HBV X protein plays crucial roles during viral infection and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development through interaction with various host factors. Here, we mapped the interactome of HBx using a yeast two-hybrid screen. Nine human proteins were identified as novel interacting partners of HBx, one of which is phospholipid scramblase 1 (PLSCR1). PLSCR1 is an interferon-inducible protein that mediates antiviral activity against DNA and RNA viruses. However, the molecular mechanisms of PLSCR1 activity against HBV remain unclear. Here, we reported that PLSCR1 promotes HBx degradation by a proteasome- and ubiquitin-dependent mechanism. Furthermore, we found that PLSCR1 inhibits HBx-mediated cell proliferation. After HBV infection, the protein level of PLSCR1 in plasma is elevated, and chronic hepatitis B patients with low plasma levels of PLSCR1 have a high risk of developing HCC. These results suggest that the nuclear trafficking of PLSCR1 mediates the antiviral activity and anticarcinogenesis against HBV by regulating HBx stability.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered as the developmental origin of multiple lineage cells including osteocytes, adipocytes, and muscle cells. Previous studies demonstrated that the PH domain-containing protein CKIP-1 plays an important role in the development of osteoblasts and cardiomyocytes. However, whether CKIP-1 is involved in the generation of adipocytes as well as the MSC differentiation remains unknown. Here we show that CKIP-1 is a novel regulator of MSCs differentiating into adipocytes. MSCs derived from CKIP-1-deficient mice display enhanced adipogenesis upon induction. Further analysis showed that CKIP-1 interacts with the histone deacetylase HDAC1 in the nucleus and inhibits the transcription of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP?), which is a crucial adipogenic transcription factor. Ectopic expression of CKIP-1 in a MSC-like cell line C3H/10T1/2 reduced the generation of adipocytes due to suppression of adipogenic factors, including C/EBP?. Moreover, CKIP-1-deficient mice showed an increase in body weight and white adipose tissue gains when fed on a high-fat diet. Collectively, these results suggest that CKIP-1 is a novel inhibitor of MSC-originated adipogenesis by enhancing HDAC1-associated repression of C/EBP?.
Proteomics focuses on the systematic identification and quantification of entire proteomes and interpretation of proteins' biological functions. During the last decade, proteomics in China has grown much faster than other research fields in the life sciences. At the beginning of the second decade of the 21(st) century, the rapid development of high-resolution and high-speed mass spectrometry makes proteomics a powerful tool to study the mechanisms underlying physiological/pathological processes in organisms. This article provides a brief overview of proteomics technology development and representative scientific progress of the Human Liver Proteome Project (HLPP) in China over the past three years.
Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of Elopichthys bambusa was determined in this study. The gene composition, arrangement and transcriptional orientation in E. bambusa mitogenome were identical to most vertebrates. Two start codon patterns (ATG and GTG) and three stop codon patterns (TAG, TAA and T) were found in protein-coding genes. Only the tRNA-Ser2 could not fold into a typical clover-leaf secondary structure for lacking the dihydrouridine arm. Sequences alignment results suggest that the complete mitogenome of E. bambusa is an efficient tool to check species identification by comparing different gene sequences.
G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interactor 2 (GIT2) regulates thymocyte positive selection, neutrophil-direction sensing, and cell motility during immune responses by regulating the activity of the small GTPases ADP ribosylation factors (Arfs) and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1). Here, we show that Git2-deficient mice were more susceptible to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, Escherichia coli, or endotoxin-shock challenge, and a dramatic increase in proinflammatory cytokines was observed in Git2 knockout mice and macrophages. GIT2 is a previously unidentified negative regulator of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced NF-?B signaling. The ubiquitination of TNF receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is critical for the activation of NF-?B. GIT2 terminates TLR-induced NF-?B and MAPK signaling by recruiting the deubiquitinating enzyme Cylindromatosis to inhibit the ubiquitination of TRAF6. Finally, we show that the susceptibility of Git2-deficient mice to DSS-induced colitis depends on TLR signaling. Thus, we show that GIT2 is an essential terminator of TLR signaling and that loss of GIT2 leads to uncontrolled inflammation and severe organ damage.
We developed an adenovirus-based CRISPR/Cas9 system for gene editing in vivo. In the liver, we demonstrated that the system could reach the level of tissue-specific gene knockout, resulting in phenotypic changes. Given the wide spectrum of cell types susceptible to adenoviral infection, and the fact that adenoviral genome rarely integrates into its host cell genome, we believe the adenovirus-based CRISPR/Cas9 system will find applications in a variety of experimental settings.
Study of site-specific N-glycosylation in complex sample remains a huge analytical challenge because protein glycosylation is structurally diverse in post-translational modifications, resulting in an intricacy of N-glycopeptides. Here we have developed a novel approach for high-throughput N-glycopeptide profiling based on a network-centric algorithm for deciphering glycan fragmentation in mass spectrometry. We performed an extensive validation and a high-throughput N-glycosylation study on serum and identified thousands of N-glycopeptide spectra with high confidence. The results revealed a similar level of glycan microheterogeneity to that of conventional glycomics approach on individual proteins and provided the unique in-depth site-specific information that could only be studied through glycopeptide profiling.
The ubiquitin ligase Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor-1 (Smurf1) negatively regulates bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway by ubiquitinating certain signal components for degradation. Thus, it can be an eligible pharmacological target for increasing BMP signal responsiveness. We established a strategy to discover small molecule compounds that block the WW1 domain of Smurf1 from interacting with Smad1/5 by structure based virtual screening, molecular experimental examination and cytological efficacy evaluation. Our selected hits could reserve the protein level of Smad1/5 from degradation by interrupting Smurf1-Smad1/5 interaction and inhibiting Smurf1 mediated ubiquitination of Smad1/5. Further, these compounds increased BMP-2 signal responsiveness and the expression of certain downstream genes, enhanced the osteoblastic activity of myoblasts and osteoblasts. Our work indicates targeting Smurf1 for inhibition could be an accessible strategy to discover BMP-sensitizers that might be applied in future clinical treatments of bone disorders such as osteopenia.
Therapeutic antibodies that target T-cell co-inhibitory molecules display potent antitumor effects in multiple types of cancer. LSECtin is a cell surface lectin of the DC-SIGN family expressed in dendritic cells that inhibits T-cell responses. LSECtin limits T-cell activity in infectious disease, but it has not been studied in cancer. Here we report the finding that LSECtin is expressed commonly in melanomas where it blunts tumor-specific T-cell responses. When expressed in B16 melanoma cells, LSECtin promoted tumor growth, whereas its blockade slowed tumor growth in either wild-type or LSECtin-deficient mice. The tumor-promoting effects of LSECtin were abrogated in Rag1(-/-) mice or in response to CD4(+) or CD8(+) T-cell depletion. Mechanistic investigations determined that LSECtin inhibited the proliferation of tumor-specific effector T cells by downregulating the cell cycle kinases CDK2, CDK4, and CDK6. Accordingly, as expressed in B16, tumor cells LSECtin inhibited tumor-specific T-cell responses relying upon proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Notably, LSECtin interacted with the co-regulatory molecule LAG-3, the blockade of which restored IFN? secretion that was reduced by melanoma-derived expression of LSECtin. Together, our findings reveal that common expression of LSECtin in melanoma cells engenders a mechanism of immune escape, with implications for novel immunotherapeutic combination strategies.
Comprehensively identifying gene expression in both transcriptomic and proteomic levels of one tissue is a prerequisite for a deeper understanding of its biological functions. Alternative splicing and RNA editing, two main forms of transcriptional processing, play important roles in transcriptome and proteome diversity and result in multiple isoforms for one gene, which are hard to identify by mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics approach due to the relative lack of isoform information in standard protein databases. In our study, we employed MS and RNA-Seq in parallel into mouse liver tissue and captured a considerable catalogue of both transcripts and proteins that, respectively, covered 60 and 34% of protein-coding genes in Ensembl. We then developed a bioinformatics workflow for building a customized protein database that for the first time included new splicing-derived peptides and RNA-editing-caused peptide variants, allowing us to more completely identify protein isoforms. Using this experimentally determined database, we totally identified 150 peptides not present in standard biological databases at false discovery rate of <1%, corresponding to 72 novel splicing isoforms, 43 new genetic regions, and 15 RNA-editing sites. Of these, 11 randomly selected novel events passed experimental verification by PCR and Sanger sequencing. New discoveries of gene products with high confidence in two omics levels demonstrated the robustness and effectiveness of our approach and its potential application into improve genome annotation. All the MS data have been deposited to the iProx ( http://ww.iprox.org ) with the identifier IPX00003601.
Neddylation, the covalent attachment of ubiquitin-like protein Nedd8, of the Cullin-RING E3 ligase family regulates their ubiquitylation activity. However, regulation of HECT ligases by neddylation has not been reported to date. Here we show that the C2-WW-HECT ligase Smurf1 is activated by neddylation. Smurf1 physically interacts with Nedd8 and Ubc12, forms a Nedd8-thioester intermediate, and then catalyses its own neddylation on multiple lysine residues. Intriguingly, this autoneddylation needs an active site at C426 in the HECT N-lobe. Neddylation of Smurf1 potently enhances ubiquitin E2 recruitment and augments the ubiquitin ligase activity of Smurf1. The regulatory role of neddylation is conserved in human Smurf1 and yeast Rsp5. Furthermore, in human colorectal cancers, the elevated expression of Smurf1, Nedd8, NAE1 and Ubc12 correlates with cancer progression and poor prognosis. These findings provide evidence that neddylation is important in HECT ubiquitin ligase activation and shed new light on the tumour-promoting role of Smurf1.
A substantial amount of mitochondrial energy is required for cell-cycle progression. The mechanisms underlying the coordination of the mitochondrial respiration with cell-cycle progression, especially the G2/M transition, remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that a fraction of cyclin B1/Cdk1 proteins localizes to the matrix of mitochondria and phosphorylates a cluster of mitochondrial proteins, including the complex I (CI) subunits in the respiratory chain. Cyclin B1/Cdk1-mediated CI phosphorylation enhances CI activity, whereas deficiency of such phosphorylation in each of the relevant CI subunits results in impairment of CI function. Mitochondria-targeted cyclin B1/Cdk1 increases mitochondrial respiration with enhanced oxygen consumption and ATP generation, which provides cells with efficient bioenergy for G2/M transition and shortens overall cell-cycle time. Thus, cyclin B1/Cdk1-mediated phosphorylation of mitochondrial substrates allows cells to sense and respond to increased energy demand for G2/M transition and, subsequently, to upregulate mitochondrial respiration for successful cell-cycle progression.
Activated hepatic stellate cell (HSC) is the main myofibroblast cell in the liver fibrosis (LF). An important characteristic of the recovery of LF is not only the apoptosis of activated HSCs but also reversal of myofibroblast-like phenotype to a quiescent-like phenotype. Understanding the changes of secreted proteins in the reversion of activated HSCs may provide the broader view of cellular regulatory networks and discover candidate markers or targets for therapeutic strategies of LF. In this study, stable isotope labeling with amino acids (SILAC) combined with linear ion trap-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (LTQ-FT MS) was performed on in vitro activated HSCs and reverted HSCs to obtain a proteomic view of secretory proteins. In total, 330 proteins showed significant differences in reverted HSCs. Among these, 109 upregulated proteins were mainly involved in amino acid metabolism pathway and glucose metabolism pathway using GeneGO/MetaCore software, while 221 downregulated proteins are closely associated with HSCs activation, such as cytoskeleton remodeling, chemokines, and cell adhesion. Additionally, a set of novel proteins associated with HSCs activation and reversion were validated by Western blotting in the cell secretion and in the sera of LF, including vitronectin, laminin beta 1, and ubiquitin conjugation factor E4B. Our study provided the valuable insight into the mechanisms in the reversion of activated HSCs and identified some potential biomarkers of LF in clinical studies. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000773 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000773).
p73, a structural and functional homolog of p53, plays an important role in modulating cell cycle control and apoptosis. We examined whether the p73 G4C14-to-A4T14 polymorphism was related to the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) among Chinese populations. The G4C14-to-A4T14 polymorphism was genotyped in 593 NPC cases and 480 controls, and in 102 NPC trios. Logistic regression analysis and transmission/disequilibrium tests (TDT) were performed to evaluate whether there was an association between the polymorphism and NPC, respectively. Functional analyses were conducted to verify the biological relevance of the polymorphism. We observed that compared with the GC/GC genotype, the genotypes containing AT allele (GC/AT + AT/AT genotypes) were associated with significantly increased susceptibility to NPC [odds ratio (OR) = 1.51; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.16-1.95; P = 0.002]. Furthermore, compared with the GC/GC genotype, the GC/AT + AT/AT genotypes were significantly associated with the advanced lymph node metastasis (OR = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.02-2.11; P = 0.041). A significantly greater than expected transmission of the AT allele from heterozygous parents to offspring was also observed (P = 0.049) using the TDT. By using the TdT-mediated dUPT-biotin nick end labeling assay, we observed lower apoptosis in NPC tissues from the AT allele carriers compared with that from non-carriers. Furthermore, the relative TAp73 RNA levels of the AT allele were lower than those of the GC allele in heterozygous cells. Our findings suggest that the p73 G4C14-to-A4T14 polymorphism may play a role in mediating the susceptibility to NPC in Chinese populations.
Compared to the well-defined anti-apoptotic role of myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (MCL1), its antiproliferative function in tumorigenesis is less studied. We had recently reported that regulatory variants of MCL1 contribute to enhanced promoter activity but reduced risk of lung cancer. We hypothesized that MCL1 expression may manifest antiproliferative phenotype and its functional variations may have etiological relevance for breast cancer. We manipulated MCL1 expression in MCF-7 cells and MDA231 with overexpression and knockdown, analyzed the effects on cell viability and cell cycling phase, and characterized the correlation with expression profiles of key regulators of cell cycle. We further genotyped the -190 insertion polymorphism and the neighboring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 745 breast cancer patients and 537 controls and analyzed their association with cancer risk. We confirmed that heightened expression of MCL1 resulted in decreased proliferation ability of breast cancer cells. We further observed that MCL1 overexpression in breast cancer cells resulted in cell cycle progression arresting in S phase and concomitant enhanced expression of p27, which could be rescued by p27 knockdown with co-transfection of small interfering RNA (siRNA). Furthermore, we found a significant reduction in breast cancer risk [odds ratio (OR)?=?0.74; 95 % confidence interval (CI)?=?0.59-0.93] associated with -190 insertion genotype; the expression-enhancing regulatory haplotype (OR 0.79; 95 % CI 0.66-0.95) and diplotype (OR 0.71; 95 % CI 0.57-0.89) were consistently associated with decreased cancer susceptibility. The study demonstrates that the expression-enhancing regulatory variants of MCL1 are protective modifiers of breast cancer risk, and reduced cell proliferation and arrested cell cycle progression partly mediated by p27 might be the underlying mechanism.
Macrophages play pivotal roles in development, homeostasis, tissue repair and immunity. Macrophage proliferation is promoted by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-induced Akt signaling; yet, how this process is terminated remains unclear. Here, we identify casein kinase 2-interacting protein-1 (CKIP-1) as a novel inhibitor of macrophage proliferation. In resting macrophages, CKIP-1 was phosphorylated at Serine 342 by constitutively active GSK3?, the downstream target of Akt. This phosphorylation triggers the polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of CKIP-1. Upon M-CSF stimulation, Akt is activated by CSF-1R-PI3K and then inactivates GSK3?, leading to the stabilization of CKIP-1 and ?-catenin proteins. ?-catenin promotes the expression of proliferation genes including cyclin D and c-Myc. CKIP-1 interacts with TRAF6, a ubiquitin ligase required for K63-linked ubiquitination and plasma membrane recruitment of Akt, and terminates TRAF6-mediated Akt activation. By this means, CKIP-1 inhibits macrophage proliferation specifically at the late stage after M-CSF stimulation. Furthermore, CKIP-1 deficiency results in increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis of macrophages in vitro and CKIP-1(-/-) mice spontaneously develop a macrophage-dominated splenomegaly and myeloproliferation. Together, these data demonstrate that CKIP-1 plays a critical role in the regulation of macrophage homeostasis by inhibiting TRAF6-mediated Akt activation.
Faithful DNA replication is essential for the maintenance of genome integrity. Incomplete genome replication leads to DNA breaks and chromosomal rearrangements, which are causal factors in cancer and other human diseases. Despite their importance, the molecular mechanisms that control human genome stability are incompletely understood. Here, we report a pathway that is required for human genome replication and stability. This pathway has three components: an E3 ubiquitin ligase, a transcriptional repressor, and a replication protein. The E3 ubiquitin ligase RBBP6 ubiquitinates and destabilizes the transcriptional repressor ZBTB38. This repressor negatively regulates transcription and levels of the MCM10 replication factor on chromatin. Cells lacking RBBP6 experience reduced replication fork progression and increased damage at common fragile sites due to ZBTB38 accumulation and MCM10 downregulation. Our results uncover a pathway that ensures genome-wide DNA replication and chromosomal stability.
Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT1), mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) and p53 play important roles in the development of cancer. We examined whether the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PTEN, AKT1, MDM2 and p53 genes were related to the risk and severity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in the Chinese population. Seven SNPs [p53 rs1042522, PTEN rs11202592, AKT1 SNP1-5 (rs3803300, rs1130214, rs3730358, rs1130233 and rs2494732)] were genotyped in 593 NPC cases and 480 controls by PCR direct sequencing or PCR-RFLP analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). None of the polymorphisms alone was associated with the risk or severity of NPC. However, haplotype analyses indicated that a two-SNP core haplotype (SNP4-5, AA) in AKT1 was associated with a significantly increased susceptibility to NPC risk (adjusted OR ?=? 3.87, 95% CI ?=? 1.96-7.65; P<0.001). Furthermore, there was a significantly increased risk of NPC associated with the combined risk genotypes (i.e., p53 rs1042522 Arg/Pro + Pro/Pro, MDM2 rs2279244 G/T + G/G, PTEN rs11202592 C/C, AKT1 rs1130233 A/A). Compared with the low-risk group (0-2 combined risk genotypes), the high-risk group (3-4 combined risk genotypes) was associated with a significantly increased susceptibility to NPC risk (adjusted OR ?=? 1.67, 95% CI ?=? 1.12-2.50; P = 0.012). Our results suggest that genetic variants in the PTEN, AKT1, MDM2 and p53 tumor suppressor-oncoprotein network may play roles in mediating the susceptibility to NPC in Chinese populations.
To estimate the potential of the state-of-the-art proteomics technologies on full coverage of the encoding gene products, the Chinese Human Chromosome Proteome Consortium (CCPC) applied a multiomics strategy to systematically analyze the transciptome, translatome, and proteome of the same cultured hepatoma cells with varied metastatic potential qualitatively and quantitatively. The results provide a global view of gene expression profiles. The 9064 identified high confident proteins covered 50.2% of all gene products in the translatome. Those proteins with function of adhesion, development, reproduction, and so on are low abundant in transcriptome and translatome but absent in proteome. Taking the translatome as the background of protein expression, we found that the protein abundance plays a decisive role and hydrophobicity has a greater influence than molecular weight and isoelectric point on protein detectability. Thus, the enrichment strategy used for low-abundant transcription factors helped to identify missing proteins. In addition, those peptides with single amino acid polymorphisms played a significant role for the disease research, although they might negligibly contribute to new protein identification. The proteome raw and metadata of proteome were collected using the iProX submission system and submitted to ProteomeXchange (PXD000529, PXD000533, and PXD000535). All detailed information in this study can be accessed from the Chinese Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Database.
With the advance of experimental technologies, different stable isotope labeling methods have been widely applied to quantitative proteomics. Here, we present an efficient tool named SILVER for processing the stable isotope labeling mass spectrometry data. SILVER implements novel methods for quality control of quantification at spectrum, peptide and protein levels, respectively. Several new quantification confidence filters and indices are used to improve the accuracy of quantification results. The performance of SILVER was verified and compared with MaxQuant and Proteome Discoverer using a large-scale dataset and two standard datasets. The results suggest that SILVER shows high accuracy and robustness while consuming much less processing time. Additionally, SILVER provides user-friendly interfaces for parameter setting, result visualization, manual validation and some useful statistics analyses.Availability and implementation: SILVER and its source codes are freely available under the GNU General Public License v3.0 at http://bioinfo.hupo.org.cn/silver.
Background: Genetic variations in microRNAs may alter their processing, expression, and binding to target mRNAs, consequently affecting many cancer-related biological processes. Recently, a polymorphism rs11614913 in MIR196A2 was shown to affect the processing of the precursor microRNA into its mature forms and the repertoire of target mRNAs with which it interacts. We examined whether this polymorphism was relevant to the risk of occurrence or progression of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in the Chinese population. Methods: We genotyped the MIR196A2 rs11614913 in a case-control study of 1084 patients with NPC and 1036 cancer-free controls using TaqMan assay. The genetic associations with the risk of occurrence and progression of NPC were analyzed by logistic regression. Results: We observed a significantly increased occurrence of NPC associated with the rs11614913 T allele (odds ratio [OR]=1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.02-1.32, p=0.026) compared with the C allele. The T allele was also significantly associated with the advanced local tumor invasion (T3+T4 vs. T1+T2; OR=1.27, 95% CI=1.04-1.54, p=0.015) and advanced lymph node metastasis (N2+N3 vs. N0+N1; OR=1.23, 95% CI=1.02-1.49, p=0.031) of NPC compared with the C allele. Furthermore, stratified analysis indicated that the increased susceptibility to advanced lymph node metastasis of NPC related to the T allele was more pronounced in patients with a positive family history (N2+N3 vs. N0+N1; p=0.016, test for homogeneity). Conclusions: Our study suggests that the functional polymorphism rs11614913 in the MIR196A2 gene may contribute to the risk of occurrence and progression of NPC in the Chinese population.
The Chromosome-centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP) aims to map and annotate the entire human proteome by the "chromosome-by-chromosome" strategy. As the C-HPP proceeds, the increasing volume of proteomic data sets presents a challenge for customized and reproducible bioinformatics data analyses for mining biological knowledge. To address this challenge, we updated the previous static proteome browser CAPER into a higher version, CAPER 2.0 - an interactive, configurable and extensible workflow-based platform for C-HPP data analyses. In addition to the previous visualization functions of track-view and heatmap-view, CAPER 2.0 presents a powerful toolbox for C-HPP data analyses and also integrates a configurable workflow system that supports the view, construction, edit, run, and share of workflows. These features allow users to easily conduct their own C-HPP proteomic data analyses and visualization by CAPER 2.0. We illustrate the usage of CAPER 2.0 with four specific workflows for finding missing proteins, mapping peptides to chromosomes for genome annotation, integrating peptides with transcription factor binding sites from ENCODE data sets, and functionally annotating proteins. The updated CAPER is available at http://www.bprc.ac.cn/CAPE .
Our first proteomic exploration of human chromosome 1 began in 2012 (CCPD 1.0), and the genome-wide characterization of the human proteome through public resources revealed that 32-39% of proteins on chromosome 1 remain unidentified. To characterize all of the missing proteins, we applied an OMICS-integrated analysis of three human liver cell lines (Hep3B, MHCC97H, and HCCLM3) using mRNA and ribosome nascent-chain complex-bound mRNA deep sequencing and proteome profiling, contributing mass spectrometric evidence of 60 additional chromosome 1 gene products. Integration of the annotation information from public databases revealed that 84.6% of genes on chromosome 1 had high-confidence protein evidence. Hierarchical analysis demonstrated that the remaining 320 missing genes were either experimentally or biologically explainable; 128 genes were found to be tissue-specific or rarely expressed in some tissues, whereas 91 proteins were uncharacterized mainly due to database annotation diversity, 89 were genes with low mRNA abundance or unsuitable protein properties, and 12 genes were identifiable theoretically because of a high abundance of mRNAs/RNC-mRNAs and the existence of proteotypic peptides. The relatively large contribution made by the identification of enriched transcription factors suggested specific enrichment of low-abundance protein classes, and SRM/MRM could capture high-priority missing proteins. Detailed analyses of the differentially expressed genes indicated that several gene families located on chromosome 1 may play critical roles in mediating hepatocellular carcinoma invasion and metastasis. All mass spectrometry proteomics data corresponding to our study were deposited in the ProteomeXchange under the identifiers PXD000529, PXD000533, and PXD000535.
NEDD4-like ubiquitin ligase 2 (NEDL2) is a HECT type ubiquitin ligase. NEDL2 enhances p73 transcriptional activity and degrades ATR kinase in lamin misexpressed cells. Compared with the important functions of other HECT type ubiquitin ligase, there is less study concerning the function and regulation of NEDL2. Using primary antibody immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we identify a list of potential proteins that are putative NEDL2-interacting proteins. The candidate list contains many of mitotic proteins, especially including several subunits of anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) and Cdh1, an activator of APC/C. Cdh1 can interact with NEDL2 in vivo and in vitro. Cdh1 recognizes one of the NEDL2 destruction boxes (R(740)GSL(743)) and targets it for degradation in an APC/C-dependent manner during mitotic exit. Overexpression of Cdh1 reduces the protein level of NEDL2, whereas knockdown of Cdh1 increases the protein level of NEDL2 but has no effect on the NEDL2 mRNA level. NEDL2 associates with mitotic spindles, and its protein level reaches a maximum in mitosis. The function of NEDL2 during mitosis is essential because NEDL2 depletion prolongs metaphase, and overexpression of NEDL2 induces chromosomal lagging. Elevated expression of NEDL2 protein and mRNA are both found in colon cancer and cervix cancer. We conclude that NEDL2 is a novel substrate of APC/C-Cdh1 as cells exit mitosis and functions as a regulator of the metaphase to anaphase transition. Its overexpression may contribute to tumorigenesis.
The ubiquitin-like protein FAT10 (HLA-F adjacent transcript 10) is uniquely expressed in mammals. The fat10 gene is encoded in the MHC class I locus in the human genome and is related to some specific processes, such as apoptosis, immune response, and cancer. However, biological knowledge of FAT10 is limited, owing to the lack of identification of its conjugates. FAT10 covalently modifies proteins in eukaryotes, but only a few substrates of FAT10 have been reported until now, and no FATylated sites have been identified. Here, we report the proteome-scale identification of FATylated proteins by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We identified 175 proteins with high confidence as FATylated candidates. A total of 13 modified sites were identified for the first time by a modified search of the raw MS data. The modified sites were highly enriched with hydrophilic amino acids. Furthermore, the FATylation processes of hnRNP C2, PCNA, and PDIA3 were verified by a coimmunoprecipitation assay. We confirmed that most of the substrates were covalently attached to a FAT10 monomer. The functional distribution of the FAT10 targets suggests that FAT10 participates in various biological processes, such as translation, protein folding, RNA processing, and macromolecular complex assembly. These results should be very useful for investigating the biological functions of FAT10.
The directionality of protein interactions is the prerequisite of forming various signaling networks, and the construction of signaling networks is a critical issue in the discovering the mechanism of the life process. In this paper, we proposed a novel method to infer the directionality in protein-protein interaction networks and furthermore construct signaling networks. Based on the functional annotations of proteins, we proposed a novel parameter GODS and established the prediction model. This method shows high sensitivity and specificity to predict the directionality of protein interactions, evaluated by fivefold cross validation. By taking the threshold value of GODS as 2, we achieved accuracy 95.56 percent and coverage 74.69 percent in the human test set. Also, this method was successfully applied to reconstruct the classical signaling pathways in human. This study not only provided an effective method to unravel the unknown signaling pathways, but also the deeper understanding for the signaling networks, from the aspect of protein function.
Casein kinase 2 interacting protein 1 (CKIP-1) is a newly discovered intracellular negative regulator of bone formation without affecting bone resorption. In this study, we aimed to identify a cross-species siRNA sequence targeting CKIP-1 to facilitate developing a novel RNAi-based bone anabolic drug for reversing established osteoporosis.
Casein kinase-2 interacting protein-1 (CKIP-1) has been identified to play an important role in cell morphology, differentiation and apoptosis. However, the role of CKIP-1 in other cellular processes is still unknown. Here we investigated transcriptome profiles of WT and CKIP-1-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), and found that innate immunity and cell migration related pathways were significantly correlated with CKIP-1 expression. As macrophage is a key cell type in innate immunity, we then used murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells to discover CKIP-1 interacting proteins by immunoprecipitation/mass spectrometry (IP/MS). Analysis of these proteins revealed migration related pathways were enriched. Further experiments indicated that knockdown of CKIP-1 in RAW264.7 cells resulted in impaired cell migration. Our study suggests that CKIP-1 is a novel regulator of macrophage migration.
The current in-depth proteomics makes use of long chromatography gradient to get access to more peptides for protein identification, resulting in covering of as many as 8000 mammalian gene products in 3 days of mass spectrometer running time. Here we report a fast sequencing (Fast-seq) workflow of the use of dual reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) with a short gradient to achieve the same proteome coverage in 0.5 day. We adapted this workflow to a quantitative version (Fast quantification, Fast-quan) that was compatible to large-scale protein quantification. We subjected two identical samples to the Fast-quan workflow, which allowed us to systematically evaluate different parameters that impact the sensitivity and accuracy of the workflow. Using the statistics of significant test, we unraveled the existence of substantial falsely quantified differential proteins and estimated correlation of false quantification rate and parameters that are applied in label-free quantification. We optimized the setting of parameters that may substantially minimize the rate of falsely quantified differential proteins, and further applied them on a real biological process. With improved efficiency and throughput, we expect that the Fast-seq/Fast-quan workflow, allowing pair wise comparison of two proteomes in 1 day may make MS available to the masses and impact biomedical research in a positive way.
The directionality of protein interactions is the prerequisite of forming various signaling networks and the construction of signaling networks is a critical issue in the discovering the mechanism of the life process. In this paper, we proposed a novel method to infer the directionality in protein-protein interaction networks and furthermore construct signaling networks. Based on the functional annotations of proteins, we proposed a novel parameter GODS and established the prediction model. This method shows high sensitivity and specificity to predict the directionality of protein interactions, evaluated by 5-fold cross-validation. By taking the threshold value of GODS as 2, we achieved accuracy 95.56% and coverage 74.69% in the human test set. Also, this method was successfully applied to reconstruct the classical signaling pathways in human. This study not only provided an effective method to unravel the unknown signaling pathways, but the deeper understanding for the signaling networks, from the aspect of protein function.
Liver sinusoidal endothelial cell lectin (LSECtin) was recently reported to suppress intrahepatic T cell immunity and to limit immune-mediated liver injury. However, its role in the outcome and pathogenesis of viral infection has not yet been elucidated. Using a mouse model infected with a hepatotropic adenovirus, we found that the absence of LSECtin led to a higher frequency of intrahepatic effector CTLs. These cells produced higher levels of antiviral cytokines and cytotoxic factors and exhibited an increased expression of the transcription factors T-bet and Runx3. This phenotype observed in the LSECtin-knockout cells mediated a more efficient virus-specific cytotoxicity compared with that of wild-type cells. As a consequence, LSECtin deficiency significantly accelerated liver adenovirus clearance. In contrast, LSECtin upregulation in the liver delayed viral clearance; this delayed clearance was accompanied by the downregulation of the antiviral activity of CTLs. We further constructed an immunocompetent mouse model of acute hepatitis B viral infection to demonstrate that LSECtin significantly delayed the clearance of hepatitis B virus from blood and infected hepatocytes by limiting the frequency of hepatitis B virus-specific IFN-?-producing cells. Consistent with this function, LSECtin was upregulated in the liver of mouse models of viral hepatitis. Taken together, our results suggest that LSECtin may facilitate the reduction of liver inflammation at the cost of delaying virus clearance and that this effect might be hijacked by the virus as an escape mechanism.
In this study, we examined the use of multiple proteases (trypsin, LysC, tandem LysC/trypsin) on both protein identification and quantification in the Lys-labeled SILAC mouse liver. Our results show that trypsin and tandem LysC/trypsin digestion are superior to LysC in peptides and protein identification while LysC shows advantages in quantification of Lys-labeled proteins. Combination of experimental results from different proteases (LysC and trypsin) enabled a significant increase in the number of identified protein and protein can be quantified. Thus, taking advantage of the complementation of different protease should be a good strategy to improve both qualitative and quantitative proteomics research.
A large amount of liver-related physiological and pathological data exist in publicly available biological and bibliographic databases, which are usually far from comprehensive or integrated. Data collection, integration and mining processes pose a great challenge to scientific researchers and clinicians interested in the liver.
N-methylpurine DNA glycosylase (MPG), a DNA repair enzyme, functions in the DNA base excision repair (BER) pathway. Aberrant over-expression of MPG in various cancers suggests an important role of MPG in carcinogenesis. Identification of MPG-interacting proteins will help to dissect the molecular link between MPG and cancer development. In the present study, using immunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometry (IP/MS), we screened ubiquitin-like, containing PHD and RING finger domains 1 (UHRF1), an essential protein required for the maintenance of DNA methylation, as a MPG-interacting protein. Endogenous co-immunoprecipitation assay in cancer cells confirmed that UHRF1 interacted with MPG in a p53 status-independent manner. Confocal microscopy showed that endogenous MPG and UHRF1 were co-localized in the nucleoplasm. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation assay indicated that UHRF2, the homolog of UHRF1, could also interact with MPG. These results show that MPG and the UHRF family of proteins interact, thus providing a functional linkage between MPG and UHRF1/2.
Self-interacting proteins, whose two or more copies can interact with each other, play important roles in cellular functions and the evolution of protein interaction networks (PINs). Knowing whether a protein can self-interact can contribute to and sometimes is crucial for the elucidation of its functions. Previous related research has mainly focused on the structures and functions of specific self-interacting proteins, whereas knowledge on their overall properties is limited. Meanwhile, the two current most common high throughput protein interaction assays have limited ability to detect self-interactions because of biological artifacts and design limitations, whereas the bioinformatic prediction method of self-interacting proteins is lacking. This study aims to systematically study and predict self-interacting proteins from an overall perspective. We find that compared with other proteins the self-interacting proteins in the structural aspect contain more domains; in the evolutionary aspect they tend to be conserved and ancient; in the functional aspect they are significantly enriched with enzyme genes, housekeeping genes, and drug targets, and in the topological aspect tend to occupy important positions in PINs. Furthermore, based on these features, after feature selection, we use logistic regression to integrate six representative features, including Gene Ontology term, domain, paralogous interactor, enzyme, model organism self-interacting protein, and betweenness centrality in the PIN, to develop a proteome-wide prediction model of self-interacting proteins. Using 5-fold cross-validation and an independent test, this model shows good performance. Finally, the prediction model is developed into a user-friendly web service SLIPPER (SeLf-Interacting Protein PrEdictoR). Users may submit a list of proteins, and then SLIPPER will return the probability_scores measuring their possibility to be self-interacting proteins and various related annotation information. This work helps us understand the role self-interacting proteins play in cellular functions from an overall perspective, and the constructed prediction model may contribute to the high throughput finding of self-interacting proteins and provide clues for elucidating their functions.
When our knowledge of a field accumulates to a certain level, we are bound to see the rise of one or more great scientists. They will make a series of grand discoveries/breakthroughs and push the discipline into an age of grand discoveries. Mathematics, geography, physics and chemistry have all experienced their ages of grand discoveries; and in life sciences, the age of grand discoveries has appeared countless times since the 16th century. Thanks to the ever-changing development of molecular biology over the past 50 years, contemporary life science is once again approaching its breaking point and the trigger for this is most likely to be lifeomics. At the end of the 20th century, genomics wrote out the script of life; proteomics decoded the script; and RNAomics, glycomics and metabolomics came into bloom. These omics, with their unique epistemology and methodology, quickly became the thrust of life sciences, pushing the discipline to new high. Lifeomics, which encompasses all omics, has taken shape and is now signalling the dawn of a new era, the age of grand discoveries.
Deregulations of erythroid differentiation may lead to erythroleukemia and other hemoglobinopathies, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying these events are not fully understood. Here, we found that KAP-1-associated complexes contribute to the regulation of the ?-globin locus, the key events of erythroid differentiation. We show that RNAi-mediated knockdown of KAP-1 in mouse erythroleukemia (MEL) cells increases expression of the Ey and ?-major globin genes during hexamethylenebisacetamide (HMBA) induced differentiation process. This indicates that at least part of KAP-1-associated complexes negatively regulates ?-globin gene expression during definitive erythroid differentiation. ChIP-PCR analysis revealed that one or more KAP-1-associated complexes are targeted to the promoter region of the Ey and beta-major globin genes. Since KAP-1 is only a scaffold molecule, there must be some transcriptional regulators allowing its targeted recruitment to the ?-globin locus. To further discover these novel regulators, proteins interacting with KAP-1 were isolated by endogenous immunoprecipitation and identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Among the proteins identified, MafK and Zfp445 were studied further. We found that KAP-1 may contribute to the repression of Ey and ?-major globin gene transcription through recruitment to the promoters of these two genes, mediated by the interaction of KAP-1 with either Zfp445 or MafK, respectively.
Hillslope instability has been thought to be one of the most important factors for landslide susceptibility. In this study, we apply geomorphic analysis using multi-temporal DEM data and shake intensity analysis to evaluate the topographic characteristics of the landslide areas. There are many geomorphologic analysis methods such as roughness, slope aspect, which are also as useful as slope analysis. The analyses indicate that most of the co-seismic landslides occurred in regions with roughness, hillslope and slope aspect of >1.2, >30, and between 90 and 270, respectively. However, the intersection regions from the above three methods are more accurate than that derived by applying single topographic analysis method. The ground motion data indicates that the co-seismic landslides mainly occurred on the hanging wall side of Longmen Shan Thrust Belt within the up-down and horizontal peak ground acceleration (PGA) contour of 150 PGA and 200 gal, respectively. The comparisons of pre- and post-earthquake DEM data indicate that the medium roughness and slope increased, the roughest and steepest regions decreased after the Wenchuan earthquake. However, slope aspects did not even change. Our results indicate that co-seismic landslides mainly occurred at specific regions of high roughness, southward and steep sloping areas under strong ground motion. Co-seismic landslides significantly modified the local topography, especially the hillslope and roughness. The roughest relief and steepest slope are significantly smoothed; however, the medium relief and slope become rougher and steeper, respectively.
During the 10th HUPO Annual World Congress held in Geneva (Switzerland) from 4th to 7th September, a workshop on Human Liver Proteome Project (HLPP) Initiative took place. Four research groups presented their latest results from different ongoing projects. Later on, during the HLPP executive members meeting, the status of current projects and the next possible steps to be taken were discussed.
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. To explore tumor biomarkers for clinical application, two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis and subsequent MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry were performed to identify proteins differentially expressed in 12 pairs of lung squamous cell tumors and their corresponding normal tissues. A total of 28 nonredundant proteins were identified with significant alteration in lung tumors. The up-regulation of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1), superoxide dismutase 2, 14-3-3?, and receptor of activated protein kinase C1 and the down-regulation of peroxiredoxin 2 in tumors were validated by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis in independent 15 pairs of samples. Increased IDH1 expression was further verified by the immunohistochemical study in extended 73 squamous cell carcinoma and 64 adenocarcinoma clinical samples. A correlation between IDH1 expression and poor overall survival of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients was observed. Furthermore, ELISA analysis showed that the plasma level of IDH1 was significantly elevated in NSCLC patients compared with benign lung disease patients and healthy individuals. In addition, knockdown of IDH1 by RNA interference suppressed the proliferation of NSCLC cell line and decreased the growth of xenograft tumors in vivo. These observations suggested that IDH1, as a protein promoting tumor growth, could be used as a plasma biomarker for diagnosis and a histochemical biomarker for prognosis prediction of NSCLC.
The 12(th) HLPP workshop was held in conjunction with the 9(th) HUPO 2010 World Congress on September 20(th) in Sydney, Australia. This 2-hour workshop was chaired by Prof. Fuchu He (Beijing Proteome Research Center, BPRC). Highlights included: 1) progress of the post-translational modification of liver proteome; 2) construction of the human liver protein interaction and localization maps; 3) progress made in terms of identifying biomarker for liver diseases; and 4) discussion on the second phase of the initiative. This was followed by a lively discussion related to the project.
After the successful completion of the Human Genome Project, the Human Proteome Organization has recently officially launched a global Human Proteome Project (HPP), which is designed to map the entire human protein set. Given the lack of protein-level evidence for about 30% of the estimated 20,300 protein-coding genes, a systematic global effort will be necessary to achieve this goal with respect to protein abundance, distribution, subcellular localization, interaction with other biomolecules, and functions at specific time points. As a general experimental strategy, HPP research groups will use the three working pillars for HPP: mass spectrometry, antibody capture, and bioinformatics tools and knowledge bases. The HPP participants will take advantage of the output and cross-analyses from the ongoing Human Proteome Organization initiatives and a chromosome-centric protein mapping strategy, termed C-HPP, with which many national teams are currently engaged. In addition, numerous biologically driven and disease-oriented projects will be stimulated and facilitated by the HPP. Timely planning with proper governance of HPP will deliver a protein parts list, reagents, and tools for protein studies and analyses, and a stronger basis for personalized medicine. The Human Proteome Organization urges each national research funding agency and the scientific community at large to identify their preferred pathways to participate in aspects of this highly promising project in a HPP consortium of funders and investigators.
Dysfunction of molecules that regulate both apoptosis and proliferation is involved in tumorigenesis. A common insertional polymorphism in promoter of MCL1, a member of BCL2 family gene with the dual regulatory functions, has been shown to be functional in leukemia, but its association with cancer predisposition and prognosis has not been well established. We hypothesized that MCL1 promoter variants may modify risk of solid cancer.
High-throughput screens have revealed large-scale protein interaction networks defining most cellular functions. How the proteins were added to the protein interaction network during its growth is a basic and important issue. Network motifs represent the simplest building blocks of cellular machines and are of biological significance.
This study was undertaken to discover novel biomarkers for the noninvasive early diagnosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A methionine and choline deficient (MCD) diet was used to represent different stages of NAFLD in male C57BL/6 mice. (1)H NMR spectroscopy and principal components analysis (PCA) were used to investigate the time-related biochemical changes in mice sera induced by the MCD diet. Many serum metabolites concentrations changed between control and MCD-fed mice. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used to select the least number of metabolites to be used for the noninvasive diagnosis of various stages of NAFLD; four potential biomarkers, serum glucose, lactate, glutamate/glutamine, and taurine were selected. To verify the diagnostic accuracy of these selected metabolites, their serum concentrations were measured in healthy controls (n = 28), NAFLD patients with steatosis (n = 15), steatosis patients with necro-inflammatory disease (n = 11), and NASH patients (n = 6). On the basis of results from MCD-fed mice model, clinical tests, and previous reports, we propose using the levels of the four metabolites for diagnosing NAFLD at various stages. Furthermore, the probability of developing NAFLD at a particular stage was assessed by multinomial logistic regression (MLR) based on the clinical results of the four serum metabolites.
After successful completion of the Human Genome Project (HGP), HUPO has recently officially launched a global Human Proteome Project (HPP) which is designed to map the entire human protein set. Given the presence of about 30% undisclosed proteins out of 20,300 protein gene products, a systematic global effort is necessary to achieve this goal with respect to protein abundance, distribution, subcellular localization, interaction with other biomolecules, and functions at specific time points. As a general experimental strategy, HPP groups employ the three working pillars for HPP: mass spectrometry, antibody capture, and bioinformatics tools and knowledge base. The HPP participants will take advantage of the output and cross-analyses from the ongoing HUPO initiatives and a chromosome-based protein mapping strategy, termed C-HPP with many national teams currently engaged. In addition, numerous biologically-driven projects will be stimulated and facilitated by the HPP. Timely planning with proper governance of HPP will deliver a protein parts list, reagents and tools for protein studies and analyses, and a stronger basis for personalized medicine. HUPO urges each national research funding agency and the scientific community at large to identify their preferred pathways to participate in aspects of this highly promising project in a HPP consortium of funders and investigators.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects human hepatocytes through several host factors. However, other prerequisite factors for viral entry remain to be identified. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we found that human phospholipid scramblase 1 interacts with HCV envelope proteins E1 and E2. These physical interactions were confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays. Knocking down the expression of PLSCR1 inhibited the entry of HCV pseudoparticles. Moreover, PLSCR1 was required for the initial attachment of HCV onto hepatoma cells, where it specifically interacted with entry factor OCLN. We show that PLSCR1 is a novel attachment factor for HCV entry.
The diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the early stage is crucial to the application of curative treatments which are the only hope for increasing the life expectancy of patients. Recently, several large-scale studies have shed light on this problem through analysis of gene expression profiles to identify markers correlated with HCC progression. However, those marker sets shared few genes in common and were poorly validated using independent data. Therefore, we developed a systems biology based classifier by combining the differential gene expression with topological features of human protein interaction networks to enhance the ability of HCC diagnosis.
Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is a growth factor related to normal development and tumorigenesis; however, the mechanism of its mitogenic and angiogenic activity still remains unknown. Analysis of the HDGF interactome could be important for understanding its function and integrative mechanisms, because knowledge about HDGF interactors is very limited. In this study, through streptavidin-binding peptide (SBP) and Flag tag-based tandem affinity purification (SBP/Flag-TAP) coupled with LC-MS/MS, 106 proteins were shown to form complexes with HDGF. RNAs were also found in the HDGF complex through the SBP-tag based RNA co-immunoprecipitation (SBP-RIP) assay. Some of these interactions were confirmed by Co-IP and RT-PCR. We then found that the HATH domain was essential for HDGF interactions including protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions, and that in the absence of the HATH domain, NO-HATH could not form complex. The interactome suggests that HDGF is a multifunctional protein and participates in many cellular events, including ribosome biogenesis, RNA processing, DNA damage repair and transcriptional regulation. This new information about the HDGF interactome will further our understanding on HDGF-mediated cellular functions.
Tissue interstitial fluid (TIF) forms the interface between circulating body fluids and intracellular fluid. Pathological alterations of liver cells could be reflected in TIF, making it a promising source of liver disease biomarkers. Here, we introduce the method of extracting TIF from mouse liver. We confirm the absence of cellular protein contamination by western blot using organelle specific protein markers including lamin B, cytochrome C, and flotillin-1. Using two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), we demonstrate different profiling patterns among TIFs of liver tissue and hepatocytes. The high solubility and even distribution of liver TIF supports its suitability for proteome analysis. Based on the method introduced here, liver TIF in animal models and clinical samples could be extracted and analyzed for further application in liver disease biomarker discovery.
Proteome-scale protein interaction maps are available for many organisms, ranging from bacteria, yeast, worms and flies to humans. These maps provide substantial new insights into systems biology, disease research and drug discovery. However, only a small fraction of the total number of human protein-protein interactions has been identified. In this study, we map the interactions of an unbiased selection of 5026 human liver expression proteins by yeast two-hybrid technology and establish a human liver protein interaction network (HLPN) composed of 3484 interactions among 2582 proteins. The data set has a validation rate of over 72% as determined by three independent biochemical or cellular assays. The network includes metabolic enzymes and liver-specific, liver-phenotype and liver-disease proteins that are individually critical for the maintenance of liver functions. The liver enriched proteins had significantly different topological properties and increased our understanding of the functional relationships among proteins in a liver-specific manner. Our data represent the first comprehensive description of a HLPN, which could be a valuable tool for understanding the functioning of the protein interaction network of the human liver.
Increases in human telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) expression and telomerase activity are frequently seen in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Recently, a variable tandem-repeats polymorphism, MNS16A, located in the downstream region of the TERT gene, was identified and reported to have an effect on TERT expression and telomerase activity. We examined whether the functional MNS16A was related to the risk of occurrence or progression of NPC in the Chinese population.
It becomes increasingly clear that separation of pure cell populations provides a uniquely sensitive and accurate approach to protein profiling in biological systems and opens up a new area for proteomic analysis. The method we described could simultaneously isolate population of hepatocytes (HCs), hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), Kupffer cells (KCs) and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) by a combination of collagenase-based density gradient centrifugation and magnetic activated cell sorting with high purity and yield for the first time. More than 98% of the isolated HCs were positive for cytokeratin 18, with a viability of 91%. Approximately 97% of the isolated HSCs expressed glial fibrillary acidic protein with a viability of 95%. Nearly 98% of isolated KCs expressed F4/80 with a viability of 94%. And the purity of LSECs reached up to 91% with a viability of 94%. And yield for HCs, HSCs, LSECs and KCs were 6.3, 1.3, 2.6 and 5.0 million per mouse. This systematic isolation method enables us to study the proteome profiling of different types of liver cells with high purity and yield, which is especially useful for sample preparation of Human Liver Proteome Project.
The HECT-type ubiquitin ligase (E3) Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor 1 (Smurf1) targets various substrates, including Smad1/5, RhoA, Prickle 1, MEKK2, and JunB for degradation and thereby regulates adult bone formation and embryonic development. Here, we identify the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized Wolfram syndrome protein (WFS1) as a specific degradation substrate of Smurf1. Mutations in the WFS1 gene cause Wolfram syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy. WFS1 negatively regulates the ER stress response, and WFS1 deficiency in mice increases ER stress and triggers apoptosis. We show that Smurf1 interacts with WFS1 at the ER and promotes the ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of WFS1. A C-terminal luminal region in WFS1, including residues 667-700, is involved in this degradation. Wild-type WFS1 as well as a subset of WFS1 mutants that include this degron region are susceptible to Smurf1-mediated degradation. By contrast, pathophysiological deletion mutants of WFS1 lacking the degron, such as W648X, Y660X, and Q667X, are resistant to degradation by Smurf1. Depletion of Smurf1 by RNA interference results in increased WFS1 and decreased ATF6? levels. Furthermore, we show that ER stress induces Smurf1 degradation and WFS1 up-regulation. These findings reveal for the first time that Smurf1 targets an ER-localized protein for degradation and that Smurf1 is regulated by ER stress.
The C2-WW-HECT-type ubiquitin ligases Smurf1 and Smurf2 play a critical role in embryogenesis and adult bone homeostasis via regulation of bone morphogenetic protein, Wnt, and RhoA signaling pathways. The intramolecular interaction between C2 and HECT domains autoinhibits the ligase activity of Smurf2. However, the role of the Smurf1 C2 domain remains elusive. Here, we show that the C2-HECT autoinhibition mechanism is not observed in Smurf1, and instead its C2 domain functions in substrate selection. The Smurf1 C2 domain exerts a key role in localization to the plasma membrane and endows Smurf1 with differential activity toward RhoA versus Smad5 and Runx2. Crystal structure analysis reveals that the Smurf1 C2 domain possesses a typical anti-parallel ?-sandwich fold. Examination of the sulfate-binding site analysis reveals two key lysine residues, Lys-28 and Lys-85, within the C2 domain that are important for Smurf1 localization at the plasma membrane, regulation on cell migration, and robust ligase activity toward RhoA, which further supports a Ca(2+)-independent localization mechanism for Smurf1. These findings demonstrate a previously unidentified role of the Smurf1 C2 domain in substrate selection and cellular localization.
Functional proteomics can be defined as a strategy to couple proteomic information with biochemical and physiological analyses with the aim of understanding better the functions of proteins in normal and diseased organs. In recent years, a variety of publicly available bioinformatics databases have been developed to support protein-related information management and biological knowledge discovery. In addition to being used to annotate the proteome, these resources also offer the opportunity to develop global approaches to the study of the functional role of proteins both in health and disease. Here, we present a comprehensive review of the major human protein bioinformatics databases. We conclude this review by discussing a few examples that illustrate the importance of these databases in functional proteomics research.
Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) has been demonstrated to be essential for normal lung development, erythroid differentiation, T-cell differentiation, migration and homing. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of KLF2, in particular its responsible E3 ligase is still unclear. Here we show that the homologous to E6AP carboxyl terminus (HECT)-type ubiquitin ligase Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor 1 (Smurf1) interacts with and targets KLF2 for poly-ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation specifically in lung cancer H1299 cells. The catalytic ligase activity of Smurf1 is required for it to regulate KLF2. Consequently, Smurf1 represses the transcriptional factor activity of KLF2 and regulates the expression its downstream genes such as CD62L and Wee1. This study provided the first evidence that Smurf1 functions as an E3 ligase to promote the ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of KLF2.
The serological markers with coexistence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection were rare pattern. The virological significance, immune response and clinical outcome of these patients remain largely unknown.
A non-invasive diagnostic approach is crucial for the evaluation of severity of liver disease, treatment decisions, and assessing drug efficacy. This study evaluated plasma proteomic profiling via an N-terminal isotope tagging strategy coupled with liquid chromatography/Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry measurement to detect liver fibrosis staging. Pooled plasma from different liver fibrosis stages, which were assessed in advance by the current gold-standard of liver biopsy, was quantitatively analyzed. A total of 72 plasma proteins were found to be dysregulated during the fibrogenesis process, and this finding constituted a valuable candidate plasma biomarker bank for follow-up analysis. Validation results of fibronectin by Western blotting reconfirmed the mass-based data. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis showed four types of metabolic networks for the functional effect of liver fibrosis disease in chronic hepatitis B patients. Consequently, quantitative proteomics via the N-terminal acetyl isotope labeling technique provides an effective and useful tool for screening plasma candidate biomarkers for liver fibrosis. We quantitatively monitored the fibrogenesis process in CHB patients. We discovered many new valuable candidate biomarkers for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis and also partly identified the mechanism involved in liver fibrosis disease. These results provide a clearer understanding of liver fibrosis pathophysiology and will also hopefully lead to improvement of clinical diagnosis and treatment.
Genetic background may play an important role in the process of SARS-CoV infection and SARS development. We found several proteins that could interact with the nucleocapsid protein of the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). ?-2-Heremans-Schmid Glycoprotein (AHSG), which is required for macrophage deactivation by endogenous cations, is associated with inflammatory regulation. Cytochrome P450 Family 3A (CYP4F3A) is an ?-oxidase that inactivates Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) in human neutrophils and the liver. We investigated the association between the polymorphisms of these two inflammation-associated genes and SARS development. The linkage disequilibrium (LD) maps of these two genes were built with Haploview using data on CHB+JPT (version 2) from the HapMap. A total of ten tag SNPs were selected and genotyped. In the Guangzhou cohort study, after adjusting for age and sex, two AHSG SNPs and one CYP4F3 SNP were found to be associated with SARS susceptibility: rs2248690 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.42; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30-4.51); rs4917 (AOR 1.84; 95% CI 1.02-3.34); and rs3794987 (AOR 2.01; 95% CI 1.10-3.68). To further validate the association, the ten tag SNPs were genotyped in the Beijing cohort. After adjusting for age and sex, only rs2248690 (AOR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.30-2.04) was found to be associated with SARS susceptibility. The combined analysis of the two studies confirmed tag SNP rs2248690 in AHSG as a susceptibility variant (AOR 1.70; 95% CI 1.37-2.09). The statistical analysis of the rs2248690 genotype data among the patients and healthy controls in the HCW cohort, who were all similarly exposed to the SARS virus, also supported the findings. Further, the SNP rs2248690 affected the transcriptional activity of the AHSG promoter and thus regulated the AHSG serum level. Therefore, our study has demonstrated that the AA genotype of rs2268690, which leads to a higher AHSG serum concentration, was significantly associated with protection against SARS development.
Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor 1 (Smurf1), an homologous to E6AP C-terminus (HECT)-type E3 ubiquitin ligase, performs a crucial role in the regulation of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling pathway in both embryonic development and bone remodelling. How the stability and activity of Smurf1 are negatively regulated remains largely unclear. Here, we report that F-box and LRR domain-containing protein 15 (FBXL15), an F-box protein of the FBXL family, forms an Skp1-Cullin1-F-box protein-Roc1 (SCF)(FBXL15) ubiquitin ligase complex and targets Smurf1 for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. FBXL15, through its leucine-rich repeat domain, specifically recognizes the large subdomain within the N-lobe of the Smurf1 HECT domain and promotes the ubiquitination of Smurf1 on K355 and K357 within the WW-HECT linker region. In this way, FBXL15 positively regulates BMP signalling in mammalian cells. Knockdown of fbxl15 expression in zebrafish embryos by specific antisense morpholinos causes embryonic dorsalization phenocoping BMP-deficient mutants. Injection of FBXL15 siRNAs into rat bone tissues leads to a significant loss of bone mass and decrease in bone mineral density. Collectively, our results demonstrate that Smurf1 stability is suppressed by SCF(FBXL15)-mediated ubiquitination and that FBXL15 is a key regulator of BMP signalling during embryonic development and adult bone formation.
Analysis of the mitochondrial proteome would provide valuable insight into the function of this important organelle, which plays key roles in energy metabolism, apoptosis, free radical production, thermogenesis, and calcium signaling. It could also increase our understanding about the mechanisms that promote mitochondrial disease. To identify proteins that are antigenically dominant in human liver mitochondria, we generated >240 hybridoma cell lines from native mitochondrial proteins after cell fusion, screening, and cloning. Antibodies that recognized mitochondrial proteins were identified by screening human liver cDNA expression libraries. In this study, we identified 6 major antigens that were recognized by at least 2 different monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The proteins that were antigenically dominant were: acetyl-Coenzyme A acyltransferase 2 (mitochondrial 3-oxoacyl-Coenzyme A thiolase), aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member A1, carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1, dihydrolipoamide S-acetyltransferase (E2 component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex), enoyl coenzyme A hydratase 1, and hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 1. We also determined the subcellular localizations of these enzymes within the mitochondria using immunohistocytochemistry. We believe that these well-characterized antibodies will provide a valuable resource for the Human Liver Proteome Project (HLPP), and will make studies aimed at investigating liver mitochondrial function far easier to perform in future. Our results provide strong evidence that, (i) depletion of dominant proteins from liver mitochondrial samples is possible and, (ii) the approaches adopted in this study can be used to explore or validate protein-protein interactions in this important organelle.
Baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat-containing 5 (BIRC5, also called as survivin) is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, which plays an important role in the occurrence and progression of cancer. Recently, a polymorphism in the promoter of BIRC5, -31C/G (rs9904341), was shown to influence BIRC5 expression.
We report here a procedure for the independent analysis of two groups of peptides by liquid chromatography-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LC-MALDI MS/MS), using a selective isolation-detection procedure. In this procedure all primary amino groups of tryptic peptides derived from mouse liver proteins are blocked, restricting their positive charge, at acidic pH, to the presence of histidine and arginine residues. After strong cation exchange chromatography, multiply charged peptides (R + H > 1) are retained on the column and separated with high selectivity from singly (R + H = 1) and neutral peptides (R + H = 0) which are together collected in the flow-through. Using LC-MALDI-MS/MS analysis, the retained fraction displayed a 94% of enrichment of multiply charged peptides while in the flow-through; peptides with at least one arginine or histidine residue were exclusively identified, which suggests that MS detection in this fraction is restricted only to those peptides with ionizable side chains, arginine and histidine amino acids.
Microarray has been widely used to measure the gene expression level on the genome scale in the current decade. Many algorithms have been developed to reconstruct gene regulatory networks based on microarray data. Unfortunately, most of these models and algorithms focus on global properties of the expression of genes in regulatory networks. And few of them are able to offer intuitive parameters. We wonder whether some simple but basic characteristics of microarray datasets can be found to identify the potential gene regulatory relationship.
NuSAP is a microtubule-associated protein that plays an important role in spindle assembly. NuSAP deficiency in mice leads to early embryonic lethality. Spindle assembly in NuSAP-deficient cells is highly inefficient and chromosomes remain dispersed in the mitotic cytoplasm. ATM is a key kinase that phosphorylates a series of substrates to mediate G1/S control. However, the role of ATM at the G2/M phase is not well understood. Here we demonstrate that ectopic expression of NuSAP lead to mitotic arrest observably dependent on the kinase activity of ATM. When endogenous ATM was depleted or its kinase activity was inhibited, NuSAP could not cause mitotic arrest. We further show ATM interacts with NuSAP and phosphorylates NuSAP on Ser124. The phosphorylation and interaction occur specifically at G2/M-phase. Collectively, our work has uncovered an ATM-dependent checkpoint pathway that prevents mitotic progression by targeting a microtubule-associated protein, NuSAP.
The probability-based search engine MASCOT has been widely used to identify peptides and proteins in shotgun proteomic research. Most subsequent quality control methods filter out ambiguous assignments according to the ion score and thresholds provided by MASCOT. On the basis of target-decoy database search strategy, we evaluated the performance of several filter methods on MASCOT search results and demonstrated that using filter boundaries on two-dimensional feature spaces, the MASCOT ion score and its relative score can improve the sensitivity of the filter process. Furthermore, using a linear combination of several characteristics of the assigned peptides, including the MASCOT scores, 15 previously employed features, and some newly introduced features, we applied a Bayesian nonparametric model to MASCOT search results and validated more correctly identified peptides in control and complex data sets than those could be validated by empirical score thresholds.
To manufacture raw ham in an efficient manner, we recently developed a new system in which presliced pork loin was used, and the processing time was reduced to 5% of the conventional method. This study aimed to examine whether this raw ham could be as safe as ham produced by the conventional method. Pork loin spiked with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes serotype 1/2c, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, and Staphylococcus aureus were processed using either the new or conventional method. The fate of the foodborne pathogens and behavior of hygiene indicator bacteria were examined. Whereas nitrite had disappeared during the conventional packaging process, the reduced processing time in the new system allowed for the ham to be vacuum packed with retention of the nitrite (6.9±1.2 ppm, P<0.01). This accounts for the prominent decrease in L. monocytogenes (2.3 log reduction in 35 days) and S. aureus (3.3 log reduction in 13 days) counts during storage. E. coli O157 and Salmonella Enteritidis were likely resistant to the nitrite in the ham. However, they were unable to multiply in the ham and decreased gradually as in the conventionally produced ham. The bacteriostatic nature of the raw ham was also indicated by the gradual decrease in coliforms (1.3 log reduction in 13 days) in nonspiked ham. In conclusion, the raw ham produced using presliced pork loin is practically as safe as conventionally produced raw ham. It is worth validating these results in a small-scale production setting.
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