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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Associations between macronutrient intake and serum lipid profile depend on body fat in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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The present study aimed to investigate the relationships between macronutrient intake and serum lipid profile in adolescents from eight European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) cross-sectional study (2006-7), and to assess the role of body fat-related variables in these associations. Weight, height, waist circumference, skinfold thicknesses, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol, TAG, apoB and apoA1 were measured in 454 adolescents (44 % boys) aged 12·5-17·5 years. Macronutrient intake (g/4180 kJ per d (1000 kcal per d)) was assessed using two non-consecutive 24 h dietary recalls. Associations were evaluated by multi-level analysis and adjusted for sex, age, maternal education, centre, sum of four skinfolds, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary behaviours and diet quality index for adolescents. Carbohydrate intake was inversely associated with HDL-C (? = - 0·189, P< 0·001). An inverse association was found between fat intake and TAG (? = - 0·319, P< 0·001). Associations between macronutrient intake and serum lipids varied according to adiposity levels, i.e. an inverse association between carbohydrate intake and HDL-C was only observed in those adolescents with a higher waist:height ratio. As serum lipids and excess body fat are the major markers of CVD, these findings should be considered when developing strategies to prevent the risk of CVD among adolescents.
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Dietary Pectin-Derived Acidic Oligosaccharides Improve the Pulmonary Bacterial Clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lung Infection in Mice by Modulating Intestinal Microbiota and Immunity.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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?A predominantly T-helper type 2 (Th2) immune response is critical in the prognosis of pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. But the mucosal and systemic immune responses can be influenced by the intestinal microbiota.
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Dietary lipid intake only partially influences variance in serum phospholipid fatty acid composition in adolescents: impact of other dietary factors.
Lipids
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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The present study aimed to assess the correlation between food and fatty acid (FA) intake and the serum phospholipid (PL) FA status in European adolescents and explored the percentage of variation in serum PL FA that could be attributed to dietary habits. Participants included 528 adolescents recruited in the HELENA Study. Dietary intake was assessed by two, self-administered, non-consecutive 24-h recalls. PL FA concentrations were measured in fasting venous serum samples. Reduced rank regressions were applied to examine the combined effect of food intakes. Results indicated that the variance in serum PL FA in adolescents, that could be explained by diet varied from 7.0% for MUFA to 14.2% for n-3FA. The variance in the long-chain n-3FA was mainly explained by fish intake but also by coffee and tea consumption. In conclusion this study indicated that dietary intake influences the serum PL FA status to a limited amount but that also other factors interfere. However, dietary intake is important as it is among those factors that could be modified. Furthermore, the results suggest that the overall dietary habits should be considered instead of only the consumption of single foods or nutrients, as the medium of the food or concomitant intake of foods and nutrients might interact and as such influence absorption or metabolism.
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Digestive perianastomotic ulcerations and Crohn's disease.
J Crohns Colitis
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Digestive perianastomotic ulcerations (DPAU) have been occasionally reported as late complications of neonatal or childhood surgery.
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Growth hormone enhances fat-free mass and glutamine availability in patients with short-bowel syndrome: an ancillary double-blind, randomized crossover study.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Benefits of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) alone or combined with glutamine in patients with intestinal failure because of short-bowel syndrome remain controversial.
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Breastfeeding Shows a Protective Trend toward Adolescents with Higher Abdominal Adiposity.
Obes Facts
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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The question of whether breastfeeding has a protective effect against the development of overweight or obesity later in life remains controversial, especially during adolescence. The objective was to assess the relationship between breastfeeding and adolescents' body composition.
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Self-reported sleep duration, white blood cell counts and cytokine profiles in European adolescents: the HELENA study.
Sleep Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
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Sleep patterns face important changes during adolescence. This can have implications for the immune system, which is regulated by the sleep-wake cycle; however, most studies relating sleep and immune system have been conducted on adults.
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Plasma malondialdehyde levels in children on 12-hour cyclic parenteral nutrition: are there health risks?
Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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In children undergoing total parenteral nutrition (PN), lipids provide a key source of calories preventing or correcting energy deficits and improving outcomes. However, some of these lipids may undergo oxidation leading to the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA), a cytotoxic byproduct found in these patients. This paper aims to describe a sensitive method for detecting MDA and discuss its role in certain diseases commonly found in children on regular PN. To quantify MDA levels in children benefitting from long-term cyclic PN, a reliable and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method based on a 1-step derivatization/extraction procedure analysis with ultraviolet determination at 305 nm wavelength was achieved. In control children without PN, MDA levels were on average 3.30 ± 0.08 µM. However, in children nourished intravenously by fat emulsion for a long time, in which liver problems have been identified, the circulating concentrations of MDA ranged widely at both the start and the end of a session, 3- to 10-fold, respectively, in comparison with the levels measured in controls. This finding indicates that PN administrated long term raises plasma MDA levels, indicating chronic exposure and therefore a possible health risk, particularly liver damage. This preliminary study using a limited number of patients and controls showed that children undergoing long-term PN are strongly exposed to MDA, which must be considered as a potent toxic compound rather than a simple marker of lipid peroxidation.
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Leptin, vitamin D, and cardiorespiratory fitness as risk factors for insulin resistance in European adolescents: gender differences in the HELENA Study.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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The purpose of this study was to identify the relevance of a set of risk factors for insulin resistance in adolescents from Europe and to consider their possible gender-specific associations. The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study (HELENA-CSS) was conducted in 1053 European adolescents (mean age, 14.9 years) in a school setting in 9 countries. Three anthropometric markers of body fat and a dietary index were calculated. Total energy intake was estimated from a questionnaire. C-reactive protein, leptin, and vitamin D were assessed, and physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscular strength were measured. Center, socioeconomic status, pubertal status, and season were used as potential confounders. The main outcome was the homeostasis model assessment used as a marker of insulin resistance. Correlations, analyses of covariance, and logistic regression models were used. In males, leptin was the only risk factor for insulin resistance after adjusting for confounders including markers of body fat (odds ratios (ORs) from 1.49 to 1.60). In females, leptin, vitamin D, and fitness were the remaining independent risk factors for insulin resistance after adjustments (OR 2.11; 95% confidential interval (CI) 1.29-3.45; OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.31-0.80; and OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.33-0.87, respectively). Our observations suggest a gender dimorphism in the identification of risk factors for high insulin resistance. Preventive strategies should focus on improving modifiable factors such as cardiorespiratory fitness and on ensuring vitamin D sufficiency. Randomized controlled trials focusing on these strategies are necessary to test their efficacy.
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Homozygous MTTP and APOB mutations may lead to hepatic steatosis and fibrosis despite metabolic differences in congenital hypocholesterolemia.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis leading to fibrosis occurs in patients with abetalipoproteinemia (ABL) and homozygous or compound heterozygous familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (Ho-FHBL). We wanted to establish if liver alterations were more frequent in one of both diseases and were influenced by comorbidities.
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Breastfeeding attenuates the effect of low birthweight on abdominal adiposity in adolescents: the HELENA study.
Matern Child Nutr
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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The aim of this study was to examine whether breastfeeding may reduce the programming effect of birthweight on abdominal adiposity. Abdominal (in three regions: R1, R2 and R3) adiposity was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in 314 adolescents. Breastfeeding duration, birthweight, duration of gestation and maternal educational level were obtained from questionnaire. Physical activity was objectively measured. We detected significant interactions between breastfeeding and birthweight on abdominal adiposity (Ps?=?0.02-0.07). We observed that birthweight was associated with abdominal adiposity in the group who had never been breastfed (??=?-0.19 to -0.23; Ps?
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Long-term outcome of children receiving percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding.
J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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The aim of the present study was to analyze the long-term follow-up of children receiving percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in terms of survival, nutritional outcome, and weaning from enteral nutrition. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the complications related to PEG and the outcome of patients with neurological disability.
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Associations of early life and sociodemographic factors with menarcheal age in European adolescents.
Eur. J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Early menarche has been associated with adult overweight, cardiovascular risk factors, and other diseases. Little is known about the determinants of menarcheal age (MA). Therefore, the main aim of this study was to examine the associations between early life programming factors and menarcheal age in European adolescents. Secondly, the influence of sociodemographical factors on menarcheal age was also studied. A total of 1,069 European girls from the HELENA cross-sectional study, aged 12.5-17.5 years, were included in this study. Using multilevel linear regression models, a possible association between birth weight and length, ponderal index at birth, gestational age, duration of exclusive breastfeeding, and menarcheal age was examined. Associations between geographical gradient, number of siblings, physical activity (PA), dietary factors, and menarcheal age were also examined. After adjustment, menarcheal age was positively associated with birth weight and length (p?=?0.01 and p?=?0.01). Conclusion: These findings confirm that birth weight and length may have a programming effect on menarcheal age. Next to this finding, sociodemographic factors were not associated with menarcheal age.
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Does prenatal diagnosis modify neonatal management and early outcome of children with esophageal atresia?
Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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Our study aimed at (1) evaluating neonatal management and outcome of neonates with either a prenatal or a postnatal diagnosis of EA (2) analyzing the impact of prenatal diagnosis on outcome based on the type of EA.
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Physical activity, sedentary time, and liver enzymes in adolescents: the HELENA study.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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To examine the association between physical activity (PA) and liver enzyme levels in adolescents from nine European countries.
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Vitamins and iron blood biomarkers are associated with blood pressure levels in European adolescents. The HELENA study.
Nutrition
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Previous research showed that low concentration of biomarkers in the blood during adolescence (i.e., iron status; retinol; and vitamins B6, B12, C, and D) may be involved in the early stages of development of many chronic diseases, such as hypertension. The aim was to evaluate if iron biomarkers and vitamins in the blood are associated with blood pressure in European adolescents.
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Socioeconomic factors are associated with folate and vitamin B12 intakes and related biomarkers concentrations in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study.
Nutr Res
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Because socioeconomic factors (SEFs) may influence dietary quality and vitamin intakes, this study aimed to examine associations between socioeconomic factors and folate and vitamin B12 intakes as well as their related biomarkers in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study. Vitamin intakes were obtained from two 24-hour recalls in 2253 participants (47% males). Vitamin B biomarkers were assessed in a subsample of 977 participants (46% males). Socioeconomic factors were assessed by questionnaire, and 1-way analysis of covariance and linear regression analysis were applied. For males and females, mean intakes of folate were 211.19 and 177.18 ?g/d, and for vitamin B12, 5.98 and 4.54 ?g/d, respectively. Levels of plasma folate, red blood cell folate, serum B12, and holotranscobalamin were 18.74, 807.19, 330.64, and 63.04 nmol/L in males, respectively, and 19.13, 770.16, 377.9, and 65.63 nmol/L in females, respectively. Lower folate intakes were associated with several SEFs, including maternal and paternal education in both sexes. Regarding folate biomarkers, lower plasma folate intakes were associated with single/shared care in males and with lower paternal occupation in females. Lower vitamin B12 intakes were associated with almost all the studied SEFs, except paternal occupation in both sexes. In females, when considering vitamin B12 biomarkers, lower plasma vitamin B12 was associated with lower maternal education and occupation, and lower holotranscobalamin was associated with lower maternal education and lower paternal occupation. In conclusion, from the set of socioeconomic determinants studied in a sample of European adolescents, maternal education and paternal occupation were more consistently associated with folate and vitamin B12 intakes and biomarkers concentrations.
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Disease associated malnutrition correlates with length of hospital stay in children.
Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Previous studies reported a wide range of estimated malnutrition prevalence (6-30%) in paediatric inpatients based on various anthropometric criteria. We performed anthropometry in hospitalised children and assessed the relationship between malnutrition and length of hospital stay (LOS) and complication rates.
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Impact of the choice of threshold on physical activity patterns in free living conditions among adolescents measured using a uniaxial accelerometer: The HELENA study.
J Sports Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the choice of threshold on physical activity patterns measured in adolescents under free living conditions (FLC) using a uniaxial accelerometer. The study comprised 2043 adolescents (12.5-17.5 years) participating in the HELENA Study. Participants wore a uniaxial accelerometer for 7 days. The PA patterns were assessed using thresholds determined from six different studies. For each of the thresholds used, the number of adolescents fulfilling the recommendation of 60 min of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) per day was also calculated. A significant difference was found between thresholds regardless of the activity level: differences of 38%, 207%, 136%, and 2780% for sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous intensity PA, respectively (P < 0.001). Time of MVPA varied between methods from 25.3 to 55.2 min · day(-1). The number of adolescents fulfilling the recommendation varied from 5.9% to 37% according to the thresholds used. The kappa coefficient for concordance in the assessment of the number of adolescents achieving the PA recommendations was generally low. The definition of the threshold for PA intensity may considerably affect the PA patterns in FLC when assessed using a uniaxial accelerometer and the number of participants fulfilling the recommendations.
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Factors associated with vitamin D deficiency in european adolescents: the HELENA study.
J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Evidence indicates low 25-hydroxyvitamin D [(25(OH)D] concentrations in European adolescents. Identification of potential determinants is therefore essential to guide public health initiatives aiming at optimizing vitamin D status across Europe. The aim of the study was to identify potential influencing factors of 25(OH)D concentrations in European adolescents aged 12.5 to 17.5 y, participating in the multi-centre cross-sectional Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study. A subset of 1,006 participants (46.8% males) was drawn from the main study. Measures of body composition, biochemical markers, socioeconomic status, dietary intake, physical activity, fitness, sleep time and vitamin D genetic polymorphism (rs1544410) were assessed. Stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis was conducted stratified by gender. In males, linear regression of 25(OH)D, suggested that (1) winter season (?=-0.364; p<0.01), (2) higher latitudes (?=-0.246; p<0.01), (3) BMI z-score (?=-0.198; p<0.05) and (4) retinol concentration (?=0.171; p<0.05) independently influenced 25(OH)D concentrations. In females, (1) winter season (?=-0.370; p<0.01), (2) sleep time (?=-0.231; p<0.01), (3) supplement intake (?=0.221; p<0.05), (4) flexibility (?=0.184; p<0.05), (5) body fat % (?=0.201; p<0.05) (6), BMI z-score (?=-0.272; p<0.05), (7) higher latitudes (?=-0.219; p<0.01) and (8) handgrip strength (?=0.206; p<0.05) independently influenced 25(OH)D concentrations. Season, latitude, fitness, adiposity, sleep time and micronutrient supplementation were highly related to 25(OH)D concentrations found in European adolescents.
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Characteristics and management of congenital esophageal stenosis: findings from a multicenter study.
Orphanet J Rare Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Congenital esophageal stenosis (CES) is a rare condition frequently associated with esophageal atresia (EA). There are limited data from small series about the presentation, treatment, and outcomes of CES.
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Barrett esophagus and esophagojejunal anastomotic stenosis as complications of esophagogastric disconnection in children with esophageal atresia.
J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Total esophagogastric disconnection (TED) is an alternative surgical procedure in resistant gastroesophageal reflux disease. We report 2 severe, not yet described long-term complications of TED occurring in 4 children with a history of esophageal atresia. Three children presented with stenosis of the esophagojejunal anastomosis 5 months to 9 years after TED, requiring repeated dilations associated with mitomycin C application in one of them. Barrett esophagus was observed in 3 children 8 to 9 years after TED. Careful long-term clinical and endoscopic follow-up of children who underwent TED is required.
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Association between self-reported sleep duration and dietary quality in European adolescents.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Evidence has grown supporting the role for short sleep duration as an independent risk factor for weight gain and obesity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between sleep duration and dietary quality in European adolescents. The sample consisted of 1522 adolescents (aged 12.5-17.5 years) participating in the European multi-centre cross-sectional ‘Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence’ study. Sleep duration was estimated by a self-reported questionnaire. Dietary intake was assessed by two 24 h recalls. The Diet Quality Index for Adolescents with Meal index (DQI-AM) was used to calculate overall dietary quality, considering the components dietary equilibrium, dietary diversity, dietary quality and a meal index. An average sleep duration of ? 9 h was classified as optimal, between 8 and 9 h as borderline insufficient and < 8 h as insufficient. Sleep duration and the DQI-AM score were positively associated (? = 0.027, r 0.130, P< 0.001). Adolescents with insufficient (62.05 (sd 14.18)) and borderline insufficient sleep (64.25 (sd 12.87)) scored lower on the DQI-AM than adolescents with an optimal sleep duration (64.57 (sd 12.39)) (P< 0.001; P= 0.018). The present study demonstrated in European adolescents that short sleep duration was associated with a lower dietary quality. This supports the hypothesis that the health consequences of insufficient sleep may be mediated by the relationship of insufficient sleep to poor dietary quality.
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Mechanical ventilatory constraints during incremental exercise in healthy and cystic fibrosis children.
Pediatr. Pulmonol.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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AIM: To analyze breathing pattern and mechanical ventilatory constraints during incremental exercise in healthy and cystic fibrosis (CF) children. METHODS: Thirteen healthy children and 6 children with cystic fibrosis volunteered to perform an incremental test on a treadmill. Exercise tidal flow/volume loops were plotted every minute within a maximal flow/volume loop (MFVL). Expiratory flow limitation (expFL expressed in %Vt) was evaluated and end-expiratory and end-inspiratory lung volumes (EELV and EILV) were estimated from expiratory reserve volume relative to vital capacity (ERV/FVC) and from inspiratory reserve volume relative to vital capacity (IRV/FVC). RESULTS: During the incremental exercise, expFL was first observed at 40% of maximal aerobic speed in both groups. At maximal exercise, 46% of healthy children and 83% of CF children presented expFL, without significant effect of cystic fibrosis on the severity of expFL. According to the two-way ANOVA results, both groups adopted similar breathing pattern and breathing strategies as no significant effect of CF has been revealed. But, according to one-way ANOVA results, a significant increase of ERV/FVC associated with a significant decrease of IRV/FVC from resting value shave been observed in healthy children at maximal exercise, but not in CF children. DISCUSSION: The hypothesis of this study was based on the assumption that mild cystic fibrosis could induce more frequent and more severe mechanical ventilatory constraints due to pulmonary impairment and breathing pattern disturbances. But, this study did not succeed to highlight an effect of mild cystic fibrosis on the mechanical ventilatory constraints (expFL and dynamic hyperinflation) that occur during an incremental exercise. This absence of effect could be due to the absence of an impact of the disease on spirometric data, breathing pattern regulation during exercise and breathing strategy. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2013 9999:XX-XX. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Effect of child health status on parents allowing children to participate in pediatric research.
BMC Med Ethics
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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To identify motivational factors linked to child health status that affected the likelihood of parents allowing their child to participate in pediatric research.
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Improving outcomes of biliary atresia: French national series 1986-2009.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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This study analyses the prognosis of biliary atresia (BA) in France since liver transplantation (LT) became widely available.
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Physical activity and markers of insulin resistance in adolescents: role of cardiorespiratory fitness levels--the HELENA study.
Pediatr Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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To analyze the association between objectively assessed physical activity (PA) and markers of insulin resistance (IR) in European adolescents and to examine whether the association of objectively assessed PA and markers of IR is modified by cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF).
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The management of acute diarrhea in children in developed and developing areas: from evidence base to clinical practice.
Expert Opin Pharmacother
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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Acute diarrhea remains a major problem in children and is associated with substantial morbidity, mortality and costs. While vaccination against rotavirus could reduce the burden of the disease, the persistent impact of intestinal infections requires effective treatment in adjunct to oral rehydration solutions, to reduce the severity and duration of diarrhea. Several therapeutic options have been proposed for acute diarrhea, but proof of efficacy is available for few of them, including zinc, diosmectite, selected probiotics and racecadotril. However, at present there is no universal drug, and therapeutic efficacy has only been shown for selected drugs in selected settings, such as: outpatients/inpatients, developed/developing countries and viral/bacterial etiology.
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Abnormal expression of Muc5b in Cftr-null mice and in mammary tumors of MMTV-ras mice.
Histochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2011
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Gel-forming mucins are large, high molecular weight, and heavily O-glycosylated proteins that are responsible for the rheological properties of mucus gel. Among them, the mucin MUC5B has been implicated in breast cancer and cystic fibrosis. We obtained a new polyclonal serum, named CP1, which was isolated from a rabbit immunized with a mouse Muc5b peptide. The immunoprofile of Muc5b was determined on paraffin-embedded and frozen mouse tissue sections and showed a similar expression pattern in mouse to that in the human. The "nonmammary" mucin Muc5b was detected in all mammary tumors analyzed from MMTV-ras mice, suggesting that the CP1 antibody is a valuable tool for investigating the involvement of this mucin in mammary cancer. We also found that uninfected Cftr( -/- ) mice harbored more Clara cells, which were Muc5b-positive, than did their wild-type control littermates. The number of Muc5b-positive cells increased in Cftr( -/- ) mice infected experimentally with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the mice developed mucus plugs in their bronchi and bronchioles with a high frequency of Muc5b content (87%, Cohens kappa = 0.82; p < 0.0001). These findings suggest that mice genetically deficient in the Cftr gene are predisposed to develop mucus plugs and that MUC5B may provide a valuable target for decreasing mucus viscosity in cystic fibrosis.
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Growth hormone to improve short bowel syndrome intestinal autonomy: a pediatric randomized open-label clinical trial.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2011
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The ability of growth hormone (GH) to promote the weaning-off of parenteral nutrition (PN) in short bowel syndrome (SBS) is unclear. No randomized controlled study is available in children. This study was undertaken to determine if GH could enhance the weaning off of PN in PN-dependent children with SBS.
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Food intake of European adolescents in the light of different food-based dietary guidelines: results of the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2011
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Since inadequate food consumption patterns during adolescence are not only linked with the occurrence of obesity in youth but also with the subsequent risk of developing diseases in adulthood, the establishment and maintenance of a healthy diet early in life is of great public health importance. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to describe and evaluate the food consumption of a well-characterized sample of European adolescents against food-based dietary guidelines for the first time.
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Body size at birth modifies the effect of fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) rs9939609 polymorphism on adiposity in adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2011
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The present study was intended to examine whether ponderal index (PI) at birth modifies the effect of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) rs9939609 polymorphism on adiposity in European adolescents. A total of 628 adolescents aged 14·4 (se 1·3) years (56·8 % female) were recruited. PI was calculated from parental reports of birth weight and length (kg/m³), and the BMI (kg/m²), body fat percentage and fat mass index (FMI, kg/m²) were calculated. The rs9939609 polymorphism was genotyped and physical activity assessed by accelerometry. Sex, duration of pregnancy, pubertal status, centre and physical activity were used as confounders in all the analyses. The minor A allele of the FTO rs9939609 was significantly associated with higher BMI, body fat percentage and FMI (all P < 0·05) but not with PI. Significant interactions between PI and the rs9939609 polymorphism in terms of body fat percentage (P = 0·002) and FMI (P = 0·017) were detected. However, this polymorphism was only significantly associated with higher BMI, body fat percentage and FMI (all P < 0·05) in adolescents in the lower PI tertile. Indeed, both body fat percentage and FMI were higher in those adolescents in the lower PI tertile carrying the A allele of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism than in those with the TT genotype (25·0 (se 0·8) v. 22·1 (se 1·0) %, adjusted P = 0·030 and 5·6 (se 0·3) v. 4·6 (se 0·4) kg/m2, P = 0·031, respectively). Our findings suggest that those adolescents born with lower PI could be more vulnerable to the influence of the A risk allele of the FTO polymorphism on total adiposity content.
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New validated thresholds for various intensities of physical activity in adolescents using the Actigraph accelerometer.
Int J Rehabil Res
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2011
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The aim of this study was to determine and validate the new thresholds for various intensities of physical activity in adolescents using the Actigraph accelerometer. Sixty healthy participants aged 10-16 years were recruited. Forty participants participated in the calibration study whereas the others participated in the validation study. Accelerometer data, heart rate, and oxygen consumption were measured at nine levels of physical activity which varied in intensity: sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous. The activity categories and accelerometer counts were sedentary activity, 0-400 counts/min; light activity, 401-1900 counts/min; moderate activity, 1901-3918 counts/min; and vigorous activity, greater than 3918 counts/min, respectively. This study establishes new threshold values for various physical activities that can be used for population-based studies in adolescents.
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Clinical and manometric characteristics of Allgrove syndrome.
J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2011
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The association of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) insensitivity with achalasia and alacrimia (Allgrove syndrome, 3A) constitutes a rare multisystem disorder. Its evolution is not well known. The aim of this study was to describe clinical and esophageal manometric characteristics and outcomes in Allgrove syndrome.
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Vitamin D status among adolescents in Europe: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
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An adequate vitamin D status is essential during childhood and adolescence, for its important role in cell growth, skeletal structure and development. It also reduces the risk of conditions such as CVD, osteoporosis, diabetes mellitus, infections and autoimmune disease. As comparable data on the European level are lacking, assessment of vitamin D concentrations was included in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study. Fasting blood samples were obtained from a subsample of 1006 adolescents (470 males; 46·8 %) with an age range of 12·5-17·5 years, selected in the ten HELENA cities in the nine European countries participating in this cross-sectional study, and analysed for 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D) by ELISA using EDTA plasma. As specific reference values for adolescents are missing, percentile distribution were computed by age and sex. Median 25(OH)D levels for the whole population were 57·1 nmol/l (5th percentile 24·3 nmol/l, 95th percentile 99·05 nmol/l). Vitamin D status was classified into four groups according to international guidelines (sufficiency/optimal levels ? 75 nmol/l; insufficiency 50-75 nmol/l; deficiency 27·5-49·99 nmol/l and severe deficiency < 27·5 nmol/l). About 80 % of the sample had suboptimal levels (39 % had insufficient, 27 % deficient and 15 % severely deficient levels). Vitamin D concentrations increased with age (P < 0·01) and tended to decrease according to BMI. Geographical differences were also identified. Our study results indicate that vitamin D deficiency is a highly prevalent condition in European adolescents and should be a matter of concern for public health authorities.
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Objectively-measured and self-reported physical activity and fitness in relation to inflammatory markers in European adolescents: the HELENA Study.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2011
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Atherogenesis involves an inflammatory process that occurs early in life even though clinical symptoms are not observed until adulthood. Two important protective factors for low-grade inflammation may be physical activity (PA) and fitness. We examined the independent associations of objective and subjective measurements of PA and fitness with low-grade inflammation in European adolescents.
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[Abdominal pain and gastritis in children].
Rev Prat
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2011
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Gastritis, as gastric and duodenal ulcer, is associated with epigastric abdominal pain, influenced by meals, associated with nausea and vomiting and weight loss. Diagnosis s based upon upper gastrointestinal fibre endoscopy that allows direct visualisation of gastric lesions and realization of antral and fundic biopsies for anatomopathology and culture. Main etiologies are drug induced, stress and H. pylori infection. Looking for H. pylori is only justified in those children presenting with digestive symptoms requiring upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Therefore non invasive test are only indicated for control of eradication. Treatment of H. pylori infection associates proton pump inhibitors and two antibiotics for 7 to 10 days.
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Sexual dimorphism in the early life programming of serum leptin levels in European adolescents: the HELENA study.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2011
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The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a lower birth weight, as an indicator of adverse intrauterine environment, is associated with higher serum leptin levels in European adolescents. We also examined the possible sexual dimorphism in this relationship.
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Active commuting and physical activity in adolescents from Europe: results from the HELENA study.
Pediatr Exerc Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2011
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We assessed commuting patterns in adolescents from 10 European cities and examined associations with physical activity (PA). A total of 3112 adolescents were included. PA was objectively measured with accelerometry. Commuting patterns and overall PA were self-reported using questions from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire modified for adolescents (IPAQ-A). Adolescents reported to spend 30 min (15,60) [expressed as median (25th, 75th percentiles)] walking. In boys, associations between active commuting (walking and biking) and PA levels were observed for moderate, moderate-to-vigorous and overall PA. In girls, these associations were observed for moderate and moderate-to-vigorous PA (walking). Similar results were found with the IPAQ-A. We observed positive associations between overall commuting and PA levels in European adolescents, yet due to the cross-sectional study design we cannot state the direction of these. Future studies should address the causation between active commuting and PA levels.
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FADS1 genetic variability interacts with dietary ?-linolenic acid intake to affect serum non-HDL-cholesterol concentrations in European adolescents.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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Two rate-limiting enzymes in PUFA biosynthesis, ?5- and ?6-desaturases, are encoded by the FADS1 and FADS2 genes, respectively. Genetic variants in the FADS1-FADS2 gene cluster are associated with changes in plasma concentrations of PUFA, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, and TG. However, little is known about whether dietary PUFA intake modulates these associations, especially in adolescents. We assessed whether dietary linoleic acid (LA) or ?-linolenic acid (ALA) modulate the association between the FADS1 rs174546 polymorphism and concentrations of PUFA, other lipids, and lipoproteins in adolescents. Dietary intakes of LA and ALA, FADS1 rs174546 genotypes, PUFA levels in serum phospholipids, and serum concentrations of TG, cholesterol, and lipoproteins were determined in 573 European adolescents from the HELENA study. The sample was stratified according to the median dietary LA (?9.4 and >9.4 g/d) and ALA (?1.4 and >1.4 g/d) intakes. The associations between FADS1 rs174546 and concentrations of PUFA, TG, cholesterol, and lipoproteins were not affected by dietary LA intake (all P-interaction > 0.05). Similarly, the association between the FADS1 rs174546 polymorphism and serum phospholipid concentrations of ALA or EPA was not modified by dietary ALA intake (all P-interaction > 0.05). In contrast, the rs174546 minor allele was associated with lower total cholesterol concentrations (P = 0.01 under the dominant model) and non-HDL-cholesterol concentrations (P = 0.02 under the dominant model) in the high-ALA-intake group but not in the low-ALA-intake group (P-interaction = 0.01). These results suggest that dietary ALA intake modulates the association between FADS1 rs174546 and serum total and non-HDL-cholesterol concentrations at a young age.
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Clustering patterns of physical activity, sedentary and dietary behavior among European adolescents: The HELENA study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2011
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Evidence suggests possible synergetic effects of multiple lifestyle behaviors on health risks like obesity and other health outcomes. A better insight in the clustering of those behaviors, could help to identify groups who are at risk in developing chronic diseases. This study examines the prevalence and clustering of physical activity, sedentary and dietary patterns among European adolescents and investigates if the identified clusters could be characterized by socio-demographic factors.
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Correlation between exposure to phthalates and concentrations of malondialdehyde in infants and children undergoing cyclic parenteral nutrition.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2011
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Plasticizers such as di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are added to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to confer flexibility. However, DEHP is associated with reproductive disorders in humans. Because of its noncovalent bond to the PVC matrix, this plasticizer tends to leach easily. Infants and children undergoing cyclic, long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) could be particularly at risk of potential toxicity from DEHP due to regular exposure. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is one of the most commonly used markers of free radical activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate how long-term exposure to phthalate affects the plasmatic rate of MDA.
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(n-3) long-chain PUFA differentially affect resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection of male and female cftr-/- mice.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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The aim of this study was to determine whether oral supplementation with EPA/DHA (10.5 and 5.1% of fat, respectively) could improve the outcome of pulmonary P. aeruginosa infection in cftr(-/-) mice compared with wild-type (Wt) mice similarly treated. Because gender could influence the susceptibility of cftr-deficient mice, results were analyzed by gender. Wt and (-/-) mice were randomized for 6 wk to consume a control or EPA/DHA diet, infected with endotracheal injection of 5 × 10(7) CFU/mouse of P. aeruginosa, and killed 24 h later. Cftr(-/-) mice were more susceptible to infection than were Wt mice; (-/-) males had more neutrophils (P < 0.01) and a higher keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) level (P < 0.05), and (-/-) females had greater lung injury and mortality (P < 0.05). Female (-/-) mice were more susceptible than (-/-) males with a higher mortality and lung injury (P < 0.05). The EPA/DHA diet reduced neutrophil numbers and KC and IL-6 levels (P < 0.05) in (-/-) males and reduced mortality rate (P < 0.001), lung permeability, and IL-6 level (P < 0.05) in (-/-) females compared with (-/-) mice fed the control diet. These results were associated with a reduction in the pulmonary bacterial load (P < 0.05), an increase in the EPA/DHA concentration in cell membranes of (-/-) males and females (P < 0.01), and an increased weight gain only in males compared with (-/-) mice fed the control diet (P < 0.01). In conclusion, EPA/DHA improves the host resistance of (-/-) mice, although the beneficial effect differed in males and females.
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The effect of ponderal index at birth on the relationships between common LEP and LEPR polymorphisms and adiposity in adolescents.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2011
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This study examined the effect of ponderal index (PI) at birth on the relationships between eight common polymorphisms of the leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes and adiposity in adolescents. A total of 823 European adolescents (45.4% girls) aged 14.8 ± 1.4 years were genotyped for the LEP (rs2167270, rs12706832, rs10244329, rs2071045, and rs3828942) and LEPR (rs1137100, rs1137101, and rs8179183) polymorphisms. The PI was calculated from parental reports of birth weight and length. Fat mass index (FMI) was calculated. Analyses were adjusted for relevant confounders. An "adiposity-risk-allele score" based on genotypes at the three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with adolescents FMI in adolescents within the lower tertile of PI was calculated. The LEP rs10244329 and rs3828942 polymorphisms were associated with higher FMI only in adolescents within the lower PI tertile (+0.55 kg/m(2) per minor T allele, P = 0.040, and +0.58 kg/m(2) per major G allele, P = 0.028, respectively). The LEPR rs8179183 polymorphism was significantly associated with higher FMI in adolescents within the lower PI tertile (+0.87 kg/m(2) per minor C allele, P = 0.006). After correction for multiple comparisons, only the association between the LEPR rs8179183 and FMI persisted. However, each additional risk allele conferred 0.53 kg/m(2) greater FMI in adolescents within the lower tertile of PI (P = 0.008). In conclusion, our results suggest that those adolescents born with lower PI could be more vulnerable to the influence of the LEP rs10244329 and rs3828942 polymorphisms and LEPR rs8179183 polymorphism on total adiposity content. Due to the relatively small sample size, these findings should be replicated in further larger population samples.
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Reliability and validity of a screen time-based sedentary behaviour questionnaire for adolescents: The HELENA study.
Eur J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2011
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Although there is a growing interest in the epidemiology of sedentary behaviours, it is unknown whether sedentary behaviour questionnaires are broad markers of sedentary time. The aims of this study were to determine the: (i) reliability of the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) screen time-based sedentary behaviour questionnaire; and (ii) its validity, i.e. the ability of the questionnaire to correctly rank adolescents according to the objectively measured sedentary time.
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Breakfast habits and factors influencing food choices at breakfast in relation to socio-demographic and family factors among European adolescents. The HELENA Study.
Appetite
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
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Breakfast consumption has been shown to be an important indicator of a healthy lifestyle. Little is known however about factors influencing breakfast consumption and food choices at breakfast in adolescents. The aim of the present study was therefore to describe breakfast habits, and factors influencing food choices at breakfast within the framework of the EU-funded HELENA Study, in 3528 adolescents from ten European cities. Additionally, socio-demographic differences in breakfast habits and in influencing factors were investigated. Half of the adolescents (and fewer girls than boys) indicated being regular breakfast consumers. Girls with mothers with a high level of education, boys from traditional families and boys who perceived low family affluence were positively associated with breakfast consumption. Boys whose parents gave encouragement and girls whose peers ate healthily were more likely to be regular breakfast consumers. Hunger, taste, health concerns and parents or guardian were the most important influences on the adolescents food choices at breakfast. Adolescents from southern Europe and girls reported to be more influenced by personal and socio-environmental factors. Socio-demographic differences, in particular regional and gender differences, need to be considered in discussions surrounding the development of nutritional intervention programs intended for adolescents.
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Comparison of mechanical ventilatory constraints between continuous and intermittent exercises in healthy prepubescent children.
Pediatr. Pulmonol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and severity of mechanical ventilatory constraints in healthy prepubescent children during continuous and intermittent exercise.
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Associations of birth weight with serum long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in adolescents; the HELENA study.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2011
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Nutritional factors in early life may have long-term physiologic effects in humans. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) play important roles in protecting against cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Our aim was to examine the association of birth weight (BW) with serum long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) profile in adolescents.
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Relationship between self-reported dietary intake and physical activity levels among adolescents: the HELENA study.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2011
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Evidence suggests possible synergetic effects of multiple lifestyle behaviors on health risks like obesity and other health outcomes. Therefore it is important to investigate associations between dietary and physical activity behavior, the two most important lifestyle behaviors influencing our energy balance and body composition. The objective of the present study is to describe the relationship between energy, nutrient and food intake and the physical activity level among a large group of European adolescents.
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The extraordinarily complex but highly structured organization of intestinal mucus-gel unveiled in multicolor images.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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The mucus that coats the gastrointestinal tract of all mammals is a dynamic and sticky gel layer and represents the first protective barrier between the host and the hostile environment. There is, however, a lack of detailed knowledge about the mucus gel organization because of the high water content and the complexity of MUC2, the main gel-forming molecule in the intestine. Histological staining and a multilabel immunofluorescence method were used to examine mucus blankets and Muc2 in mouse colon and ileum samples fixed in Carnoys solution, unveiling an extraordinarily complex but highly structured mucus gel organization. The inner firmly adherent mucus blanket consists of alternating layers. The thicker outer loosely adherent mucus blanket in the colon is made of alternating laminated layers and loose curl-like structures. The layers consist of Muc2 molecules with different fucosylation states and glycoforms remain unmixed in the mucus. Importantly, distinct goblet cell subpopulations throughout the ileum along the crypt-to-villus axis with an alternation of goblet cells secreting fucosylated and non-fucosylated Muc2 are observed. A better understanding of the mucus structure should contribute to improve the efficiency of DNA and drug delivery and will allow for a better understanding and treatment of inflammatory and infectious intestinal diseases.
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Natural evolution of weight status in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a retrospective audit.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2011
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The life expectancy of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) has increased. A cross-sectional study of DMD patients showed that 54 % of 13-year-old patients are obese and that 54 % of 18-year-old patients are underweight. We aimed to describe the natural evolution of weight status in DMD. This retrospective multi-centre audit collected body-weight measurements for seventy DMD patients born before 1992. The body-weight:age ratio (W:A) was used to evaluate weight status in reference to the Griffiths and Edwards chart. At the age of 13 years, 73 % were obese and 4 % were underweight. At maximal follow-up (age 15-26 years, mean 18·3 (sd 2·3) years), 47 % were obese and 34 % were underweight. Obesity at the age of 13 years was associated with later obesity, whereas normal weight status and underweight in 13-year-old patients predicted later underweight. A W:A ? 151 % in 13-year-old patients predicted later obesity, and a W:A ? 126·5 % predicted later underweight. Our audit provides the first longitudinal information about the spontaneous outcome of weight status in DMD. Patients (13 years old) with a W:A ? 151 % were more likely to become obese in late adolescence, but obesity prevented later underweight. These data suggest that mild obesity in 13-year-old DMD patients (W:A between 120 and 150 %) should not be discouraged because it prevents later underweight.
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Breastfeeding in infancy is not associated with inflammatory status in healthy adolescents.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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It has been suggested that breast-feeding (BF) may be associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. A low-grade inflammation is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, even in apparently healthy children. The objective of this study was to assess the potential modulating effect of BF on the inflammatory status of healthy adolescents. Information on BF (duration) was obtained from parental records in 484 of 1040 healthy European urban adolescents (56.4% females) that had a blood sample obtained as part of the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition and Adolescence study. Blood serum inflammatory markers were measured, including high sensitivity C-reactive protein, complement factors 3 and 4, ceruloplasmin, adhesion molecules (L-selectin and soluble endothelial selectin, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1), cytokines, TGF?1, and white blood cells. After univariate analysis, a propensity score, including the potential confounding factors, was computed and used to assess the association between BF and selected inflammatory markers. BF was not significantly associated with any of the selected inflammatory markers after adjustment for gender and propensity score. In our study, BF was not associated with low-grade inflammatory status in healthy adolescents, suggesting that the potential cardiovascular benefits of BF are related to other mechanisms than modulation of inflammation or might become relevant at a later age. Groups at high risk for cardiovascular disease should be a target for further research concerning the effects of BF.
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Long-term follow-up of patients on home parenteral nutrition in Europe: implications for intestinal transplantation.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2010
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The indications for intestinal transplantation (ITx) are still debated. Knowing survival rates and causes of death on home parenteral nutrition (HPN) will improve decisions.
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Longer breastfeeding is associated with increased lower body explosive strength during adolescence.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2010
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Our aim in this study was to examine the association between breastfeeding duration and cardiorespiratory fitness, isometric strength, and explosive strength during adolescence. A total of 2567 adolescents (1426 girls) from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) cross-sectional study aged 12.5-17.5 y were included. Information about duration of any and exclusive breastfeeding was obtained retrospectively by means of a parental questionnaire. The 20-m shuttle run, handgrip strength, and standing long jump tests were used to assess physical fitness. Significant differences among the categories of breastfeeding duration were tested using ANCOVA after adjusting for a set of potential confounders: gestational and current age, birth weight, sexual maturation, fat mass, fat-free mass, maternal education, parental weight status, country, smoking behavior, and days of vigorous physical activity. Longer breastfeeding (either any or exclusive) was associated with a higher performance in the standing long jump test in both boys and girls (P < 0.001), regardless of fat mass, fat-free mass, and the rest of potential confounders. In adolescents who were breastfed for 3-5 mo or ?6 mo, the risk of having a standing long jump performance below the 5th percentile was reduced by half compared with those who were never breastfed [odds ratio (OR) = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.30-0.96, P < 0.05; and OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.22-0.74, P < 0.01, respectively). These findings suggest a role of breastfeeding in determining lower body explosive strength during adolescence.
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Is it prudent to add n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to paediatric enteral tube feeding?
Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2010
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Nutritional support, as complete enteral tube feeding, is needed by many paediatric patients and must provide sufficient nutrients for normal growth and development. Enteral feeds contain the parent essential fatty acids, linoleic acid and ?-linolenic acid, but often do not contain n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Available data suggest that biosynthesis of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid from ?-linolenic acid is low in humans and varies between individuals. Long-term enteral feeding with formulae devoid of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid may result in low levels in plasma and tissues, potentially affecting immune and neurological function. Currently there is insufficient evidence to define the quantitative eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid requirements for healthy children, or those with various disease states. Nevertheless, it appears prudent to supply children on long-term enteral nutrition with a dietary source of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. A reasonable approach would be to provide amounts matching intakes of healthy children complying with the advice to consume 1-2 portions of oily fish per week. Further studies are needed to investigate the effects of different amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid and/or docosahexaenoic acid in enteral nutrition on polyunsaturated fatty acid status and the functional and clinical consequences in children.
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Increased intima-media thickness of the carotid artery in childhood: a systematic review of observational studies.
Eur. J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2010
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Increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in adults may be caused by a childhood exposure to cardiovascular risk factors. We systematically reviewed observational studies to determine whether obesity, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), dyslipidemia (DL), hypertension (HT), and chronic renal failure (CRF) are associated with increased cIMT in children and adolescent patients compared with control subjects. We performed a PubMed literature search from January 1986 to February 2010. Two reviewers separately verified the inclusion criteria of relevant studies for the objective of the review. The data extracted in the patient and control groups were sample size, age, gender, cIMT measurement methods, cIMT values, and statistical analysis results. From 348 citations, 65 cross-sectional studies (2 cited twice) with case-control design met the inclusion criteria: 26 in obesity, 14 in IDDM, 11 in DL, 8 in HT, and 8 in CRF. cIMT measurement protocols varied according to the studies, with measurements being performed on the common carotid artery in 65/67 cases and on the far wall in 57/67 cases. From the 67 studies cited, 22/26 reported a significantly increased cIMT in obese children and adolescents compared with the control group, 8/14 in IDDM patients, 10/11 in DL patients, 7/8 in HT patients, and 8/8 in CRF patients. Conclusion: Despite the heterogeneity of ultrasound measurement methods, cIMT was significantly increased in 55 out of the 67 cited studies, confirming early vascular damages in pediatric populations with an increased future risk for vascular diseases.
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Effect of multifibre mixture with prebiotic components on bifidobacteria and stool pH in tube-fed children.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2010
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The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a paediatric tube feed supplemented with a multifibre mixture on the gut microbiota and nutritional and micronutrient status of children on long-term enteral nutrition (EN). A randomised, controlled, double-blind, cross-over trial (2 × 3 months) with a washout period of 1 month was carried out. Twenty-seven children (80% neurologically impaired) aged 11.9 (SD 3.9) years, on long-term EN (4.8 (SD 3.9) years) were recruited. The analyses of the childrens faecal pH, microbiota along with anthropometric measures, bowel movements and markers of blood micronutrient status were made. Twenty children completed the study. A significant increase in the proportion of stool bifidobacteria (+16.6%, P < 0.05) was observed during the multifibre period than during the fibre-free period, together with a significant reduction in stool pH (P < 0.001). Stool frequency and consistency as well as growth did not differ between the two periods. There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in plasma ferritin at the end of the fibre-free period, but plasma ferritin levels remained within normal ranges during both periods. No diet effects on other blood parameters were observed. In conclusion, addition of a multifibre mixture with prebiotic components to paediatric EN is well tolerated, promotes bifidobacteria and reduces stool pH, indicating an improved gut health.
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Anastomotic stricture after surgical repair of esophageal atresia: frequency, risk factors, and efficacy of esophageal bougie dilatations.
J. Pediatr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2010
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and risk factors of postoperative anastomotic stricture, and the efficacy and complications of esophageal bougie dilatations for symptomatic anastomotic stricture in a population of children with esophageal atresia.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.