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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Mesenchymal stem cells of dental origin as promising tools for neuroregeneration.
Stem Cell Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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The adult central nervous system has only a very limited ability to newly generate lost neurons and glial cells. Therefore, its self-renewal efficiency after degenerative damage or acute injuries is very limited. Mesenchymal stem cells of various tissue origins, including dental tissues, are among the most promising tools in stem cell therapeutic approaches. In a previous issue of Stem Cell Research & Therapy, Ellis and colleagues demonstrated the neuronal differentiation potential of murine dental pulp stem cells. Our commentary discusses the significance of the study, the parallel efforts of other laboratories, the present limitations of neuronal transdifferentiation using cells obtained by various available methods, and the possible breakthrough by combining the various cellular resources with pharmacological and tissue engineering methods.
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Translational Research: Palatal-derived Ecto-mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Palate: A New Hope for Alveolar Bone and Cranio-Facial Bone Reconstruction.
Int J Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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The management of facial defects has rapidly changed in the last decade. Functional and esthetic requirements have steadily increased along with the refinements of surgery. In the case of advanced atrophy or jaw defects, extensive horizontal and vertical bone augmentation is often unavoidable to enable patients to be fitted with implants. Loss of vertical alveolar bone height is the most common cause for a non primary stability of dental implants in adults. At present, there is no ideal therapeutic approach to cure loss of vertical alveolar bone height and achieve optimal pre-implantological bone regeneration before dental implant placement. Recently, it has been found that specific populations of stem cells and/or progenitor cells could be isolated from different dental resources, namely the dental follicle, the dental pulp and the periodontal ligament. Our research group has cultured palatal-derived stem cells (paldSCs) as dentospheres and further differentiated into various cells of the neuronal and osteogenic lineage, thereby demonstrating their stem cell state. In this publication will be shown whether paldSCs could be differentiated into the osteogenic lineage and, if so, whether these cells are able to regenerate alveolar bone tissue in vivo in an athymic rat model. Furthermore, using these data we have started a proof of principle clinical- and histological controlled study using stem cell-rich palatal tissues for improving the vertical alveolar bone augmentation in critical size defects. The initial results of the study demonstrate the feasibility of using stem cell-mediated tissue engineering to treat alveolar bone defects in humans.
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Epigenetic reprogramming in Mist1(-/-) mice predicts the molecular response to cerulein-induced pancreatitis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Gene expression is affected by modifications to histone core proteins within chromatin. Changes in these modifications, or epigenetic reprogramming, can dictate cell fate and promote susceptibility to disease. The goal of this study was to determine the extent of epigenetic reprogramming in response to chronic stress that occurs following ablation of MIST1 (Mist1(-/-) ), which is repressed in pancreatic disease. Chromatin immunoprecipitation for trimethylation of lysine residue 4 on histone 3 (H3K4Me3) in purified acinar cells from wild type and Mist1(-/-) mice was followed by Next Generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) or ChIP-qPCR. H3K4Me3-enriched genes were assessed for expression by qRT-PCR in pancreatic tissue before and after induction of cerulein-induced pancreatitis. While most of H3K4Me3-enrichment is restricted to transcriptional start sites, >25% of enrichment sites are found within, downstream or between annotated genes. Less than 10% of these sites were altered in Mist1(-/-) acini, with most changes in H3K4Me3 enrichment not reflecting altered gene expression. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis of genes differentially-enriched for H3K4Me3 revealed an association with pancreatitis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in Mist1(-/-) tissue. Most of these genes were not differentially expressed but several were readily induced by acute experimental pancreatitis, with significantly increased expression in Mist1(-/-) tissue relative to wild type mice. We suggest that the chronic cell stress observed in the absence of MIST1 results in epigenetic reprogramming of genes involved in promoting pancreatitis to a poised state, thereby increasing the sensitivity to events that promote disease.
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Complex analysis of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms as putative risk factors of tooth agenesis in the Hungarian population.
Acta Odontol. Scand.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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Abstract Objectives. The role was studied of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms in tooth agenesis in the Hungarian population using a complex approach. Methods. Eight SNPs, PAX9 -912 C/T, PAX9 -1031 A/G, MSX1 3755 A/G, FGFR1 T/C rs881301, IRF6 T/C rs764093, AXIN2-8150 A/G, AXIN2-8434 A/G and AXIN2-30224 C/T, were studied in 192 hypodontia and 17 oligodontia cases and in 260 healthy volunteers. Case-control analysis was performed to test both allelic and genotypic associations as well as associations at the level of haplotypes. Multivariate exploratory Bayesian network-based multi-level analysis of relevance (BN-BMLA) as well as logistic regression analysis were performed. Results. Conventional statistics showed that PAX9 SNP -912 C/T and the MSX1 SNP changed the incidence of hypodontia, although after Bonferroni correction for multiple hypothesis testing, the effects were only borderline tendencies. Using a statistical analysis better suited for handling multiple hypotheses, the BN-BMLA, PAX9 SNPs clearly showed a synergistic effect. This was confirmed by other multivariate analyses and it remained significant after corrections for multiple hypothesis testing (p < 0.0025). The PAX9-1031-A-PAX9-912-T haplotype was the most relevant combination causing hypodontia. Interaction was weaker between PAX9 and MSX1, while other SNPs had no joint effect on hypodontia. Conclusion. This complex analysis shows the important role of PAX9 and MSX1 SNPs and of their interactions in tooth agenesis, while IRF6, FGFR1 and AXIN2 SNPs had no detectable role in the Hungarian population. These results also reveal that risk factors in hypodontia need to be identified in various populations, since there is considerable variability among them.
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Using low-frequency IR spectra for the unambiguous identification of metal ion-ligand coordination sites in purpose-built complexes.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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One of the aims of our long-term research is the identification of metal ion-ligand coordination sites in bioinspired metal ion-C- or N-protected amino acid (histidine, tyrosine, cysteine or cystine) complexes immobilised on the surface of chloropropylated silica gel or Merrifield resin. In an attempt to reach this goal, structurally related, but much simpler complexes have been prepared and their metal ion-ligand vibrations were determined from their low-frequency IR spectra. The central ions were Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) or Cu(II) and the ligands (imidazole, isopropylamine, monosodium malonate) were chosen to possess only one-type of potential donor group. The low-frequency IR spectra were taken of the complexes for each ion-ligand combination and the typical metal ion-functional group vibration bands were selected and identified. The usefulness of the obtained assignments is demonstrated on exemplary immobilised metal ion-protected amino acid complexes.
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Novel possible pharmaceutical research tools: stem cells, gene delivery and their combination.
Curr. Pharm. Des.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
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Both stem cell research and gene delivery are very promising fields of todays biomedical research. In the present review we first attempt to summarize the state of the art in stem cell research. We describe the major categories of stem cells based on cell sources: embryonic, fetal, postnatal and induced pluripotent stem cells. We then present new data on stem cell cultures of dental pulp origin as examples of the progress of postnatal stem cell research. Afterwards, we briefly summarize the most promising achievements in the field of gene delivery. As an example of such advances, we describe novel in vitro and in vivo gene delivery studies to demonstrate that salivary glands are highly potential targets for gene therapy: they can be used to produce therapeutic peptides delivered either into the oral cavity or into the systemic circulation. Finally, we describe and compare studies combining the use of stem cells and gene delivery. We conclude that stem cell therapy and gene delivery alone are both very exciting research areas, and they may act in synergy when used in combination.
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Genetic ablation of myelin protein zero-like 3 in mice increases energy expenditure, improves glycemic control, and reduces hepatic lipid synthesis.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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Obesity continues to be a global health problem, and thus it is imperative that new pathways regulating energy balance be identified. Recently, it was reported: (Hayashi K, Cao T, Passmore H, Jourdan-Le Saux C, Fogelgren B, Khan S, Hornstra I, Kim Y, Hayashi M, Csiszar K. J Invest Dermatol 123: 864-871, 2004) that mice carrying a missense mutation in myelin protein zero-like 3 (Mpzl3rc) have reduced body weight. To determine how Mpzl3 controls energy balance in vivo, we generated mice deficient in myelin protein zero-like 3 (Mpzl3-KO). Interestingly, KO mice were hyperphagic yet had reduced body weight and fat mass. Moreover, KO mice were highly resistant to body weight and fat mass gain after exposure to a high-fat, energy-dense diet. These effects on body weight and adiposity were driven, in part, by a pronounced increase in whole body energy expenditure levels in KO mice. KO mice also had reduced blood glucose levels during an intraperitoneal glucose challenge and significant reductions in circulating insulin levels suggesting an increase in insulin sensitivity. In addition, there was an overall increase in oxidative capacity and contractile force in skeletal muscle isolated from KO mice. Hepatic triglyceride levels were reduced by 92% in livers of KO mice, in part due to a reduction in de novo lipid synthesis. Interestingly, Mpzl3 mRNA expression in liver was increased in diet-induced obese mice. Moreover, KO mice exhibited an increase in insulin-stimulated Akt signaling in the liver, further demonstrating that Mpzl3 can regulate insulin sensitivity in this tissue. We have determined that Mpzl3 has a novel physiological role in controlling body weight regulation, energy expenditure, glycemic control, and hepatic triglyceride synthesis in mice.
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The ability of human periodontium-derived stem cells to regenerate periodontal tissues: a preliminary in vivo investigation.
Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2011
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Periodontium-derived stem cells (pdSCs) can be cultured as dentospheres and differentiated into various cells of the neuronal lineage such as glial cells, thereby demonstrating their stem cell state. This study investigated whether pdSCs could be differentiated into the osteogenic lineage and, if so, whether these cells are able to regenerate periodontal tissue in vivo in an athymic rat model. Human adult pdSCs were isolated during minimally invasive periodontal surgery and expanded in vitro. To induce osteogenic differentiation, expanded pdSCs were cultured for 3 weeks in osteogenic differentiation media. Staining for alkaline phosphatase expression was positive, suggesting osteogenic differentiation. For in vivo studies, pdSCs were delivered onto suitable collagen sponges and implanted into periodontal defects on the right buccal cortex of the mandible in 16 immunodeficient nude rats. Histologic analysis of samples from the test side revealed reformation of periodontal ligament-like tissue, collagen fibers, and elements of bone, but no functional periodontal tissue regeneration. The data show that human adult pdSCs are capable of regenerating elements of bone and collagen fibers in an in vivo animal model.
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Candidate gene studies of dopaminergic and serotonergic polymorphisms.
Neuropsychopharmacol Hung
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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The most researched candidate genes of psychiatric genetic association studies are the components of the monoamine neurotransmitter systems, out of which serotonin and dopamine transmitter systems gained particular attention due to their major role in regulating emotional functions and cognitive processes. The paper reviews association studies focusing on the polymorphisms of receptors, transporters and enzymes that belong to these two transmitter systems. Numerous studies demonstrated significant associations between serotonergic and dopaminergic polymorphisms and diagnostic categories, personality traits and cognitive functions, however, results of monoamine gene variants and psychological properties are often contradictory. The contradictions can partially be explained with relatively small sample sizes of earlier studies, heterogeneity of methods across the studies and our expanding knowledge of the function of polymorphisms. On the whole, however, it can be declared that psychogenetic research plays an important role in the development of personalized pharmacotherapy.
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Integration of neuronally predifferentiated human dental pulp stem cells into rat brain in vivo.
Neurochem. Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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Pluripotency and their neural crest origin make dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) an attractive donor source for neuronal cell replacement. Despite recent encouraging results in this field, little is known about the integration of transplanted DPSC derived neuronal pecursors into the central nervous system. To address this issue, neuronally predifferentiated DPSCs, labeled with a vital cell dye Vybrant DiD were introduced into postnatal rat brain. DPSCs were transplanted into the cerebrospinal fluid of 3-day-old male Wistar rats. Cortical lesion was induced by touching a cold (-60°C) metal stamp to the calvaria over the forelimb motor cortex. Four weeks later cell localization was detected by fluorescent microscopy and neuronal cell markers were studied by immunohistochemistry. To investigate electrophysiological properties of engrafted, fluorescently labeled DPSCs, 300 ?m-thick horizontal brain slices were prepared and the presence of voltage-dependent sodium and potassium channels were recorded by patch clamping. Predifferentiated donor DPSCs injected into the cerebrospinal fluid of newborn rats migrated as single cells into a variety of brain regions. Most of the cells were localized in the normal neural progenitor zones of the brain, the subventricular zone (SVZ), subgranular zone (SGZ) and subcallosal zone (SCZ). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that transplanted DPSCs expressed the early neuronal marker N-tubulin, the neuronal specific intermediate filament protein NF-M, the postmitotic neuronal marker NeuN, and glial GFAP. Moreover, the cells displayed TTX sensitive voltage dependent (VD) sodium currents (I(Na)) and TEA sensitive delayed rectifier potassium currents (K(DR)). Four weeks after injury, fluorescently labeled cells were detected in the lesioned cortex. Neurospecific marker expression was increased in DPSCs found in the area of the cortical lesions compared to that in fluorescent cells of uninjured brain. TTX sensitive VD sodium currents and TEA sensitive K(DR) significantly increased in labeled cells of the cortically injured area. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that engrafted DPSC-derived cells integrate into the host brain and show neuronal properties not only by expressing neuron-specific markers but also by exhibiting voltage dependent sodium and potassium channels. This proof of concept study reveals that predifferentiated hDPSCs may serve as useful sources of neuro- and gliogenesis in vivo, especially when the brain is injured.
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Target gene identification via nuclear receptor binding site prediction.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2010
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In spite of numerous advances in recent years, the complete list of direct target genes for nuclear receptors remains elusive. The integrated application of new computational and experimental methods reviewed in this chapter provides insight into the complex network of regulatory pathways mediated by nuclear receptors which is expected to improve the understanding of the physiology and the pathology of metabolism, development, homeostasis, and other fundamental processes.
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New therapeutic targets in ulcerative colitis: the importance of ion transporters in the human colon.
Inflamm. Bowel Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2010
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The absorption of water and ions (especially Na(+) and Cl(-)) is an important function of colonic epithelial cells in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Despite the comprehensive animal studies, there are only scarce available data on the ion transporter activities of the normal and inflamed human colon.
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Unexpected insensitivity of the cholinergic motor responses to morphine in the human small intestine.
Pharmacology
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2010
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morphine is known to inhibit cholinergic contractions of the guinea pig small intestine. This has been compared to the human small intestinal innervated longitudinal muscle in the current study.
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Transgastric small bowel resection and anastomosis: a survival study.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2010
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Recently, natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery has emerged with new ideas of a transgastric access. The authors have evaluated the possibility of transgastric bowel resection with several modifications. This study aimed to evaluate transgastic small bowel resection using an automated stapling device via an assisting trocar. In a survival experiment, the possible technical problems, medical complications, and safety of the procedure were investigated as well as the postoperative course and follow-up care.
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Association between Novelty Seeking of opiate-dependent patients and the catechol-O-methyltransferase Val(158)Met polymorphism.
Compr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2010
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Candidate genes of the dopaminergic system have been reported as key elements in shaping human temperament. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) plays a vital role in dopamine inactivation, and the Val(158)Met single nucleotide polymorphism (rs4680) in its gene has been recently associated with the Novelty Seeking (NS) temperament scale of the Temperament and Character Inventory in studies of healthy adults, as well as methamphetamine abusers.
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[Isolating, culturing and characterizing stem cells of human dental pulp origin].
Fogorv Sz
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2009
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Evidence has been accumulating for the presence of stem cells in dental tissues. The authors studies aimed to produce primary culture from human dental pulp. Furthermore, they wanted to identify clonogenic cells with progenitor properties in these cultures, and to characterize their proliferative capacity. The dental pulp was isolated from surgically removed wisdom teeth. The extracellular matrix was enzymatically degraded to obtain isolated cells for culturing. Identification of STRO-1 mesenchymal stem cell marker was achieved by immunocytochemistry. Osteogenic differentiation was detected by the application of Alizarin Red. The proliferative activity of the cell cultures in response to serum, EGF and BMP2 was estimated by MTT assay. The authors most important finding is the successful establishment of stable primary cell culture from human dental pulp tissue. The cultures can be passaged multiple times and they contain clonogenic, STRO-1 immunopositive cells. Their mineralization capacity was shown by mineralized deposits as a result of induction by suitable medium. The presence of serum increased, while both EGF and BMP2 concentration-dependently decreased the cell proliferation in the cultures. The authors model provides the foundation for studies of the proliferation and differentiation of dental pulp cells at molecular level, and opens a new direction towards the biological regeneration of dental tissues.
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Bicarbonate transport by the human pancreatic ductal cell line HPAF.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2009
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The human pancreatic duct cell line, HPAF, has been shown previously to secrete Cl(-) in response to Ca(2+)-mobilizing stimuli. Our aim was to assess the capacity of HPAF cells to transport and secrete HCO3(-).
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Chemo-radiotherapy in locally advanced squamous cell oesophageal cancer--are upper third tumours more responsive?
Pathol. Oncol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2009
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Before neoadjuvant therapy was widely applied, the prognosis of oesophageal cancer had been considered dependent on the location of the tumor, i.e. upper third cancers had had the worst prognosis. The aim of this retrolective study was to prove the efficiency of the neoadjuvant treatment, and to compare the response of esophageal cancer in different locations. Between January 1998 and September 2005, 102 patients with locally advanced squamous cell oesophageal cancer received preoperative chemo-radiotherapy. In 40 cases the tumor was located in the upper third and in 62 cases in the middle third of the oesophagus. After a four-week-long treatment free period restaging was carried out and patients considered resectable were submitted to surgery. From 40 patients with upper third oesophageal cancer 28 underwent oesophageal resection or pharyngo-laryngectomy. Thiry-five percent a complete histopathological remission was observed. From 62 patients with middle third oesophageal cancer 43 underwent oesophageal resection. Histological examination of the resected specimens documented complete response only in three patients. The median survival and the R0 resection rate were similar in the two groups. Although the resection rate, perioperative morbidity, mortality and the median survival were similar in the two groups, a significantly higher rate of complete response (p < 0,05) was observed in patients with upper third oesophageal cancer compared to patients with middle third oesophageal cancer. It seems that upper third oesophageal cancer has superior sensitivity to multimodal treatment therefore our results may support that upper third location is not an unfavorable prognostic factor any more.
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Chiral separation by a monofunctionalized cyclodextrin derivative: from selector to permethyl-beta-cyclodextrin bonded stationary phase.
J Pharm Biomed Anal
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2009
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Preparation of (6-monoureido-6-monodeoxy) permethylated beta-cyclodextrin bonded chiral stationary phase from permethylated 6-monoamino-6-monodeoxy-beta-cyclodextrin is described. The optimized chiral stationary phase was evaluated by using HPLC separation of racemates of coumarin derivatives. Column characterization was performed by solid-state (13)C, (15)N, (29)Si NMR using cross-polarization at the magic angle spinning. The development process was supported by CE experiments where the complex formation between cyclodextrins and warfarin was investigated. The results demonstrate good enantio-discrimination for coumarin derivatives.
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Simultaneous PKC and cAMP activation induces differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells into functionally active neurons.
Neurochem. Int.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2009
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The plasticity of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) has been demonstrated by several studies showing that they appear to self-maintain through several passages, giving rise to a variety of cells. The aim of the present study was to differentiate DPSCs to mature neuronal cells showing functional evidence of voltage gated ion channel activities in vitro. First, DPSC cultures were seeded on poly-l-lysine coated surfaces and pretreated for 48h with a medium containing basic fibroblast growth factor and the demethylating agent 5-azacytidine. Then neural induction was performed by the simultaneous activation of protein kinase C and the cyclic adenosine monophosphate pathway. Finally, maturation of the induced cells was achieved by continuous treatment with neurotrophin-3, dibutyryl cyclic AMP, and other supplementary components. Non-induced DPSCs already expressed vimentin, nestin, N-tubulin, neurogenin-2 and neurofilament-M. The inductive treatment resulted in decreased vimentin, nestin, N-tubulin and increased neurogenin-2, neuron-specific enolase, neurofilament-M and glial fibrillary acidic protein expression. By the end of the maturation period, all investigated genes were expressed at higher levels than in undifferentiated controls except vimentin and nestin. Patch clamp analysis revealed the functional activity of both voltage-dependent sodium and potassium channels in the differentiated cells. Our results demonstrate that although most surviving cells show neuronal morphology and express neuronal markers, there is a functional heterogeneity among the differentiated cells obtained by the in vitro differentiation protocol described herein. Nevertheless, this study clearly indicates that the dental pulp contains a cell population that is capable of neural commitment by our three step neuroinductive protocol.
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Aminobisphosphonate stimulates bone regeneration and enforces consolidation of titanium implant into a new rat caudal vertebrae model.
Pathol. Oncol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2009
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Bisphosphonates are widely used as therapeutic agents in bone disorders including cancer metastasis due to their osteoclast inhibitory effect. Recent data shows that bisphosphonates may also induce bone-building by stimulating osteoblast activity. Clinical observations, however, have revealed that bisphosphonates may cause necrosis in the oral cavity which questions their usefulness in bone regeneration during the consolidation of inorganic implants. Here we report the investigation of bone neogenesis following chronic amine bisphosphonate (Zometa) treatment in a novel experimental model, using the rat tail vertebra as a support. This method involves (1) implantation of titan screw into the tail vertebrae, (2) systemic bisphosphonate treatment and (3) quantitative biophysical measurements which mirrors consolidation of implant, i.e. strength of fixation and changes in newly formed bone architecture using micro Computer Tomograph (micro-CT). The degree of fixation of titan implants (osseointegration) increased by 36% on the effect of Zometa and the structure of newly formed bone became robust. The mass of new bone increased 3.1-fold at 6 weeks of regeneration, as compared to controls. Thus, Zometa, a potent aminobisphosphonate used in therapy of cancer metastases, osteoporosis and bone marrow transplantation, significantly increased bone neogenesis and enforced osseointegration of titan implants as measured quantitatively in the rat tail vertebra. Our data support the usefulness of aminobisphosphonates in the rehabilitation of bone loss as well as in improvement osseointegration of implants. We emphasise that this novel method may open up new possibilities for screening the effects of local and systemic treatments.
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[The role of neoadjuvant therapy in the treatment of locally advanced squamous cell cancer of the cervical oesophagus].
Magy Seb
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Cervical oesophagus represents a critical location for squamous cell carcinoma, which usually requires extensive surgery (pharyngo-laryngo-oesophagectomy). In the last decade, neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy was reported to be beneficial in the treatment of locally advanced squamous cell oesophageal cancer.
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Transanal hybrid colon resection: from laparoscopy to NOTES.
Surg Endosc
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Reducing access size and trauma are important issues in natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). The combination of experience with laparoscopic colorectal surgery and transanal endoscopic microsurgery has helped in the use of the transanal approach as a realistic option of NOTES techniques to introduce transanal hybrid laparoscopic-assisted colon resection into clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical introduction of transanal hybrid colon resection in terms of feasibility and patient safety.
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Comparison of separation performances of novel ?-cyclodextrin-based chiral stationary phases in high-performance liquid chromatographic enantioseparation.
J Pharm Biomed Anal
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Three ?-cyclodextrin-based chiral stationary phases were developed applying novel bonding chemistry. The separation performances of ?-cyclodextrin, (R,S)-2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin, and permethyl-?-cyclodextrin-based CSPs were compared in the resolution of structurally divergent analytes, such as coumarins, dansyl amino acids, and propionic acid derivatives. Separations were carried out in reversed phase mode applying 0.1% triethylammonium phosphate (pH 3.5)/MeOH mobile phase systems in different compositions. Of the three novel CSPs the permethyl-?-cyclodextrin bonded phase proved to be the most effective one for the enantioseparation of investigated analytes.
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Structural disorder in proteins brings order to crystal growth in biomineralization.
Bone
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Biomineralization, the generation of hard tissues of living organisms, is a process strictly regulated by hormones, enzymes and a range of regulatory proteins of which several resisted structural characterization thus far. Without actual generalizations, there have been scattered observations in the literature for the structural disorder of these proteins. To address this issue in general, we have collected SwissProt proteins involved in the formation of bone and teeth in vertebrates, annotated for biomineralization. All these proteins show an extremely high level of predicted disorder (with a mean of 53%), making them the most disordered functional class of the protein world. Exactly the same feature was established for evolutionarily more distant proteins involved in the formation of the silica wall of marine diatoms and the shell of oysters and other mollusks. Because these proteins also show an extremely biased amino acid composition, such as high negative charge, high frequency of Ser and Asp or Pro residues and repetitiveness, we also carried out a database search with these sequence features for further proteins. This search uncovered several further disordered proteins with clearly related functions, although their annotations made no mention of biomineralization. This general and very strong correlation between biomineralization, structural disorder of proteins and particular sequence features indicates that regulated growth of mineral phase in biology can only be achieved by the assistance of highly disordered proteins.
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Additive effects of serotonergic and dopaminergic polymorphisms on trait impulsivity.
Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet.
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Twin studies suggest 45% heritability of trait impulsivity. Results from candidate gene studies to date are contradictory; impulsivity phenotypes were measured by different behavioral and questionnaire methods related either to the dopaminergic or to the serotonergic system. Here we report an association study of both dopaminergic (COMT rs4680, DRD4 48?bp VNTR, DRD2/ANKK1 rs1800497) and serotonergic (HTR1A rs6925, HTR1B rs13212041, SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR) gene polymorphisms and trait impulsivity assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) in a sample of 687 Caucasian young adults. Results showed lower impulsivity in the presence of the DRD4 7-repeat (P?=?0.006) and the HTR1B rs13212041 alleles (P?=?0.003). These findings stayed significant after Bonferroni correction. A multivariate analysis using Bayesian networks confirmed independent effects of these two polymorphisms and provided a coherent characterization of the system of dependencies with respect to the impulsivity construct as well as its subscales. These results clearly suggest an additive effect of dopaminergic and serotonergic polymorphisms on trait impulsivity.
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Chronic inflammation in the pancreas and salivary glands - lessons from similarities and differences in pathophysiology and treatment modalities.
Curr. Pharm. Des.
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The pancreas and salivary glands have similar anatomical structures and physiological functions producing bicarbonate-rich fluid containing digestive enzymes and other components to be delivered into the gut. Despite these similarities, the two organs are also different in numerous respects, especially regarding the inflammatory diseases affecting them. This article will summarize the pathophysiology and current and potential pharmacological treatments of chronic inflammatory diseases such as chronic pancreatitis, autoimmune pancreatitis, Sjögrens syndrome and irradiation-induced salivary gland atrophy. Despite the differences, in both organs the inflammatory process is accompanied by epithelial tissue destruction and fibrosis. Both in pancreatic and in salivary research, an important task is to stop or even reverse this process. The utilization of stem/progenitor cell populations previously identified in these organs and the application of mesenchymal stem cells is very promising for such regenerative purposes. In addition, gene therapy and tissue engineering research progressively advance and have already yielded clinically beneficial preliminary results for salivary gland diseases. For the hard-to-access, hard-to-regenerate pancreas these developments may also offer new solutions, especially since salivary and pancreatic progenitors are very similar in characteristics and may be mutually useful to regenerate the respective other organ as well. These novel developments could be of great significance and may bring new hope for patients since currently used therapeutic protocols in salivary and in pancreatic chronic inflammatory diseases offer primarily symptomatic treatments and limited beneficial outcome.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.