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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Severity of systemic sclerosis-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension in African Americans.
Medicine (Baltimore)
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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African Americans (AA) with systemic sclerosis (SSc) have a worse prognosis compared to Americans of European descent (EA). We conducted the current study to test the hypothesis that AA patients with SSc have more severe disease and poorer outcomes compared to EA patients when afflicted with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We studied 160 consecutive SSc patients with PAH diagnosed by right heart catheterization, comparing demographics, hemodynamics, and outcomes between AA and EA patients. The cohort included 29 AA and 131 EA patients with similar baseline characteristics except for increased prevalence of diffuse SSc in AA. AA patients had worse functional class (FC) (80% FC III-IV vs 53%; p?=?0.02), higher brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) (5729 ± 9730?pg/mL vs 1892 ± 2417?pg/mL; p?=?0.02), more depressed right ventricular function, a trend toward lower 6-minute walk distance (263 ± 111??m vs 333 ± 110??m; p?=?0.07), and worse hemodynamics (cardiac index 1.95 ± 0.58?L/min/m vs 2.62 ± 0.80?L/min/m; pulmonary vascular resistance 10.3 ± 6.2 WU vs 7.6 ± 5.0 WU; p ??0.05). In conclusion, AA patients with SSc-PAH are more likely to have diffuse SSc and to present with significantly more severe PAH compared with EA patients. AA patients also appear to have poorer survival, though larger studies are needed to investigate this association definitively.
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A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial of the ?2C-adrenoceptor antagonist ORM-12741 for prevention of cold-induced vasospasm in patients with systemic sclerosis.
Rheumatology (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Our primary purpose was to evaluate the efficacy of the high-potency ?2C-adrenoceptor antagonist ORM-12741 in the attenuation of a cold-induced reduction in finger blood flow and temperature in patients with RP secondary to SSc. Secondary objectives were to assess safety and tolerability.
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Myopathy in scleroderma, its identification, prevalence, and treatment: lessons learned from cohort studies.
Curr Opin Rheumatol
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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This review discusses the characterization of myopathy in scleroderma with a focus on new developments in imaging, biomarkers, and therapy, and details several current reports and several seminal reports prior to 2012.
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Immunochip analysis identifies multiple susceptibility loci for systemic sclerosis.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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In this study, 1,833 systemic sclerosis (SSc) cases and 3,466 controls were genotyped with the Immunochip array. Classical alleles, amino acid residues, and SNPs across the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region were imputed and tested. These analyses resulted in a model composed of six polymorphic amino acid positions and seven SNPs that explained the observed significant associations in the region. In addition, a replication step comprising 4,017 SSc cases and 5,935 controls was carried out for several selected non-HLA variants, reaching a total of 5,850 cases and 9,401 controls of European ancestry. Following this strategy, we identified and validated three SSc risk loci, including DNASE1L3 at 3p14, the SCHIP1-IL12A locus at 3q25, and ATG5 at 6q21, as well as a suggested association of the TREH-DDX6 locus at 11q23. The associations of several previously reported SSc risk loci were validated and further refined, and the observed peak of association in PXK was related to DNASE1L3. Our study has increased the number of known genetic associations with SSc, provided further insight into the pleiotropic effects of shared autoimmune risk factors, and highlighted the power of dense mapping for detecting previously overlooked susceptibility loci.
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Association of the Autoimmune Disease Scleroderma with an Immunologic Response to Cancer.
Science
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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Autoimmune diseases are thought to be initiated by exposures to foreign antigens that cross-react with endogenous molecules. Scleroderma is an autoimmune connective tissue disease in which patients make antibodies to a limited group of autoantigens, including RPC1, encoded by the POLR3A gene. As patients with scleroderma and antibodies against RPC1 are at elevated risk for cancer, we hypothesized that the "foreign" antigens in this autoimmune disease are encoded by somatically mutated genes in the patients incipient cancers. Studying cancers from scleroderma patients, we found genetic alterations of the POLR3A locus in six of eight patients with antibodies to RPC1 but not in eight patients without antibodies to RPC1. Analyses of peripheral blood lymphocytes and serum suggested that POLR3A mutations sparked cellular immunity and cross-reactive humoral immune responses. These results offer insight into the pathogenesis of scleroderma and provide support for the idea that acquired immunity helps control naturally occurring cancers.
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Novel investigational agents for the treatment of scleroderma.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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Introduction: The purpose of this article is to highlight novel therapies that are being used in scleroderma (SSc). Therapeutic interventions in SSc generally target at least one of three ongoing biological processes characteristic of the disease: vasculopathy, autoimmunity and tissue fibrosis. Treatment decisions in SSc are determined by the level of disease activity and the degree of specific organ involvement. Traditional therapy has primarily focused on organ-specific management without clear evidence of overall disease modification. Areas covered: The authors provide a review of a variety of agents, which are already used for other autoimmune diseases, that are now being used to treat active SSc skin or lung disease, including rituximab, tocilizumab and IVIG. Several agents studied in vitro and in animal models of fibrosis have shown promise, including bortezomib, LPA-1 antagonists, anti-CCN2 therapy, anti-IL-13 and thrombin antagonists. The authors also provide details on targeting intracellular molecular pathways and matricellular proteins, which is another novel area of investigation. Expert opinion: Combination therapy may be necessary to control the complex biological network active in SSc. Most of the current evidence that suggest benefit of these agents is based on small population studies. Ultimately well-designed clinical trials are required to define the role of these agents in treating SSc.
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Right ventricular dysfunction in systemic sclerosis-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Circ Heart Fail
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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Systemic sclerosis–associated pulmonary artery hypertension (SScPAH) has a worse prognosis compared with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), with a median survival of 3 years after diagnosis often caused by right ventricular (RV) failure. We tested whether SScPAH or systemic sclerosis–related pulmonary hypertension with interstitial lung disease imposes a greater pulmonary vascular load than IPAH and leads to worse RV contractile function.
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Race and association with disease manifestations and mortality in scleroderma: a 20-year experience at the Johns Hopkins Scleroderma Center and review of the literature.
Medicine (Baltimore)
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Experience suggests that African Americans may express autoimmune disease differently than other racial groups. In the context of systemic sclerosis (scleroderma), we sought to determine whether race was related to a more adverse expression of disease. Between January 1, 1990, and December 31, 2009, a total of 409 African American and 1808 white patients with scleroderma were evaluated at a single university medical center. While the distribution by sex was virtually identical in both groups, at 82% female, African American patients presented to the center at a younger mean age than white patients (47 vs. 53 yr; p < 0.001). Two-thirds of white patients manifested the limited cutaneous subset of disease, whereas the majority of African American patients manifested the diffuse cutaneous subset (p < 0.001). The proportion seropositive for anticentromere antibody was nearly 3-fold greater among white patients, at 34%, compared to African American patients (12%; p < 0.001). Nearly a third of African American (31%) patients had autoantibodies to topoisomerase, compared to 19% of white patients (p = 0.001). Notably, African American patients experienced an increase in prevalence of cardiac (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-2.2), renal (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.1), digital ischemia (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.4-2.2), muscle (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3-2.3), and restrictive lung (OR, 6.9; 95% CI, 5.1-9.4) disease. Overall, 700 (32%) patients died (159 African American; 541 white). The cumulative incidence of mortality at 10 years was 43% among African American patients compared to 35% among white patients (log-rank p = 0.0011). Compared to white patients, African American patients experienced an 80% increase in risk of mortality (relative risk [RR], 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4-2.2), after adjustment for age at disease onset and disease duration. Further adjustment by sex, disease subtype, and scleroderma-specific autoantibody status, and for the socioeconomic measures of educational attainment and health insurance status, diminished these risk estimates (RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.6). The heightened risk of mortality persisted in strata defined by age at disease onset, diffuse cutaneous disease, anticentromere seropositivity, decade of care at the center, and among women. These findings support the notion that race is related to a distinct phenotypic profile in scleroderma, and a more unfavorable prognosis among African Americans, warranting heightened diagnostic evaluation and vigilant care of these patients. Further, we provide a chronologic review of the literature regarding race, organ system involvement, and mortality in scleroderma; we furnish synopses of relevant reports, and summarize findings.
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The degree of skin involvement identifies distinct lung disease outcomes and survival in systemic sclerosis.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the pattern of skin involvement can predict clinical features, risk of restrictive lung disease (RLD) and survival in a large scleroderma (SSc) cohort. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data collected over 30 years from 2205 patients with SSc were retrospectively analysed after subdividing subjects into four subtypes based on pattern of skin fibrosis: type 0 (no skin involvement), type 1 (limited to metacarpophalangeal joints), type 2 (distal to elbows/knees) and type 3 (proximal to elbows/knees). Clinical features associated with skin subsets were identified by regression analyses. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare time to RLD and survival across subtypes. RESULTS: The presence and severity of RLD were positively associated with skin subtype (p<0.001). RLD prevalence incrementally ranged from 51.9% in type 0 to 76.7% in type 3 (p<0.001). Type 2 SSc exhibited a distinct phenotype with intermediate risk for RLD relative to type 1 (higher, p<0.001) and type 3 (lower, p<0.001) and a unique autoantibody profile, with a prevalence of anticentromere antibodies lower than type 1 (28.9% vs 44.1%, p=0.001) and of anti-topoisomerase I antibodies similar to type 3 (32.8% vs 28.7%, p=0.38). These autoantibodies were also found to be significant negative (OR=0.33, p<0.001) and positive (OR=1.6, p=0.01) predictors of RLD risk, respectively. Mortality was also intermediate in type 2 patients relative to type 3 (p=0.0003) and type 1 (p=0.066). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the current classification subdividing SSc into limited and diffuse cutaneous subtypes misclassifies an intermediate group of patients exhibiting unique autoantibody profile, disease course and clinical outcomes.
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Open label study of escalating doses of oral treprostinil diethanolamine in patients with systemic sclerosis and digital ischemia: pharmacokinetics and correlation with digital perfusion.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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INTRODUCTION: Treprostinil diethanolamine is an innovative salt form of the prostacyclin analogue, treprostinil sodium, developed as an oral sustained release (SR) osmotic tablet. The availability of a formulation permitting convenient systemic delivery might have applicability to scleroderma vascular complications. We evaluated pharmacokinetics and perfusion in scleroderma patients with digital ischemia following escalating twice-daily doses of treprostinil diethanolamine SR. METHODS: In this dual-center, open-label, phase I pharmacokinetic study, scleroderma patients with digital ulcers were enrolled. Drug concentrations and perfusion, quantified by laser Doppler imaging, were measured over 12 hours at the 2mg and 4mg (or maximally tolerated) doses. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from individual plasma concentration versus time profiles using non-compartmental analysis methods. Digital perfusion and skin temperature were modeled as a function of log-transformed drug concentration and other covariates by performing repeated measures analyses using random effects models. RESULTS: Nineteen scleroderma patients (84% female, 53% limited scleroderma) received treprostinil diethanolamine SR with dose titration up to 4mg twice daily as tolerated. Peak concentrations (mean maximum plasma concentration [Cmax] = 1176 and 2107 pg/mL) occurred approximately 3.6 hours after dose administration, and overall exposure (under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to 12 hours post dose [AUC0-12] = 7187 and 12992 hr*pg/mL) was linear between the 2mg and 4mg doses. Perfusion and digital skin temperature were positively associated with log-transformed plasma concentration at the 4mg dose (p=0.015 and p=0.013, respectively). The most frequent adverse events were similar to those seen with prostacyclin analogues. CONCLUSIONS: Oral treprostinil diethanolamine was effectively absorbed in patients with scleroderma. Drug administration was temporally associated with improved cutaneous perfusion and temperature. Treprostinil diethanolamine may provide a new therapeutic option for Raynauds phenomenon and the peripheral vascular disease of scleroderma. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00848939.
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Integrin-modulating therapy prevents fibrosis and autoimmunity in mouse models of scleroderma.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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In systemic sclerosis (SSc), a common and aetiologically mysterious form of scleroderma (defined as pathological fibrosis of the skin), previously healthy adults acquire fibrosis of the skin and viscera in association with autoantibodies. Familial recurrence is extremely rare and causal genes have not been identified. Although the onset of fibrosis in SSc typically correlates with the production of autoantibodies, whether they contribute to disease pathogenesis or simply serve as a marker of disease remains controversial and the mechanism for their induction is largely unknown. The study of SSc is hindered by a lack of animal models that recapitulate the aetiology of this complex disease. To gain a foothold in the pathogenesis of pathological skin fibrosis, we studied stiff skin syndrome (SSS), a rare but tractable Mendelian disorder leading to childhood onset of diffuse skin fibrosis with autosomal dominant inheritance and complete penetrance. We showed previously that SSS is caused by heterozygous missense mutations in the gene (FBN1) encoding fibrillin-1, the main constituent of extracellular microfibrils. SSS mutations all localize to the only domain in fibrillin-1 that harbours an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif needed to mediate cell-matrix interactions by binding to cell-surface integrins. Here we show that mouse lines harbouring analogous amino acid substitutions in fibrillin-1 recapitulate aggressive skin fibrosis that is prevented by integrin-modulating therapies and reversed by antagonism of the pro-fibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?). Mutant mice show skin infiltration of pro-inflammatory immune cells including plasmacytoid dendritic cells, T helper cells and plasma cells, and also autoantibody production; these findings are normalized by integrin-modulating therapies or TGF-? antagonism. These results show that alterations in cell-matrix interactions are sufficient to initiate and sustain inflammatory and pro-fibrotic programmes and highlight new therapeutic strategies.
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My approach to the treatment of scleroderma.
Mayo Clin. Proc.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) is unique among the rheumatic diseases because it presents the challenge of managing a chronic multisystem autoimmune disease with a widespread obliterative vasculopathy of small arteries that is associated with varying degrees of tissue fibrosis. The hallmark of scleroderma is clinical heterogeneity with subsets that vary in the degree of disease expression, organ involvement, and ultimate prognosis. Thus, the term scleroderma is used to describe patients who have common manifestations that link them together, whereas a highly variable clinical course exists that spans from mild and subtle findings to aggressive, life-threatening multisystem disease. The physician needs to carefully characterize each patient to understand the specific manifestations and level of disease activity to decide appropriate treatment. This is particularly important in treating a patient with scleroderma because there is no treatment that has been proven to modify the overall disease course, although therapy that targets specific organ involvement early before irreversible damage occurs improves both quality of life and survival. This review describes our approach as defined by evidence, expert opinion, and our experience treating patients. Scleroderma is a multisystem disease with variable expression; thus, any treatment plan must be holistic, yet at the same time focus on the dominant organ disease. The goal of therapy is to improve quality of life by minimizing specific organ involvement and subsequent life-threatening disease. At the same time the many factors that alter daily function need to be addressed, including nutrition, pain, deconditioning, musculoskeletal disuse, comorbid conditions, and the emotional aspects of the disease, such as fear, depression, and the social withdrawal caused by disfigurement.
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Late-age onset systemic sclerosis.
J. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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Although patients who develop systemic sclerosis (SSc) later in life (? 65 yrs) may express the entire clinical spectrum of disease, we hypothesize that patients with late-age onset SSc incur a different risk for specific organ manifestations of disease compared to those with early-age onset SSc.
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Long-term experience of mycophenolate mofetil for treatment of diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2011
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Immunosuppressive therapy may potentially alter the natural disease course of scleroderma. There have been reports of using mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) for the treatment of scleroderma skin disease.
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High-dose cyclophosphamide without stem cell rescue in 207 patients with aplastic anemia and other autoimmune diseases.
Medicine (Baltimore)
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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High-dose cyclophosphamide has long been used as an anticancer agent, a conditioning regimen for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and a potent immunosuppressive agent in autoimmune diseases including aplastic anemia. High-dose cyclophosphamide is highly toxic to lymphocytes but spares hematopoietic stem cells because of their abundant levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase, the major mechanism of cyclophosphamide inactivation. High-dose cyclophosphamide therapy induces durable remissions in most patients with acquired aplastic anemia. Moreover, high-dose cyclophosphamide without hematopoietic stem cell rescue has shown activity in a variety of other severe autoimmune diseases. Here we review the history of cyclophosphamide as it applies to aplastic anemia and other autoimmune diseases. We include historical data from early patients treated for aplastic anemia as well as data from 140 patients from an observational retrospective study in a single tertiary care hospital. This latter component was designed to assess the safety and efficacy of high-dose cyclophosphamide therapy without stem cell rescue in patients with refractory autoimmune diseases. We analyzed the 140 patients with severe, progressive autoimmune diseases treated. All patients discussed here received cyclophosphamide, 50 mg/kg per day for 4 consecutive days. Response, relapse, and overall survival were measured. Response was defined as a decrease in disease activity in conjunction with a decrease or elimination of immune-modulating drugs. Relapse was defined as worsening disease activity and/or a requirement for an increase in dose of, or administration of new, immunosuppressive medications. Hematologic recovery occurred in all patients. The overall response rate was 94%, and 44% of those patients remained progression free with a median follow-up of 36 months (range, 1-120 mo) for the 140 patients analyzed together. The overall actuarial and event-free survival across all diseases at 60 months was 90.7% and 20.6%, respectively. High-dose cyclophosphamide without stem cell rescue is well tolerated and induces a high rate of remission in severe autoimmune diseases.
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The association of body image dissatisfaction and pain with reduced sexual function in women with systemic sclerosis.
Rheumatology (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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Pain and body image distress are common among women with SSc, but their relative associations with reduced sexual function have not been assessed. The objective of this study was to assess the independent associations of pain and body image distress with reduced sexual function in women with SSc.
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Long term effects of cyclophosphamide treatment on lung function and survival in scleroderma patients with interstitial lung disease.
Open Rheumatol J
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2011
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Scleroderma (SSc) patients with active interstitial lung disease (ILD) experience a decline in lung function and increased mortality; cyclophosphamide (CYC) therapy may stabilize lung function at one and two years follow-up. Long-term lung function and survival outcomes of SSc patients with ILD following CYC treatment remain largely unknown.
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Bosentan treatment of digital ulcers related to systemic sclerosis: results from the RAPIDS-2 randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2010
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Ischaemic digital ulcers (DUs) are common in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and are a cause of disease-related morbidity. In an earlier trial, treatment with bosentan, an oral endothelin receptor antagonist, reduced the occurrence of new DUs by 48%. The present study (RAPIDS-2, for RAndomized, double-blind, Placebo-controlled study with bosentan on healing and prevention of Ischemic Digital ulcers in patients with systemic Sclerosis) was conducted to more fully evaluate the effects of bosentan treatment on DUs associated with SSc.
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Close temporal relationship between onset of cancer and scleroderma in patients with RNA polymerase I/III antibodies.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2010
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This study was undertaken to examine the temporal relationship between scleroderma development and malignancy, and to evaluate whether this differs by autoantibody status among affected patients.
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Hemodynamic predictors of survival in scleroderma-related pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2010
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Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) related to systemic sclerosis (SSc) has a poorer prognosis compared with other forms of PAH for reasons that remain unexplained. Objectives: To identify risk factors of mortality in a well-characterized cohort of patients with PAH related to systemic sclerosis (SSc-PAH).
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Development and validation of the brief-satisfaction with appearance scale for systemic sclerosis.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken)
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2010
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Body image concerns are understudied in systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma). The objective was to develop and cross-validate a brief version of the Satisfaction with Appearance Scale (SWAP) in order to reduce item redundancy, increase SSc relevancy, and improve the feasibility of body image assessment in SSc.
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Genome-wide association study of systemic sclerosis identifies CD247 as a new susceptibility locus.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2010
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Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease characterized by fibrosis of the skin and internal organs that leads to profound disability and premature death. To identify new SSc susceptibility loci, we conducted the first genome-wide association study in a population of European ancestry including a total of 2,296 individuals with SSc and 5,171 controls. Analysis of 279,621 autosomal SNPs followed by replication testing in an independent case-control set of European ancestry (2,753 individuals with SSc (cases) and 4,569 controls) identified a new susceptibility locus for systemic sclerosis at CD247 (1q22-23, rs2056626, P = 2.09 x 10(-7) in the discovery samples, P = 3.39 x 10(-9) in the combined analysis). Additionally, we confirm and firmly establish the role of the MHC (P = 2.31 x 10(-18)), IRF5 (P = 1.86 x 10(-13)) and STAT4 (P = 3.37 x 10(-9)) gene regions as SSc genetic risk factors.
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Telangiectases in scleroderma: a potential clinical marker of pulmonary arterial hypertension.
J. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2009
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Clinical markers are needed to identify scleroderma patients at risk for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) since early therapy may improve survival. We investigated whether increased numbers of telangiectases in scleroderma associate with measures of pulmonary vascular disease.
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Longterm survival among patients with scleroderma-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension treated with intravenous epoprostenol.
J. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2009
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Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains challenging to treat, especially in association with scleroderma. We examined survival rates among patients with PAH in association with scleroderma who received epoprostenol (Flolan) through continuous intravenous (i.v.) infusion in an uncontrolled open-label 3-year extension study following an initial randomized, controlled 12-week study.
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Resolution of pansclerotic morphea after treatment with antithymocyte globulin.
Nat Rev Rheumatol
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2009
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A previously healthy 50-year-old man presented with thickening and hardening of the skin on his trunk, neck and upper extremities that had started after the appearance of a 5 cm web-like patch of blood vessels on his upper chest and progressed over 4 months. He also reported difficulties with swallowing and a 20 kg weight loss.
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Independent association of anti-beta(2)-glycoprotein I antibodies with macrovascular disease and mortality in scleroderma patients.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2009
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Systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma) is characterized by a unique widespread vascular involvement that can lead to severe digital ischemia, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), or other organ dysfunction. Microthrombotic events and procoagulation factors such as anti-beta2-glycoprotein I (anti-beta2GPI) or anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) may be implicated in the development of these manifestations. This study was undertaken to investigate whether anti-beta2GPI and aCL are correlated with macrovascular disease, including ischemic digital loss and PAH, in SSc patients.
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Vascular disease in scleroderma.
Clin Rev Allergy Immunol
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2009
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Although scleroderma is generally considered a fibrosing disease of the tissues, it is now recognized that the underlying vascular disease is playing a fundamental role in its pathogenesis and associated tissue injury. The exact mechanism for the widespread scleroderma vascular disease is still unknown, but endothelial cell injury induced by infection, immune-mediated cytotoxicity, antiendothelial antibodies, and/or ischemia-reperfusion have all been implicated. The downstream effects of blood vessel perturbation produce "biomarkers" of vascular damage that reflect disease and may predict clinical outcomes. A complex interaction between endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, extracellular matrix, and intravascular circulating factors is now recognized to contribute to the vascular reactivity, remodeling, and occlusive disease of scleroderma. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these processes provides rationale of novel therapeutic strategies and specific targeted therapy. This review will outline some of the evidence for the causes and consequences of scleroderma vascular disease.
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Recombinant human relaxin in the treatment of systemic sclerosis with diffuse cutaneous involvement: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2009
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A phase II randomized controlled trial of recombinant human relaxin suggested that a dosage of 25 microg/kg/day was safe and clinically effective in improving skin disease and reducing functional disability in scleroderma (systemic sclerosis; SSc). We undertook a large randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to compare placebo with 10 microg/kg/day and 25 microg/kg/day recombinant human relaxin, given for 24 weeks in patients with stable, diffuse, moderate-to-severe SSc.
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Lack of detection of agonist activity by antibodies to platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha in a subset of normal and systemic sclerosis patient sera.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2009
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To investigate whether agonist anti-platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (anti-PDGFRalpha) antibodies are present in the serum of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma).
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MQX-503, a novel formulation of nitroglycerin, improves the severity of Raynauds phenomenon: a randomized, controlled trial.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2009
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Raynauds phenomenon (RP) affects 3-9% of the general population and >90% of patients with systemic sclerosis. Nitrates are often prescribed for the treatment of RP, but currently available formulations are limited by side effects, particularly headaches, dizziness, and skin irritation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of a novel formulation of topical nitroglycerin, MQX-503, in the treatment of RP in an ambulatory setting.
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Abnormalities in the regulators of angiogenesis in patients with scleroderma.
J. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2009
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To determine plasma levels of regulators of angiogenesis in patients with scleroderma and to correlate those levels with manifestations of scleroderma-related vascular disease.
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Survival in pulmonary hypertension associated with the scleroderma spectrum of diseases: impact of interstitial lung disease.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2009
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Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an important cause of mortality in systemic sclerosis (SSc), where it can be isolated (pulmonary arterial hypertension [PAH]) or associated with interstitial lung disease (ILD). This study was undertaken to characterize determinants of survival among SSc patients with either type of PH who received PAH-specific therapy.
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Diffuse fasciitis with eosinophilia developing after local irradiation for breast cancer.
Clin. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2009
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This case describes a patient who developed diffuse fasciitis with eosinophilia (DFE) after an exaggerated local response to radiation following excision of a lymph node-negative breast cancer. Our patients fasciitis was diffuse, involving both upper and lower extremities and the trunk at sites distant from the irradiation and tumor site. The fasciitis progressed after curative excision of the breast cancer rather than concurrently with active breast cancer and persisted despite therapy; there was no tumor reoccurrence. With three published cases linking localized eosinophilic fasciitis with breast cancer, and with the literature suggesting that DFE commonly presents after a traumatic trigger, the possibility that radiation therapy for breast cancer could be one such trigger is an important insight for clinicians treating the many patients who undergo breast cancer treatment each year.
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A multi-centre, blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled, laboratory-based study of MQX-503, a novel topical gel formulation of nitroglycerine, in patients with Raynaud phenomenon.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
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MQX-503 is a novel nitroglycerine preparation designed to absorb quickly and allow local vasodilatation in the skin. We examined the efficacy and tolerability of this medication in Raynaud phenomenon (RP) in a laboratory-based study.
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Changes in estimated right ventricular systolic pressure predict mortality and pulmonary hypertension in a cohort of scleroderma patients.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
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Annual echocardiography screening is widely used in scleroderma, but the utility of longitudinal assessment is unknown. We evaluated whether change in right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) was a risk factor for mortality and development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in a cohort of scleroderma patients.
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IRF5 polymorphism predicts prognosis in patients with systemic sclerosis.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
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The first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of systemic sclerosis (SSc) demonstrated three non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) susceptibility loci. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of these gene variants on survival and severity of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in SSc.
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Efficacy of Rho kinase inhibitor fasudil in secondary Raynauds phenomenon.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken)
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The RhoA/Rho kinase pathway plays a pivotal role in cold-induced vasoconstriction, vascular smooth muscle cells function, and vascular homeostasis. This study evaluates the efficacy of fasudil, a RhoA/Rho kinase inhibitor, to reverse cold-induced vasospasm in patients with Raynauds phenomenon (RP) secondary to systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma).
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.