Bone metastasis is a lethal and morbid late stage of breast cancer that is currently treatment resistant. More effective mouse models and treatment are necessary. High bone-metastatic variants of human breast cancer cells were selected in nude mice by cardiac injection. After cardiac injection of a high bone-metastatic variant of breast cancer, all untreated mice had bone metastases compared to only 20% with parental cells. Treatment with tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R completely prevented the appearance of bone metastasis of the high metastatic variant in nude mice (P < 0.001). After injection of the highly bone-metastatic breast cancer variant to the tibia of nude mice, S. typhimurium A1-R treatment significantly reduced tumor growth in the bone (P < 0.001). These data indicated that S. typhimurium A1-R is useful to prevent and inhibit breast cancer bone metastasis and should be of future clinical use for breast cancer in the adjuvant setting.
We previously defined macrophages harvested from the peritoneal cavity of nude mice with subcutaneous human pancreatic tumors as "tumor-educated-macrophages" (Edu) and macrophages harvested from mice without tumors as "naïve-macrophages" (Naïve), and demonstrated that Edu-macrophages promoted tumor growth and metastasis. In this study, Edu- and Naïve-macrophages were compared for their ability to enhance pancreatic cancer malignancy at the cellular level in vitro and in vivo. The inhibitory efficacy of Zoledronic acid (ZA) on Edu-macrophage-enhanced metastasis was also determined. XPA1 human pancreatic cancer cells in Gelfoam co-cultured with Edu-macrophages proliferated to a greater extent compared to XPA1 cells cultured with Naïve-macrophages (P = 0.014). XPA1 cells exposed to conditioned medium harvested from Edu culture significantly increased proliferation (P = 0.016) and had more migration stimulation capability (P<0.001) compared to cultured cancer cells treated with the conditioned medium from Naïve. The mitotic index of the XPA1 cells, expressing GFP in the nucleus and RFP in the cytoplasm, significantly increased in vivo in the presence of Edu- compared to Naïve-macrophages (P = 0.001). Zoledronic acid (ZA) killed both Edu and Naïve in vitro. Edu promoted tumor growth and metastasis in an orthotopic mouse model of the XPA1 human pancreatic cancer cell line. ZA reduced primary tumor growth (P = 0.006) and prevented metastasis (P = 0.025) promoted by Edu-macrophages. These results indicate that ZA inhibits enhanced primary tumor growth and metastasis of human pancreatic cancer induced by Edu-macrophages.
We report here the efficacy of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (A1-R) on mouse models of disseminated and metastatic ovarian cancer. The proliferation-inhibitory efficacy of A1-R on human ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV-3-GFP, OVCAR-3-RFP) was initially demonstrated in vitro. Orthotopic and dissemination mouse models of ovarian cancer were made with the human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV-3-GFP. After tumor implantation, the mice were treated with A1-R (5?×?10(7) ?colony-forming units [CFU], i.v.), and there were no severe adverse events observed. In the orthotopic model, tumor volume after treatment was 276?±?60.8?mm(3), compared to 930?±?342?mm(3) in the untreated control group (P?=?0.022). There was also a significant difference in survival between treated mice and untreated mice in a peritoneal dissemination model (P?=?0.005). The results of this report demonstrate that A1-R is effective for highly aggressive human ovarian cancer in metastatic and dissemination mouse models and suggest its clinical potential for this highly treatment-resistant disease.
The phase of the cell cycle can determine whether a cancer cell can respond to a given drug. We report here on the results of monitoring of real-time cell cycle dynamics of cancer cells throughout a live tumor intravitally using a fluorescence ubiquitination cell cycle indicator (FUCCI) before, during, and after chemotherapy. In nascent tumors in nude mice, approximately 30% of the cells in the center of the tumor are in G?/G? and 70% in S/G?/M. In contrast, approximately 90% of cancer cells in the center and 80% of total cells of an established tumor are in G?/G? phase. Similarly, approximately 75% of cancer cells far from (> 100 µm) tumor blood vessels of an established tumor are in G?/G?. Longitudinal real-time imaging demonstrated that cytotoxic agents killed only proliferating cancer cells at the surface and, in contrast, had little effect on quiescent cancer cells, which are the vast majority of an established tumor. Moreover, resistant quiescent cancer cells restarted cycling after the cessation of chemotherapy. Our results suggest why most drugs currently in clinical use, which target cancer cells in S/G?/M, are mostly ineffective on solid tumors. The results also suggest that drugs that target quiescent cancer cells are urgently needed.
We have previously demonstrated that ultraviolet (UV) light is effective against a variety of cancer cells expressing fluorescent proteins in vivo as well as in vitro. In the present report, we compared the DNA damage repair (DDR) response of pancreatic cancer cells after UVB or UVC irradiation. The UV-induced DNA damage repair was imaged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to the DDR-related chromatin-binding protein 53BP1 in MiaPaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer cells growing in 3D Gelfoam® histoculture and in superficial tumors grown in nude mice. 53BP1-GFP forms foci during DNA damage repair. A clonogenic assay in 2D monolayer culture initially showed that UVC and UVB inhibited MiaPaCa-2 cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, with UVC having more efficacy. Three-dimensional Gelfoam® histocultures and confocal imaging enabled 53BP1-GFP foci to be observed within 1?h after UV irradiation, indicating the onset of DDR response. UVB-induced 53BP1-GFP focus formation was observed up to a depth of 120?µm in MiaPaCa-2 cells on Gelfoam® compared to 80?µm for UVC. UVB-induced 53BP1-GFP focus formation was observed up to a depth of 80?µm in MiaPaCa-2 cells, implanted within skin flaps in mice, at a significantly greater extent than UVC. MiaPaCa-2 cells irradiated by UVB or UVC in the skin-flap mouse model had a significant decrease in tumor growth compared to untreated controls with UVB having more efficacy than UVC. Our results demonstrate that UVB has greater tissue penetration than UVC because of its longer wavelength and has clinical potential for eradicating superficial cancer.
We previously described a color-coded imaging model that can quantify the length of nascent blood vessels using Gelfoam® implanted in nestin-driven green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP) nude mice. In ND-GFP mice, nascent blood vessels are labeled with GFP. We report here that osteosarcoma cells promote angiogenesis in the Gelfoam® angiogenesis assay in ND-GFP mice. Gelfoam® was initially transplanted subcutaneously in the flank of transgenic ND-GFP nude mice. Seven days after transplantation of Gelfoam®, skin flaps were made and human 143B osteosarcoma cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the nucleus and red fluorescent protein (RFP) in cytoplasm were injected into the transplanted Gelfoam®. The control-group mice had only implanted Gelfoam®. Skin flaps were made at days 14, 21, and 28 after transplantation of the Gelfoam® to allow imaging of vascularization in the Gelfoam® using a variable-magnification small animal imaging system and confocal fluorescence microscopy. ND-GFP expressing nascent blood vessels penetrated and spread into the Gelfoam® in a time-dependent manner in both control and osteosarcoma-implanted mice. ND-GFP expressing blood vessels in the Gelfoam® of the osteosarcoma-implanted mice were associated with the cancer cells and larger and longer than in the Gelfoam®-only implanted mice (P?0.01). The results presented in this report demonstrate strong angiogenesis induction by osteosarcoma cells and suggest this process is a potential therapeutic target for this disease.
Fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) can enable successful cancer surgery where bright-light surgery often cannot. There are three important issues for FGS going forward toward the clinic: (a) proper tumor labeling, (b) a simple portable imaging system for the operating room, and (c) patient-like mouse models in which to develop the technology. The present report addresses all three.
Cell and tissue culture can be performed on different substrates such as on plastic, in Matrigel™, and on Gelfoam(®), a sponge matrix. Each of these substrates consists of a very different surface, ranging from hard and inflexible, a gel, and a sponge-matrix, respectively. Folkman and Moscona found that cell shape was tightly coupled to DNA synthesis and cell growth. Therefore, the flexibility of a substrate is important for cells to maintain their optimal shape. Human osteosarcoma cells, stably expressing a fusion protein of ?(v) integrin and green fluorescent protein (GFP), grew as a simple monolayer without any structure formation on the surface of a plastic dish. When the osteosarcoma cells were cultured within Matrigel™, the cancer cells formed colonies but no other structures. When the cancer cells were seeded on Gelfoam(®), the cells formed three-dimensional tissue-like structures. The behavior of 143B osteosarcoma cells on Gelfoam(®) in culture is remarkably different from those of these cells in monolayer culture or in Matrigel™. Tissue-like structures were observed only in Gelfoam(®) culture. The data in this report suggest a flexible structural substrate such as Gelfoam(®) provides a more in vivo-like culture condition than monolayer culture or Matrigel(TM) and that Matrigel(TM) does not result in actual three-dimensional culture.
Invasive cancer cells are a critical target in order to prevent metastasis. In the present report, we demonstrate real-time visualization of cell cycle kinetics of invading cancer cells in 3-dimensional (3D) Gelfoam® histoculture, which is in vivo-like. A fluorescence ubiquitination cell cycle indicator (FUCCI) whereby G0/G1 cells express a red fluorescent protein and S/G2/M cells express a green fluorescent protein was used to determine the cell cycle position of invading and non-invading cells. With FUCCI 3D confocal imaging, we observed that cancer cells in G0/G1 phase in Gelfoam® histoculture migrated more rapidly and further than cancer cells in S/G2/M phases. Cancer cells ceased migrating when they entered S/G2/M phases and restarted migrating after cell division when the cells re-entered G0/G1. Migrating cancer cells also were resistant to cytotoxic chemotherapy, since they were preponderantly in G0/G1, where cytotoxic chemotherapy is not effective. The results of the present report suggest that novel therapy targeting G0/G1 cancer cells should be developed to prevent metastasis.
The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (A1-R) on pancreatic cancer patient-derived orthotopic xenografts (PDOX). The PDOX model was originally established from a pancreatic cancer patient in SCID-NOD mice. The pancreatic cancer PDOX was subsequently transplanted by surgical orthotopic implantation (SOI) in transgenic nude red fluorescent protein (RFP) mice in order that the PDOX stably acquired red fluorescent protein (RFP)-expressing stroma for the purpose of imaging the tumor after passage to non-transgenic nude mice in order to visualize tumor growth and drug efficacy. The nude mice with human pancreatic PDOX were treated with A1-R or standard chemotherapy, including gemcitabine (GEM), which is first-line therapy for pancreatic cancer, for comparison of efficacy. A1-R treatment significantly reduced tumor weight, as well as tumor fluorescence area, compared to untreated control (P?=?0.011), with comparable efficacy of GEM, CDDP, and 5-FU. Histopathological response to treatment was defined according to Evans's criteria and A1-R had increased efficacy compared to standard chemotherapy. The present report is the first to show that A1-R is effective against a very low-passage patient tumor, in this case, pancreatic cancer. The data of the present report suggest A1-1 will have clinical activity in pancreatic cancer, a highly lethal and treatment-resistant disease and may be most effectively used in combination with other agents.
The aim of this study is to determine if ultraviolet light (UVC) irradiation in combination with fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) can eradicate metastatic human pancreatic cancer in orthotopic nude-mouse models. Two weeks after orthotopic implantation of human MiaPaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells, expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP), in nude mice, bright-light surgery (BLS) was performed on all tumor-bearing mice (n?=?24). After BLS, mice were randomized into 3 treatment groups; BLS-only (n?=?8) or FGS (n?=?8) or FGS-UVC (n?=?8). The residual tumors were resected using a hand-held portable imaging system under fluorescence navigation in mice treated with FGS and FGS-UVC. The surgical resection bed was irradiated with 2700 J/m2 UVC (254 nm) in the mice treated with FGS-UVC. The average residual tumor area after FGS (n?=?16) was significantly smaller than after BLS only (n?=?24) (0.135±0.137 mm2 and 3.338±2.929 mm2, respectively; p?=?0.007). The BLS treated mice had significantly reduced survival compared to FGS- and FGS-UVC-treated mice for both relapse-free survival (RFS) (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively) and overall survival (OS) (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). FGS-UVC-treated mice had increased RFS and OS compared to FGS-only treated mice (p?=?0.008 and p?=?0.025, respectively); with RFS lasting at least 150 days indicating the animals were cured. The results of the present study suggest that UVC irradiation in combination with FGS has clinical potential to increase survival.
In this study, we investigated the advantages of fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) in mice of a portable hand-sized imaging system compared with a large fluorescence imaging system or a long-working-distance fluorescence microscope.
The XPA1 human pancreatic cancer cell line is dimorphic, with spindle stem-like cells and round non-stem cells. We report here the in vitro IC 50 values of stem-like and non-stem XPA1 human pancreatic cells cells for: (1) 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), (2) cisplatinum (CDDP), (3) gemcitabine (GEM), and (4) tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (A1-R). IC 50 values of stem-like XPA1 cells were significantly higher than those of non-stem XPA1 cells for 5-FU (P = 0.007) and CDDP (P = 0.012). In contrast, there was no difference between the efficacy of A1-R on stem-like and non-stem XPA1 cells. In vivo, 5-FU and A1-R significantly reduced the tumor weight of non-stem XPA1 cells (5-FU; P = 0.028; A1-R; P = 0.011). In contrast, only A1-R significantly reduced tumor weight of stem-like XPA1 cells (P = 0.012). The combination A1-R with 5-FU improved the antitumor efficacy compared with 5-FU monotherapy on the stem-like cells (P = 0.004). The results of the present report indicate A1-R is a promising therapy for chemo-resistant pancreatic cancer stem-like cells.
Vessel anastomosis is important in tumor angiogenesis as well as for vascularization therapy for ischemia and other diseases. We report here the development of a color-coded imaging model that can visualize the anastomosis between blood vessels of red fluorescent protein (RFP)-expressing vessels in vascularized Gelfoam® previously transplanted into RFP transgenic mice and then re-transplanted into nestin-driven green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP) mice where nascent blood vessels express GFP. Gelfoam® was initially transplanted subcutaneously in the flank of transgenic RFP nude mice. Skin flaps were made at 14 days after transplantation of Gelfoam® to allow observation of vascularization of the Gelfoam® using confocal fluorescence imaging. The implanted Gelfoam® became highly vascularized with RFP vessels. Fourteen days after transplantation into RFP transgenic nude mice, the Gelfoam® was removed and re-transplanted into the subcutis on the flank of ND-GFP transgenic nude mice in which nascent blood vessels express GFP. Skin flaps were made and anastomosis between the GFP-expressing nascent blood vessels of ND-GFP transgenic nude mice and RFP blood vessels in the Gelfoam® was imaged 14 and 21 days after re-transplantation. The results presented in this report indicate a possible mechanism for tumor angiogenesis and suggest a new paradigm of therapeutic revascularization of ischemic organs requiring new blood vessels and in other diseases.
We have previously demonstrated that the ultraviolet (UV) light is effective against a variety of cancer cells in vivo as well as in vitro. In the present report, we imaged the DNA damage repair response of minimal cancer after UVC irradiation. DNA-damage repair response to UV irradiation was imaged on tumors growing in 3D culture and in superficial tumors grown in vivo. UV-induced DNA damage repair was imaged with GFP fused to the DNA damage response (DDR)-related chromatin-binding protein 53BP1 in MiaPaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer cells. Three-dimensional Gelfoam® histocultures and confocal imaging enabled 53BP1-GFP nuclear foci to be observed within 1?h after UVC irradiation, indicating the onset of DNA damage repair response. A clonogenic assay showed that UVC inhibited MiaPaCa-2 cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, while UVA and UVB showed little effect on cell proliferation. Induction of UV-induced 53BP1-GFP focus formation was limited up to a depth of 40?µm in 3D-culture of MiaPaCa-2 cells. The MiaPaCa-2 cells irradiated by UVC light in a skin-flap mouse model had a significant decrease of tumor growth compared to untreated controls. Our results also demonstrate that 53BP1-GFP is an imageable marker of UV-induced DNA damage repair response of minimal cancer and that UVC is a useful tool for the treatment of residual cancer since UVC can kill superficial cancer cells without damage to deep tissue.
We have previously demonstrated that ultraviolet (UV) light treatment is effective against various types of cancer cells expressing fluorescent proteins. In order to further understand the efficacy of UV treatment of cancer cells, we determined the kinetics of focus formation by imaging of a DNA damage-response (DDR) protein after UVC irradiation of human pancreatic cancer cells. A fusion protein consisting of the DDR protein 53BP1 and green fluorescent protein (GFP) (GFP-53BP1) was used as a live-cell imaging marker for cellular response after UVC irradiation. GFP-53BP1 foci were observed after UVC irradiation of MiaPaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer cells. During live-cell imaging, GFP-53BP1 foci were observed in the cells within 15 min after UVC irradiation, and some of the foci remained stable for at least three hours. GFP-53BP1 focus formation was observed in the pancreatic-cancer cells irradiated by 25-200 J/m(2) UVC. Our results indicate that an early response to DNA damage caused by UVC irradiation can be visualized by increased GFP-53BP1 focus formation by pancreatic cancer cells.
The integrin family of proteins has been shown to be involved in the malignant behavior of cells. We report here development of a color-coded imaging model that can visualize the interaction between ?v integrin linked to green fluorescent protein (GFP) in osteosarcoma cells and blood vessels in Gelfoam® vascularized after implantation in red fluorescent protein (RFP) transgenic nude mice. Human 143B osteosarcoma cells expressing ?v integrin-GFP were generated by transfection with an ?v integrin-GFP vector. Gelfoam® (5×5 mm) was transplanted subcutaneously in transgenic RFP nude mice. The implanted Gelfoam® became highly vascularized with RFP vessels within 14 days. Skin flaps were made at days 7, 14, 21, 28 after transplantation of Gelfoam® for observing vascularization of the Gelfoam® using fluorescence imaging. Gelfoam® is a useful tool to observe angiogenesis in vivo. 143B cells (5 × 10(5)) expressing ?v integrin-GFP were injected into the Gelfoam® seven days after transplantation of Gelfoam®. Seven days after cancer-cell injection, cancer cells and blood vessels were observed in the Gelfoam® by color-coded confocal microscopy via the skin flap. The 143B cells expressing ?v integrin-GFP proliferated into the Gelfoam®, which contained RFP-expressing blood vessels. Strong expression of ?v integrin-GFP in 143B cells was observed near RFP vessels in the Gelfoam®. The observation of the behavior of ?v integrin-GFP and blood vessels will allow further understanding of the role of ?v integrin in cancer cells.
Caffeine enhances the effect of certain anticancer drugs, but the mechanism of modulation is poorly understood. In this study, modulation of cisplatinum efficacy induced by caffeine was visualized at the subcellular level by real-time fluorescent-protein imaging. Mitotic and apoptotic changes were observed by imaging 143B human osteosarcoma dual-color cells, in which GFP is expressed in the nucleus and RFP is expressed in the cytoplasm. Modulation of the cell cycle was imaged using time-lapse imaging of HeLa cells expressing a fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (FUCCI) in the nucleus. Clonogenic assays showed that caffeine increased the inhibition by cisplatinum on cell proliferation. Subcellular imaging demonstrated that cisplatinum decreased mitosis and induced apoptosis in 143B cells. The combination of cisplatinum and caffeine enhanced mitosis and subsequently increased apoptosis. Time-lapse imaging showed that cisplatinum strongly induced cell-cycle arrest in the S/G2 phase in HeLa-FUCCI cells. Caffeine overcame the cell-cycle arrest induced by cisplatinum, thereby increasing its efficacy, since cisplatinum is ineffective against quiescent cells. The data in this report indicate that caffeine modulates the cell cycle in cancer cells, thereby enhancing efficacy of cell-cycle-dependent anticancer drugs such as cisplatinum.
We have previously reported that hair follicles contain multipotent stem cells which express nestin. The nestin-expressing cells form the hair follicle sensory nerve. In vitro, the nestin-expressing hair follicle cells can differentiate into neurons, Schwann cells, and other cell types. In the present study, the sciatic nerve was excised from transgenic mice in which the nestin promoter drives green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP mice). The ND-GFP cells of the sciatic nerve were also found to be multipotent as the ND-GFP cells in the hair follicle. When the ND-GFP cells in the mouse sciatic nerve cultured on Gelfoam® and were imaged by confocal microscopy, they were observed forming fibers extending the nerve. The fibers consisted of ND-GFP-expressing spindle cells, which co-expressed the neuron marker ?-III tubulin, the immature Schwann-cell marker p75(NTR) and TrkB which is associated with neurons. The fibers also contain nestin-negative spherical cells expressing GFAP, a Schwann-cell marker. The ?-III tubulin-positive fibers had growth cones on their tips expressing F-actin, indicating they are growing axons. When the sciatic nerve from mice ubiquitously expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) was co-cultured on Gelfoam® with the sciatic nerve from ND-GFP transgenic mice, the interaction of nerves was observed. Proliferating nestin-expressing cells in the injured sciatic nerve were also observed in vivo. Nestin-expressing cells were also observed in posterior nerves but not in the spinal cord itself, when placed in 3-D Gelfoam® culture. The results of the present report suggest a critical function of nestin-expressing cells in peripheral nerve growth and regeneration.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.