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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Associations of structural and functional social support with diabetes prevalence in U.S. Hispanics/Latinos: Results from the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study.
J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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Little research has examined associations of social support with diabetes (or other physical health outcomes) in Hispanics, who are at elevated risk. We examined associations between social support and diabetes prevalence in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study. Participants were 5,181 adults, 18-74 years old, representing diverse Hispanic backgrounds, who underwent baseline exam with fasting blood draw, oral glucose tolerance test, medication review, sociodemographic assessment, and sociocultural exam with functional and structural social support measures. In adjusted analyses, one standard deviation higher structural and functional social support related to 16 and 15 % lower odds, respectively, of having diabetes. Structural and functional support were related to both previously diagnosed diabetes (OR = .84 and .88, respectively) and newly recognized diabetes prevalence (OR = .84 and .83, respectively). Higher functional and structural social support are associated with lower diabetes prevalence in Hispanics/Latinos.
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Glycemic control among U.S. Hispanics/Latinos with diabetes from the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study: Do structural and functional social support play a role?
J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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Social support is one potential source of health-related resiliency in Hispanics with diabetes. This study examined relationships of structural (i.e., social integration) and functional (i.e., perceived) social support with glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin; HbA1c) in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study. This study included 766 men and women representing multiple Hispanic ethnic backgrounds, aged 18-74 years, with diagnosed diabetes who completed fasting blood draw, medication review, and measures of sociodemographic factors, medical history, structural support (Cohen Social Network Index), and functional support (Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12). After adjusting for sociodemographic covariates and medication, a one standard deviation increase in functional support was related to an 0.18 % higher HbA1c (p = 0.04). A similar trend was observed for structural support; however, this effect was non-significant in adjusted models. Greater functional support was associated with poorer glycemic control in Hispanics.
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Sexual bother in men with advanced prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy.
J Sex Med
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Men with advanced prostate cancer (APC) undergoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) often experience distressing sexual side effects. Sexual bother is an important component of adjustment. Factors associated with increased bother are not well understood.
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Associations of chronic stress burden, perceived stress, and traumatic stress with cardiovascular disease prevalence and risk factors in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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The current study examined multiple stress indicators (chronic, perceived, traumatic) in relation to prevalent coronary heart disease, stroke, and major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (i.e., diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and current smoking) in the multisite Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study (2010-2011).
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Bringing PROMIS to practice: Brief and precise symptom screening in ambulatory cancer care.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Supportive oncology practice can be enhanced by the integration of a brief and validated electronic patient-reported outcome assessment into the electronic health record (EHR) and clinical workflow.
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The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study: sample, design, and procedures.
Ethn Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) Sociocultural Ancillary Study aims to examine associations between sociocultural and psychosocial factors and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic syndrome prevalence in Hispanics/Latinos. The conceptual framework is based on the Reserve Capacity and Lifespan Biopsychosocial Models, which emphasize multiple risk and protective pathways underlying socioeconomic and ethnic influences in health. This study describes the rationale, participants, and procedures for the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study.
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Purple: a modular system for developing and deploying behavioral intervention technologies.
J. Med. Internet Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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The creation, deployment, and evaluation of Web-based and mobile-based applications for health, mental health, and wellness within research settings has tended to be siloed, with each research group developing their own systems and features. This has led to technological features and products that are not sharable across research teams, thereby limiting collaboration, reducing the speed of dissemination, and raising the bar for entry into this area of research. This paper provides an overview of Purple, an extensible, modular, and repurposable system created for the development of Web-based and mobile-based applications for health behavior change. Purple contains features required to construct applications and to manage and evaluate research trials using these applications. Core functionality of Purple includes elements that support user management, content authorship, content delivery, and data management. We discuss the history and development of the Purple system guided by the rationale of producing a system that allows greater collaboration and understanding across research teams interested in investigating similar questions and using similar methods. Purple provides a useful tool to meet the needs of stakeholders involved in the creation, provision, and usage of eHealth and mHealth applications. Housed in a non-profit, academic institution, Purple also offers the potential to facilitate the diffusion of knowledge across the research community and improve our capacity to deliver useful and usable applications that support the behavior change of end users.
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Relationship of change in traditional cardiometabolic risk factors to change in coronary artery calcification among individuals with detectable subclinical atherosclerosis: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Data describing relationships between change in risk factors and coronary artery calcification (CAC) are lacking and could inform optimal cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment strategies. This study aimed to examine how change in traditional cardiometabolic risk factors related to change in CAC among individuals with detectable subclinical atherosclerosis.
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Positive and negative mood in men with advanced prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy: considering the role of social support and stress.
Psychooncology
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Advanced prostate cancer patients often undergo androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Advanced disease and adverse ADT side effects are often debilitating and negatively impact mood. Social support has been shown to mitigate detrimental effects of stress on mood.
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The importance of perceived stress management skills for patients with prostate cancer in active surveillance.
J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Little is known about whether and how stress management skills may improve adjustment for men diagnosed with prostate cancer who opt for active surveillance. This study examined whether two types of perceived stress management skills, specifically the ability to relax and confidence in coping, moderated the relationship between prostate cancer (PC) concerns and psychological distress. Participants were 71 ethnically diverse men in active surveillance. Coping confidence moderated the relationship between PC concerns and intrusive thoughts (p < .01). At low levels of coping confidence, PC concerns was positively related to intrusive thoughts, ? = .95, p < .001, but not when coping confidence was high, ? = .19, p > .05. Coping confidence also moderated the relationship between PC treatment concerns (a subscale of PC concerns) and intrusive thoughts. At low levels of coping confidence, PC treatment concerns was positively associated with intrusive thoughts, ? = .73, p < .001, but not when coping confidence was high, ? = .20, p > .05. Findings underscore the importance of interventions aimed at improving coping in men undergoing active surveillance.
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Validation of Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12 (ISEL-12) Scores Among English- and Spanish-Speaking Hispanics/Latinos From the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study.
Psychol Assess
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2013
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The Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12 (ISEL-12; Cohen, Mermelstein, Kamarck, & Hoberman, 1985) is broadly employed as a short-form measure of the traditional ISEL, which measures functional (i.e., perceived) social support. The ISEL-12 can be scored by summing the items to create an overall social support score; three subscale scores representing appraisal, belonging, and tangible social support have also been proposed. Despite extensive use, studies of the psychometric properties of ISEL-12 scores have been limited, particularly among Hispanics/Latinos, the largest and fastest growing ethnic group in the United States. The current study investigated the reliability and structural and convergent validity of ISEL-12 scores using data from 5,313 Hispanics/Latinos who participated in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study. Participants completed measures in English or Spanish and identified their ancestry as Dominican, Central American, Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, or South American. Cronbachs alphas suggested adequate internal consistency for the total score for all languages and ancestry groups; coefficients for the subscale scores were not acceptable. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the one-factor and three-factor models fit the data equally well. Results from multigroup confirmatory factor analyses supported a similar one-factor structure with equivalent response patterns and variances between language groups and ancestry groups. Convergent validity analyses suggested that the total social support score related to scores of social network integration, life engagement, perceived stress, and negative affect (depression, anxiety) in the expected directions. The total score of the ISEL-12 can be recommended for use among Hispanics/Latinos. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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Beyond Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) Symptom Severity: Stress Management Skills are Related to Lower Illness Burden.
Fatigue
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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The onset of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) typically involves reductions in activities of daily living and social interactions (jointly referred to as "illness burden"). Emotional distress has been linked to increased reported symptoms, and stress management skills have been related to lower fatigue severity in CFS patients. Symptom severity and illness burden are highly correlated. The ability to manage stress may attenuate this relationship, allowing individuals to feel less burdened by the illness independent of the severity of their symptoms.
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Cardiometabolic risk in adolescents: associations with physical activity, fitness, and sleep.
Ann Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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Physical activity and fitness are independently associated with cardiometabolic dysfunction, and short sleep duration is an emerging marker of obesity. Few have examined interrelations among these factors in a comprehensive risk model.
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Association of stress management skills and perceived stress with physical and emotional well-being among advanced prostrate cancer survivors following androgen deprivation treatment.
J Clin Psychol Med Settings
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
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Advanced prostate cancer (APC) is associated with disruptions that compromise health related quality of life (HRQOL). Treatment often includes androgendeprivation therapy (ADT), which results in a range of side effects (e.g., fatigue, urinary dysfunction) that further impact HRQOL. Despite these challenges, there are limited evaluations of the impact of stress and stress management skills on HRQOL among APC survivors on ADT. This study evaluated relationships among stress, stress management skills, and HRQOL, and it was hypothesized that better stress management skills would relate to greater physical and emotional well-being by mitigating perceived stress levels. Participants (N = 77) were 69.7 years old (SD = 9.8), 18.6 months post-treatment (SD = 17.5), and ethnically diverse (65 % Non-Hispanic White, 13 % Hispanic, 21 % African-American). Measures included the Measure of Current Status for stress management skills, the Perceived Stress Scale for perceived stress, and the Medical Outcomes Study-Short Form (MOS SF-36; physical functioning and emotional well-being subscales) for HRQOL. Direct effects and mediation models were evaluated to determine the relationships between perceived stress, stress management skills, and HRQOL domains, controlling for relevant covariates. Stress management skills and perceived stress were significantly associated with physical functioning (? = .24, p < .05 and ? = -.43, p < .01, respectively) and emotional well-being (? = .35, p < .01 and ? = -.64, p < .01, respectively). Regression analyses supported the hypothesis that reduced perceived stress mediated the relationship between stress management skills and both physical functioning and emotional well-being. These results demonstrate that one way stress management skills may impact HRQOL is by lessening ongoing perceptions of stress.
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Reducing time-to-treatment in underserved Latinas with breast cancer: The Six Cities Study.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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The interaction of clinical and patient-level challenges following a breast cancer diagnosis can be a significant source of health care disparities. Failure to address specific cultural features that create or exacerbate barriers can lead to less-than optimal navigation results, specifically in Hispanic/Latino women.
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Non-cancer life stressors contribute to impaired quality of life in ovarian cancer patients.
Gynecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Diagnosis and treatment for a life threatening illness such as cancer are known to be psychologically impactful. However, little is known about the influence that non-cancer life stressors have on the quality of life (QOL) of ovarian cancer patients. The goal of the present study was to examine associations between non-cancer life stressors and QOL in 123 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer who were followed prospectively and longitudinally for one year.
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Time to definitive diagnosis of breast cancer in Latina and non-Hispanic white women: the six cities study.
Springerplus
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Time delay after an abnormal screening mammogram may have a critical impact on tumor size, stage at diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and survival of subsequent breast cancer. This study was undertaken to evaluate disparities between Latina and non-Hispanic white (NHW) women in time to definitive diagnosis of breast cancer after an abnormal screening mammogram, as well as factors contributing to such disparities. As part of the activities of the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded Redes En Acción research network, clinical records of 186 Latinas and 74 NHWs who received abnormal screening mammogram results were reviewed to determine the time to obtain a definitive diagnosis. Data was obtained from participating clinics in six U.S. cities and included demographics, clinical history, and mammogram characteristics. Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards models were used to test differences in median time to definitive diagnosis by ethnicity after adjusting for clinic site, demographics, and clinical characteristics. Time-to-event analysis showed that Latinas took 2.2 times longer to reach 50% definitively diagnosed with breast cancer relative to NHWs, and three times longer to reach 80% diagnosed (p=0.001). Latinas median time to definitive diagnosis was 60 days compared to 27 for NHWs, a 59% gap in diagnosis rates (adjusted Hazard Ratio [aHR] = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.09, 2.31; p=0.015). BI-RADS-4/5 womens diagnosis rate was more than twice that of BI-RADS-3 (aHR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.18, 3.78; p=0.011). Disparities in time between receipt of abnormal screening result and definitive diagnosis adversely affect Latinas compared to NHWs, and remain significant after adjusting for demographic and clinical variables. With cancer now the leading cause of mortality among Latinos, a greater need exists for ethnically and culturally appropriate interventions like patient navigation to facilitate Latinas successful entry into, and progression through, the cancer care system.
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Sleep disturbance, distress, and quality of life in ovarian cancer patients during the first year after diagnosis.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Sleep disturbance is a common clinical complaint of oncology patients and contributes to substantial morbidity. However, because most sleep studies have been cross-sectional, associations between sleep quality and distress in patients with ovarian cancer over time remain unclear. This prospective longitudinal study examined rates of sleep disturbance; contributions of depression, anxiety, and medication use in sleep disturbance; and associations between sleep quality and quality of life (QOL) during the first year after diagnosis among women with ovarian cancer.
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Depression and anxiety predict decline in physical health functioning in patients with heart failure.
Ann Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2011
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Few studies have examined the prospective influences of depression and anxiety on physical health functioning in heart failure (HF) patients. Prior studies were also limited by employing psychological measures containing somatic items confounded with HF symptoms.
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Prevalence of self-reported memory problems in adult cancer survivors: a national cross-sectional study.
J Oncol Pract
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2011
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Cancer and its treatments can impair cognitive function, especially memory, leading to diminished quality of life. Prevalence studies of cancer treatment-related memory impairment have not been conducted in the adult-onset cancer population.
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Perceived social support as a predictor of disease-specific quality of life in head-and-neck cancer patients.
J Support Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
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Treatment for head-and-neck cancer (HNC) can lead to severe decrements in disease-specific quality of life (DSQOL) due to disfigurement and disability in speech, eating, and/or breathing. Psychosocial factors such as social support may explain individual variance in DSQOL outcomes.
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Identifying how and for whom cognitive-behavioral stress management improves emotional well-being among recent prostate cancer survivors.
Psychooncology
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2011
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The outcomes of a 10-week cognitive-behavioral stress management (CBSM) group intervention were evaluated in prostate cancer survivors. A model was tested in which CBSM-related improvements in emotional well-being were attained through changes in mens perceptions of their condition, as conceptualized by information processing explanations of self-regulation theory. The model also tested whether life stress and treatment-related side effects moderated intervention effects.
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A pilot study of cognitive behavioral stress management effects on stress, quality of life, and symptoms in persons with chronic fatigue syndrome.
J Psychosom Res
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2011
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The present pilot study was designed to test the effects of a 12-week group-based cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM) intervention on stress, quality of life, and symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). We hypothesized that participants randomized to CBSM would report improvements in perceived stress, mood, quality of life, and CFS symptomatology from pre- to postintervention compared to those receiving a psychoeducational (PE) seminar control.
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Utility of the Millon Behavioral Medicine Diagnostic to predict medication adherence in patients diagnosed with heart failure.
J Clin Psychol Med Settings
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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Medication non-adherence is common and a primary reason for poor medical outcomes among individuals with heart failure (HF). This studys aims were to determine whether depression, hostility, and the personality-based Millon Behavioral Medicine Diagnostic (MBMD) Medication Abuse scale were associated with medication adherence (e.g., beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors, diuretics, statins) beyond contributions of demographic, medical, and psychosocial variables in an ethnically-diverse sample of 105 men and women diagnosed with HF. In hierarchical regression, greater MBMD Medication Abuse scale scores were associated with poorer adherence above and beyond both depression (? = .236, t[102] = 2.113, p = .037) and hostility (? = .244, t[102] = 2.506, p = .014). The Medication Abuse scale also completely mediated the relationship between adherence and depression. These findings suggest that personality measures such as the MBMD and hostility scales might be utilized in future studies investigating predictors of adherence and also used clinically to predict medication adherence among HF patients.
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Longitudinal effects of social support and adaptive coping on the emotional well-being of survivors of localized prostate cancer.
J Support Oncol
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2010
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Survivors of prostate cancer experience treatment-related physical side effects that can compromise emotional well-being for years post-treatment. There is limited research investigating how social support and the use of coping may affect the emotional well-being of this population following treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate how social support and coping impact emotional well-being 2 years after treatment in survivors of localized prostate cancer who have received either radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy. Psychosocial and disease-specific measures were administered to an ethnically and demographically diverse sample of 180 men treated for localized prostate cancer at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. Regression analyses demonstrated that higher levels of social support at baseline predicted better emotional well-being 2 years later. Furthermore, higher levels of adaptive coping at baseline partially mediated the relationship between social support and emotional well-being. Supportive relationships may contribute to improved emotional well-being following treatment by facilitating the use of adaptive coping strategies. Attention should be given to strengthening social support networks and educating survivors of prostate cancer on adaptive coping techniques.
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Waist circumference moderates the association between marital stress and C-reactive protein in middle-aged healthy women.
Ann Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2010
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The relationships among stress, obesity, and inflammation in women remain unclear. This study examined the relationships among marital stress, waist circumference, and C-reactive protein (CRP) in 201 healthy women from the Stockholm Female Coronary Risk Study. We tested whether marital stress was associated with CRP and whether this association was moderated by waist circumference. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that after adjusting for age, occupation status, fasting glucose, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B, blood pressure, smoking, and menopausal status, marital stress was not directly associated with CRP. However, waist circumference significantly moderated the association between marital stress and CRP (p?=?0.012) such that marital stress was significantly associated with higher CRP among women with larger waist circumferences but not in those with smaller waists. More obese women may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of marital stress by manifesting higher inflammation.
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Social isolation is associated with elevated tumor norepinephrine in ovarian carcinoma patients.
Brain Behav. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2010
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Noradrenergic pathways have been implicated in growth and progression of ovarian cancer. Intratumoral norepinephrine (NE) has been shown to increase with stress in an animal cancer model, but little is known regarding how tumor NE varies with disease stage and with biobehavioral factors in ovarian cancer patients. This study examined relationships between pre-surgical measures of social support, depressed mood, perceived stress, anxiety, tumor histology and tumor catecholamine (NE and epinephrine [E]) levels among 68 ovarian cancer patients. We also examined whether associations observed between biobehavioral measures and tumor catecholamines extended to other compartments. Higher NE levels were found in advanced stage (p=0.006) and higher grade (p=0.001) tumors. Adjusting for stage, grade, and peri-surgical beta blockers, patients with a perceived lack of social support had significantly higher tumor NE (?=-0.29, p=0.012). A similar trend was seen for social support and ascites NE (adjusting for stage, peri-surgical beta blockers and caffeine: ?=-0.50, p=0.075), but not for plasma NE. Other biobehavioral factors were not related to tumor, ascites, or plasma NE (p values >0.21). Tumor E was undetectable in the majority of tumors and thus E was not further analyzed. In summary, these results suggest that tumor NE provides distinct information from circulating plasma concentrations. Tumor NE levels were elevated in relationship to tumor grade and stage. Low subjective social support was associated with elevated intratumoral NE. As beta-adrenergic signaling is related to key biological pathways involved in tumor growth, these findings may have implications for patient outcomes in ovarian cancer.
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Diurnal cortisol dysregulation, functional disability, and depression in women with ovarian cancer.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2010
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Multiple alterations in circadian rhythms have been observed in cancer patients, including the diurnal rhythm of the adrenal hormone cortisol. Diurnal cortisol alterations have been associated with cancer-related physiological processes as well as psychological stress. Here we investigate alterations in diurnal cortisol rhythm in ovarian cancer patients, and potential links with depression, life stress, and functional disability.
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Marital satisfaction of advanced prostate cancer survivors and their spousal caregivers: the dyadic effects of physical and mental health.
Psychooncology
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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Coping with the physical and mental side effects of diagnosis and treatment for advanced prostate cancer (APC) is a challenge for both survivors and their spousal caregivers. There is a gap in our current understanding of the dyadic adjustment process on marital satisfaction in this population. The current study sought to: (1) document levels of physical and mental health, and marital satisfaction, and (2) evaluate the relationship between physical and mental health with marital satisfaction in this understudied population.
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Perceived stress mediates the effects of social support on health-related quality of life among men treated for localized prostate cancer.
J Psychosom Res
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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To examine the longitudinal effect of social support on general health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in men treated for localized prostate cancer, and to evaluate the role of perceived stress as a potential mediator of that relationship, in an ethnically and demographically diverse sample.
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Resiliency in the face of disadvantage: do Hispanic cultural characteristics protect health outcomes?
J Pers
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2009
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Hispanics living in the United States may face substantial adversity, given stresses of immigration and acculturation, low incomes, poor educational and occupational opportunities, inadequate access to health care, and exposure to discrimination. Despite these disadvantages, the Hispanic population often shows equal or better health outcomes when compared to non-Hispanic Whites, a trend that has puzzled researchers and has been referred to as the "Hispanic Paradox." Hispanics with non-U.S. nativity also tend to show better health than those born in the United States, although this advantage dissipates with increasing time spent in the United States. The current article discusses the Reserve Capacity Model (L.C. Gallo & K. A. Matthews, 2003) as a potential framework for understanding how psychosocial risk and resilient factors may contribute to health disparities associated with broad sociocultural factors, such as low socioeconomic status or minority ethnicity. In addition, we examine theory concerning features of the Hispanic culture that may enhance resilience (e.g., social resources, familism, religiousness; G. Marin & B. V. Marin, 1991) in the face of adverse circumstances. We summarize some of our recent work that has empirically tested effects of risk and resilient factors in Hispanic health in the contexts of prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease. We conclude by discussing future directions and opportunities for researchers interested in culture-specific resiliency factors in relation to health outcomes.
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Validation of ethnicity in cancer data: which Hispanics are we misclassifying?
J Registry Manag
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2009
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The study of cancer in Hispanics in the United States has been hindered by misclassification of Hispanics as non-Hispanic and by the convenient practice of aggregating the diverse Hispanic subgroups into a general Hispanic category. The Hispanic Origin Identification Algorithm (HOIA) was developed to improve the identification of both the general Hispanic ethnicity and the specific Hispanic subgroup in cancer incidence data. Using an independent study of prostate cancer cases from South Florida as the "gold standard" and the Florida incident cancer registry data, we validated this algorithm and studied the characteristics of those Hispanics whose ethnicity was commonly missed in the cancer registry records. Overall, agreement between the gold standard information (derived from self-report) and HOIA derived ethnicity was 97%. For Hispanic subgroup, among a subset of subjects with known birthplace, the percent agreement was 98%. After HOIA, age-adjusted Hispanic cancer rates reflected an increase of 8% in males and 10% in females. Hispanics born in the United States were 4.6 times more likely to be misclassified as non-Hispanic than foreign-born Hispanics; black Hispanics 2.5 times more than whites; and women 1.3 times more than men. HOIA is a valid and effective tool for improving the accuracy of both general Hispanic ethnicity and Hispanic subgroup data in cancer registries. Improved procedures for identifying and recording ethnicity in health facilities are recommended, particularly focusing on improving the information gathered on Hispanics born in the United States, or who are black or female.
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Depression, social support, and beta-adrenergic transcription control in human ovarian cancer.
Brain Behav. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2009
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Motivated by previous indications that beta-adrenergic signaling can regulate tumor cell gene expression in model systems, we sought to determine whether similar dynamics occur in primary human ovarian cancer. DNA microarray analyses of 10 ovarian carcinomas identified 266 human transcripts that were differentially expressed in tumors from patients with elevated biobehavioral risk factors (high depressive symptoms and low social support) relative to grade- and stage-matched tumors from low-risk patients. Promoter-based bioinformatic analyses indicated increased activity of several beta-adrenergically-linked transcription control pathways, including CREB/ATF, NF-kappaB/Rel, STAT, and Ets family transcription factors. Consistent with increased beta-adrenergic signaling, high biobehavioral risk patients also showed increased intra-tumor concentrations of norepinephrine (but no difference in plasma norepinephrine). These data show that genome-wide transcriptional profiles are significantly altered in tumors from patients with high behavioral risk profiles, and they identify beta-adrenergic signal transduction as a likely mediator of those effects.
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Illness perceptions and emotional well-being in men treated for localized prostate cancer.
J Psychosom Res
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2009
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Emotional adjustment to cancer survivorship may be influenced by how patients interpret treatment side effects and other cancer-related experiences. The current study examined cognitive representations of illness, as conceptualized by the Self-Regulatory Model (SRM), in men treated for localized prostate cancer (PC). More severe PC perceptions were hypothesized to predict poorer emotional well being, particularly among men experiencing greater post-treatment sexual dysfunction or general life stress.
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Mens serostatus disclosure to parents: associations among social support, ethnicity, and disease status in men living with HIV.
Brain Behav. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2009
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Directly disclosing a positive HIV serostatus to family members can affect psychological and disease status. Perceptions that one is in a supportive family environment may moderate these effects; however, ethnic differences may exist in the support processes of families coping with HIV.
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Navigating Latinas with breast screen abnormalities to diagnosis: the Six Cities Study.
Cancer
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BACKGROUND.: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Latinas, chiefly because of later diagnosis. The time from screening to diagnosis is critical to optimizing cancer care, yet the efficacy of navigation in reducing it is insufficiently documented. Here, the authors evaluate a culturally sensitive patient navigation program to reduce the time to diagnosis and increase the proportions of women diagnosed within 30 days and 60 days. METHODS.: The authors analyzed 425 Latinas who had Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) radiologic abnormalities categorized as BI-RADS-3, BI-RADS-4, or BI-RADS-5 from July 2008 to January 2011. There were 217 women in the navigated group and 208 women in the control group. Women were navigated by locally trained navigators or were not navigated (data for this group were abstracted from charts). The Kaplan-Meier method, Cox proportional hazards regression, and logistic regression were used to determine differences between groups. RESULTS.: The time to diagnosis was shorter in the navigated group (mean, 32.5 days vs 44.6 days in the control group; hazard ratio, 1.32; P = .007). Stratified analysis revealed that navigation significantly shortened the time to diagnosis among women who had BI-RADS-3 radiologic abnormalities (mean, 21.3 days vs 63.0 days; hazard ratio, 2.42; P < .001) but not among those who had BI-RADS-4 or BI-RADS-5 radiologic abnormalities (mean, 37.6 days vs 36.9 days; hazard ratio, 0.98; P = .989). Timely diagnosis occurred more frequently among navigated Latinas (within 30 days: 67.3% vs 57.7%; P = .045; within 60 days: 86.2% vs 78.4%; P = .023). This was driven by the BI-RADS-3 strata (within 30 days: 83.6% vs 50%; P < .001; within 60 days: 94.5% vs 67.2%; P < .001). A lack of missed appointments was associated with timely diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS.: Patient-centered navigation to assist Latina women with abnormal screening mammograms appeared to reduced the time to diagnosis and increase rates of timely diagnosis overall. However, in stratified analyses, only navigated Latinas with an initial BI-RADS-3 screen benefited, probably because of a reduction in missed diagnostic appointments.
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Prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular diseases among Hispanic/Latino individuals of diverse backgrounds in the United States.
JAMA
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Major cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are leading causes of mortality among US Hispanic and Latino individuals. Comprehensive data are limited regarding the prevalence of CVD risk factors in this population and relations of these traits to socioeconomic status (SES) and acculturation.
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Multilevel modeling in psychosomatic medicine research.
Psychosom Med
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The primary purpose of this study is to provide an overview of multilevel modeling for Psychosomatic Medicine readers and contributors. The article begins with a general introduction to multilevel modeling. Multilevel regression modeling at two levels is emphasized because of its prevalence in psychosomatic medicine research. Simulated data sets based on some core ideas from the Familias Unidas effectiveness study are used to illustrate key concepts including communication of model specification, parameter interpretation, sample size and power, and missing data. Input and key output files from Mplus and SAS are provided. A cluster randomized trial with repeated measures (i.e., three-level regression model) is then briefly presented with simulated data based on some core ideas from a cognitive-behavioral stress management intervention in prostate cancer.
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Psychoendocrine validation of a short measure for assessment of perceived stress management skills in different non-clinical populations.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
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We investigated the psychometric properties of a short questionnaire for combined assessment of different perceived stress management skills in the general population and tested whether scores relate to physiological stress reactivity.
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Cortisol and inflammatory processes in ovarian cancer patients following primary treatment: relationships with depression, fatigue, and disability.
Brain Behav. Immun.
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Elevations in the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and alterations in the anti-inflammatory hormone cortisol have been reported in a variety of cancers. IL-6 has prognostic significance in ovarian cancer and cortisol has been associated with fatigue, disability, and vegetative depression in ovarian cancer patients prior to surgery. Ovarian cancer patients undergoing primary treatment completed psychological self-report measures and collected salivary cortisol and plasma IL-6 prior to surgery, at 6 months, and at 1 year. Patients included in this study had completed chemotherapy and had no evidence of disease recurrence. At 6 months, patients showed significant reductions in nocturnal cortisol secretion, plasma IL-6, and a more normalized diurnal cortisol rhythm, changes that were maintained at 1 year. The reductions in IL-6 and nocturnal cortisol were associated with declines in self-reported fatigue, vegetative depression, and disability. These findings suggest that primary treatment for ovarian cancer reduces the inflammatory response. Moreover, patients who have not developed recurrent disease by 1 year appear to maintain more normalized levels of cortisol and IL-6. Improvement in fatigue and vegetative depression is associated with the normalization of IL-6 and cortisol, a pattern which may be relevant for improvements in overall quality of life for ovarian cancer patients.
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Social influences on clinical outcomes of patients with ovarian cancer.
J. Clin. Oncol.
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Previous research has demonstrated relationships of social support with disease-related biomarkers in patients with ovarian cancer. However, the clinical relevance of these findings to patient outcomes has not been established. This prospective study examined how social support relates to long-term survival among consecutive patients with ovarian cancer. We focused on two types of social support: social attachment, a type of emotional social support reflecting connections with others, and instrumental social support reflecting the availability of tangible assistance.
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Millon Behavioral Medicine Diagnostic (MBMD) Predicts Health-Related Quality of Life (HrQoL) over time among men treated for localized prostate cancer.
J Pers Assess
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Prostate cancer treatment presents multiple challenges that can negatively affect health-related quality of life (HrQoL), and that can be further compromised by maladaptive personality styles and psychological adjustment difficulties. This study examined the utility of a comprehensive psychosocial screening tool to identify psychosocial traits that prospectively predict HrQoL status among men treated for localized prostate cancer. The Millon Behavioral Medicine Diagnostic (MBMD) was administered to 66 men (M age = 68 years, 59% White) treated by either radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy along with standard measures of general and prostate-cancer-specific quality of life assessed at a 12-month follow-up. Higher scores on both summary MBMD Management Guides (Adjustment Difficulties and Psych Referral) and higher scores on personality styles characterized by avoidance, dependency, depression, passive aggressiveness, and self-denigration predicted lower HrQoL (? range = -.21 to -.50). Additionally, higher scores on the MBMD Depression, Tension-Anxiety, and Future Pessimism scales predicted lower HrQoL. Finally, higher scores on the MBMD Intervention Fragility and Utilization Excess scale also consistently predicted poorer mental and physical health functioning over time. These results point to the utility of the MBMD to help screen for potential impairments in mental and physical health functioning in men undergoing treatment for prostate cancer.
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Sleep disturbance, cytokines, and fatigue in women with ovarian cancer.
Brain Behav. Immun.
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Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), have been implicated in the underlying processes contributing to sleep regulation and fatigue. Despite evidence for sleep difficulties, fatigue, and elevations in IL-6 among women with ovarian cancer, the association between these symptoms and IL-6 has not been investigated. To address this knowledge gap, we examined relationships between sleep disturbance, fatigue, and plasma IL-6 in 136 women with ovarian cancer prior to surgery. These relationships were also examined in 63 of these women who were disease-free and not receiving chemotherapy one year post-diagnosis. At both time-points, higher levels of IL-6 were significantly associated with sleep disturbances (p<0.05), controlling for potentially confounding biological and psychosocial covariates. Higher IL-6 was significantly associated with fatigue prior to surgery (p<0.05); however, when sleep disturbance was included in the model, the relationship was no longer significant. IL-6 was not significantly associated with fatigue at one year. Changes in sleep over time were significantly associated with percent change in IL-6 from pre-surgery to one year, adjusting for covariates (p<0.05). These findings support a direct association of IL-6 with sleep disturbances in this population, whereas the relationship between IL-6 and fatigue prior to surgery may be mediated by poor sleep. As this study is the first to examine cytokine contributions to sleep and fatigue in ovarian cancer, further research is warranted to clarify the role of biological correlates of sleep and fatigue in this population.
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Stress management skills, neuroimmune processes and fatigue levels in persons with chronic fatigue syndrome.
Brain Behav. Immun.
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Stressors and emotional distress responses impact chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) symptoms, including fatigue. Having better stress management skills might mitigate fatigue by decreasing emotional distress. Because CFS patients comprise a heterogeneous population, we hypothesized that the role of stress management skills in decreasing fatigue may be most pronounced in the subgroup manifesting the greatest neuroimmune dysfunction.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.