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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The direct electrophilic cyanation of ?-keto esters and amides with cyano benziodoxole.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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The direct electrophilic ?-cyanation of ?-keto esters and amides has been developed using a hypervalent iodine benziodoxole-derived cyano reagent. The procedure is accomplished within 10 min and without the use of any catalyst in DMF, at room temperature. Thus, the highly functionalized quaternary carbon-centered nitriles were produced in high to excellent yields.
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Effect of deoxycholic acid on Ca(2+) movement, cell viability and apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells.
Toxicol. Mech. Methods
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Abstract Deoxycholic acid (DOA) is one of the secondary bile acids used as a mild detergent for the isolation of membrane associated proteins. This study examined whether the secondary bile acid, DOA, altered Ca(2+) movement, cell viability and apoptosis in SCM1 human gastric cancer cells. The Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent dye fura-2 was used to measure [Ca(2+)]i. DOA evoked [Ca(2+)]i rises concentration-dependently. The response was reduced by removing extracellular Ca(2+). DOA-evoked Ca(2+) entry was inhibited by store-operated Ca(2+) channel inhibitors (nifedipine, econazole and SKF96365), the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13 acetate (PMA) and the PKC inhibitor GF109203X. In Ca(2+)-free medium, treatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump inhibitor thapsigargin (TG) abolished DOA-evoked [Ca(2+)]i rises. Conversely, treatment with DOA abolished TG-evoked [Ca(2+)]i rises. Inhibition of phospholipase C with U73122 abolished DOA-evoked [Ca(2+)]i rises. At 100-500 ?M, DOA decreased cell viability, which was not changed by chelating cytosolic Ca(2+) with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA/AM). DOA between 100 ?M and 300 ?M also induced apoptosis. Collectively, in SCM1 cells, DOA induced [Ca(2+)]i rises by evoking phospholipase C-dependent Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca(2+) entry via store-operated Ca(2+) channels. DOA also caused Ca(2+)-independent apoptosis.
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Nonsensory target-dependent organization of piriform cortex.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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The piriform cortex (PCX) is the largest component of the olfactory cortex and is hypothesized to be the locus of odor object formation. The distributed odorant representation found in PCX contrasts sharply with the topographical representation seen in other primary sensory cortices, making it difficult to test this view. Recent work in PCX has focused on functional characteristics of these distributed afferent and association fiber systems. However, information regarding the efferent projections of PCX and how those may be involved in odor representation and object recognition has been largely ignored. To investigate this aspect of PCX, we have used the efferent pathway from mouse PCX to the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Using double fluorescent retrograde tracing, we identified the output neurons (OPNs) of the PCX that project to two subdivisions of the OFC, the agranular insula and the lateral orbitofrontal cortex (AI-OPNs and LO-OPNs, respectively). We found that both AI-OPNs and LO-OPNs showed a distinct spatial topography within the PCX and fewer than 10% projected to both the AI and the LO as judged by double-labeling. These data revealed that the efferent component of the PCX may be topographically organized. Further, these data suggest a model for functional organization of the PCX in which the OPNs are grouped into parallel output circuits that provide olfactory information to different higher centers. The distributed afferent input from the olfactory bulb and the local PCX association circuits would then ensure a complete olfactory representation, pattern recognition capability, and neuroplasticity in each efferent circuit.
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Evaluation of the Therapeutic and Diagnostic Effects of PEGylated Liposome-Embedded 188Re on Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Using an Orthotopic Small-Animal Model.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2014
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Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a highly morbid and mortal cancer type that is difficult to eradicate using conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Little is known about whether radionuclide-based pharmaceuticals can be used for treating NSCLC. Here we embedded the therapeutic radionuclide (188)Re in PEGylated (PEG is polyethylene glycol) liposomes and investigated the biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and therapeutic efficacy of this nanoradiopharmaceutical on NSCLC using a xenograft lung tumor model and the reporter gene imaging techniques.
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[Profile nutrient distribution and sedimentary characteristics in typical marshes of Sanjiang Plain].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Profile distribution characteristics of organic carbon (C), total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P) and total sulfur (S) were studied in two typical marshes including Carex lasiocarpa marsh and Phragmites australis marsh in the Sanjiang Plain. Sedimentary characteristics of typical mashes were analyzed. The results showed that vertically these soil chemical elements also varied, showing obvious stratification and enrichment. In a soil profile, soil organic C under both vegetation communities gradually decreased; soil total N first increased and then decreased under both; total P under Carex lasiocarpa first decreased and then increased, whereas it decreased with the increasing depth under Carex lasiocarpa; total S was reduced with increasing depth under both marshes. Total N, total P and total S were all strongly correlated with soil organic C (P < 0.01); soil organic C was strongly correlated with bulk density (P < 0.01). Our study also illustrated that the vegetation types had different influences for organic C, total N, total P and total S of the marsh profiles. Environmental 137Cs and 210Pb dating techniques were applied to determine recent sedimentation rates, and the constant rate of supply (CRS) was applied to deduce the age of sediment core, and the results showed that the mean sedimentation rate was 0.33 cm x a(-1), and the sedimentation fluxes ranged 0.03-0.48 g x (cm2 x a)(-1) [Mean = 0.29 g x (cm2 x a) -1].
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A Healthy Lifestyle Index Is Associated With Reduced Risk of Colorectal Adenomatous Polyps Among Non-Users of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs.
J Prim Prev
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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In a Columbia, South Carolina-based case-control study, we developed a healthy lifestyle index from five modifiable lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, diet, and body mass index), and examined the association between this lifestyle index and the risk of colorectal adenomatous polyps (adenoma). Participants were recruited from a local endoscopy center and completed questionnaires related to lifestyle behaviors prior to colonoscopy. We scored responses on each of five lifestyle factors as unhealthy (0 point) or healthy (1 point) based on current evidence and recommendations. We added the five scores to produce a combined lifestyle index for each participant ranging from 0 (least healthy) to 5 (healthiest), which was dichotomized into unhealthy (0-2) and healthy (3-5) lifestyle scores. We used logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for adenoma with adjustment for multiple covariates. We identified 47 adenoma cases and 91 controls. In the main analyses, there was a statistically nonsignificant inverse association between the dichotomous (OR 0.54; 95 % CI 0.22, 1.29) and continuous (OR 0.75; 95 % CI 0.51, 1.10) lifestyle index and adenoma. Odds of adenoma were significantly modified by the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (p interaction = 0.04). For participants who reported no use of NSAIDs, those in the healthy lifestyle category had a 72 % lower odds of adenoma as compared to those in the unhealthy category (OR 0.28; 95 % CI 0.08, 0.98), whereas a one-unit increase in the index significantly reduced odds of adenoma by 53 % (OR 0.47; 95 % CI 0.26, 0.88). Although these findings should be interpreted cautiously given our small sample size, our results suggest that higher scores from this index are associated with reduced odds of adenomas, especially in non-users of NSAIDs. Lifestyle interventions are required to test this approach as a strategy to prevent colorectal adenomatous polyps.
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Monitoring Tumor Response After Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Treatment Using 3'-Deoxy-3'-[(18)F]-fluorothymidine PET.
Mol Imaging Biol
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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This study employed 3'-deoxy-3'-[(18)F]-fluorothymidine ([(18)F]FLT) microPET scanning to assess the treatment response of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), e.g., N1-hydroxy-N8-phenyloctanediamide (SAHA) and its iodinated derivative ISAHA, in a hepatoma mouse model.
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The systemic immune response to trauma: an overview of pathophysiology and treatment.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Improvements in the control of haemorrhage after trauma have resulted in the survival of many people who would otherwise have died from the initial loss of blood. However, the danger is not over once bleeding has been arrested and blood pressure restored. Two-thirds of patients who die following major trauma now do so as a result of causes other than exsanguination. Trauma evokes a systemic reaction that includes an acute, non-specific, immune response associated, paradoxically, with reduced resistance to infection. The result is damage to multiple organs caused by the initial cascade of inflammation aggravated by subsequent sepsis to which the body has become susceptible. This Series examines the biological mechanisms and clinical implications of the cascade of events caused by large-scale trauma that leads to multiorgan failure and death, despite the stemming of blood loss. Furthermore, the stark and robust epidemiological finding--namely, that age has a profound influence on the chances of surviving trauma irrespective of the nature and severity of the injury--will be explored. Advances in our understanding of the inflammatory response to trauma, the impact of ageing on this response, and how this information has led to new and emerging treatments aimed at combating immune dysregulation and reduced immunity after injury will also be discussed.
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13-acetoxysarcocrassolide induces apoptosis on human gastric carcinoma cells through mitochondria-related apoptotic pathways: p38/JNK activation and PI3K/AKT suppression.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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13-acetoxysarcocrassolide (13-AC), an active compound isolated from cultured Formosa soft coral Sarcophyton crassocaule, was found to possess anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities against AGS (human gastric adenocarcinoma cells) gastric carcinoma cells. The anti-tumor effects of 13-AC were determined by MTT assay, colony formation assessment, cell wound-healing assay, TUNEL/4,6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide (PI) staining and flow cytometry. 13-AC inhibited the growth and migration of gastric carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner and induced both early and late apoptosis as assessed by flow cytometer analysis. 13-AC-induced apoptosis was confirmed through observation of a change in ??m, up-regulated expression levels of Bax and Bad proteins, down-regulated expression levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-xl and Mcl-1 proteins, and the activation of caspase-3, caspase-9, p38 and JNK. Furthermore, inhibition of p38 and JNK activity by pretreatment with SB03580 (a p38-specific inhibitor) and SP600125 (a JNK-specific inhibitor) led to rescue of the cell cytotoxicity of 13-AC-treated AGS cells, indicating that the p38 and the JNK pathways are also involved in the 13-AC-induced cell apoptosis. Together, these results suggest that 13-AC induces cell apoptosis against gastric cancer cells through triggering of the mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway as well as activation of the p38 and JNK pathways.
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Controlled release bevacizumab in thermoresponsive hydrogel found to inhibit angiogenesis.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) and intraocular neovascular diseases have been treated clinically by anti-VEGF antibody drug bevacizumab. However, the use of bevacizumab in the treatment of retinal neovascular diseases has been limited due to the short half-life and frequent injections. In this research, novel amphiphilic hydrophilic-hydrophobic block copolymers of methoxy-poly (ethylene glycol)-block-poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) were synthesized with ring-opening polymerization, and cross-linked with 2,2-bis (2-oxazoline) (BOX). The aqueous solution of the block copolymers can reverse the sol-gel-sol phase transition. After 1 month of intravitreal injection, the histomorphology of a rabbit's retina was preserved, which indicated the mPEG-PLGA-BOX hydrogel had no cytotoxicity in vivo. Released bevacizumab from the mPEG-PLGA-BOX hydrogel inhibited the RF/6A (Maraca mulatta retina epithelial cell) and HUVEC cell growth, and anti-angiogenesis in 3-D cultures, which showed the bioactivity of the anti-VEGF agent, were maintained in the hydrogel within the release process. In conclusion, the mPEG-PLGA-BOX hydrogel had a sol-gel behavior phase transition, and its intraocular biocompatibility and the characteristics of biodegradability and bioactivity appear to be a promising intravitreal injection carrier for bevacizumab delivery.
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Wireless and Simultaneous Detections of Multiple Bio-Molecules in a Single Sensor Using Love Wave Biosensor.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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A Love wave-based biosensor with a 440 MHz center frequency was developed for the simultaneous detection of two different analytes of Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein (COMP) and rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) in a single sensor. The developed biosensor consists of one-port surface acoustic wave (SAW) reflective delay lines on a 41° YX LiNbO3 piezoelectric substrate, a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) waveguide layer, and two different sensitive films. The Love wave biosensor was wirelessly characterized using two antennas and a network analyzer. The binding of the analytes to the sensitive layers induced a large change in the time positions of the original reflection peaks mainly due to the mass loading effect. The assessed time shifts in the reflection peaks were matched well with the predicted values from coupling of mode (COM) modeling. The sensitivities evaluated from the sensitive films were ~15 deg/µg/mL for the rabbit IgG and ~1.8 deg/ng/mL for COMP.
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Clinical and the prognostic characteristics of lung adenocarcinoma patients with ROS1 fusion in comparison with other driver mutations in East Asian populations.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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The prevalence, demographic features, and clinical outcomes of lung adenocarcinoma patients with novel ROS1 oncogenic rearrangement in East Asian populations are not clear. This study aimed to investigate the clinical and prognostic characteristics of lung adenocarcinoma in patients with ROS1 fusion compared with other driver mutations.
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Impact of different surgical and postoperative adjuvant treatment modalities on survival of sinonasal malignant melanoma.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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The role of postoperative adjuvant treatment for sinonasal malignant melanoma remains unclear. This study evaluates the impact of three different surgical and postoperative adjuvant treatment modalities: surgery alone(open and endoscopic approaches), surgery plus radiotherapy and surgery, radiotherapy plus chemotherapy on survival of patients with primary sinonasal malignant melanoma (SMM).
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Apelin-13 decreases lipid storage in hypertrophic adipocytes in vitro through the upregulation of AQP7 expression by the PI3K signaling pathway.
Med. Sci. Monit.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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Adipocyte-secreted apelin contributes to decreased adiposity and to improved insulin resistance, but the mechanisms remain unknown. The present study aimed to assess if apelin-13 is an upstream signal regulation factor of aquaporin 7 (AQP7), a water-glycerol transporter present in the plasma membrane of adipocytes that plays a key role in the regulation of lipid accumulation.
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Metal-templated enantioselective enamine/H-bonding dual activation catalysis.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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An octahedral bis-cyclometalated iridium(III) complex catalyzes the enantioselective ?-amination of aldehydes with catalyst loadings down to 0.1 mol%. In this metal-templated design, the metal serves as a structural center and provides the exclusive source of chirality, whereas the catalysis is mediated through the organic ligand sphere.
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MICO: A meta-tool for prediction of the effects of non-synonymous mutations.
Bioinformation
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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The Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is a state-of-the-art technology that produces high throughput data with high resolution mutation information in the genome. Numerous methods with different efficiencies have been developed to predict mutational effects in the genome. The challenge is to present the results in a balanced manner for better biological insights and interpretation. Hence, we describe a meta-tool named Mutation Information Collector (MICO) for automatically querying and collecting related information from multiple biology/bioinformatics enabled web servers with prediction capabilities. The predicted mutational results for the proteins of interest are returned and presented as an easy-to-read summary table in this service. MICO also allows for navigating the result from each website for further analysis.
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Toxinotyping of Clostridium perfringens fecal isolates of reintroduced Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus) in China.
J. Wildl. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Clostridium perfringens is an important pathogen causing sudden death syndrome, necrotic enteritis, and gas gangrene in ruminants, especially some deer species. Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus) is one of the world's rare species and is an endangered and protected species in China. Some Père David's deer in the Chinese Shishou Père David's Deer Preserve died due to C. perfringens infection. We investigated the toxin types and C. perfringens enterotoxin-positive (cpe(+)) strains of isolated C. perfringens in Père David's deer in China. We collected 155 fecal samples from the Beijing Nanhaizi Père David's Deer Park and the Jiangsu Dafeng Père David's Deer National Nature Reserve between July 2010 and July 2011. Bacteria isolated using blood agar and mannitol agar plates were identified by Gram staining and nested PCR for 16S rRNA. We isolated C. perfringens from 41 fecal samples and used PCR amplification of five toxin genes to identify the toxinotypes and the cpe(+) strains of C. perfringens. Twenty-one isolates were type A, 15 were type E, and five were type D. Fifteen isolates were cpe(+) strains, including eight that were type A and seven that were type E.
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Scientific hypotheses can be tested by comparing the effects of one treatment over many diseases in a systematic review.
J Clin Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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To describe the use of systematic reviews or overviews (systematic reviews of systematic reviews) to synthesize quantitative evidence of intervention effects across multiple indications (multiple-indication reviews) and to highlight issues pertaining to such reviews.
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Exploring a QoS driven scheduling approach for peer-to-peer live streaming systems with network coding.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Most large-scale peer-to-peer (P2P) live streaming systems use mesh to organize peers and leverage pull scheduling to transmit packets for providing robustness in dynamic environment. The pull scheduling brings large packet delay. Network coding makes the push scheduling feasible in mesh P2P live streaming and improves the efficiency. However, it may also introduce some extra delays and coding computational overhead. To improve the packet delay, streaming quality, and coding overhead, in this paper are as follows. we propose a QoS driven push scheduling approach. The main contributions of this paper are: (i) We introduce a new network coding method to increase the content diversity and reduce the complexity of scheduling; (ii) we formulate the push scheduling as an optimization problem and transform it to a min-cost flow problem for solving it in polynomial time; (iii) we propose a push scheduling algorithm to reduce the coding overhead and do extensive experiments to validate the effectiveness of our approach. Compared with previous approaches, the simulation results demonstrate that packet delay, continuity index, and coding ratio of our system can be significantly improved, especially in dynamic environments.
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Expression of a splice variant of CYP26B1 in betel quid-related oral cancer.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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Betel quid (BQ) is a psychostimulant, an addictive substance, and a group 1 carcinogen that exhibits the potential to induce adverse health effects. Approximately, 600 million users chew a variety of BQ. Areca nut (AN) is a necessary ingredient in BQ products. Arecoline is the primary alkaloid in the AN and can be metabolized through the cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Full-length CYP26B1 is related to the development of oral pharyngeal cancers. We investigated whether a splice variant of CYP26B1 is associated with the occurrence of ROS related oral and pharyngeal cancer. Cytotoxicity assays were used to measure the effects of arecoline on cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to evaluate the expression of the CYP26B1 splice variant. The CYP26B1 splice variant exhibited lower expression than did full-length CYP26B1 in the human gingival fibroblast-1 and Ca9-22 cell models. Increased expression of the CYP26B1 splice variant was observed in human oral cancer tissue compared with adjacent normal tissue, and increased expression was observed in patients at a late tumor stage. Our results suggested that the CYP26B1 splice variant is associated with the occurrence of BQ-related oral cancer.
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Biological characterization of cetuximab-conjugated gold nanoparticles in a tumor animal model.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are widely applied to the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and can be modified to contain target-specific ligands via gold-thiolate bonding. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics and microdistribution of antibody-mediated active targeting gold nanoparticles in mice with subcutaneous lung carcinoma. We conjugated AuNPs with cetuximab (C225), an antibody-targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and then labeled with In-111, which created EGFR-targeted AuNPs. In vitro studies showed that after a 2 h incubation, the uptake of C225-conjugated AuNPs in high EGFR-expression A549 cells was 14.9-fold higher than that of PEGylated AuNPs; furthermore, uptake was also higher at 3.8-fold when MCF7 cells with lower EGFR-expression were used. MicroSPECT/CT imaging and a biodistribution study conducted by using a A549 tumor xenograft mouse model provided evidence of elevated uptake of the C225-conjugated AuNPs into the tumor cells as a result of active targeting. Moreover, the microdistribution of PEGylated AuNPs revealed that a large portion of AuNPs remained in the tumor interstitium, whereas the C225-conjugated AuNPs displayed enhanced internalization via antibody-mediated endocytosis. Our findings suggest that the anti-EGFR antibody-conjugated AuNPs are likely to be a plausible nano-sized vehicle for drug delivery to EGFR-expressing tumors.
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Molecular epidemiology of human G2P[4] rotaviruses in Taiwan, 2004-2011.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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In 2006, two rotavirus vaccines (Rotarix and RotaTeq) became available on the private market in Taiwan. Although vaccine coverage is currently low, molecular surveillance of rotavirus strains can provide pertinent information for evaluation of the potential impact of vaccine introduction and infection control. During January 2008-December 2011, children aged <5years hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis were enrolled from sentinel surveillance hospitals in three geographic areas of Taiwan. Fecal specimens collected from enrolled patients were tested for rotavirus by enzyme immunoassay and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. For genotyping, gene specific primer sets were used to amplify and sequence the genes encoding the neutralization antigens, VP7 and VP4. The resulting sequences were then subjected to phylogenetic analysis. In brief, a total of 4052 fecal specimens were tested and 742 (18%) samples were positive for rotavirus. The annual range of rotavirus positive specimens varied between 16% and 20.7%. Of all specimens, genotype G1P[8] (63.3%) was the predominant strain, followed by G2P[4] (12.5%), G3P[8] (11.7%), and G9P[8] (5.1%). Uncommon strains were also detected in low percentages. We observed that the rotavirus positivity rate steadily decreased from 21% to 16% during 2008-2010, then slightly increased to 20% in 2011, when an increase in the number of G2P[4] cases was observed. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis was carried out to help understand any potential changes of G2P[4] rotaviruses over time. A number of G2P[4] strains collected between 2004 and 2011 were analyzed in detail and our analyses showed marked genetic and antigenic variability in the VP7 and VP4 genes. The Taiwanese strains could be classified into two major G2 VP7 lineages (IV and V) and two major P[4] VP4 lineages (IV and V) and several minor sublineages within lineage IV. Lineage V within both G2 and P[4] represented newly recognized genetic variants of the respective genotypes. The distribution of individual combinations of the G2 and P[4] (sub)lineages showed some temporal variations. This study provides further evidence for the great genetic diversity among G2P[4] strains and helps understand the epidemiological trends of these strains among children in Taiwan.
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Effect of melamine on [Ca(2+)]i and viability in PC3 human prostate cancer cells.
Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Melamine is thought to be an endocrine disrupter that affects physiology in cells. This study examined the effect of melamine on cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i) and viability in PC3 human prostate cancer cells. Melamine evoked [Ca(2+)]i rises concentration-dependently. Melamine-evoked Ca(2+) entry was inhibited by nifedipine, econazole, SKF96365, GF109203X and phorbol 12-myristate 13 acetate. In Ca(2+)-free medium, treatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump inhibitor thapsigargin inhibited melamine-evoked [Ca(2+)]i rise. Conversely, treatment with melamine abolished thapsigargin-evoked [Ca(2+)]i rise. Inhibition of phospholipase C with U73122 did not alter melamine-evoked [Ca(2+)]i rise. Melamine at 500-800?M decreased cell viability, which was not reversed by pretreatment with the Ca(2+) chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA/AM). Collectively, our data suggest that in PC3 cells, melamine induced [Ca(2+)]i rises by evoking phospholipase C-independent Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum, and Ca(2+) entry via protein kinase C-regulated store-operated Ca(2+) entry. Melamine also caused Ca(2+)-independent cell death.
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Hypolipidemic activity of Taraxacum mongolicum associated with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in human HepG2 cells.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
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This study investigated the hypolipidemic effect and potential mechanisms of T. mongolicum extracts. T. mongolicum was extracted by refluxing three times with water (TM-1), 50% ethanol (TM-2) and 95% ethanol (TM-3). TM-2 contained components with the most effective hypolipidemic potentials in HepG2 cells. Extended administration of TM-2 stimulated a significant reduction in body weight and levels of serum triglyceride LDL-C and total cholesterol in rats. To evaluate the bioactive compounds, we successively fractionated TM-2 with n-hexane (TM-4), dichloromethane (TM-5), ethyl acetate (TM-6), and water (TM-7). TM-4 fraction had the most effective hypolipidemic potential in HepG2 cells, and it decreased the expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and inhibited the activity of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) through the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Linoleic acid, phytol and tetracosanol are bioactive compounds identified from TM-4. These results suggest that T. mongolicum is expected to be useful for hypolipidemic effects.
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Synaptic, transcriptional and chromatin genes disrupted in autism.
Silvia De Rubeis, Xin He, Arthur P Goldberg, Christopher S Poultney, Kaitlin Samocha, A Ercument Cicek, Yan Kou, Li Liu, Menachem Fromer, Susan Walker, Tarjinder Singh, Lambertus Klei, Jack Kosmicki, Shih-Chen Fu, Branko Aleksic, Monica Biscaldi, Patrick F Bolton, Jessica M Brownfeld, Jinlu Cai, Nicholas G Campbell, Angel Carracedo, Maria H Chahrour, Andreas G Chiocchetti, Hilary Coon, Emily L Crawford, Lucy Crooks, Sarah R Curran, Geraldine Dawson, Eftichia Duketis, Bridget A Fernandez, Louise Gallagher, Evan Geller, Stephen J Guter, R Sean Hill, Iuliana Ionita-Laza, Patricia Jimenez Gonzalez, Helena Kilpinen, Sabine M Klauck, Alexander Kolevzon, Irene Lee, Jing Lei, Terho Lehtimäki, Chiao-Feng Lin, Avi Ma'ayan, Christian R Marshall, Alison L McInnes, Benjamin Neale, Michael J Owen, Norio Ozaki, Mara Parellada, Jeremy R Parr, Shaun Purcell, Kaija Puura, Deepthi Rajagopalan, Karola Rehnström, Abraham Reichenberg, Aniko Sabo, Michael Sachse, Stephan J Sanders, Chad Schafer, Martin Schulte-Rüther, David Skuse, Christine Stevens, Peter Szatmari, Kristiina Tammimies, Otto Valladares, Annette Voran, Li-San Wang, Lauren A Weiss, A Jeremy Willsey, Timothy W Yu, Ryan K C Yuen, , Edwin H Cook, Christine M Freitag, Michael Gill, Christina M Hultman, Thomas Lehner, Aarno Palotie, Gerard D Schellenberg, Pamela Sklar, Matthew W State, James S Sutcliffe, Christopher A Walsh, Stephen W Scherer, Michael E Zwick, Jeffrey C Barrett, David J Cutler, Kathryn Roeder, Bernie Devlin, Mark J Daly, Joseph D Buxbaum.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2014
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The genetic architecture of autism spectrum disorder involves the interplay of common and rare variants and their impact on hundreds of genes. Using exome sequencing, here we show that analysis of rare coding variation in 3,871 autism cases and 9,937 ancestry-matched or parental controls implicates 22 autosomal genes at a false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05, plus a set of 107 autosomal genes strongly enriched for those likely to affect risk (FDR < 0.30). These 107 genes, which show unusual evolutionary constraint against mutations, incur de novo loss-of-function mutations in over 5% of autistic subjects. Many of the genes implicated encode proteins for synaptic formation, transcriptional regulation and chromatin-remodelling pathways. These include voltage-gated ion channels regulating the propagation of action potentials, pacemaking and excitability-transcription coupling, as well as histone-modifying enzymes and chromatin remodellers-most prominently those that mediate post-translational lysine methylation/demethylation modifications of histones.
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Zhankuic acid A as a novel JAK2 inhibitor for the treatment of concanavalin A-induced hepatitis.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Fruiting bodies of Taiwanofungus camphoratus have been widely used as an antidote for food poisoning and considered to be a precious folk medicine for anti-inflammation and hepatoprotection. Zhankuic acid A (ZAA) is its major pharmacologically active compound. Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), whose activation is involved in cytokine signaling, plays critical roles in the development and biology of the hematopoietic system. JAK2 has been implicated as a therapeutic target in inflammatory diseases. The HotLig modeling approach was used to generate the binding model for ZAA with JAK2, showing that ZAA could bind to the ATP-binding pocket of JAK2 exclusively via the H-bond. The interaction between ZAA and JAK2 was verified by antibody competition assay. Binding of ZAA to JAK2 reduced antibody recognition of native JAK2. The expressions of phosphorylated JAK2 and STATs were analyzed by immuno-blotting. ZAA reduced the phosphorylation and downstream signaling of JAK2, and inhibited the interferon (IFN)-?/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1/interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-1 pathway. The protective effect of ZAA on liver injury was evaluated in mice by Con-A-induced acute hepatitis. Pre-treatment with ZAA also significantly ameliorated acute liver injury in mice. Therefore, ZAA can inhibit JAK2 phosphorylation and protect against liver injury during acute hepatitis in mice. In this study, we present data that ZAA exerts anti-inflammatory effects through the JAK2 signaling pathway. As such, ZAA may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.
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The critical role of membrane cholesterol in salmonella-induced autophagy in intestinal epithelial cells.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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It was previously observed that plasma membrane cholesterol plays a critical role in the Salmonella-induced phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent (PI3K)-dependent anti-inflammatory response in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). The PI3K/Akt pathway is associated with autophagy which has emerged as a critical mechanism of host defense against several intracellular bacterial pathogens. Plasma membrane contributes directly to the formation of early Atg16L1-positive autophagosome precursors. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the role of plasma membrane cholesterol on the Salmonella-induced autophagy in IECs. By using methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MBCD), it was demonstrated that disruption of membrane cholesterol by MBCD enhanced NOD2 and Atg16L1 proteins expression in membrane, and autophagic LC3II proteins expression and LC3 punctae in Salmonella-infected Caco-2 cells, which was counteracted by Atg16L1 siRNA. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) siRNA enhanced the Salmonella-induced activation of Akt in Caco-2 cells. However, inhibitors of Akt or extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) had no significant effect on Salmonella-induced autophagy Beclin 1 or LC3 proteins expression. In conclusion, our study suggests that cholesterol accumulation in the plasma membrane at the entry site of Salmonella results in the formation of Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV) and decreased autophagy. Our results offer mechanistic insights on the critical role of membrane cholesterol in the pathogenesis of Salmonella infection in intestinal epithelial cells and the therapeutic potential of its antagonists.
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Clinical application of the paraspinal erector approach for spinal canal decompression in upper lumber burst fractures.
J Orthop Surg Res
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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ObjectivePercutaneous pedicle screw fixation is commonly used for upper lumber burst fractures. The direct decompression remains challenging with this minimally invasive surgery. The objective was to evaluate a novel paraspinal erector approach for effective and direct decompression in patients with canal compromise and neurologic deficit.MethodPatients (n =21) with neurological deficiency and Denis B type upper lumbar burst fracture were enrolled in the study, including 14 cases in the L1 and 7 cases in the L2. The patients underwent removal of bone fragments from the spinal canal through intervertebral foramen followed by short-segment fixation. Evaluations included surgery-related, such as duration of surgery and blood loss, and 12-month follow-up, such as the kyphotic angle, the height ratio of the anterior edge of the vertebra, the ratio of sagittal canal compromise, visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and Frankel scores.ResultsAll patients achieved direct spinal canal decompression using the paraspinal erector approach followed by percutaneous pedicle screw fixation. The mean operation time (SD) was 173 (23) min, and the mean (SD) blood loss was 301 (104) ml. Significant improvement was noted in the kyphotic angle, 26.2¿±¿8.7 prior to operation versus 9.1¿±¿4.7 at 12 months after operation (p <0.05); the height ratio of the anterior edge of the injured vertebra, 60¿±¿16% versus 84¿±¿9% (p <0.05); and the ratio of sagittal canal compromise, 46.5¿±¿11.4% versus 4.3¿±¿3.6% (p <0.05). Significant improvements in VAS (7.3¿±¿1.2 vs. 1.9¿±¿0.7, p <0.05), ODI (86.7¿±¿5.8 vs. 16.7¿±¿5.1, p <0.05), and Frankel scores were also noted.ConclusionsThe paraspinal erector approach was effective for direct spinal canal decompression with minimal injury in the paraspinal muscles or spine. Significant improvements in spinal function and prognostics were achieved after the percutaneous pedicle screw fixation.
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[Analysis of mineral elements of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) grown on saline land in Hetao Irrigation District by ICP-AES].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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The absorption and accumulation of ten mineral elements in four kinds of organs (root, steam, leaf and flower disc) in Helianthus annuus L. plants cultured in Hetao Irrigation District under different level of salinity stress were determined by ICP-AES with wet digestion (HNO3 + HClO4). The results showed that: (1) The contents of Fe, Mn, Zn, Ca, and Na were highest in roots, so was K in stems, B and Mg in leaves and P in flower discs, while no significant difference was detected in the content of Cu among these organs; (2) The cumulants of Ca, Mg, P, Cu, B and Zn were highest in flower discs, so were Na, Fe and Mn in roots and K in stems; (3) In sunflower plants, the proportion of mineral element cumulant for K : Ca : Mg : P : Na was 16.71 : 5.23 : 3.86 : 1.23 : 1.00, and for Zn : Fe : B : Mn: Cu was 56.28 : 27.75 : 1.93 : 1.17 : 1.00, respectively; (4) The effect of salinity stress on absorption of mineral elements differed according to the kind of organ and element, root was the most sensitive to soil salt content, followed by stem and leaf, and the effect on flower disc seemed complex.
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Medical device procurement in low- and middle-income settings: protocol for a systematic review.
Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Medical device procurement processes for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are a poorly understood and researched topic. To support LMIC policy formulation in this area, international public health organizations and research institutions issue a large body of predominantly grey literature including guidelines, manuals and recommendations. We propose to undertake a systematic review to identify and explore the medical device procurement methodologies suggested within this and further literature. Procurement facilitators and barriers will be identified, and methodologies for medical device prioritization under resource constraints will be discussed.
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Epigenetics of hyper-responsiveness to allergen challenge following intrauterine growth retardation rat.
Respir. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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BackgroundEpidemiological studies have revealed that intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) or low birth weight is linked to the later development of asthma. Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms play an important role in the fetal origins of adult disease. However, little is known regarding the correlation between epigenetic regulation and the development of asthma following IUGR.MethodsAn IUGR and ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitization/challenge rat model was used to study whether epigenetic mechanisms play a role in the development of asthma following IUGR.ResultsMaternal nutrient restriction increased histone acetylation levels of the endothelin-1 (ET-1) gene promoter in lung tissue of offspring, but did not cause significant alterations of DNA methylation. The effect was maintained until 10 weeks after birth. Furthermore, these epigenetic changes may have induced IUGR individuals to be highly sensitive to OVA challenge later in life, resulting in more significant changes related to asthma.ConclusionsThese findings suggest that epigenetic mechanisms might be closely associated with the development of asthma following IUGR, providing further insight for improved prevention of asthma induced by environmental factors.
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Decreased activated protein C levels are inversely associated with the urinary albumin excretion rate in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Clin. Lab.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Activated protein C (APC) plays a vital renoprotective role against diabetic nephropathy in STZ-induced diabetic mice by inhibiting endothelial cell and podocyte apoptosis. This study aimed to examine the relationship between the degree of albuminuria and APC levels in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for pancreatic and prostate cancer using pulsed low-dose rate delivery techniques.
Med Dosim
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Reirradiation of patients who were previously treated with radiotherapy is vastly challenging. Pulsed low-dose rate (PLDR) external beam radiotherapy has the potential to reduce normal tissue toxicities while providing significant tumor control for recurrent cancers. This work investigates treatment planning techniques for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)-based PLDR treatment of various sites, including cases with pancreatic and prostate cancer. A total of 20 patients with clinical recurrence were selected for this study, including 10 cases with pancreatic cancer and 10 with prostate cancer. Large variations in the target volume were included to test the ability of IMRT using the existing treatment planning system and optimization algorithm to deliver uniform doses in individual gantry angles/fields for PLDR treatments. Treatment plans were generated with 10 gantry angles using the step-and-shoot IMRT delivery technique, which can be delivered in 3-minute intervals to achieve an effective low dose rate of 6.7cGy/min. Instead of dose constraints on critical structures, ring structures were mainly used in PLDR-IMRT optimization. In this study, the PLDR-IMRT plans were compared with the PLDR-3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) plans and the PLDR-RapidArc plans. For the 10 cases with pancreatic cancer that were investigated, the mean planning target volume (PTV) dose for each gantry angle in the PLDR-IMRT plans ranged from 17.6 to 22.4cGy. The maximum doses ranged between 22.9 and 34.8cGy. The minimum doses ranged from 8.2 to 17.5cGy. For the 10 cases with prostate cancer that were investigated, the mean PTV doses for individual gantry angles ranged from 18.8 to 22.6cGy. The maximum doses per gantry angle were between 24.0 and 34.7cGy. The minimum doses per gantry angle ranged from 4.4 to 17.4cGy. A significant reduction in the organ at risk (OAR) dose was observed with the PLDR-IMRT plan when compared with that using the PLDR-3DCRT plan. The volume receiving an 18-Gy (V18) dose for the left and right kidneys was reduced by 10.6% and 12.5%, respectively, for the pancreatic plans. The volume receiving a 45-Gy (V45) dose for the small bowel decreased from 65.3% to 45.5%. For the cases with prostate cancer, the volume receiving a 40-Gy (V40) dose for the bladder and the rectum was reduced significantly by 25.1% and 51.2%, respectively. When compared with the RapidArc technique, the volume receiving a 30-Gy (V30) dose for the left and the right kidneys was lower in the IMRT plans. For most OARs, no significant differences were observed between the PLDR-IMRT and the PLDR-RapidArc plans. These results clearly demonstrated that the PLDR-IMRT plan was suitable for PLDR pancreatic and prostate cancer treatments in terms of the overall plan quality. A significant reduction in the OAR dose was achieved with the PLDR-IMRT plan when compared with that using the PLDR-3DCRT plan. For most OARs, no significant differences were observed between the PLDR-IMRT and the PLDR-RapidArc plans. When compared with the PLDR-3DCRT plan, the PLDR-IMRT plan could provide superior target coverage and normal tissue sparing for PLDR reirradiation of recurrent pancreatic and prostate cancers. The PLDR-IMRT plan is an effective treatment choice for recurrent cancers in most cancer centers.
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P21-driven multifusion gene system for evaluating the efficacy of histone deacetylase inhibitors by in vivo molecular imaging and for transcription targeting therapy of cancer mediated by histone deacetylase inhibitor.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Overexpressed histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity has been linked with tumor initiation and progression that prompt the development of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) as anticancer agents. HDACI was reported to be able to activate p21 promoter through the SP1 binding sites in the proximal region of p21(WAF1/CIP1) promoter. In this study, we established a p21(WAF1/CIP1) promoter-driven triple-fused reporter gene system (p21-3H) to evaluate the efficacy of HDACI and the ganciclovir (GCV)-mediated anticancer effect contributed by HDACI-induced and p21-driven truncated herpes simplex virus-1 thymidine kinase sr39 mutant (ttksr39) in vitro and in vivo.
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Combined application of eGFR and albuminuria for the precise diagnosis of stage 2 and 3a CKD in the elderly.
J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is the sole diagnostic criterion for stage 3a chronic kidney disease (CKD). Because eGFR decreases with age, its prognostic utility in the elderly is controversial. Albuminuria is an important prognostic factor. To confirm that eGFR use may lead to the overdiagnosis of CKD and to examine the utility of eGFR combined with albuminuria for diagnosing stage 3a CKD in the elderly.
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H? mode-dependent fault detection filter design for stochastic Markovian jump systems with time-varying delays and parameter uncertainties.
ISA Trans
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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This paper deals with the problem of robust H? fault detection for a class of stochastic Markovian jump systems (SMJSs) The aim is to design a linear mode-dependent fault detection filter such that the fault detection system is not only stochastically asymptotically stable in the large, but also satisfies a prescribed H?-norm level for all admissible uncertainties. By using Lyapunov stability theory and generalized Itô formula, some novel mode-dependent and delay-dependent sufficient conditions in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI) are proposed to insure the existence of the desired fault detection filter. A simulation example and an industrial nonisothermal continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system are employed to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
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Ranolazine attenuates the enhanced reverse Na?-Ca²? exchange current via inhibiting hypoxia-increased late sodium current in ventricular myocytes.
J. Pharmacol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Ranolazine (RAN), a novel antianginal agent, inhibits the increased late sodium current (INa.L) under many pathological conditions. In this study, the whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to explore the effects of RAN on INa.L and reverse Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange current (INCX) in rabbit ventricular myocytes during hypoxia.Tetrodotoxin (TTX) at 2 ?M or RAN at 9 ?M decreased significantly INa.L and reverse INCX under normoxia and RAN had no further effects on both currents in the presence of TTX. RAN (3, 6, and 9 ?M) attenuated hypoxia-increased INa.L and reverse INCX in a concentration-dependent manner. Hypoxia-increased INa.L and reverse INCX were inhibited by 2 ?M TTX, whereas 9 ?M RAN applied sequentially did not further decrease both currents. In another group, after both currents were decreased by 9 ?M RAN, 2 ?M TTX had no further effects in the presence of Ran. In monophasic action potential (MAP) recording, early after-depolarizations (EADs) were suppressed by RAN (9 ?M) during hypoxia. In conclusion, RAN decreased reverse INCX by inhibiting INa.L in normoxia, concentration-dependently attenuated the increase of INa.L, which thereby decreased the reverse INCX, and obviously relieved EADs during hypoxia.
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Effectiveness of 2 rotavirus vaccines against rotavirus disease in Taiwanese infants.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Two rotavirus (RV) vaccines (Rotarix and RotaTeq) are available on the private market in Taiwan, but are not recommended for routine use. We examined RV vaccine effectiveness (VE) against severe RV acute gastroenteritis (AGE) among Taiwanese infants to inform policymakers on the potential benefits of national RV vaccine introduction.
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The development of drug-free therapy for prevention of dental caries.
Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2014
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The purpose of this study was to develop a novel, drug-free therapy that can reduce the over-accumulation of cariogenic bacteria on dental surfaces.
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Asymmetric catalysis with substitutionally labile yet stereochemically stable chiral-at-metal iridium(III) complex.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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A metal-coordination-based high performance asymmetric catalyst utilizing metal centrochirality as the sole element of chirality is reported. The introduced substitutionally labile chiral-at-metal octahedral iridium(III) complex exclusively bears achiral ligands and effectively catalyzes the enantioselective Friedel-Crafts addition of indoles to ?,?-unsaturated 2-acyl imidazoles (19 examples) with high yields (75%-99%) and high enantioselectivities (90-98% ee) at low catalyst loadings (0.25-2 mol %). Counterintuitively, despite its substitutional lability, which is mechanistically required for coordination to the 2-acyl imidazole substrate, the metal-centered chirality is maintained throughout the catalysis. This novel class of reactive chiral-at-metal complexes will likely be of high value for a large variety of asymmetric transformations.
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Optimization strategies for pulsed low-dose-rate IMRT of recurrent lung and head and neck cancers.
J Appl Clin Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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Pulsed low-dose-rate radiotherapy (PLDR) has been proven to be a valid method of reirradiation. Previous studies of recurrent cancer radiotherapy were mainly based on conventional 3D CRT and VMAT delivery techniques. There are difficulties in IMRT planning using existing commercial treatment planning systems (TPS) to meet the PLDR protocol. This work focuses on PLDR using ten-field IMRT and a commercial TPS for two specific sites: recurrent lung cancers and head and neck cancers. Our PLDR protocol requires that the maximum dose to the PTV be less than 0.4 Gy and the mean dose to be 0.2 Gy per field. We investigated various planning strategies to meet the PLDR requirements for 20 lung and head and neck patients. The PTV volume for lung cases ranged from 101.7 to 919.4 cm3 and the maximum dose to the PTV ranged from 0.22 to 0.39 Gy. The PTV volume for head and neck cases ranged from 66.2 to 282.1 cm3 and the maximum dose to the PTV ranged from 0.21 to 0.39 Gy. With special beam arrangements and dosimetry parameters, it is feasible to use a commercial TPS to generate quality PLDR IMRT plans for lung and head and neck reirradiation.
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Rational design of a triple reporter gene for multimodality molecular imaging.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Multimodality imaging using noncytotoxic triple fusion (TF) reporter genes is an important application for cell-based tracking, drug screening, and therapy. The firefly luciferase (fl), monomeric red fluorescence protein (mrfp), and truncated herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase SR39 mutant (ttksr39) were fused together to create TF reporter gene constructs with different order. The enzymatic activities of TF protein in vitro and in vivo were determined by luciferase reporter assay, H-FEAU cellular uptake experiment, bioluminescence imaging, and micropositron emission tomography (microPET). The TF construct expressed in H1299 cells possesses luciferase activity and red fluorescence. The tTKSR39 activity is preserved in TF protein and mediates high levels of H-FEAU accumulation and significant cell death from ganciclovir (GCV) prodrug activation. In living animals, the luciferase and tTKSR39 activities of TF protein have also been successfully validated by multimodality imaging systems. The red fluorescence signal is relatively weak for in vivo imaging but may expedite FACS-based selection of TF reporter expressing cells. We have developed an optimized triple fusion reporter construct DsRedm-fl-ttksr39 for more effective and sensitive in vivo animal imaging using fluorescence, bioluminescence, and PET imaging modalities, which may facilitate different fields of biomedical research and applications.
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Acute kidney injury due to anti-tuberculosis drugs: a five-year experience in an aging population.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Patients on anti-tuberculosis treatment may develop acute kidney injury (AKI), but little is known about the renal outcome and prognostic factors, especially in an aging population. This study aimed to calculate the incidence of AKI due to anti-TB drugs and analyze the outcomes and predictors of renal recovery.
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Infantile hepatitis B in immunized children: risk for fulminant hepatitis and long-term outcomes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Infantile hepatitis B after neonatal immunoprophylaxis is a rare yet distinct disease. This study aimed to analyze the long-term outcomes and risk factors in immunized infants with hepatitis B.
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Larger late sodium current density as well as greater sensitivities to ATX II and ranolazine in rabbit left atrial than left ventricular myocytes.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2013
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An increase of cardiac late sodium current (INa.L) is arrhythmogenic in atrial and ventricular tissues, But the densities of INa.L and thus the potential relative contributions of this current to Na(+) influx and arrhythmogenesis in atria and ventricles are unclear. In this study, whole-cell and cell-attached patch clamp techniques were used to measure INa.L in rabbit left atrial and ventricular myocytes under identical conditions. The density of INa.L was 67% greater in atrial (0.50 ± 0.09 pA/pF, n = 20) than in left ventricular cells (0.30 ± 0.07 pA/pF, n = 27, P < 0.01) when elicited by step pulses from -120 to -20 mV at a rate of 0.2 Hz. Similar results were obtained using step pulses from -90 to -20 mV. Anemone toxin II (ATX II) increased INa.L with an EC50 value of 14 ± 2 nM and a Hill slope of 1.4 ± 0.1 (n = 9) in atrial myocytes and with an EC50 of 21 ± 5 nM and a Hill slope of 1.2 ± 0.1 (n = 12) in ventricular myocytes. Na(+) channel open probability (but not mean open time) was greater in atrial than in ventricular cells in the absence and presence of ATX II. The INa.L inhibitor ranolazine (3, 6, 9 ?M) reduced INa.L more in atrial than ventricular myocytes in the presence of 40 nM ATX II. In summary, rabbit left atrial myocytes have a greater density of INa.L and higher sensitivities to ATX II and ranolazine than rabbit left ventricular myocytes.
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Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are lower in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis and are correlated with disease severity in Taiwanese patients.
Am J Rhinol Allergy
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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Vitamin D deficiency is reported to be associated with increased incidence of allergic airway diseases and is correlated with the severity of asthma. This study was designed to determine if serum Vitamin D level is lower in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) patients and if low serum Vitamin D level is correlated with the severity of CRSwNP.
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Effectiveness of lifestyle interventions on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): systematic review and meta-analysis.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2013
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Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder associated with several adverse health outcomes. Given the close association between OSA and obesity, lifestyle and dietary interventions are commonly recommended to patients, but the evidence for their impact on OSA has not been systematically examined.
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Decreased Kv1.5 expression in intrauterine growth retardation rats with exaggerated pulmonary hypertension.
Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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Chronic hypoxia pulmonary hypertension (CH-PHT) in adulthood is likely to be of fetal origin following intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Oxygen (O2)-sensitive voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv channels) in resistance pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) play an important role in scaling pulmonary artery (PA) pressure. Expression and functional changes of Kv channels are determined, in part, by embryonic development. We hypothesized that O2-sensitive Kv channels play an important role in exaggerated CH-PHT following IUGR. We established a rat model of IUGR by restricting maternal food during the entire pregnancy and exposed IUGR rats and their age-matched controls aged 12 wk to hypoxia for 2 wk. We found that hypoxia exposure significantly induced increased PA pressure and thicker smooth muscle layer in the IUGR group relative to controls. We compared the constriction of the resistance PA to inhibitors of K(+) channels, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), tetraethylammonium, and BaCl2. Despite the thickness of the smooth muscle layer, the constriction to 4-AP was significantly reduced in the IUGR group exposed to hypoxia. Consistent with these changes in pulmonary vascular reactivity, 2 wk of hypoxia induced weaker 4-AP-sensitive Kv currents in a single IUGR PASMC. Moreover, after 2 wk of hypoxia, Kv1.5 expression in resistance PAs decreased significantly in the IUGR group. Overexpression of Kv1.5 in cultured PASMCs could offset hypoxia-induced cell proliferation and hypoxia-inhibited Kv currents in the IUGR group. These results suggest that the inhibited expression of Kv1.5 in PASMCs contribute to the development of exaggerated CH-PHT in IUGR rats during adulthood.
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[Anterolateral decompression and three column reconstruction through posterior approach for treatment of unstable thoracolumbar fracture].
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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To discuss the effectiveness of anterolateral decompression and three column reconstruction through posterior approach for the treatment of unstable thoracolumbar fracture.
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Allyl isothiocyanate inhibits cell metastasis through suppression of the MAPK pathways in epidermal growth factor?stimulated HT29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
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Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) has been found to present sources from consumed cruciferous vegetables. AITC is known to possess pharmacological and anticancer activities. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that AITC suppressed the invasion and migration of epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated HT29 cells and to elucidate the mechanisms for the antimetastatic abilities in vitro. The invasion and migration of EGF-stimulated HT29 cells were determined individually by Transwell cell invasion and wound-healing assays. Our results showed that AITC effectively inhibited both the invasive and migratory ability of HT29 cells. Furthermore, AITC downregulated the protein levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9 and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) (p-JNK, p-ERK and p-p38) by western blot analysis in HT29 cells following EGF induction. Thus, the metastatic responses in AITC-treated HT29 cells after EGF stimulation were mediated by the MMP-2/-9 and MAPK signaling pathways. We also used gene expression microarrays to investigate the gene levels related to cell growth, G-protein coupled receptor, angiogenesis, cell adhesion, cell cycle and mitosis, cell migration, cytoskeleton organization, DNA damage and repair, transcription and translation, EGFR and PKB/mTOR signals. In summary, it is possible that AITC suppresses the invasion and migration of EGF-induced HT29 cells, resulting from MMP-2/-9 and MAPKs. Hence, AITC may be beneficial in the treatment of human colorectal adenocarcinoma in the future.
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Curcumin-loaded nanoparticles enhance apoptotic cell death of U2OS human osteosarcoma cells through the Akt-Bad signaling pathway.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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Curcumin has potential anticancer activity and has been shown to be involved in several signaling pathways including differentiation and apoptosis. Our previous study showed that water-soluble PLGA curcumin nanoparticles (Cur-NPs) triggered apoptotic cell death through regulation of the function of MDR1 and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cisplatin-resistant human oral cancer CAR cells. In this study, we investigated the anti-proliferative effects of Cur-NPs on human osteosarcoma U2OS cells. The morphology of Cur-NPs showed spherical shape by TEM analysis. The encapsulation efficiency of curcumin in Cur-NPs prepared by single emulsion was 90.5±3.0%. Our results demonstrated that the curcumin fragments on the mass spectrum of Cur-NPs and the peaks of curcumin standard could be found on the Cur-NPs spectrum by 1H-NMR spectra analysis. Cur-NPs induced anti-proliferative effects and apoptosis in U2OS cells. Compared to the untreated U2OS cells, more detectable amount of Cur-NPs was found inside the treated U2OS cells. Cur-NPs induced DNA fragmentation and apoptotic bodies in U2OS cells. Both the activity and the expression levels of caspases-3/-7 and caspase-9 were elevated in the treated U2OS cells. Cur-NPs upregulated the protein expression levels of cleaved caspase-3/caspase-9, cytochrome c, Apaf-1 and Bad and downregulated the protein expression level of p-Akt in U2OS cells. These results suggest Cur-NPs are effective in enhancing apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells and thus could provide potential for cancer therapeutics.
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Facile synthesis and regeneration of Mg(BH4)2 by high energy reactive ball milling of MgB2.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
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We report direct hydrogenation of MgB(2) in a planetary ball mill. Magnesium borohydride, Mg(BH(4))(2), and various polyhedral borane anion salts have been synthesized at pressures between 50 and 350 bar H(2) without the need for subsequent isothermal hydrogenation at elevated temperature and pressure. The obtained products release ?4 wt% H(2) below 390 °C, and a major portion of Mg(BH(4))(2) transforms back to MgB(2) at around 300 °C, demonstrating the possibility of reversible hydrogen storage in an Mg(BH(4))(2)-MgB(2) system.
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Schizothorax davidi ghrelin: cDNA cloning, tissue distribution and indication for its stimulatory character in food intake.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Ghrelin is a gut/brain hormone with a unique acyl modification and various biological functions in fish and mammals. The objectives of this project were to identify ghrelin gene organization, study tissue specific ghrelin mRNA expression and investigate the short- (0, 0.5, 1.5, 3, 6, 9, 12h post-fasting) and long- (1, 3, 5, 7days) term fasting as well as refeeding after a 7day fasting induced changes in the expression of ghrelin mRNA in Schizothorax davidi. Our reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed the predicted ghrelin sequence available in the GenBank and identified ghrelin mRNA expression in several tissues including the gut, liver, brain, heart, spleen, head kidney, gill and muscle. Quantitative PCR studies indicated that the expression level of ghrelin mRNA presented ascendant trend in short-term fasting group compared to the fed group, but it did not reach the significant level on statistics, while there is a significant increase in ghrelin mRNA expression in the gut of Schizothorax davidi fasted for 3, 5 and 7days when compared to the expression in ad libitum fed fish. Refeeding after a 7day fasting caused a significant and dramatic decrease in ghrelin mRNA expression in the gut of Schizothorax davidi. An increase in the expression of ghrelin mRNA during fasting, and its decrease following refeeding suggests an orexigenic role for ghrelin in Schizothorax davidi. Overall, our results provide evidence for a highly conserved structure and biological actions of ghrelin during evolution.
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Reproductive toxicity on female mice induced by microcystin-LR.
Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2013
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There are increasing concerns about health risk of human exposure to microcystin-LR (MC-LR) over the past few decades. Nevertheless, its female mammalian reproductive toxicity has not been addressed yet. In the present study, we firstly reported MC-LR could impact female reproductive function of mammals. After 28 days MC-LR exposure, relative ovary weight significantly reduced in 20?g/kg MC-LR group and this reduction may be relative with pathomorphological changes of ovary. The result of histological evaluation of follicles showed that primordial follicles decreased roughly in half at high dose level compared with control. Since serum hormone assay indicated that MC-LR induced decrease of progesterone but not FSH or LH, disturbance of estrus cycle was seemed to result from direct impact of ovary rather than indirectly from hypothalamus or pituitary. As expected, MC-LR was detected in the ovaries of MC-LR exposure mice by immunoblot analysis.
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A half-sandwich 1,2-azaborolyl ruthenium complex: synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of its catalytic activities.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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A half-sandwich 1,2-azaborolyl (Ab) ruthenium complex, (Ab-C?CPh)RuCl(PPh3)2 (1), has been synthesized by treating RuCl2(PPh3)3 with lithium 1,2-azaborolide L-1, or by treating either RuCl2(PPh3)3 or RuHCl(PPh3)3 directly with 1,2-azaborole LH-1. It is evaluated as a suitable precatalyst in [2 + 2] cycloadditions of norbornene derivatives with DMAD and in atom transfer radical additions of halogenated compounds with olefins.
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Pathway-based screening strategy for multitarget inhibitors of diverse proteins in metabolic pathways.
PLoS Comput. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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Many virtual screening methods have been developed for identifying single-target inhibitors based on the strategy of "one-disease, one-target, one-drug". The hit rates of these methods are often low because they cannot capture the features that play key roles in the biological functions of the target protein. Furthermore, single-target inhibitors are often susceptible to drug resistance and are ineffective for complex diseases such as cancers. Therefore, a new strategy is required for enriching the hit rate and identifying multitarget inhibitors. To address these issues, we propose the pathway-based screening strategy (called PathSiMMap) to derive binding mechanisms for increasing the hit rate and discovering multitarget inhibitors using site-moiety maps. This strategy simultaneously screens multiple target proteins in the same pathway; these proteins bind intermediates with common substructures. These proteins possess similar conserved binding environments (pathway anchors) when the product of one protein is the substrate of the next protein in the pathway despite their low sequence identity and structure similarity. We successfully discovered two multitarget inhibitors with IC50 of <10 µM for shikimate dehydrogenase and shikimate kinase in the shikimate pathway of Helicobacter pylori. Furthermore, we found two selective inhibitors (IC50 of <10 µM) for shikimate dehydrogenase using the specific anchors derived by our method. Our experimental results reveal that this strategy can enhance the hit rates and the pathway anchors are highly conserved and important for biological functions. We believe that our strategy provides a great value for elucidating protein binding mechanisms and discovering multitarget inhibitors.
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Epigallocatechin-3-gallate induces apoptosis, inhibits proliferation and decreases invasion of glioma cell.
Neurosci Bull
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major polyphenol in green tea, has been considered a potential therapeutic and chemopreventive agent for cancer. Glioma is a malignant tumor with high mortality but effective therapy has not yet been developed. In this study, we found that EGCG induced apoptosis in U251 glioma cells via the laminin receptor (molecular weight 67kDa) in a time- and dose-dependent manner, decreased their invasiveness and inhibited their proliferation. The mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway was shown to be involved in glioma cell apoptosis and proliferation. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 were reduced after EGCG treatment. These results suggest that EGCG has important therapeutic effects with low toxicity and side-effects, and could be used in cancer chemoprevention.
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Cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination programs in Taiwan.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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In Taiwan, two rotavirus vaccines are available on the private market, but are not included in the National Immunization Program (NIP). To help assess whether to include rotavirus vaccines in the NIP, we examined the potential impact and cost-effectiveness of vaccination, from the health care system perspective alone.
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Use of a highly sensitive recombinant hepatoma cell method to determine dioxin concentrations in samples of fish and crab from a hotspot area.
Environ Sci Process Impacts
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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A new and easy fast-screening test (the Ad-DR (adenoviral vector-dioxin response) bioassay) for dioxins in biological samples from highly dioxin-contaminated areas was developed. The aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor (AhR) reporter system was utilized to transport a dioxin-responsive-element (DRE) via an adenovirus vector into rat hepatoma (H4IIE) cells before each experiment; these DRE-H4IIE cells were utilized in the Ad-DR bioassay. Biological extracts were simultaneously analyzed by the Ad-DR bioassay and high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). A good correlation was found between the results of the HRGC/HRMS assay and those of the Ad-DR bioassay (R(2) = 0.920, p < 0.001). The bio-analytical equivalent (BEQ) value found in fish or crab caught in the abandoned pentachlorophenol plant (AP) was extremely high compared with the BEQ in fish or crab caught in two rivers nearby this abandoned plant. Dioxins were more heavily bioaccumulated in fish viscera than in fish muscles or in the whole fish. Two-way analysis of variance tests identified the significant effects of fish collection site, fish or crab tissue sample and the interaction between them on dioxin levels in the tissues of these aquatic animals. In conclusion, the Ad-DR bioassay is a useful tool to determine dioxin levels in samples of fish and crab. Compared with fish tissues, where a sample is taken (in the PCP plant or nearby rivers) is the most important factor to determine bioaccumulation of dioxins in fish.
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Scope for improved eco-efficiency varies among diverse cropping systems.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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Global food security requires eco-efficient agriculture to produce the required food and fiber products concomitant with ecologically efficient use of resources. This eco-efficiency concept is used to diagnose the state of agricultural production in China (irrigated wheat-maize double-cropping systems), Zimbabwe (rainfed maize systems), and Australia (rainfed wheat systems). More than 3,000 surveyed crop yields in these three countries were compared against simulated grain yields at farmer-specified levels of nitrogen (N) input. Many Australian commercial wheat farmers are both close to existing production frontiers and gain little prospective return from increasing their N input. Significant losses of N from their systems, either as nitrous oxide emissions or as nitrate leached from the soil profile, are infrequent and at low intensities relative to their level of grain production. These Australian farmers operate close to eco-efficient frontiers in regard to N, and so innovations in technologies and practices are essential to increasing their production without added economic or environmental risks. In contrast, many Chinese farmers can reduce N input without sacrificing production through more efficient use of their fertilizer input. In fact, there are real prospects for the double-cropping systems on the North China Plain to achieve both production increases and reduced environmental risks. Zimbabwean farmers have the opportunity for significant production increases by both improving their technical efficiency and increasing their level of input; however, doing so will require improved management expertise and greater access to institutional support for addressing the higher risks. This paper shows that pathways for achieving improved eco-efficiency will differ among diverse cropping systems.
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The effect of complementary and alternative medicine on the quality of life of cancer survivors: a systematic review and meta-analyses.
Complement Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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To assess whether quality of life (QOL) improved in cancer survivors who had undertaken a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) intervention, compared to cancer survivors who had not.
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Bcl-2-dependent upregulation of autophagy by sequestosome 1/p62 in vitro.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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To investigate whether sequestosome 1/p62 (p62), a key cargo adaptor protein involved in both the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the autophagy-lysosome system, could directly regulate autophagy in vitro.
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Preparation, characterization and in vitro release properties of morphine-loaded PLLA-PEG-PLLA microparticles via solution enhanced dispersion by supercritical fluids.
J Mater Sci Mater Med
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Morphine-loaded poly(L-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(L-lactide) (PLLA-PEG-PLLA) microparticles were prepared using solution enhanced dispersion by supercritical CO2 (SEDS). The effects of process variables on the morphology, particles size, drug loading (DL), encapsulation efficiency and release properties of the microparticles were investigated. All particles showed spherical or ellipsoidal shape with the mean diameter of 2.04-5.73 ?m. The highest DL of 17.92 % was obtained when the dosage ratio of morphine to PLLA-PEG-PLLA reached 1:5, and the encapsulation efficiency can be as high as 87.31 % under appropriate conditions. Morphine-loaded PLLA-PEG-PLLA microparticles displayed short-term release with burst release followed by sustained release within days or long-term release lasted for weeks. The degradation test of the particles showed that the degradation rate of PLLA-PEG-PLLA microparticles was faster than that of PLLA microparticles. The results collectively suggest that PLLA-PEG-PLLA can be a promising candidate polymer for the controlled release system.
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The development of dentotropic micelles with biodegradable tooth-binding moieties.
Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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Development of dentotropic (tooth-binding) micelle formulations to improved efficacy and safety of antimicrobial therapy for dental plaque prevention and treatment.
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7-Iodo-3,3-diphenyl-octa-hydro-benzo-furan.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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The title compound, C20H21IO, was synthesized by cyclo-haloetherification of 2-(cyclo-hex-2-en-yl)-2,2-diphenyl-ethanol in CH2Cl2, and crystallized with two independent mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit. The six-membered cyclo-hexane ring adopts a chair conformation, while the five-membered ring adopts an envelope conformation with the fused C atom opposite the O atom as the flap in each case [displacements of the flap atoms = 0.6813?(3) and 0.6679?(3)?Å]. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked via pairs of C-H?? inter-actions, forming inversion dimers.
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A new hydrate form of diflunisal precipitated from a microemulsion system.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Three microemulsion systems were applied as solvents for polymorph screening of seven active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs): carbamazepine, piroxicam, sulfaguanidine, nitrofurantoin, theophylline, quercetin, and diflunisal. All the recrystallized compounds were examined by using powder X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry, elemental analysis, Karl Fischer titration and dissolution rate. A new crystal form of diflunisal hydrate was discovered by the cooling method of recrystallization in a water-in-oil microemulsion system, composed of water, alkane and dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate. The new hydrate form of diflunisal was characterized and confirmed to be a stoichiometry of diflunisal:water of 1:1. The other two microemulsion systems were able to convert the anhydrous diflunisal Form I to Form III. The dissolution rate of diflunisal hydrate is unexpectedly much higher than that of anhydrous ones (Forms I and III). All the other six APIs (carbamazepine, piroxicam, sulfaguanidine, nitrofurantoin, theophylline and quercetin) recrystallized from the microemulsion systems were all converted into hydrate form.
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22q13.2q13.32 genomic regions associated with severity of speech delay, developmental delay, and physical features in Phelan-McDermid syndrome.
Genet. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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Purpose:Phelan-McDermid syndrome is a developmental disability syndrome with varying deletions of 22q13 and varying clinical severity. We tested the hypothesis that, in addition to loss of the telomeric gene SHANK3, specific genomic regions within 22q13 are associated with important clinical features.Methods:We used a customized oligo array comparative genomic hybridization of 22q12.3-terminus to obtain deletion breakpoints in a cohort of 70 patients with terminal 22q13 deletions. We used association and receiver operating characteristic statistical methods in a novel manner and also incorporated protein interaction networks to identify 22q13 genomic locations and genes associated with clinical features.Results:Specific genomic regions and candidate genes within 22q13.2q13.32 were associated with severity of speech/language delay, neonatal hypotonia, delayed age at walking, hair-pulling behaviors, male genital anomalies, dysplastic toenails, large/fleshy hands, macrocephaly, short and tall stature, facial asymmetry, and atypical reflexes. We also found regions suggestive of a negative association with autism spectrum disorders.Conclusion:This work advances the field of research beyond the observation of a correlation between deletion size and phenotype and identifies candidate 22q13 loci, and in some cases specific genes, associated with singular clinical features observed in Phelan-McDermid syndrome. Our statistical approach may be useful in genotype-phenotype analyses for other microdeletion or microduplication syndromes.Genet Med advance online publication 17 October 2013Genetics in Medicine (2013); doi:10.1038/gim.2013.144.
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Development of validated quantitative structure-retention relationship models for retention indices of plant essential oils.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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Quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) models were developed for the retention indices of 505 frequently reported components of plant essential oils. Multiple linear regression was used to build QSRR models for the dimethyl silicone, dimethyl silicone with 5% phenyl groups, and polyethylene glycol stationary phases. We tried to improve the variable selection and modeling method based on prediction method for selecting the optimum descriptors from the molecular weight, 75 topological indices, and 170 atom-type E-state indices. The three-variable QSRR models perform high correlation coefficients of 0.937 for dimethyl silicone and 0.933 for dimethyl silicone with 5% phenyl groups stationary phase. Four variables were selected to developed QSRR model for the polyethylene glycol stationary phase. The leave-one-out and leave-many-out cross-validations, bootstrapping, and y-randomization test showed the three models are robust and have no chance correlation. The external validation with the test set showed the three models present high externally predictive power. The three models presented high-quality fit, internally, and externally predictive power. It is expected that the models can effectively predict retention indices of essential oils components without experimental value.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.