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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Reduction in Renal Specimen After Laparoscopic Radical Nephrectomy: A Histopathologic Analysis.
J. Endourol.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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Abstract Background and Purpose: There is no consensus on the most appropriate way to extract the kidney after laparoscopy. A previous study evaluated the reduction in total kidney volume and incision size (40%) after perfusion with a 5% hypertonic solution in a porcine model. The purpose of the current study was to compare the histopathologic renal tumor diagnosis before and after this perfusion. Furthermore, fluid drained from the renal vein was analyzed for the presence of neoplastic cells. Materials and Methods: After radical nephrectomy, specimens of 21 cases of renal tumors were studied. A small piece of the tumor was removed and fixed in formaldehyde. After that, 500?mL of a 5% NaCL solution was infused through the renal artery. The first 10?mL drained from the vein was collected and sent for cytologic study. The specimens and the fragment were analyzed. The parameters studied were histologic subtypes, Fuhrman grade, necrosis, and microvascular invasion. Results: Clear-cell renal carcinoma was found in 81% of the cases. Two cases of chromophobic renal carcinoma, one case of papillary tumor, and one case of oncocytoma were found. There were no differences in histologic subtypes, Fuhrman grade, necrosis, and microvascular invasion before and after perfusion in most of the cases. All cytologic analysis of drained liquid from the renal vein was negative for neoplastic cells. Conclusions: Renal perfusion with 5% NaCL solution after laparoscopic radical nephrectomy did not interfere with the histopathologic and cytologic characteristics of the kidney. In addition, all samples from the liquid drained from the renal vein were negative for neoplastic cells. These findings suggest that renal shrinkage with hypertonic saline after laparoscopic radical nephrectomy is feasible and might be useful for patients with kidney cancer. Validation of our results as well as their impact on clinical outcomes is warranted.
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Popliteal lymph node dissection for metastases of cutaneous malignant melanoma.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Popliteal lymph node dissection is performed when grossly metastatic nodal disease is encountered in the popliteal fossa or after microscopic metastasis is found in interval sentinel nodes during clinical staging of cutaneous malignant melanoma. Initially, an S-shaped incision is made to gain access to the popliteal fossa. A careful en bloc removal of fat tissue and lymph nodes is made to preserve and avoid the injury of peroneal and tibial nerves as well as popliteal vessels, following the previous recommendations. This rare surgical procedure was successfully employed in a patient with cutaneous malignant melanoma and nodal metastases at the popliteal fossa. The technique described by Karakousis was reproduced in a step-by-step fashion to allow anatomical identification of the neurovascular structures and radical resection with no post-operative morbidity and prompt recovery. Popliteal lymph node dissection is a rarely performed operative procedure. Following a lymphoscintigraphic examination of the popliteal nodal station, surgeons can be asked to explore the popliteal fossa. Detailed familiarity of the operative procedure is necessary, however, to avoid complications.
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Transition from cyclosporine-induced renal dysfunction to nephrotoxicity in an in vivo rat model.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Cyclosporin A (CsA), a calcineurin inhibitor, remain the cornerstone of immunosuppressive regimens, regardless of nephrotoxicity, which depends on the duration of drug exposure. The mechanisms and biomarkers underlying the transition from CsA-induced renal dysfunction to nephrotoxicity deserve better elucidation, and would help clinical decisions. This study aimed to clarify these issues, using a rat model of short- and long-term CsA (5 mg/kg bw/day) treatments (3 and 9 weeks, respectively). Renal function was assessed on serum and urine; kidney tissue was used for histopathological characterization and gene and/or protein expression of markers of proliferation, fibrosis and inflammation. In the short-term, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels increased and clearances decreased, accompanied by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) reduction, but without kidney lesions; at that stage, CsA exposure induced proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?1), factor nuclear kappa B (NF-??) and Tumor Protein P53 (TP53) kidney mRNA up-regulation. In the long-term treatment, renal dysfunction data was accompanied by glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions, with remarkable kidney mRNA up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the antigen identified by monoclonal antibody Ki-67 (Mki67), accompanied by mTOR protein overexpression. Transition from CsA-induced renal dysfunction to nephrotoxicity is accompanied by modification of molecular mechanisms and biomarkers, being mTOR one of the key players for kidney lesion evolution, thus suggesting, by mean of molecular evidences, that early CsA replacement by mTOR inhibitors is indeed the better therapeutic choice to prevent chronic allograft nephropathy.
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Conversion to sirolimus ameliorates cyclosporine-induced nephropathy in the rat: focus on serum, urine, gene, and protein renal expression biomarkers.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Protocols of conversion from cyclosporin A (CsA) to sirolimus (SRL) have been widely used in immunotherapy after transplantation to prevent CsA-induced nephropathy, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these protocols remain nuclear. This study aimed to identify the molecular pathways and putative biomarkers of CsA-to-SRL conversion in a rat model. Four animal groups (n = 6) were tested during 9 weeks: control, CsA, SRL, and conversion (CsA for 3 weeks followed by SRL for 6 weeks). Classical and emergent serum, urinary, and kidney tissue (gene and protein expression) markers were assessed. Renal lesions were analyzed in hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, and Masson's trichrome stains. SRL-treated rats presented proteinuria and NGAL (serum and urinary) as the best markers of renal impairment. Short CsA treatment presented slight or even absent kidney lesions and TGF-?, NF- ??, mTOR, PCNA, TP53, KIM-1, and CTGF as relevant gene and protein changes. Prolonged CsA exposure aggravated renal damage, without clear changes on the traditional markers, but with changes in serums TGF- ? and IL-7, TBARs clearance, and kidney TGF-? and mTOR. Conversion to SRL prevented CsA-induced renal damage evolution (absent/mild grade lesions), while NGAL (serum versus urine) seems to be a feasible biomarker of CsA replacement to SRL.
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Sitagliptin prevents aggravation of endocrine and exocrine pancreatic damage in the Zucker Diabetic Fatty rat - focus on amelioration of metabolic profile and tissue cytoprotective properties.
Diabetol Metab Syndr
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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The purpose of this study was to investigate some of the possible mechanisms underlying the protective effects of a dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitor, sitagliptin, on pancreatic tissue in an animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rat, focusing on glycaemic, insulinic and lipidic profiles, as well as, on apoptosis, inflammation, angiogenesis and proliferation mediators.
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Sitagliptin prevents inflammation and apoptotic cell death in the kidney of type 2 diabetic animals.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitor, in preventing the deleterious effects of diabetes on the kidney in an animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus; the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat: 20-week-old rats were treated with sitagliptin (10?mg/kg bw/day) during 6 weeks. Glycaemia and blood HbA1c levels were monitored, as well as kidney function and lesions. Kidney mRNA and/or protein content/distribution of DPP-IV, GLP-1, GLP-1R, TNF-?, IL-1?, BAX, Bcl-2, and Bid were evaluated by RT-PCR and/or western blotting/immunohistochemistry. Sitagliptin treatment improved glycaemic control, as reflected by the significantly reduced levels of glycaemia and HbA1c (by about 22.5% and 1.2%, resp.) and ameliorated tubulointerstitial and glomerular lesions. Sitagliptin prevented the diabetes-induced increase in DPP-IV levels and the decrease in GLP-1 levels in kidney. Sitagliptin increased colocalization of GLP-1 and GLP-1R in the diabetic kidney. Sitagliptin also decreased IL-1? and TNF-? levels, as well as, prevented the increase of BAX/Bcl-2 ratio, Bid protein levels, and TUNEL-positive cells which indicates protective effects against inflammation and proapoptotic state in the kidney of diabetic rats, respectively. In conclusion, sitagliptin might have a major role in preventing diabetic nephropathy evolution due to anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic properties.
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Implication of low HDL-c levels in patients with average LDL-c levels: a focus on oxidized LDL, large HDL subpopulation, and adiponectin.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2013
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To evaluate the impact of low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) on patients with LDL-c average levels, focusing on oxidative, lipidic, and inflammatory profiles. Patients with cardiovascular risk factors (n = 169) and control subjects (n = 73) were divided into 2 subgroups, one of normal HDL-c and the other of low HDL-c levels. The following data was analyzed: BP, BMI, waist circumference and serum glucose Total-c, TGs, LDL-c, oxidized LDL, total HDL-c and subpopulations (small, intermediate, and large), paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity, hsCRP, uric acid, TNF- ? , adiponectin, VEGF, and iCAM1. In the control subgroup with low HDL-c levels, significantly higher values of BP and TGs and lower values of PON1 activity and adiponectin were found, versus control normal HDL-c subgroup. However, differences in patients subgroups were clearly more pronounced. Indeed, low HDL-c subgroup presented increased HbA1c, TGs, non-HDL-c, Ox-LDL, hsCRP, VEGF, and small HDL-c and reduced adiponectin and large HDL. In addition, Ox-LDL, large-HDL-c, and adiponectin presented interesting correlations with classical and nonclassical markers, mainly in the normal HDL-c patients subgroup. In conclusion, despite LDL-c average levels, low HDL-c concentrations seem to be associated with a poor cardiometabolic profile in a population with cardiovascular risk factors, which is better evidenced by traditional and nontraditional CV biomarkers, including Ox-LDL, large HDL-c, and adiponectin.
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Omega-3 fatty acids inhibit tumor growth in a rat model of bladder cancer.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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Omega-3 (?-3) fatty acids have been tested on prevention and treatment of several cancer types, but the efficacy on "in vivo" bladder cancer has not been analyzed yet. This study aimed at evaluating the chemopreventive efficacy of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) mixture in an animal model of bladder cancer. Forty-four male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups during a 20-week protocol: control; carcinogen-N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN); ?-3 (DHA + EPA); and ?-3 + BBN. BBN and ?-3 were given during the initial 8 weeks. At week 20 blood and bladder were collected and checked for the presence of urothelium lesions and tumors, markers of inflammation, proliferation, and redox status. Incidence of bladder carcinoma was, control (0%), ?-3 (0%), BBN (65%), and ?-3 + BBN (62.5%). The ?-3 + BBN group had no infiltrative tumors or carcinoma in situ, and tumor volume was significantly reduced compared to the BBN (0.9 ± 0.1?mm(3) versus 112.5 ± 6.4?mm(3)). Also, it showed a reduced MDA/TAS ratio and BBN-induced serum CRP, TGF-?1, and CD31 were prevented. In conclusion, omega-3 fatty acids inhibit the development of premalignant and malignant lesions in a rat model of bladder cancer, which might be due to anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-proliferative, and anti-angiogenic properties.
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New markers of early cardiovascular risk in multiple sclerosis patients: oxidized-LDL correlates with clinical staging.
Dis. Markers
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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This study aimed to characterize a population of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in terms of traditional and new cardiovascular risk factors and assess their putative correlation with clinical disease activity (evaluated by the Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS]).
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Markers of increased cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women: focus on oxidized-LDL and HDL subpopulations.
Dis. Markers
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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To evaluate the effect of gender and menopause in cardiovascular risk (CVR) in a healthy population based on both classical and nontraditional markers.
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Diabetes abrogates sex differences and aggravates cardiometabolic risk in postmenopausal women.
Cardiovasc Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of gender and menopause in cardiometabolic risk in a type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) population, based on classical and non-traditional markers.
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Emergent Biomarkers of Residual Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Low HDL-c and/or High Triglycerides and Average LDL-c Concentrations: Focus on HDL Subpopulations, Oxidized LDL, Adiponectin, and Uric Acid.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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This study intended to determine the impact of HDL-c and/or TGs levels on patients with average LDL-c concentration, focusing on lipidic, oxidative, inflammatory, and angiogenic profiles. Patients with cardiovascular risk factors (n = 169) were divided into 4 subgroups, combining normal and low HDL-c with normal and high TGs patients. The following data was analyzed: BP, BMI, waist circumference and serum glucose, Total-c, TGs, LDL-c, oxidized-LDL, total HDL-c and HDL subpopulations, paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity, hsCRP, uric acid, TNF- ? , adiponectin, VEGF, and iCAM1. The two populations with increased TGs levels, regardless of the normal or low HDL-c, presented obesity and higher waist circumference, Total-c, LDL-c, Ox-LDL, and uric acid. Adiponectin concentration was significantly lower and VEGF was higher in the population with cumulative low values of HDL-c and high values of TGs, while HDL quality was reduced in the populations with impaired values of HDL-c and/or TGs, viewed by reduced large and increased small HDL subfractions. In conclusion, in a population with cardiovascular risk factors, low HDL-c and/or high TGs concentrations seem to be associated with a poor cardiometabolic profile, despite average LDL-c levels. This condition, often called residual risk, is better evidenced by using both traditional and nontraditional CV biomarkers, including large and small HDL subfractions, Ox-LDL, adiponectin, VEGF, and uric acid.
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Differential effects of acute (extenuating) and chronic (training) exercise on inflammation and oxidative stress status in an animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2011
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This study compares the effects of a single bout of exercise (acute extenuating) with those promoted by an exercise training program (chronic), focusing on low-grade chronic inflammation profile and on oxidative stress status, using the obese ZDF rats as a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Animals were sacrificed after 12 weeks of a swimming training program and after a single bout of acute extenuating exercise. Glycaemic, insulinemic, and lipidic profile (triglycerides, total-cholesterol) were evaluated, as well as inflammatory (serum CRPhs, TNF-?, adiponectin) and oxidative (lipidic peroxidation and uric acid) status. When compared to obese diabetic sedentary rats, the animals submitted to acute exercise presented significantly lower values of glycaemia and insulinaemia, with inflammatory profile and oxidative stress significantly aggravated. The trained animals showed amelioration of glycaemic and lipidic dysmetabolism, accompanied by remarkable reduction of inflammatory and oxidative markers. In conclusion, the results presented herein suggessted that exercise pathogenesis-oriented interventions should not exacerbate underlying inflammatory stress associated with T2DM.
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Diabetic nephropathy amelioration by a low-dose sitagliptin in an animal model of type 2 diabetes (Zucker diabetic fatty rat).
Exp Diabetes Res
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
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This study was performed to assess the effect of chronic low-dose sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor, on metabolic profile and on renal lesions aggravation in a rat model of type-2 diabetic nephropathy, the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat. Diabetic and obese ZDF (fa/fa) rats and their controls ZDF (+/+) were treated for 6 weeks with vehicle (control) or sitagliptin (10 mg/kg/bw). Blood/serum glucose, HbA1c, insulin, Total-c, TGs, urea, and creatinine were assessed, as well as kidney glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions (interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy), using a semiquantitative rating from 0 (absent/normal) to 3 (severe and extensive damage). Vascular lesions were scored from 0-2. Sitagliptin in the diabetic rats promoted an amelioration of glycemia, HbA1c, Total-c, and TGs, accompanied by a partial prevention of insulinopenia. Furthermore, together with urea increment prevention, renal lesions were ameliorated in the diabetic rats, including glomerular, tubulointerstitial, and vascular lesions, accompanied by reduced lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, chronic low-dose sitagliptin treatment was able to ameliorate diabetic nephropathy, which might represent a key step forward in the management of T2DM and this serious complication.
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Regular physical exercise training assists in preventing type 2 diabetes development: focus on its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Cardiovasc Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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Diabetes mellitus has emerged as one of the main alarms to human health in the 21st century. Pronounced changes in the human environment, behavior and lifestyle have accompanied globalization, which resulted in escalating rates of both obesity and diabetes, already described as diabesity. This pandemic causes deterioration of life quality with high socio-economic costs, particularly due to premature morbidity and mortality. To avoid late complications of type 2 diabetes and related costs, primary prevention and early treatment are therefore necessary. In this context, effective non-pharmacological measures, such as regular physical activity, are imperative to avoid complications, as well as polymedication, which is associated with serious side-effects and drug-to-drug interactions. Our previous work showed, in an animal model of obese type 2 diabetes, the Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rat, that regular and moderate intensity physical exercise (training) is able, per se, to attenuate insulin resistance and control glycaemia, dyslipidaemia and blood pressure, thus reducing cardiovascular risk, by interfering with the pathophysiological mechanisms at different levels, including oxidative stress and low-grade inflammation, which are key features of diabesity. This paper briefly reviews the wide pathophysiological pathways associated with Type 2 diabetes and then discusses in detail the benefits of training therapy on glycaemic control and on cardiovascular risk profile in Type 2 diabetes, focusing particularly on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Based on the current knowledge, including our own findings using an animal model, it is concluded that regular and moderate intensity physical exercise (training), due to its pleiotropic effects, could replace, or at least reduce, the use of anti-diabetic drugs, as well as of other drugs given for the control of cardiovascular risk factors in obese type 2 diabetic patients, working as a physiological "polypill".
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Recombinant human erythropoietin treatment protects the cardio-renal axis in a model of moderate chronic renal failure.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2010
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients develop anemia because of the low kidney erythropoietin (EPO) production, thus promoting cardiovascular complications. The degree of renal insufficiency might determine the moment to start recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) therapy, but the molecular basis for these options deserves better elucidation. This study aimed to clarify the cardio-renal effects of earlier rhEPO therapy in rats with moderate chronic renal failure (CRF). Four groups of rats were evaluated for 15 weeks (control; rhEPO - 50 IU/kg/week; CRF - 3/4 nephrectomy; CRF + rhEPO) to assess renal and hematology data, EPO levels, blood pressure, heart rate, peripheral catecholamines contents, serum-transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1), kidney gene expression of EPO, Caspase 9 (Casp9), and vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf). This model of moderate CRF showed moderate and corrected anemia, hypertension, tachycardia, sympathetic overactivity, and increased serum TGF-?1 content. The remnant kidney showed a proliferative profile, with hypertrophy, downregulated gene expression of EPO, and upregulated gene expression of Vegf and Casp9. rhEPO treatment promoted erythrocytosis and prevented tachycardia and catecholamines increment, with a rise of serum TGF-?1. Furthermore, the decreased kidney gene expression of EPO and the overexpression of Casp9 were prevented, demonstrating a renoprotective action on the remnant kidney. In conclusion, rhEPO therapy promotes a protective effect on the cardio-renal axis, which might be mainly attributed to its pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic properties. These findings might recommend its use in earlier stages of CRF, acting as an erythropoiesis stimulating agent, to efficiently correct not only the anemia, one of the major complications in these patients, but also the succeeding adverse cardio-renal effects.
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Psoriasis therapy and cardiovascular risk factors: a 12-week follow-up study.
Am J Clin Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2010
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Psoriatic patients present with an increased frequency of cardiovascular events. Objective: To study the impact of psoriasis duration and therapy on traditional and new cardiovascular risk factors.
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Effects of sitagliptin treatment on dysmetabolism, inflammation, and oxidative stress in an animal model of type 2 diabetes (ZDF rat).
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the chronic effect of sitagliptin on metabolic profile, inflammation, and redox status in the Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rat, an animal model of obese type 2 diabetes. Diabetic and obese ZDF (fa/fa) rats and their controls (ZDF +/+) were treated during 6 weeks with vehicle (control) and sitagliptin (10 mg/kg/bw). Glucose, HbA1c, insulin, Total-c, TGs, IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, CRPhs, and adiponectin were assessed in serum and MDA and TAS in serum, pancreas, and heart. Pancreatic histology was also evaluated. Sitagliptin in diabetic rats promoted a decrease in glucose, HbA1c, Total-c, and TGs accompanied by a partial prevention of insulinopenia, together, with a decrease in CRPhs and IL-1beta. Sitagliptin also showed a positive impact on lipid peroxidation and hypertension prevention. In conclusion, chronic sitagliptin treatment corrected the glycaemic dysmetabolism, hypertriglyceridaemia, inflammation, and hypertension, reduced the severity of the histopathological lesions of pancreatic endocrine and exocrine tissues, together with a favourable redox status, which might be a further advantage in the management of diabetes and its proatherogenic comorbidities.
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Erythropoietin promotes deleterious cardiovascular effects and mortality risk in a rat model of chronic sports doping.
Cardiovasc. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2009
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Athletes who abuse recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) consider only the benefit to performance and usually ignore the potential short and long-term liabilities. Elevated haematocrit and dehydratation associated with intense exercise may reveal undetected cardiovascular risk, but the mechanisms underlying it remain to be fully explained. This study aimed to evaluate the cardiovascular effects of rhEPO in rats under chronic aerobic exercise. A ten week protocol was performed in four male Wistar rat groups: control--sedentary; rhEPO--50 IU kg(-1), 3 times/wk; exercised (EX)--swimming for 1 h, 3 times/wk; EX + rhEPO. One rat of the EX + rhEPO group suffered a sudden death episode during the week 8. rhEPO in trained rats promoted erythrocyte count increase, hypertension, heart hypertrophy, sympathetic and serotonergic overactivation. The suddenly died rats tissues presented brain with vascular congestion; left ventricular hypertrophy, together with a "cardiac-liver", suggesting the hypothesis of heart failure as cause of sudden death. In conclusion, rhEPO doping in rats under chronic exercise promotes not only the expected RBC count increment, suggesting hyperviscosity, but also other serious deleterious cardiovascular and thromboembolic modifications, including mortality risk, which might be known and assumed by all sports authorities, including athletes and their physicians.
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Anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and antioxidant profiles of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition as chemoprevention for rat bladder carcinogenesis.
Cancer Biol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2009
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To evaluate the efficacy of a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor in rat bladder cancer chemoprevention, as well as to assess the relevance of inflammation, proliferation and oxidative stress in tumor growth and in its prevention.
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[Topographic modifications of the urethrovesical junction and proximal urethra after combined Marshall-Marchetti-Krantz and Burch surgery].
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2009
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To study the changes in the urethrovesical junction (UVJ) and in the proximal urethra (PU) caused by the Marshall-Marchetti-Krantz-Burch (MMK-B) combined surgery through perineal ultrasonography.
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Tension-free vaginal tape versus lata fascia sling: The importance of transvulvar ultrasound in the assessment of relevant anatomical parameters in treatment of women with stress urinary incontinence.
Indian J Urol
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2009
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To describe the relevance of transvulvar ultrasound in the assessment of anatomical differences induced by the lata fascia sling (LFS) and tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedures.
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Peritonectomy for peritoneal carcinomatosis: long-term outcomes from a single Brazilian institution.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2009
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of a single institution, Hospital Sírio-Libanes in São Paulo, Brazil, regarding the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis.
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Chemopreventive Efficacy of Atorvastatin against Nitrosamine-Induced Rat Bladder Cancer: Antioxidant, Anti-Proliferative and Anti-Inflammatory Properties.
Int J Mol Sci
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To investigate the anti-carcinogenic effects of Atorvastatin (Atorva) on a rat bladder carcinogenesis model with N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxibutil)nitrosamine (BBN), four male Wistar rat groups were studied: (1) Control: vehicle; (2) Atorva: 3 mg/kg bw/day; (3) Carcinogen: BBN (0.05%); (4) Preventive Atorva: 3 mg/kg bw/day Atorva + BBN. A two phase protocol was used, in which the drug and the carcinogen were given between week 1 and 8 and tumor development or chemoprevention were expressed between week 9 and 20, when the bladders were collected for macroscopic, histological and immunohistochemical (p53, ki67, CD31) evaluation. Serum was assessed for markers of inflammation, proliferation and redox status. The incidence of bladder carcinoma was: control 0/8 (0%); Atorva 0/8 (0%); BBN 13/20 (65%) and Atorva + BBN 1/8 (12.5%). The number and volume of tumors were significantly lower in the Atorva + BBN group, with a marked reduction in hyperplasia, dysplasia and carcinoma in situ lesions. An anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant profile was also observed in the preventive Atorva group. p53 and ki67 immunostaining were significantly increased in the BBN-treated rats, which was prevented in the Atorva + BBN group. No differences were found for CD31 expression. In conclusion, Atorvastatin had a clear inhibitory effect on bladder cancer development, probably due to its antioxidant, anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory properties.
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Cardiorenal benefits of early versus late cyclosporine to sirolimus conversion in a rat model.
J Pharmacol Pharmacother
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To compare the cardiorenal effects of early versus late cyclosporine (CsA) to sirolimus (SRL) conversion, using a novel animal model that mimics these protocols used in the clinical practice, and focusing on blood pressure, heart rate (HR), biochemical data and heart and kidney lipid peroxidation.
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