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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
DISTINGUISHING DISEASE EFFECTS FROM ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS IN A MOUNTAIN UNGULATE: SEASONAL VARIATION IN BODY WEIGHT, HEMATOLOGY, AND SERUM CHEMISTRY AMONG IBERIAN IBEX AFFECTED BY SARCOPTIC MANGE.
J. Wildl. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Abstract Our study focuses on the Iberian ibex from the Sierra Nevada Natural Space (southern Spain), where sarcoptic mange is an endemic disease and animals are affected by a highly seasonal environment. Our aim was to distinguish between disease and environmental influences on seasonal variation in body weight, hematology, and serum biochemistry in Iberian ibex. We sampled 136 chemically immobilized male ibexes. The single effect of mange influenced hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, leukocytes, band neutrophils, monocytes, cholesterol, urea, creatine, and aspartate aminotransferase. Both mange and the period of the year also affected values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, neutrophils, glucose, and serum proteins. Scabietic animals showed a marked reduction in body weight (21.4 kg on average), which was more pronounced in winter. These results reveal that 1) infested animals are anemic, 2) secondary infections likely occur, and 3) sarcoptic mange is catabolic.
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Telemedicine system for the care of patients with neuromuscular disease and chronic respiratory failure.
Arch Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Neuromuscular diseases cause a number of limitations which may be improved by using a telemedicine system. These include functional impairment and dependence associated with muscle weakness, the insidious development of respiratory failure and episodes of exacerbation.
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Utility of measurement of interleukin-1ß and interleukin-8 in the diagnosis of complicated parapneumonic pleural effusions.
Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2014
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Thirty percent of patients with pneumonia develop pleural effusion, and of these, 20% have complicated effusion (CPPE), which may require a chest tube or surgery for resolution. The objective of the study is to compare the diagnostic yield of determining interleukin-1? and interleukin-8 in pleural fluid (PF) (PFIL-1? and PFIL-8) with respect to classic criteria (pH <7.2, lactate dehydrogenase [LD] >1,000 IU/mL, and/or glucose <60 mg/dL) in the early diagnosis of CPPE.
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Advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2013-2014.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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The 3rd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2014), held in Beijing from the 25th to the 28th of September 2014, is an annual conference that intends to provide an opportunity for researchers and practitioners around the world to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of biomedical engineering, biomaterials, bioinformatics and computational biology, biomedical imaging and signal processing, biomechanical engineering and biotechnology, amongst others. The papers published in this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2013-2014.
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Predicting the onset of anxiety syndromes at 12 months in primary care attendees. The predictA-Spain study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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There are no risk algorithms for the onset of anxiety syndromes at 12 months in primary care. We aimed to develop and validate internally a risk algorithm to predict the onset of anxiety syndromes at 12 months.
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Chronic renal insufficiency in heart transplant recipients: risk factors and management options.
Drugs
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Renal dysfunction after heart transplantation is a frequently observed complication, in some cases resulting in significant limitation of quality of life and reduced survival. Since the pathophysiology of renal failure (RF) is multifactorial, the current etiologic paradigm for chronic kidney disease after heart transplantation relies on the concept of calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-related nephrotoxicity acting on a predisposed recipient. Until recently, the management of RF has been restricted to the minimization of CNI dosage and general avoidance of classic nephrotoxic risk factors, with somewhat limited success. The recent introduction of proliferation signal inhibitors (PSIs) (sirolimus and everolimus), a new class of immunosuppressive drugs lacking intrinsic nephrotoxicity, has provided a completely new alternative in this clinical setting. As clinical experience with these new drugs increases, new renal-sparing strategies are becoming available. PSIs can be used in combination with reduced doses of CNIs and even in complete CNI-free protocols. Different strategies have been devised, including de novo use to avoid acute renal toxicity in high-risk patients immediately after transplantation, or more delayed introduction in those patients developing chronic RF after prolonged CNI exposure. In this review, the main information on the clinical relevance and pathophysiology of RF after heart transplantation, as well as the currently available experience with renal-sparing immunosuppressive regimens, particularly focused on the use of PSIs, is reviewed and summarized, including the key practical points for their appropriate clinical usage.
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Characteristics of patients with yellow nail syndrome and pleural effusion.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Yellow nail syndrome (YNS) can be associated with a pleural effusion (PE) but the characteristics of these patients are not well defined. We performed a systematic review across four electronic databases for studies reporting clinical findings, PE characteristics, and most effective treatment of YNS. Case descriptions and retrospective studies were included, unrestricted by year of publication. We reviewed 112 studies (150 patients), spanning a period of nearly 50 years. The male/female ratio was 1.2/1. The median age was 60 years (range: 0-88). Seventy-eight percent were between 41-80 years old. All cases had lymphoedema and 85.6% had yellow nails. PEs were bilateral in 68.3%. The appearance of the fluid was serous in 75.3%, milky in 22.3% and purulent in 3.5%. The PE was an exudate in 94.7% with lymphocytic predominance in 96% with a low count of nucleated cells. In 61 of 66 (92.4%) of patients, pleural fluid protein values were >3?g/dL, and typically higher than pleural fluid LDH. Pleurodesis and decortication/pleurectomy were effective in 81.8% and 88.9% of cases, respectively, in the treatment of symptomatic PEs. The development of YNS and PE occurs between the fifth to eighth decade of life and is associated with lymphoedema. The PE is usually bilateral and behaves as a lymphocyte-predominant exudate. The most effective treatments appear to be pleurodesis and decortication/pleurectomy.
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Asymptotic observability of low-dimensional powder chaos in a three-degrees-of-freedom scattering system.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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We treat a chaotic Hamiltonian scattering system with three degrees of freedom where the chaotic invariant set is of low dimension. Then the chaos and its structure are not visible in scattering functions plotted along one-dimensional lines in the set of asymptotic initial conditions. We show that an asymptotic observer can nevertheless see the structure of the chaotic set in an appropriate scattering function on the two-dimensional impact parameter plane and in the doubly differential cross section. Rainbow singularities in the cross section carry over the symbolic dynamics of the chaotic set into the cross section. A smooth image of the fractal structure of the chaotic set can be reconstructed on the domain of the cross section.
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DFT (1) H-(1) H coupling constants in the conformational analysis and stereoisomeric differentiation of 6-heptenyl-2H-pyran-2-ones: configurational reassignment of synargentolide A.
Magn Reson Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Density functional theory (DFT) (1) H-(1) H NMR coupling constant calculations, including solvation parameters with the polarizable continuum model B3LYP/DGDZVP basis set together with the experimental values measured by spectral simulation, were used to predict the configuration of hydroxylated 6-heptenyl-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-ones 1, 2, 4, and 7, allowing epimer differentiation. Modeling of these flexible compounds requires the inclusion of solvation models that account for stabilizing interactions derived from intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonds, in contrast with peracetylated derivatives (3, 5, and 6) in which the solvation consideration can be omitted. Using this DFT NMR integrated approach as well as spectral simulation, the configurational reassignment of synargentolide A (8) was accomplished by calculations in the gas phase among four possible diastereoisomers (8-11). Calculated (3) JH,H values established its configuration as 6R-[4'S,5'S,6'S-(triacetyloxy)-2E-heptenyl]-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-one (8), in contrast with the incorrect 6R,4'R,5'R,6'R-diastereoisomer previously proposed by synthesis (12). Application of this approach increases the probability for successful enantiospecific total syntheses of flexible compounds with multiple chiral centers. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Lung cancer in never-smokers: a case-control study in a radon-prone area (Galicia, Spain).
Eur. Respir. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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The aim of the study was to assess the effect of residential radon exposure on the risk of lung cancer in never-smokers and to ascertain if environmental tobacco smoke modifies the effect of residential radon. We designed a multicentre hospital-based case-control study in a radon-prone area (Galicia, Spain). All participants were never-smokers. Cases had an anatomopathologically confirmed primary lung cancer and controls were recruited from individuals undergoing minor, non-oncological surgery. Residential radon was measured using alpha track detectors. We included 521 individuals, 192 cases and 329 controls, 21% were males. We observed an odds ratio of 2.42 (95% CI 1.45-4.06) for individuals exposed to ?200 Bq·m(-3) compared with those exposed to <100 Bq·m(-3). Environmental tobacco smoke exposure at home increased lung cancer risk in individuals with radon exposure>200 Bq·m(-3). Individuals exposed to environmental tobacco smoke and to radon concentrations>200 Bq·m(-3) had higher lung cancer risk than those exposed to lower radon concentrations and exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Residential radon increases lung cancer risk in never-smokers. An association between residential radon exposure and environmental tobacco smoke on the risk of lung cancer might exist.
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Efficacy of a family intervention program for prevention of hospitalization in patients with schizophrenia. A naturalistic multicenter controlled and randomized study in Spain.
Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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According to most relevant guidelines, family psycho-educational interventions are considered to be one the most effective psychosocial treatments for people with schizophrenia. The main outcome measure in controlled and randomized studies has been prevention of relapses and admissions, and encouragement of compliance, although some questions remain about its applicability and results in clinical practice.
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Real-time PCR Detection of the Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa-associated c.2470insG Mutation in Unrelated Mexican Families.
Arch. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (R-DEB) is caused by mutations in the COL7A1 gene. The most common mutation reported in Mexican families is the c.2470insG mutation, normally detected by DNA sequencing. We report a faster and more economical high-throughput genotyping method to detect the c.2470insG mutation using specific TaqMan probes in a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) that facilitates genotype analysis with allelic discrimination plots. Our new method correctly genotyped 45 samples that had previously been sequenced as 41 wild-type homozygous (-/-), 1 heterozygous (-/G) and three mutant homozygous (G/G) (100% specificity). This new method allows high-throughput screening and furthermore is economical ($3 US/sample), fast (2 h), and sensitive as it requires only 20 ng input DNA. We used the new test to genotype 89 individuals from 32 unrelated Mexican families with R-DEB. The observed genotypic frequencies were 93.3% for the homozygous wild-type and 6.7% for the heterozygous genotype. The homozygous mutant genotype was not found. In conclusion, the allelic discrimination assay by RT-PCR is a sensitive, specific and effective high-throughput test for detecting the c.2470insG mutation.
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Symptoms and reason for a medical visit in lung cancer patients.
Acta Med Port
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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Patients with lung cancer usually present with symptoms at the time of diagnosis, but it is common that neither the doctor nor the patient initially associate them with the possibility of a malignant tumour.
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Reliability and Validity of the Spanish Version of the Substance Dependence Severity Scale.
Eur Addict Res
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to estimate the reliability and provide evidence for the validity of the Spanish version of the Substance Dependence Severity Scale (SDSS). Methods: A total of 211 substance abusers recruited at a public center that provides treatment for substance-related disorders in an outpatient setting were assessed. Reliability was estimated by Cronbach's ? and test-retest. Validity evidence was studied by analyzing the relationships with the European Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI) and Health-Related Quality of Life for Drug Abusers (HRQoLDA). Results: Adequate reliability coefficients were found for the dependence scales of all addressed substances (? = 0.737 to 0.877; test-retest r = 0.796-0.952). Low internal consistency was found for the abuse scales (? = 0.329-0.694), and adequate test-retest coefficients on alcohol, cocaine and heroin (test-retest r = 0.708-0.902). The reliability of the cannabis abuse scales was inadequate. The SDSS scores showed significant relationships with the EuropASI and HRQoLDA dimensions. Conclusions: The psychometric analyses validate the use of the severity of dependence scales. The SDSS abuse scales must be used taking the limitations detected into consideration. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Polarimetric pixel using Seebeck nanoantennas.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Optical nanoantennas made of two metals are proposed to produce a Seebeck voltage proportional to the Stokes parameters of a light beam. The analysis is made using simulations in the electromagnetic and thermal domains. Each Stokes parameter is independently obtained from a dedicated nanoantenna configuration. S1 and S2 rely on the combination of two orthogonal dipoles. S3 is given by arranging two Archimedian spirals with opposite orientations. The analysis also includes an evaluation of the error associated with the Seebeck voltage, and the crosstalk between Stokes parameters. The results could lead to the conception of polarization sensors having a receiving area smaller than 10?(2). We illustrate these findings with a design of a polarimetric pixel.
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The brain and brown fat.
Ann. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized organ responsible for thermogenesis, a process required for maintaining body temperature. BAT is regulated by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), which activates lipolysis and mitochondrial uncoupling in brown adipocytes. For many years, BAT was considered to be important only in small mammals and newborn humans, but recent data have shown that BAT is also functional in adult humans. On the basis of this evidence, extensive research has been focused on BAT function, where new molecules, such as irisin and bone morphogenetic proteins, particularly BMP7 and BMP8B, as well as novel central factors and new regulatory mechanisms, such as orexins and the canonical ventomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) AMP- activated protein kinase (AMPK)-SNS-BAT axis, have been discovered and emerged as potential drug targets to combat obesity. In this review we provide an overview of the complex central regulation of BAT and how different neuronal cell populations co-ordinately work to maintain energy homeostasis.
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The Maristán stigma scale: a standardized international measure of the stigma of schizophrenia and other psychoses.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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People with schizophrenia face prejudice and discrimination from a number of sources including professionals and families. The degree of stigma perceived and experienced varies across cultures and communities. We aimed to develop a cross-cultural measure of the stigma perceived by people with schizophrenia.
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Enteric pathogen-plant interactions: molecular connections leading to colonization and growth and implications for food safety.
Microbes Environ.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Leafy green vegetables have been identified as a source of foodborne illnesses worldwide over the past decade. Human enteric pathogens, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella, have been implicated in numerous food poisoning outbreaks associated with the consumption of fresh produce. An understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the establishment of pathogenic bacteria in or on vegetable plants is critical for understanding and ameliorating this problem as well as ensuring the safety of our food supply. While previous studies have described the growth and survival of enteric pathogens in the environment and also the risk factors associated with the contamination of vegetables, the molecular events involved in the colonization of fresh produce by enteric pathogens are just beginning to be elucidated. This review summarizes recent findings on the interactions of several bacterial pathogens with leafy green vegetables. Changes in gene expression linked to the bacterial attachment and colonization of plant structures are discussed in light of their relevance to plant-microbe interactions. We propose a mechanism for the establishment and association of enteric pathogens with plants and discuss potential strategies to address the problem of foodborne illness linked to the consumption of leafy green vegetables.
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Engineered glycated amino dendritic polymers as specific nonviral gene delivery vectors targeting the receptor for advanced glycation end products.
Bioconjug. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is involved in diabetes or angiogenesis in tumors. Under pathological conditions, RAGE is overexpressed and upon ligand binding and internalization stimulates signaling pathways that promote cell proliferation. In this work, amino dendritic polymers PEI 25 kDa and alkylated derivatives of PAMAM-G2 were engineered by the nonenzymatic Maillard glycation reaction to generate novel AGE-containing gene delivery vectors targeting the RAGE. The glycated dendritic polymers were easily prepared and retained the capability to bind and protect DNA from endonucleases. Furthermore, while glycation decreased the transfection efficiency of the dendriplexes in CHO-k1 cells which do not express RAGE, glycated dendriplexes acted as efficient transfection reagents in CHO-k1 cells which stably express recombinant RAGE. In addition, preincubation with BSA-AGEs, a natural ligand of the RAGE, or dansyl cadaverine, an inhibitor of the RAGE internalization, blocked transfection, confirming their specificity toward RAGE. The results were confirmed in NRK and RAW264.7 cell lines, which naturally express the receptor. The glycated compounds retain their transfection efficiency in the presence of serum and promote in vivo transfection in a mouse model. Accordingly, RAGE is a suitable molecular target for the development of site-directed engineered glycated nonviral gene vectors.
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Impact of psychiatric comorbidity on the in-treatment outcomes of cocaine-dependent patients in therapeutic communities.
Subst Abus
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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This study aimed to explore the association between psychiatric comorbidity and treatment outcomes in therapeutic communities (TCs).
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Ultrasound findings associated to gallbladder carcinoma.
Cir Esp
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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This article reviews the most relevant ultrasound findings associated with gallbladder cancer.
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[Primary cutaneous coccidioidomycosis in an infant].
Gac Med Mex
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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Coccidioidomycosis is a systemic granulomatosis caused by dimorphic fungi Coccidioides immitis, which are endemic of the San Joaquin Valley in California, USA, and C. posadasii found in the southwestern desert of the USA, Mexico, and South America. The primary cutaneous form is extremely infrequent. There have been 25 reported cases in literature, all of them in adults. This is the first case in an infant.
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Harm reduction behaviors among young polysubstance users at raves.
Subst Abus
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Raves may be considered recreational settings in which drug use and health risks related to polydrug use are higher than in others. Harm reduction behaviors implemented by ravers are of particular relevance in reducing such risks. This study analyzes harm reduction behaviors and their relationship to raver polysubstance use patterns.
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Modified PEHPS medium as an alternative for the in vitro culture of Giardia lamblia.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Commercial culture media present interlot variations in biological activity. We have previously designed a homemade and economic culture medium, PEHPS medium, for the axenic cultivation of Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis. Trophozoites of amoebae and trichomonads grow well in this medium. Furthermore, the medium is stable for several months when stored frozen or refrigerated. The objective of this work was to modify PEHPS medium to support the in vitro growth of Giardia lamblia. Inocula of 5 × 10(3) trophozoites/mL of G. lamblia were incubated at 36.5°C in modified PEHPS or TYI-S-33 medium. Then, the growths of the three Giardia strains in both media were compared. The logarithmic growth phase lasted 72?h; the mean yield of the strains ranged from 10.06 to 11.43 × 10(5) Giardia trophozoites/mL, and the range of duplication time in the three strains was from 5.67 to 6.06 in modified PEHPS medium. These growth characteristics were not significantly different from those obtained with TYI-S-33 medium. We conclude that modified PEHPS medium might be used for the axenic cultivation of G. lamblia.
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Pleural Effusion and Sarcoidosis: An Unusual Combination.
Arch. Bronconeumol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Pleural involvement in sarcoidosis is uncommon and appears in several forms. To document the incidence and characteristics of pleural effusion in sarcoidosis patients, a review of the cases diagnosed in our centre between January 2001 and December 2012 was carried out. One hundred and ninety-five patients with sarcoidosis were identified; three (two men and one woman) presented with unilateral pleural effusion (1.5%): one in the right side and two in the left. Two were in stageii and one was in stageiv. The pleural fluid of the two patients who underwent thoracocentesis was predominantly lymphocytic. One of these patients presented chylothorax and the other had high CA-125levels. In general, these effusions are lymphocyte-rich, paucicellular, serous exudates (sometimes chylothorax) and contain proportionally higher levels of protein than LDH. Most cases are treated with corticosteroids, although it may resolve spontaneously.
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Central Ceramide-Induced Hypothalamic Lipotoxicity and ER Stress Regulate Energy Balance.
Cell Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Hypothalamic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a key mechanism leading to obesity. Here, we demonstrate that ceramides induce lipotoxicity and hypothalamic ER stress, leading to sympathetic inhibition, reduced brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis, and weight gain. Genetic overexpression of the chaperone GRP78/BiP (glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa/binding immunoglobulin protein) in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) abolishes ceramide action by reducing hypothalamic ER stress and increasing BAT thermogenesis, which leads to weight loss and improved glucose homeostasis. The pathophysiological relevance of this mechanism is demonstrated in obese Zucker rats, which show increased hypothalamic ceramide levels and ER stress. Overexpression of GRP78 in the VMH of these animals reduced body weight by increasing BAT thermogenesis as well as decreasing leptin and insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. Overall, these data identify a triangulated signaling network involving central ceramides, hypothalamic lipotoxicity/ER stress, and BAT thermogenesis as a pathophysiological mechanism of obesity.
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Leisure time activities related to carcinogen exposure and lung cancer risk in never smokers. A case-control study.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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We aim to assess the relationship between leisure time activities related to exposure to carcinogenic substances and lung cancer risk in a hospital-based case-control study performed in never smokers. We included never smoking cases with anatomopathologically confirmed lung cancer and never smoking controls undergoing trivial surgery, at 8 Spanish hospitals. The study was conducted between January 2011 and June 2013. Participants were older than 30 and had no previous neoplasms. All were personally interviewed focusing on lifestyle, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, occupational history and leisure time activities (including duration of such activities). Results were analyzed through logistic regression and adjusted also by residential radon and education level. We included 513 never smokers, 191 cases and 322 controls. The OR for those performing the studied leisure time activities was 1.43 (95%CI 0.78-2.61). When we restricted the analysis to those performing do-it-yourself activities for more than 10 years the OR was 2.21 (95%CI 0.93-5.27). Environmental tobacco smoke exposure did not modify this association. The effect for the different lung cancer histological types was very close to significance for adenocarcinoma but only when these activities were performed for more than 10 years. We encourage health professionals to recommend protective measures for those individuals while performing these hobbies to reduce the risk of lung cancer.
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[Biotinidase deficiency and vascular ring malformation: case report].
Arch Argent Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Biotinidase deficiency is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that affects the cleavage of biotin. Family studies of the index case found that both parents are usually carriers and siblings have the altered gene, but only homozygotes have manifestations that vary depending on the deficiency grade. Mothers may have moderate deficiency and be asymptomatic; biotin deficiency in pregnant women causes defects in children. In a study, using human cells exposed to biotin deficiency, cell growth decreased contributing to the development of cleft palate. In newborns, biotinidase deficiency has been associated with VACTERL syndrome and annular pancreas. The case of an infant with biotinidase deficiency and congenital defect of the vascular ring is presented. This defect surrounds and compresses the trachea and esophagus, disturbing swallowing and breathing. Infant was supplemented with biotin and surgically intervened with excellent results.
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Dynamic self-assembly of polycationic clusters based on cyclodextrins for pH-sensitive DNA nanocondensation and delivery by component design.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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The ability of cyclodextrin-based polycationic cluster to undergo reversible DNA condensation and release in a physiologically useful pH window has been finely tuned by the installation of a capping xylylene moiety at the secondary face of the cyclooligosaccharide. This strategy can be exploited advantageously in the design of self-assembling nonviral gene-delivery systems from molecular entities.
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Cocaine-induced psychotic symptoms in clinical setting.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Cocaine use is significantly associated with psychiatric co-morbidities of which psychotic symptoms are the most typical. The primary goal of this study is to estimate the life-time prevalence of cocaine-induced psychotic symptoms (CIPS) in a sample of patients without a history of primary psychosis, who attended specific out-patient drug-dependence treatment centres (ODDTCs). This is an observational, cross-sectional design and a consecutive sampling technique. The Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms-Cocaine Induced Psychosis (SAPS-CIP) was used to interview 114 patients who request treatment at specific ODDTCs for problems related to cocaine use. Most patients, 89.5% (95% CIs: 83.8-95.2%) had dependence of cocaine and 84.2% (95% CIs: 77.5-90.9%) showed at least one CIPS. Patients with CIPS had used cocaine more times throughout their lives and had a more frequency of use during the period of higher abuse severity in the last year, had higher severity of dependence score and had fewer abstinence periods greater than 30 days compared with those without CIPS. Cocaine dependency severity scale scores were significantly greater in patients with CIPS compared with those without CIPS.
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The relationship between abuse, psychosocial factors, and pain complaints among older persons in Europe.
Medicina (Kaunas)
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2014
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Abuse and pain complaints are common among older persons. However, little is known about relationships between abuse (e.g. psychological) and pain complaints (e.g. backache) among older persons while considering other factors (e.g. depression). Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine these relationships.
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Elder abuse and socioeconomic inequalities: a multilevel study in 7 European countries.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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To compare the prevalence of elder abuse using a multilevel approach that takes into account the characteristics of participants as well as socioeconomic indicators at city and country level.
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Inhibitory effect of combinations of caprylic acid and nisin on Listeria monocytogenes in queso fresco.
Food Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Queso fresco (QF), a fresh Hispanic cheese has been linked to outbreaks and recalls caused by Listeria contamination. The use antimicrobial treatments may be a potential solution. The goal of this research was to test the addition of nisin (N), caprylic acid (CA) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CN) as anti-listerial ingredients in QF. QF batches were inoculated with approx. 10(4) CFU/g of 5- or 6-strain mixtures of Listeria monocytogenes and treated with antimicrobials. Samples were stored at 4 °C for three weeks and Listeria counts were determined by plating on PALCAM agar. The impact on the QF's natural indicator microorganisms was also assessed during refrigerated storage. All N and CA combinations (?0.4 g/kg each) were effective against L. monocytogenes and reduced the final counts by at least 3 log CFU/g after 20 days of storage compared to controls. The levels of most strain mixtures were reduced immediately after treatment and their numbers remained below 10(3) CFU/g during storage. CN (1.2 g/kg) was bacteriostatic against L. monocytogenes, but it did not reduce initial counts. The addition of CN to the combination of N and CA did not enhance their antimicrobial effect. Results indicated that combinations of N and CA could control L. monocytogenes in QF with little impact on the natural flora of the cheese, providing a solution to control post processing L. monocytogenes contamination of QF.
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Surgical management of middle ear cholesteatoma and reconstruction at the same time.
Colomb. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In the surgical management of cholesteatoma, one can opt for a closed technique (simple mastoidectomy) or open surgery (radical mastoidectomy). Open mastoidectomy with reconstruction of the posterior wall and the middle ear in a single surgery combines the advantages of both techniques, namely, adequate surgical exposure, eradication of cholesteatoma, and anatomical reconstruction of the middle ear structures.
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Unmet needs in the management of schizophrenia.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Studies on unmet needs during the last decades have played a significant role in the development and dissemination of evidence-based community practices for persistent schizophrenia and other severe mental disorders. This review has thoroughly considered several blocks of unmet needs, which are frequently related to schizophrenic disorders. Those related to health have been the first block to be considered, in which authors have examined the frequent complications and comorbidities found in schizophrenia, such as substance abuse and dual diagnosis. A second block has been devoted to psychosocial and economic needs, especially within the field of recovery of the persistently mentally ill. Within this block, the effects of the current economic difficulties shown in recent literature have been considered as well. Because no patient is static, a third block has reviewed evolving needs according to the clinical staging model. The fourth block has been dedicated to integrated evidence-based interventions to improve the quality of life of persons with schizophrenia. Consideration of community care for those reluctant to maintain contact with mental health services has constituted the fifth block. Finally, authors have aggregated their own reflections regarding future trends. The number of psychosocial unmet needs is extensive. Vast research efforts will be needed to find appropriate ways to meet them, particularly regarding so-called existential needs, but many needs could be met only by applying existing evidence-based interventions. Reinforcing research on the implementation strategies and capacity building of professionals working in community settings might address this problem. The final aim should be based on the collaborative model of care, which rests on the performance of a case manager responsible for monitoring patient progress, providing assertive follow-up, teaching self-help strategies, and facilitating communication among the patient, family doctor, mental health specialist, and other specialists.
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Trichomonas vaginalis acidic phospholipase A2: isolation and partial amino acid sequence.
Acta Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2013
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Sexually transmitted diseases are a major cause of acute disease worldwide, and trichomoniasis is the most common and curable disease, generating more than 170 million cases annually worldwide. Trichomonas vaginalis is the causal agent of trichomoniasis and has the ability to destroy in vitro cell monolayers of the vaginal mucosa, where the phospholipases A2 (PLA2) have been reported as potential virulence factors. These enzymes have been partially characterized from the subcellular fraction S30 of pathogenic T. vaginalis strains. The main objective of this study was to purify a phospholipase A2 from T. vaginalis, make a partial characterization, obtain a partial amino acid sequence, and determine its enzymatic participation as hemolytic factor causing lysis of erythrocytes. Trichomonas S30, RF30 and UFF30 sub-fractions from GT-15 strain have the capacity to hydrolyze [2-(14)C-PA]-PC at pH 6.0. Proteins from the UFF30 sub-fraction were separated by affinity chromatography into two eluted fractions with detectable PLA A2 activity. The EDTA-eluted fraction was analyzed by HPLC using on-line HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry and two protein peaks were observed at 8.2 and 13 kDa. Peptide sequences were identified from the proteins present in the eluted EDTA UFF30 fraction; bioinformatic analysis using Protein Link Global Server charged with T. vaginalis protein database suggests that eluted peptides correspond a putative ubiquitin protein in the 8.2 kDa fraction and a phospholipase preserved in the 13 kDa fraction. The EDTA-eluted fraction hydrolyzed [2-(14)C-PA]-PC lyses erythrocytes from Sprague-Dawley in a time and dose-dependent manner. The acidic hemolytic activity decreased by 84% with the addition of 100 ?M of Rosenthals inhibitor.
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Psychopathological stability of personality disorders in substance abuse patients treated in a therapeutic community.
J Addict Dis
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
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The objective of this study is to explore the stability of personality dimensions in a selection of psychoactive substance abuse patients during treatment in therapeutic communities. The baseline assessment was conducted 15 to 20 days from the start of therapeutic community treatment, and the second assessment was conducted 3 months after admission. The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory III was used to assess personality dimensions. At 3 months, a reduction was observed in the mean severity scores of most personality dimensions in both patterns and clinical syndromes. Caution should be exercised when assessing and diagnosing personality disorders in a drug addict population because one must consider the presence of abuse concomitant factors that may erroneously increase the comorbidity of personality disorders and related substance abuse disorders.
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Assessment of the inhibition of ricin toxicity by lactose in milk.
J. Food Prot.
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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The effect of lactose at the concentration typically found in milk (134 mM) on the ability of ricin to inhibit protein synthesis in HeLa cells was studied. Ricin (0.001 to 300 ?g/ml) that was either not treated or treated with 134 mM lactose was added to test tubes containing 1 ml of HeLa cells (approximately 3 × 10(5) cells in a low-leucine medium). After 2 h of incubation at 37°C, 0.5 ?Ci of L-[U-(14)C]-leucine was added to each tube and incubated for another 60 min. The cells were harvested by centrifugation and lysed, and cellular proteins were separated. The amount of radioactivity incorporated into the proteins was determined by liquid scintillation. The biological activity of ricin, i. e., the amount of radioactivity in a sample relative to that of the control (cells not treated with ricin), was calculated for each treatment. The inhibitory effect of 134 mM lactose on the biological activity of ricin was only significant at concentrations of ricin below 1 ?g/ml. At higher ricin concentrations, the effect of 134 mM lactose decreased as the concentration of ricin increased, resulting in an increase in the inhibition of proteins synthesis. Our results also indicated that bovine milk, when used in place of 134 mM lactose, was more effective for reducing the activity of ricin at concentrations below 1 ?g/ml but was ineffective against ricin concentrations greater than 1 ?g/ml. These results suggest that milk may not protect against ricin intoxication at the concentration (0.89 ?g/ml) equivalent to the lowest limit of its 50 % lethal dose for a 20-kg child consuming 225 ml (8 oz) of milk.
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[Spanish adaptation of the Substance Dependence Severity Scale: preliminar results].
Adicciones
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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The Substance Dependence Severity Scale -SDSS- is one of the few scales that assesses substance dependence and abuse according DSM criteria in dimensional terms. Several studies have provided evidence of psychometric validity and reliability in its English version, but there is no Spanish version available. The aim of this work was to describe the adaptation process of the English version of the SDSS into Spanish, and provide preliminary results on its reliability and validity evidence. Participants were 146 patients (79.6% male), consumers of alcohol, cocaine, heroin and cannabis admitted to treatment in the Drug Abuse Centre Services of Huelva. Besides the SDSS, the EUROPASI and the Health Related Quality of Life for Drug Abusers test -HRQOLDA- were also administered. The Substance Dependence Severity Scale -SDSS- has shown adequate psychometric properties in terms of the rates of discrimination and internal consistency (?=0.881 for alcohol; ?=0.814 for cocaine; ?=0.531 for cannabis; ?=0.785 for heroin). However, the scale assessing abuse showed poorer results. Concerning the validity evidence, the evidence based on internal structure showed a unidimensional structure. Furthermore, the evidence based from the relationships with other variables empirically support the theoretical relationships postulated. Preliminary results support the use of the Substance Dependence Severity Scale. The severity scale, which evaluates abuse criteria, needs further empirical evidence to assess its utility. Therefore, its current version is not recommended for use.
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Herd-level risk factors associated with fecal shedding of Shiga toxin-encoding bacteria on dairy farms in Minnesota, USA.
Can. Vet. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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This study aimed to identify herd-level risk factors associated with fecal shedding of Shiga toxin-encoding bacteria (STB) on dairy cattle farms in Minnesota, USA. After adjustment for farm size, risk factors included: use of total mixed ration (TMR) for lactating dairy cows [odds ratio (OR) = 3.0; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8 to 5.1], no use of monensin for weaned calves (OR = 4.8, 95% CI: 2.5, 9.3), and no use of decoquinate for preweaned calves (OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.4, 3.6). Fecal shedding of STB was more common in small herds (< 100 cows, OR = 3.6, 95% CI: 2.1, 6.2) than in large herds (? 100 cows). Herd management factors related to cattle feeding practices were associated with fecal shedding of STB.
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Monovinyl Sulfone ?-Cyclodextrin. A Flexible Drug Carrier System.
ChemMedChem
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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Cyclodextrins have been conjugated to target various receptors and have also been functionalized with carbohydrates for targeting specific organs. However, this approach is based on a rigid design that implies the ad?hoc synthesis of each cyclodextrin-targeting agent conjugate. We hypothesized that: 1)?a modular design that decouples the carrier function from the targeting function leads to a flexible system, 2)?combining the reactivity of the vinyl sulfone group toward biomolecules that act as targeting agents with the ability of cyclodextrin to form complexes with a wide range of drugs may yield a versatile system that allows the targeting of different organs with different drugs, and 3)?the higher reactivity of histidine residues toward the vinyl sulfone group can be exploited to couple the cyclodextrin to the targeting system with a degree of regioselectivity. As a proof of concept, we synthesized a monovinyl sulfone ?-cyclodextrin (module responsible for the payload), which, after coupling to recombinant antibody fragments raised against Trypanosoma brucei (module responsible for targeting) and loading with nitrofurazone (module responsible for therapeutic action) resulted in an effective delivery system that targets the surface of the parasites and shows trypanocidal activity.
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Masked Thiol Sugars: Chemical Behavior and Synthetic Applications of S-Glycopyranosyl-N-monoalkyl Dithiocarbamates.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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The chemical behavior of S-glycopyranosyl-N-monoalkyl dithiocarbamates (DTCs) as masked 1-glycosyl thiols, easily prepared by the nucleophilic displacement of 1-halo sugars with dithiocarbamate salts of primary amines, has been studied and synthetically exploited. This behavior relies on the abstraction of the proton of the carbamate functionality that allows controlled access to thiolate sugar intermediates. The basic character of the DTC salts used as reagents leads to thiolates that evolve in situ to symmetrical diglycosyldisulfides (DGDSs) when long reaction times are allowed. Alternatively, controlled unmasking of the thiolate function can be efficiently attained by treatment with an external base of isolated anomeric glycosyl DTCs, the formation of which is prevalent when using short reaction times. In this manner, a second methodology for the preparation of symmetrical DGDSs and a chemical protocol for the S-glycosylation of any electrophilic substrate are established. The applications of this last strategy for the preparation of thioglycosyl vinyl sulfones, thiodisaccharides, and S-linked homo- and heterodivalent neoglycoconjugates are described as a proof-of-concept of the great potential of the sugar DTCs in any chemical scenario in which the covalent attachment of a thiol sugar is required. The evaluation of the biological functionality of some divalent sulfurated sugar systems is also described.
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Bio-prospecting of Distillery Yeasts as Bio-control and Bio-remediation Agents.
Curr. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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This work constitutes a preliminary study in which the capacity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from ancient distilleries as bio-control agents against moulds and in the treatment of waste waters contaminated by heavy metals-i.e. bio-remediation-is shown. In the first control assays, antagonist effect between non-Saccharomyces yeasts, their extracts and supernatants against some moulds, analysing the plausible (not exhaustive) involved factors were qualitatively verified. In addition, two enzymatic degrading properties of cell wall plant polymers, quitinolitic and pectinolitic, were screened. Finally, their use as agents of bio-remediation of three heavy metals (cadmium, chromium and lead) was analysed semi-quantitatively. The results showed that all isolates belonging to Pichia species effectively inhibited all moulds assayed. Moreover, P. kudriavzevii is a good candidate for both bio-control and bio-remediation because it inhibited moulds and accumulated the major proportion of the three tested metals.
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Probability Scores and Diagnostic Algorithms in Pulmonary Embolism: Are They Followed in Clinical Practice?
Arch. Bronconeumol.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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Clinical probability scores (CPS) determine the pre-test probability of pulmonary embolism (PE) and assess the need for the tests required in these patients. Our objective is to investigate if PE is diagnosed according to clinical practice guidelines.
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Rejection after conversion to a proliferation signal inhibitor in chronic heart transplantation.
Clin Transplant
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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We sought to determine the incidence, risk factors, and consequences of acute rejection (AR) after conversion from a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) to a proliferation signal inhibitor (PSI) in maintenance heart transplantation. Relevant clinical data were retrospectively obtained for 284 long-term heart transplant recipients from nine centers in whom CNIs were replaced with a PSI (sirolimus or everolimus) between October 2001 and March 2009. The rejection rate at one yr was 8.3%, stabilizing to 2% per year thereafter. The incidence rate after conversion (4.9 per 100 patient-years) was significantly higher than that observed on CNI therapy in the pre-conversion period (2.2 per 100 patient-years). By multivariate analysis, rejection risk was associated with a history of late AR prior to PSI conversion, early conversion (<5 yr) after transplantation and age <50 yr at the time of conversion. Use of mycophenolate mofetil was a protective factor. Post-conversion rejection did not significantly influence the evolution of left ventricular ejection fraction, renal function, or mortality during further follow-up. Conversion to a CNI-free immunosuppression based on a PSI results in an increased risk of AR. Awareness of the clinical determinants of post-conversion rejection could help to refine the current PSI conversion strategies.
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METODO, a prospective observational study to assess the efficacy and tolerability of methadone in heroin-addicted patients undergoing a methadone maintenance treatment: preliminary results at baseline evaluation.
Subst Use Misuse
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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METODO (methadone efficacy therapy optimization dosage on-going) is a prospective observational study to assess the efficacy and tolerability of methadone in 500 heroin-addicted patients taking a methadone maintenance treatment, enrolled through 2010 to 2011 in five Italian sites, observed over 2 years. The Opiate Dosage Adequacy Scale has been used for the evaluation of the "adequacy" of the methadone dosage and to stratify patients in adequate and not adequate groups. The treatment efficacy has been evaluated in correlation to the dosage adequacy during the visits. Moreover, patients have been evaluated according to the retention rate and duration of retention in treatment and a series of questionnaires.
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Silver nanoparticles induce anti-proliferative effects on airway smooth muscle cells. Role of nitric oxide and muscarinic receptor signaling pathway.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used to manufacture materials with new properties and functions. However, little is known about their toxic or beneficial effects on human health, especially in the respiratory system, where its smooth muscle (ASM) regulates the airway contractility by different mediators, such as acetylcholine (ACh) and nitric oxide (NO). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of AgNPs on ASM cells. Exposure to AgNPs induced ACh-independent expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) at 100?g/mL, associated with excessive production of NO. AgNPs induced the muscarinic receptor activation, since its blockage with atropine and blockage of its downstream signaling pathway inhibited the NO production. AgNPs at 10 and 100?g/mL induced ACh-independent prolonged cytotoxicity and decreased cellular proliferation mediated by the muscarinic receptor-iNOS pathway. However, the concentration of 100?g/mL of AgNPs induced muscarinic receptor-independent apoptosis, suggesting the activation of multiple pathways. These data indicate that AgNPs induce prolonged cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects on ASM cells, suggesting an activation of the muscarinic receptor-iNOS pathway. Further investigation is required to understand the full mechanisms of action of AgNPs on ASM under specific biological conditions.
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Prop-2-en-1-yl 4-(4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)benzoate.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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The title compound, C25H20N2O2, crystallized with two mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit, in one of which the atoms of the terminal propenyl group are disordered over two sets of sites, with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.870?(4):0.130?(4). The central imidazole ring makes dihedral angles of 25.51?(11), 40.73?(11) and 27.36?(11)° with the three pendant rings in one molecule and 22.56?(10), 60.72?(10) and 5.85?(10)° in the other. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by N-H?N and C-H?O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. The crystal structure also features C-H?? inter-actions and ?-? stacking [centroid-centroid distances = 3.8834?(18) and 3.9621?(17)?Å] inter-actions.
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2-(2,5-Di-meth-oxy-phen-yl)-4,5-diphenyl-1-(prop-2-en-1-yl)-1H-imidazole.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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In the title compound, C26H24N2O2, the two phenyl and the 2,5-di-meth-oxy-phen-yl rings are inclined to the imidazole ring at dihedral angles of 30.38?(8), 56.59?(9) and 73.11?(9)°, respectively. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by pairs of C-H?O inter-actions into centrosymmetric dimers with graph-set notation R 2 (2)(8). C-H?? inter-actions are also observed.
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[Relationship between psychopathological comorbidity and outcomes variables in-treatment cocaine dependent subject in therapeutic community].
Adicciones
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Over the last years, the therapeutic community treatment with people who have cocaine problems and psychopathological comorbidity has been increasing and it is important to know more about the success of these treatments. The aim of this paper is to study the psychopathological profile of cocaine-dependent patients and its association with outcome variables. It is interviewed by the Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders (PRISM-IV) and the Conners Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV (CAADID) a total sample of 218 patients who sought treatment at any of the six public therapeutics community of Andalusia (Spain). The results show that the retention rate after three months of 68.3% (149), 43.5% that leaves the resource with a therapeutic discharge and 52.8% with clinically significant changes. Besides, the 57.8% have psychopathological comorbidity. Finally, there is a higher treatment success (measured by days of stay, type of discharge and therapeutic community outcome clinical impression) among people without psychopathological comorbidity. These data show the need to adapt the therapeutic communities to treat people with comorbid psychopathology and, thus, improve therapeutic success.
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2,4,5-Triphenyl-1-(prop-2-en-1-yl)-1H-imidazole.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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In the title compound, C24H20N2, one of the ring C atoms and one of the ring N atoms are disordered over two sets of sites in a 0.615?(3):0.385?(3) ratio. The two parts of the disordered imidazole ring adopt an envelope conformation, with the undisordered ring N atom as the flap, displaced by -0.118?(6) and 0.226?(7)?Å, respectively, in the two disorder components from the plane through the other ring atoms. The crystal structure features C-H?N hydrogen bonds and C-H?? inter-actions, which lead to the formation of infinite chains along [010].
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2-(4-Chloro-phen-yl)-4,5-diphenyl-1-(prop-2-en-1-yl)-1H-imidazole.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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The title compound, C24H19ClN2, crystallizes with two independent mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit. The prop-2-enyl substituents on the imidazole rings adopt similar conformations in the two mol-ecules. The 4-and 5-substituted phenyl rings and the benzene ring make dihedral angles of 67.06?(8), 5.61?(8) and 41.09?(8)°, respectively, with the imadazole ring in one mol-ecule and 71.53?(8), 28.85?(8) and 41.87?(8)°, respectively, in the other. The crystal structure features C-H?? inter-actions and weak ?-? stacking inter-actions [centroid-centroid distances = 3.6937?(10) and 4.0232?(10)?Å] between the chloro-phenyl rings, which form a three-dimensional supramolecular structure.
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Preoperative INTERMACS profiles determine postoperative outcomes in critically ill patients undergoing emergency heart transplantation: analysis of the Spanish National Heart Transplant Registry.
Circ Heart Fail
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Postoperative outcomes of patients with advanced heart failure undergoing ventricular assist device implantation are strongly influenced by their preoperative Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (INTERMACS) profiles. We sought to investigate whether a similar association exists in patients undergoing emergency heart transplantation.
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Impact of management practices and distillers grains feeding on the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 in feedlot cattle in Minnesota.
Foodborne Pathog. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Escherichia coli O157 is a foodborne pathogen that can be transmitted by contaminated ground beef and is shed naturally in cattle feces. Recent reports indicated that feeding distillers grains (DG) to cattle increased fecal shedding and prevalence of E. coli O157. In Minnesota, feeding DG with solubles (DGS) to livestock became widespread within the last 10 years, but there is no report about the prevalence of E. coli O157 in beef cattle in this state. This study was undertaken to survey the fecal prevalence of E. coli O157 in cattle fed diets containing DG and its association with environmental conditions and management practices. Fecal samples were collected from three feedlots during a 1-year period. All animals in those feedlots were fed different DGS levels. E. coli O157 presence was determined using a combination of enrichment, immunomagnetic separation, plating onto sorbitol MacConkey agar, and confirmation of isolates by immunoassay and multiplex virulence genes polymerase chain reaction analysis. Overall, E. coli O157 was confirmed in 9.7% of samples. Prevalence during summer was 30% and declined to less than 10% the rest of the year. In animals grouped by dietary DGS concentration, no significant difference in prevalence (12.0 and 5.5%) was detected between the low and the high average groups (less and more than 20%). Previous feeding of DGS before arriving to the feedlot also had no influence on fecal prevalence. The presence of several interacting variables, uncontrolled in a real-life feedlot environment, was the likely reason for our observation and suggested that at the levels studied, DGS had no effect on the STEC O157 prevalence in cattle populations.
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Sphingomyelinase activity of Trichomonas vaginalis extract and subfractions.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Trichomoniasis is one of the most common acute sexually transmitted curable diseases, and it is disseminated worldwide generating more than 170 million cases annually. Trichomonas vaginalis is the parasite that causes trichomoniasis and has the ability to destroy cell monolayers of the vaginal mucosa in vitro. Sphingomyelinases (SMase) are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin into ceramide and phosphorylcholine. Ceramide appears to be a second messenger lipid in programmed apoptosis, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Sphingomyelinase is probably a major source of ceramide in cells. Signal transduction mediated by ceramide leads cells to produce cytokine induced apoptosis during several inflammatory responses. SMase are also relevant toxins in several microorganisms. The main objective of this research is to identify SMase activity of T. vaginalis in the total extract (TE), P30, and S30 subfractions from brooked trophozoites. It was found that these fractions of T. vaginalis have SMase activity, which comes principally from P30 subfraction and was mainly type C. Enzymatic activity of SMase increased linearly with time and is pH dependent with two peaks by pH 5.5 and pH 7.5. The addition of manganese to the reaction mixture increased the SMase activity by 1.97.
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Standardization of the MARISTAN scale to measure needs in people with schizophrenia and related psychoses.
Int J Soc Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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OBJECTIVE: Existing measures of needs in severe mental illness have been developed mainly from professionals viewpoints and are Eurocentric. Our aim was to standardize a measure of the needs of people with schizophrenia across several cultures and based on users own viewpoints. METHOD: An instrument to measure needs, based on qualitative data on users, carers and professionals views, was tested in 164 people with schizophrenia or related psychoses in six countries. Participants underwent face-to-face interviews, one third of which were repeated 30 days later. Principal axis factoring and Promax rotation evaluated scale structure; Horns parallel combined with bootstrapping determined the number of factors; and intra-class correlation assessed test-retest reliability. RESULTS: The instrument contained four factors: (1) health needs; (2) work and leisure needs; (3) existential needs; and (4) needs for support in daily living. Cronbachs ? for internal consistency was 0.81, 0.81, 0.77 and 0.76 for factors 1-4 and 0.81 for the scale as a whole. Correlation between factors was of moderate range for the first three factors (0.41-0.50) and low for the fourth factor (0.14-0.29). Intra-class correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability was 0.74 (0.64-0.82) for the whole scale. Mean item score on needs for support in daily living was lower than for the other factors. CONCLUSIONS: The MARISTÁN Scale of Needs evaluates needs from the patient perspective and it is a valid instrument to measure the needs of people with severe mental illness across cultures.
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Use of Raman spectroscopy in the analysis of nickel allergy.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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Raman spectra of the skin of subjects with nickel allergy are analyzed and compared to the spectra of healthy subjects to detect possible biochemical differences in the structure of the skin that could help diagnose metal allergies in a noninvasive manner. Results show differences between the two groups of Raman spectra. These spectral differences can be classified using principal component analysis. Based on these findings, a novel computational technique to make a fast evaluation and classification of the Raman spectra of the skin is presented and proposed as a noninvasive technique for the detection of nickel allergy.
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Vinyl sulfone silica: application of an open preactivated support to the study of transnitrosylation of plant proteins by S-nitrosoglutathione.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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S-nitrosylaton is implicated in the regulation of numerous signaling pathways with a diversity of regulatory roles. The high lability of the S-NO bond makes the study of proteins regulated by S-nitrosylation/denitrosylation a challenging task and most studies have focused on already S-nitrosylated proteins. We hypothesize that: i) S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) transnitrosylation is a feasible mechanism to account for the physiological S-nitrosylation of rather electropositive sulfur atoms from proteins, ii) affinity chromatography is a suitable approach to isolate proteins that are prone to undergo S-transnitrosylation and iii) vinyl sulfone silica is a suitable chromatographic bead.
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Psychometric properties of the List of Threatening Experiences--LTE and its association with psychosocial factors and mental disorders according to different scoring methods.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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The List of Threatening Experiences (LTE) questionnaire is frequently used to assess stressful events; however, studies of its psychometric properties are scarce. We examined the LTEs reliability, factorial structure, construct validity and explored the association between LTE scores and psychosocial variables and mental disorders.
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Psychiatric profile of three-month retention in cocaine-dependent patients treated in a therapeutic community.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2013
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The purpose of this study was to examine the psychopathological profile that may be associated with the retention of patients for 90 days in a therapeutic community.
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Naphthoquinones isolated from Diospyros anisandra exhibit potent activity against pan-resistant first-line drugs Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains.
Pulm Pharmacol Ther
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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The recent emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR), extensively drug-resistant (XDR), and totally drug-resistant (TDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains have further complicated the control of tuberculosis (TB). There is an urgent need of new molecules candidates to be developed as novel, active, and less toxic anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) drugs. Medicinal plants have been an excellent source of leads for the development of drugs, particularly as anti-infective agents. In previous studies, the non-polar extract of Diospyros anisandra showed potent anti-TB activity, and three monomeric and five dimeric naphthoquinones have been obtained. In this study, we performed bioguided chemical fractionation and the isolation of eight naphthoquinones from D. anisandra and their evaluation of anti-TB and cytotoxic activities against mammalian cells.
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Neuroprotection and axonal regeneration after lumbar ventral root avulsion by re-implantation and mesenchymal stem cells transplant combined therapy.
Neurotherapeutics
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Ventral spinal root avulsion causes complete denervation of muscles in the limb and also progressive death of segmental motoneurons (MN) leading to permanent paralysis. The chances for functional recovery after ventral root avulsion are very poor owing to the loss of avulsed neurons and the long distance that surviving neurons have to re-grow axons from the spinal cord to the corresponding targets. Following unilateral avulsion of L4, L5 and L6 spinal roots in adult rats, we performed an intraspinal transplant of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and surgical re-implantation of the avulsed roots. Four weeks after avulsion the survival of MN in the MSC-treated animals was significantly higher than in vehicle-injected rats (45% vs. 28%). Re-implantation of the avulsed roots in the injured spinal cord allowed the regeneration of motor axons. By combining root re-implantation and MSC transplant the number of surviving MN at 28 days post-injury was higher (60%) than in re-implantation alone animals (46%). Electromyographic tests showed evidence of functional re-innervation of anterior tibialis and gastrocnemius muscles by the regenerated motor axons only in rats with the combined treatment. These results indicate that MSC are helpful in enhancing neuronal survival and increased the regenerative growth of injured axons. Surgical re-implantation and MSC grafting combined had a synergic neuroprotective effect on MN and on axonal regeneration and muscle re-innervation after spinal root avulsion.
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Vinyl sulfone-based ferrocenylation reagents: applications in conjugation and bioconjugation.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2013
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The easy vinyl sulfone derivatization of ferrocene allows the preparation of some effective, versatile and valuable ferrocenylation reagents. The applicability of such compounds in conjugation and bioconjugation of amine and/or thiol containing molecules and biomolecules through Michael-type addition under mild conditions that preserve the biological function of the latter is described. The feasibility of the methodology is demonstrated by the preparation of a variety of conjugates and bioconjugates (ferrocenyl terminated dendrimers and ferrocene-sugar, ferrocene-cyclodextrin, ferrocene-peptide and ferrocene-protein conjugates).
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A bioinspired hybrid silica-protein material with antimicrobial activity by iron uptake.
Metallomics
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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A silica-protein hybrid material has been prepared by simultaneous covalent deposition of apoferritin and lactoferrin on functionalized silica. This material exhibits strong antibacterial activity against E. coli due to its high iron-uptake capacity.
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Concentration, detection and discrimination of Bacillus anthracis spores in orange juice using aptamer based surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Herein, we developed an innovative label free platform for concentration, detection and discrimination of Bacillus anthracis spores. Based on aptamer capture and surface enhanced Raman scattering detection, we were able to detect 10(4) CFU spores spiked in orange juice and discriminate between spores B. anthracis and B. mycoides within 40 min.
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Incidence of naturally internalized bacteria in lettuce leaves.
Int. J. Food Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Lettuce is the fresh leafy vegetable most frequently involved in foodborne disease outbreaks. Human bacterial pathogens may be experimentally internalized into lettuce plants, but the occurrence of natural microflora inside lettuce leaves has not been elucidated. To characterize the endophytic microorganism residing in commercial lettuce leaves, two separate studies were conducted. First, a total of 30 and 25 heads of romaine and red leaf lettuce, respectively, served as the source of individual leaves which were surface sterilized, stomached, enriched in BHI broth for 24h and plated onto BHI agar for non-selective isolation of internalized microorganism. In a separate survey, 80 heads of each of the two types of lettuce were similarly processed, except that GN broth and MacConkey agar (MCA) were used for isolation of Gram negative bacteria. Thirty-eight out of 100 leaves were positive for internalized microorganisms, and Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Pantoea were the genera most frequently found in both types of lettuce. Members of the genus Erwinia were isolated from romaine lettuce only. In the second study, 21 and 60% of romaine and red leaf lettuce heads, respectively, had internalized bacteria capable of growing on MCA. Among the Gram negative strains, Pseudomonas and Pantoea genera were most frequently isolated. Enterobacter isolates were obtained from three red leaf samples. In summary, spore-forming bacteria and traditional epiphytic bacterial genera were frequently detected in surface-sterilized commercial lettuce leaves. Despite the common occurrence of internalized bacteria, only Enterobacter was related to Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella.
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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.