A missense mutation in ATP2A1 gene, encoding SERCA1 protein, causes Chianina cattle congenital pseudomyotonia, an exercise induced impairment of muscle relaxation. Skeletal muscles of affected cattle are characterized by a selective reduction of SERCA1 in sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes. In this paper we provide evidence that the ubiquitin proteasome system is involved in the reduced density of mutated SERCA1. The treatment with MG132, an inhibitor of ubiquitin proteasome system, rescues the expression level and membrane localization of the SERCA1 mutant in a heterologous cellular model. Cells cotransfected with the Ca2+ sensitive probe aequorin, show that the rescued SERCA1 mutant exhibits the same ability of wild-type to maintain Ca2+ homeostasis within cells. These data have been confirmed by those obtained ex vivo on adult skeletal muscle fibers from a biopsy from a pseudomyotonia affected subject. Our data show that the mutation generates a protein most likely corrupted in proper folding but not in catalytic activity. Rescue of mutated SERCA1 to sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane can re-establish resting cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and prevent the appearance of pathological signs of cattle pseudomyotonia.
The skeletal fibers have different embryological origin; the extraocular and jaw-closer muscles develop from prechordal mesoderm while the limb and trunk muscles from somites. These different origins characterize also the adult muscle stem cells, known as satellite cells (SCs) and responsible for the fiber growth and regeneration. The physiological properties of presomitic SCs and their epigenetics are poorly studied despite their peculiar characteristics to preserve muscle integrity during chronic muscle degeneration. Here, we isolated SCs from canine somitic [somite-derived muscle (SDM): vastus lateralis, rectus abdominis, gluteus superficialis, biceps femoris, psoas] and presomitic [pre-somite-derived muscle (PSDM): lateral rectus, temporalis, and retractor bulbi] muscles as myogenic progenitor cells from young and old animals. In addition, SDM and PSDM-SCs were obtained also from golden retrievers affected by muscular dystrophy (GRMD). We characterized the lifespan, the myogenic potential and functions, and oxidative stress of both somitic and presomitic SCs with the aim to reveal differences with aging and between healthy and dystrophic animals. The different proliferation rate was consistent with higher telomerase activity in PSDM-SCs compared to SDM-SCs, although restricted at early passages. SDM-SCs express early (Pax7, MyoD) and late (myosin heavy chain, myogenin) myogenic markers differently from PSDM-SCs resulting in a more efficient and faster cell differentiation. Taken together, our results showed that PSDM-SCs elicit a stronger stem cell phenotype compared to SDM ones. Finally, myomiR expression profile reveals a unique epigenetic signature in GRMD SCs and miR-206, highly expressed in dystrophic SCs, seems to play a critical role in muscle degeneration. Thus, miR-206 could represent a potential target for novel therapeutic approaches.
RET is a tyrosine kinase receptor, and transduces signaling by family of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor ligands (GFLs). RET is involved in the development of enteric nervous system, of sympathetic, parasympathetic, motor and sensory neurons. RET exists in two main isoforms originated by differential splicing, RET9 and RET51; phylogenetic studies have shown that the RET gene is conserved across vertebrates. The aim of this study was to investigate the RET expression within the brain of zebrafish, using immunohistochemistry, western blotting and RT-PCR. In homogenate brains both RET protein and mRNA were observed. RET immunoreactivity was widespread in neurons and neural processes of all the major regions of the brain. These results demonstrate the occurrence of RET and suggest an involvement of GDNF family ligands in the brain of adult zebrafish.
A 7-month-old New Forest foal presented for episodes of recumbency and stiffness with myotonic discharges on electromyography. The observed phenotype resembled congenital myotonia caused by CLCN1 mutations in goats and humans. Mutation of the CLCN1 gene was considered as possible cause and mutation analysis was performed. The affected foal was homozygous for a missense mutation (c.1775A>C, p.D592A) located in a well conserved domain of the CLCN1 gene. The mutation showed a recessive mode of inheritance within the reported pony family. Therefore, this CLCN1 polymorphism is considered to be a possible cause of congenital myotonia.
A Dutch Improved Red and White cross-breed heifer calf was evaluated for a muscular disorder resulting in exercise induced muscle stiffness. Clinical findings included generalized exercise-induced muscle spasms with normal response to muscle percussion. Electromyography showed no myotonic discharges, thus ruling out myotonia. Whereas histological examination of muscle tissue was unremarkable, Ca(2+)-ATPase activity of sarcoplasmatic reticulum membranes (SERCA1) was markedly decreased compared to control animals. Mutation analysis revealed the presence of a missense mutation in the ATP2A1 gene encoding the SERCA1 protein (p.Arg559Cys). The present case presents similarities to human Brodys disease, but also to pseudomyotonia and congenital muscular dystonia previously described in different cattle breeds.
Recently, a muscular disorder defined as "congenital pseudomyotonia" was described in Chianina cattle, one of the most important Italian cattle breeds for quality meat and leather. The clinical phenotype of this disease is characterized by an exercise-induced muscle contracture that prevents animals from performing muscular activities. On the basis of clinical symptoms, Chianina pseudomyotonia appeared related to human Brodys disease, a rare inherited disorder of skeletal muscle function that results from a sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA1) deficiency caused by a defect in the ATP2A1 gene that encodes SERCA1. SERCA1 is involved in transporting calcium from the cytosol to the lumen of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Recently, we identified the genetic defect underlying Chianina cattle pseudomyotonia. A missense mutation in exon 6 of the ATP2A1 gene, leading to an R164H substitution in the SERCA1 protein, was found. In this study, we provide biochemical evidence for a selective deficiency in SERCA1 protein levels in sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes from affected muscles, although mRNA levels are unaffected. The reduction of SERCA1 levels accounts for the reduced Ca(2+)-ATPase activity without any significant change in Ca(2+)-dependency. The loss of SERCA1 is not compensated for by the expression of the SERCA2 isoform. We believe that Chianina cattle pseudomyotonia might, therefore, be the true counterpart of human Brodys disease, and that bovine species might be used as a suitable animal model.
Bovine congenital pseudomyotonia (PMT) is an impairment of muscle relaxation induced by exercise preventing animals from performing rapid movements. Forms of recessively inherited PMT have been described in different cattle breeds caused by two independent mutations in ATP2A1 encoding a skeletal-muscle Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA1). We observed symptoms of congenital PMT in four related Romagnola beef cattle from Italy and evaluated SERCA1 activity and scanned ATP2A1 for possible causative mutations.
Tendon injuries, degenerative tendinopathies, and overuse tendinitis are common in races horses. Novel therapies aim to restore tendon functionality by means of cell-based therapy, growth factor delivery, and tissue engineering approaches. This study examined the use of autologous mesenchymal stromal cells derived from peripheral blood (PB-MSCs), platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and a combination of both for ameliorating experimental lesions on deep digital flexor tendons (DDFT) of Bergamasca sheep. In particular, testing the combination of blood-derived MSCs and PRP in an experimental animal model represents one of the few studies exploring a putative synergistic action of these treatments. Effectiveness of treatments was evaluated at 30 and 120 days comparing clinical, ultrasonographic, and histological features together with immunohistochemical expression of collagen types 1 and 3, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). Significant differences were found between treated groups and their corresponding controls (placebo) regarding tendon morphology and extracellular matrix (ECM) composition. However, our results indicate that the combined use of PRP and MSCs did not produce an additive or synergistic regenerative response and highlighted the predominant effect of MSCs on tendon healing, enhanced tissue remodeling and improved structural organization.
The SERCA pump, a membrane protein of about 110kDa, transports two Ca(2+) ions per ATP hydrolyzed from the cytoplasm to the lumen of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. In muscle cells, its ability to remove Ca(2+) from the cytosol induces relaxation. The transport mechanism employed by the enzyme from rabbit muscle has been extensively studied, and several crystal structures representing different conformational states are available. However, no structure of the pump from other sources is known. In this paper we describe the crystal structure of the bovine enzyme, crystallized in the E1 conformation and determined at 2.9Å resolution. The overall molecular model is very similar to that of the rabbit enzyme, as expected by the high amino acid sequence identity. Nevertheless, the bovine enzyme has reduced catalytic activity with respect to the rabbit enzyme. Subtle structural modifications, in particular in the region of the long loop that protrudes into the SR lumen connecting transmembrane ?-helices M7 and M8, may explain the difference.
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