetic association studies are a powerful tool to summarize the scientific evidences, however their application present considerable potential and several pitfalls. We reviewed systematically all published meta-analyses and IPD meta-analyses of genetic association studies in the field of cancer research, searching for relevant studies on the Medline, Embase, and HuGE Reviews Archive databases until January 2009. The association between selected predictors of methodological quality and the year of publication was also evaluated. 144 meta-analyses involving 299 gene-disease associations, and 25 IPD meta-analyses on 83 gene-disease were included. Overall quality of the reports showed a substantial improvement over time, as authors have become more inclusive of primary papers published in all languages since 2005 (P-value = 0.087), as well as statistical heterogeneity and publication bias were evaluated more systematically. Only 35.4% of the meta-analyses, however, adopted a comprehensive bibliographic search strategy to identify the primary reports, 63.9% did not specify the language of the included studies, 39.8% did not test for Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE), while 62.2 and 75.9% of the meta-analyses and IPD meta-analyses, respectively, did not declare the scientific rationale for the genetic model chosen. Additionally, the HWE assessment showed a substantial decreasing trend over time (P-value = 0.031) while publication bias was more often evaluated when statistical heterogeneity was actually present (P-value = 0.007). Although we showed a general methodological improvement over time, guidelines on conducting and reporting meta-analyses of genetic association studies are needed to enhance their methodological quality.
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Smoking status and gastric cancer risk: an updated meta-analysis of case-control studies published in the past ten years.
Tumori
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2009
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A meta-analysis of published studies was performed in order to clarify the risk of gastric cancer associated with cigarette smoking status.
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Meta-analyses of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and risk of head and neck and lung cancer.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2009
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Authors report the results of four meta-analyses of studies that examined the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and head and neck cancer (nine studies, 2076 cases and 4834 controls for C677T; four studies, 1439 cases and 3941 controls for A1298C), and lung cancer (ten studies, 5274 cases and 7435 controls for C677T; seven studies, 5098 cases and 6243 controls for A1298C). The summary odds ratio (OR) of head and neck cancer was 0.92 (95% CI: 0.76-1.11) for MTHFR 677 TT and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.37-1.26) for MTHFR 1298 CC. The OR of lung cancer was 1.22 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95-1.55] for MTHFR 677 TT and 1.07 (95% CI: 0.83-1.38) for MTHFR 1298 CC. Results from the meta-analysis of three studies on C677T stratified according to dietary folate intake showed an increased risk for individuals with low folate intake (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 0.92-2.06 for head and neck and OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 0.97-1.68 for lung) versus high folate intake (OR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.63-1.16 for head and neck, and OR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.79-1.12 for lung). Despite the lack of formal statistical significance, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that folate play a role in lung and head/neck carcinogenesis, and show the need to incorporate data on folate intake when interpreting results of MTHFR polymorphisms in relation to cancer risk.
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T-wave axis deviation, metabolic syndrome and estimated cardiovascular risk--in men and women of the MOLI-SANI study.
Atherosclerosis
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We aimed at investigating the association between T-wave axis deviation, metabolic syndrome (MetS), its components and estimated risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) at 10 years in an adult Italian population.
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Variability of platelet indices and function: acquired and genetic factors.
Handb Exp Pharmacol
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Each individual has an inherent variable risk of bleeding linked to genetic or acquired abnormal platelet number or platelet dysfunction. In contrast, it is less obvious that the variability of platelet phenotypes (number, mean platelet volume, function) may contribute to the variable individual risk of thrombosis. Interindividual variability of platelet indices or function may be either due to acquired factors, such as age, sex, metabolic variables, smoke, dietary habits, and ongoing inflammation, or due to genetic factors. Acquired variables explain a small portion of the heterogeneity of platelet parameters. Genetic factors, instead, appear to play a major role, although a consistent portion of such a genetic variance has not yet been attributed to any specific genetic factor, possibly due to the high number of DNA loci potentially involved and to the limited effect size of each individual SNP. A portion of variance remains thus unexplained, also due to variability of test performance. A major contradiction in present platelet knowledge is, indeed, the difficulty to reconcile the universally accepted importance of platelet indices or function and the lack of reliable platelet parameters in cardiovascular risk prediction models. Trials on antiplatelet drugs were generally designed to select a homogeneous sample, whose results could be applied to an "average subject," tending to exclude the deviation/extreme values. As the current indications for antiplatelet treatment in primary or secondary prevention of ischemic vascular disease still derive from the results of such clinical trials where platelet function and its variability was not investigated, we cannot at present rely upon any current platelet test to either initiate, or monitor, or modify or stop treatment with any antiplatelet drug. Evidence is, however, increasing that traditional platelet aggregometry and other more recently developed platelet function assays could be useful to optimize antiplatelet therapy and to predict major adverse cardiac events.The observation of interindividual differences in platelet response to antiplatelet drugs has enlarged the spectrum and the possible clinical relevance of the variability of platelet indices or function. The development of "personalized medicine" will benefit from the concepts discussed in this chapter.
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Relationship between markers of body fat and calcaneal bone stiffness differs between preschool and primary school children: results from the IDEFICS baseline survey.
Calcif. Tissue Int.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between markers of body fat and bone status assessed as calcaneal bone stiffness in a large sample of European healthy pre- and primary school children. Participants were 7,447 children from the IDEFICS study (spread over eight different European countries), age 6.1 ± 1.8 years (range 2.1-9.9), 50.5 % boys. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, bioelectrical impedance, waist and hip circumference, and tricipital and subscapular skinfold thickness) as well as quantitative ultrasonographic measurements to determine calcaneal stiffness index (SI) were performed. Partial correlation analysis, linear regression analysis, and ANCOVA were stratified by sex and age group: preschool boys (n = 1,699) and girls (n = 1,599) and primary school boys (n = 2,062) and girls (n = 2,087). In the overall study population, the average calcaneal SI was equal to 80.2 ± 14.0, ranging 42.4-153. The results showed that preschool children with higher body fat had lower calcaneal SI (significant correlation coefficients between -0.05 and -0.20), while primary school children with higher body fat had higher calcaneal SI (significant correlation coefficients between 0.05 and 0.13). After adjusting for fat-free mass, both preschool and primary school children showed an inverse relationship between body fat and calcaneal stiffness. To conclude, body fat is negatively associated with calcaneal bone stiffness in children after adjustment for fat-free mass. Fat-free mass may confound the association in primary school children but not in preschool children. Muscle mass may therefore be an important determinant of bone stiffness.
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Postprandial cell inflammatory response to a standardised fatty meal in subjects at different degree of cardiovascular risk.
Thromb. Haemost.
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A fatty meal may represent a challenge of in vivo acute inflammatory reaction. We evaluated the acute effects of a standardised fatty meal administration on leukocytes and platelets and on their interactions on 61 subjects at different degree of cardiovascular risk, without any clinical event. Before and 2 hours after a fatty meal, blood cells were counted and markers of leukocyte (intracellular myeloperoxidase [MPO] and Mac-1) and platelet (P-selectin and microparticles) activation and mixed platelet-leukocyte conjugates measured by flow-cytometry. After the fatty meal, both white blood cell and platelet count significantly increased, more markedly in subjects with lower cardiovascular risk score. Mac-1 expression too increased (from 32.2 ± 27.2% to 45.6 ± 29.0%, p=0.0016), while MPO decreased (from 83.1 ± 16.3% to 64.5 ± 23.1%, p<0.0001). A trend for increased platelet activation and interaction with leukocytes was also observed. Women were more markedly susceptible to fatty meal challenge, as compared to men, while age did not seem to affect any cell response to fatty meal. Waist-to-hip ratio and body mass index influenced polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) degranulation and platelet count increase, respectively. Cellular responses to the fatty meal, in particular PMN degranulation, were attenuated in subjects at higher degree of cardiovascular risk, who showed a basal mild inflammatory activation status. In conclusion, a fatty meal consumption may represent a model of acute inflammatory response and appears to be modulated by different demographic and cardiovascular risk degree. This model could be applied to study the effect of food-derived antioxidants or nutritional supplements, but its relevance remains to be demonstrated.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.