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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A rapid new approach for the quality evaluation of the folk medicine dianbaizhu based on chemometrics.
Chem. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Dianbaizhu, a folk medicine from Gaultheria leucocarpa BLUME var. yunnanensis (FRANCH.) T. Z. HSU & R. C. FANG (Ericaceae) used as an antirheumatic, has multiple plant origins and officinal parts. A rapid high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was established for the simultaneous determination of the characteristic ingredient methyl benzoate-2-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl(1?2) [O-?-D-xylopyranosyl(1?6)]-O-?-D-glucopyranoside and seven bioactive constituents in eight Gaultheria species. This chromatographic method is precise, accurate, and stable. Kruskal-Wallis analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and factor analysis were used to analyze the content of reference compounds in different Gaultheria species and officinal parts. The analyses showed significant differences (p<0.05) in Gaultheria species but few differences (p>0.05) in their medicinal parts. G. leucocarpa var. yunnanensis appeared to the best among the Gaultheria species tested for the treatment of rheumatic diseases. Taken together, the results show that this simultaneous quanti?cation of multiple active constituents using HPLC-DAD combined with chemometrics can be reliably applied to evaluate the quality of Dianbaizhu.
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Measuring spatial and temporal Ca2+ signals in Arabidopsis plants.
J Vis Exp
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Developmental and environmental cues induce Ca(2+) fluctuations in plant cells. Stimulus-specific spatial-temporal Ca(2+) patterns are sensed by cellular Ca(2+) binding proteins that initiate Ca(2+) signaling cascades. However, we still know little about how stimulus specific Ca(2+) signals are generated. The specificity of a Ca(2+) signal may be attributed to the sophisticated regulation of the activities of Ca(2+) channels and/or transporters in response to a given stimulus. To identify these cellular components and understand their functions, it is crucial to use systems that allow a sensitive and robust recording of Ca(2+) signals at both the tissue and cellular levels. Genetically encoded Ca(2+) indicators that are targeted to different cellular compartments have provided a platform for live cell confocal imaging of cellular Ca(2+) signals. Here we describe instructions for the use of two Ca(2+) detection systems: aequorin based FAS (film adhesive seedlings) luminescence Ca(2+) imaging and case12 based live cell confocal fluorescence Ca(2+) imaging. Luminescence imaging using the FAS system provides a simple, robust and sensitive detection of spatial and temporal Ca(2+) signals at the tissue level, while live cell confocal imaging using Case12 provides simultaneous detection of cytosolic and nuclear Ca(2+) signals at a high resolution.
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A Comprehensive Review of the Structure Elucidation and Biological Activity of Triterpenoids from Ganoderma spp.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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Ganoderma triterpenes (GTs) are the major secondary metabolites of Ganoderma lucidum, a traditional Chinese medicine, popularly used for complementary cancer therapy. GTs are lanostane-tetracyclic triterpenes. They have been reported to possess anti-tumor, anti-inflammation, antioxidant, antimicrobial and blood fat reducing effects. To date, 316 GTs have been found and their similar chemical structures have proved difficult to elucidate. This paper compiles 316 naturally occurring triterpenes from Ganoderma based on the literature published through January 2013 along with their structures, physiological activities and 13C-NMR spectral data.
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Recombinant TB10.4 of Mycobacterium bovis induces cytokine production in RAW264.7 macrophages through activation of the MAPK and NF-?B pathways via TLR2.
Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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The TB10.4 antigen of Mycobacterium bovis/Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces a strong Th1 CD4+ T-cell response. Thus, it is currently under intensive study as a possible vaccine candidate. However, how TB10.4 activates innate immune cells is unclear. How TB10.4 interacts with toll-like receptors (TLRs) and signaling pathways responsible for active inflammation have also not been fully elucidated. Here, as stimulated RAW264.7 cells with recombinant TB10.4 (rTB10.4), derived from M. bovis, increased TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-12 p40 secretin in a dose-dependent manner. Blocking assays showed that TLR2-, but not TLR4-neutralizing antibody reduced expression of TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-12 p40 in RAW264.7 cells. rTB10.4 stimulation activated p38 kinase (p38) and extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) was TLR2-dependent, whereas inhibition of p38 and ERK activity significantly reduced TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-12 p40 production. Furthermore, rTB10.4 stimulation of RAW264.7 cells resulted in TLR2-mediated activation of NF-?B and induced translocation of NF-?B p65 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus via I?B? degradation. rTB10.4-induced TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-12 p40 release was attenuated by the specific I?B phosphorylation inhibitor, BAY 11-7082. These findings indicate that the M. bovis-derived rTB10.4 induced production of TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-12 p40 involves p38, ERK and NF-?B via the TLR2 pathway.
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Phytochemicals and biological activities of poisonous genera of Ericaceae in China.
Nat Prod Commun
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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The family Ericaceae is comprised of about 70 genera of which about 20 are found throughout China. Of these Ledum, Rhododendron, Enkianthus, Pieris, Craibiodendron, Gaultheria, Vaccinium, and Leucothoe are regarded as poisonous. Many species of these poisonous genera are used as Chinese herbal medicines for the treatment of, for example, inflammation, asthma, and coughs. Modem research has demonstrated that the toxic ingredients of these poisonous genera are chiefly tetracyclic diterpenes, which have adverse effects on the digestive, cardiovascular and nervous systems. Because various species of these poisonous genera also have medicinal functions, extensive studies of these plants have led to the identification of many kinds of compound. This paper compiles 306 compounds from the eight poisonous genera, reported in 141 references.
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A novel phenolic compound from Phyllanthus emblica.
Nat Prod Commun
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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A new compound, mucic acid 3-O-gallate (1), was isolated from the fruit of Phyllanthus emblica L, together with 5 known compounds (2-6). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques, and by comparison with literature data.
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Aequorin-based luminescence imaging reveals stimulus- and tissue-specific Ca2+ dynamics in Arabidopsis plants.
Mol Plant
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Calcium ion is a versatile second messenger for diverse cell signaling in response to developmental and environmental cues. The specificity of Ca(2+)-mediated signaling is defined by stimulus-elicited Ca(2+) signature and downstream decoding processes. Here, an Aequorin-based luminescence recording system was developed for monitoring Ca(2+) in response to various stimuli in Arabidopsis. With the simple, highly sensitive, and robust Ca(2+) recording, this system revealed stimulus- and tissue-specific Ca(2+) signatures in seedlings. Cellular Ca(2+) dynamics and relationship to Aequorin-based Ca(2+) recording were explored using a GFP-based Ca(2+) indicator, which suggested that a synchronous cellular Ca(2+) signal is responsible for cold-induced Ca(2+) response in seedlings, whereas asynchronous Ca(2+) oscillation contributes to osmotic stress-induced Ca(2+) increase in seedlings. The optimized recording system would be a powerful tool for the identification and characterization of novel components in Ca(2+)-mediated stress-signaling pathways.
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Factors associated with skipping breakfast among Inner Mongolia medical students in China.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Few studies on the breakfast consumption habits of medical students in China have been carried out. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of skipping breakfast and factors associated with skipping breakfast among medical students in Inner Mongolia of China, and to assist in the design of interventions to improve breakfast consumption habits of medical college students in this region.
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A new lignan from Oxytropis myriophylla.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2011
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The 70% alcohol extract of Oxytropis myriophylla (PALL.) DC. (Leguminosae) exhibited high radical scavenging activity (IC(50) value: 88.0?µg?mL(-1) and 86.7?µg?mL(-1)) on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays. Further chemical investigation led the isolation of one new lignan, namely myriophylloside G (1), together with three known compounds. Their structural elucidations of all the compounds were based on extensive spectroscopic methods, including HRESIMS and 2D NMR experiments (HSQC, HMBC and (1)H-(1)HCOSY) and by comparison with reference values.
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Dihydrochalcone glycosides from Oxytropis myriophylla.
Chem Cent J
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2011
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Chemical investigations of the 70% alcohol extract of Oxytropis myriophylla (Pall.) DC. (Leguminosae) have afforded the new natural product neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (1) and the known phloretin-4-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (2), which was the first reported from the genus Oxytropis. This paper reports the isolation and full spectroscopic characterization of compounds 1 and 2 by NMR, UV, IR and MS data.
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Absorbable phenylpropenoyl sucroses from Polygala tenuifolia.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2011
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Three phenylpropenoyl sucroses--sibiricose A5, A6 and 3,6-disinapoyl sucrose--were isolated from the 30% EtOH extract of Polygala tenuifolia, which displayed antidepressant-like action. HPLC analysis indicated that the three phenylpropenoyl sucroses could be absorbed into serum. From the serum pharmacochemistry point of view, these three phenylpropenoyl sucroses might prevent or relieve depression.
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Three new flavonoid glycosides from Oxytropis myriophylla.
J Nat Med
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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Three new flavonoids, myriophylloside I, II and III, were isolated from Oxytropis myriophylla (Leguminosae), together with four known flavonoid glycosides: isorhamnetin-3-O-?-D-glucoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-?-L-arabinosyl(1?6)-?-D-glucoside, quercetin and rutin. The structural elucidations of all the compounds were based on extensive spectroscopic methods, including HRESIMS and 2D-NMR experiments (HSQC, HMBC, (1)H-(1)H COSY and HSQC-TOCSY), UV, IR and chemical evidence, together with comparison with reference values.
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Naturally occurring diarylheptanoids.
Nat Prod Commun
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2010
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Diarylheptanoids, natural products with a 1,7-diphenylheptane structural skeleton, are mainly distributed in the roots, rhizomes and bark of Alpinia, Zingiber, Curcuma and Alnus species. They have become of interest in natural product research over the past twenty years because of their remarkable anti-cancer, anti-emetic, estrogenic, anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activity. This paper compiles all 307 naturally occurring diarylheptanoids from 46 plants as reported in 137 references with their distributions, physiological activities and 13C-NMR spectral data.
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Antimicrobial activity investigation on Wuyiencin fractions of different polarity.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2010
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Wuyiencin fractions with different polarities against six indicator microorganisms: Rhodotorula rubra, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Escherichia coli, Cladosporium fulvum and Staphylococcus aureus. The fermentation broth of Wuyiencin was submitted to AB-8 macroporous adsorptive resin and fractionated with solvents of different polarity. The fraction eluted with water had remarkably antimicrobial activity against all the microorganisms investigated except for C. fulvum and S. aureus (MIC
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New flavonoid glycosides from Elsholtzia rugulosa Hemsl.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2009
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Elsholtzia rugulosa Hemsl. is known in China as a local herbal tea, medicinal herb and honey plant. Chemical examination of E. rugulosa led to the isolation of two new flavonoid glycosides, apigenin 4-O-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (1) and 5,7,3,4-tetrahydroxy-5-C-prenylflavone-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), together with nine known flavonoids. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.
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Halogenating reaction activity of aromatic organic compounds during disinfection of drinking water.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2009
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The halogenating reactions of five aromatic organic compounds (AOCs) with aqueous chlorine (HOCl/OCl(-)) and aqueous bromine (HOBr/OBr(-)) were studied with an aim to compare the formation properties of haloacetic acids (HAAs) for the corresponding chlorination or bromination reactions of AOCs, respectively. The experiment results indicated that the HAAs substitution efficiency for the bromination reactions of AOCs was greater than that for the chlorination reactions, and the formation of HAAs had a strong dependence on the chemical structure of AOCs. The chlorination or bromination reaction activities for the AOCs with electron donating functional groups were higher than that for them with electron withdrawing functional groups. The kinetic experiments indicated that the reactions of aqueous bromine with phenol were faster than those of aqueous chlorine with phenol and the halogen consumption exhibited rapid initial and slower consumption stages for the reactions of phenol with aqueous chlorine and bromine, respectively. In addition, the HAAs production for the chlorination reaction of phenol decreased with the increase of pH. These conclusions could provide the valuable information for the effective control of the disinfection by-products during drinking water treatment operation.
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The bromination kinetics of phenolic compounds in aqueous solution.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2009
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the bromination kinetics of selected phenolic compounds in aqueous solutions over the pH range of 5-11. The experiment results indicated that the reaction of hypobromous acid with the phenoxide ions controlled the overall reaction rate, whereas the reaction between hypobromite ion and the phenoxide ions and the reaction between hypobromous acid and the undissociated phenolic species were considered to be negligible respectively in the pH range of 7-9. The apparent second-order rate constants of the reaction of hypobromous acid with the phenoxide ions ranged from 7.9 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) for 3-chlorophenol to 6.5 x 10(8) M(-1) s(-1) for 3-methoxyphenol, respectively. The Hammett correlation could be successfully used to estimate the reactivity of bromine with substituted phenols and the linear regression was log(k(2))=-2.85 sigma+8.00. The rate constants of the reaction of bromine with phenol-like organic compounds were about three orders of magnitude higher than with chlorine and two to three orders of magnitude lower than with ozone.
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Elsholtzia: phytochemistry and biological activities.
Chem Cent J
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Plants of the genus Elsholtzia (Lamiaceae) have a long history of medicinal use in folk. The phytochemical investigations revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, terpenoids, and other compounds. Abundant volatile components are also identified. Pure compounds, volatile constituents and crude extracts from the genus exhibited a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities. The aims of this review hopefully provide comprehensive information on the distribution, phytochemistry, volatile components, and pharmacological research of Elsholtzia for exploring the potential and advance researches.
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Phytochemicals and biological studies of plants from the genus Balanophora.
Chem Cent J
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This review focus on the phytochemical progress and biological studies of plants from the genus Balanophora (Balanophoraceae) over the past few decades, in which most plants growth in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and Oceania, and nearly 20 species ranged in southwest China. These dioeciously parasitic plants are normally growing on the roots of the evergreen broadleaf trees, especially in the family of Leguminosae, Ericaceae, Urticaceae, and Fagaceae. The plants are mainly used for clearing away heat and toxic, neutralizing the effect of alcoholic drinks, and as a tonic for the treatment of hemorrhoids, stomachache and hemoptysis. And it has been used widely throughtout local area by Chinese people.Cinnamic acid derivative tannins, possessing a phenylacrylic acid derivative (e. g. caffeoyl, coumaroyl, feruloyl or cinnamoyl), which connected to the C(1) position of a glucosyl unit by O-glycosidic bond, are the characteristic components in genus Balanophora. In addition, several galloyl, caffeoyl and hexahydroxydiphenoyl esters of dihydrochalcone glucosides are found in B. tobiracola, B. harlandii, and B. papuana. Other compounds like phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, terpenoids and sterols are also existed. And their biological activities, such as radical scavenging activities, HIV inhibiting effects, and hypoglycemic effects are highlighted in the review.
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New lanostane-type triterpene acids from wolfiporia extensa.
Chem Cent J
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Dried sclerotia of Wolfiporia extensa (Polyporaceae) is used to invigorate the spleen and to tranquilize the mind in Chinese herbal medicine. Lanostane-type triterpene acids were regard as major secondary metabolites from dried sclerotia of W. extensa.
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Synthesis and biological evaluation of new ligustrazine derivatives as anti-tumor agents.
Molecules
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To discover new anti-cancer agents with multi-effect and low toxicity, a series of ligustrazine derivatives were synthesized using several effective anti-tumor ingredients of Shiquandabu Wan as starting materials. Our idea was enlightened by the "combination principle" in drug discovery. The ligustrazine derivatives anti-tumor activities were evaluated on the HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A-549 and A2780 human cancer cell lines. In addition the angiogenesis activities were valued by the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. 1,7-bis(4-(3,5,6-Trimethylpyrazin-2-yl)-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione (4) and 3 ?,12 ?-dihydroxy-5?-dholanic acid-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazin-2-methyl ester (5) not only displayed antiproliferative activities on these cancer cells, but also dramatically suppressed normal angiogenesis in CAM. The LD?? value of the compound 5 exceeded 3.0 g/kg by oral administration in mice.
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Naturally Occurring Methyl Salicylate Glycosides.
Mini Rev Med Chem
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As an important part of non steroids anti-inflammation drug (NSAIDs), salicylate has developed from natural substance salicylic acid to natrium salicylicum,to aspirin. Now, methyl salicylate glycoside, a new derivative of salicylic acid, is modified with a -COOH group integrated one methyl radical into formic ether, and a -OH linked with a monosaccharide, a disaccharide or a trisaccharide unit by glycosidic linkage. It has the similar pharmacological activities, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and antithrombotic as the previous salicylates without resulting in serious side effects, particularly the gastrointestinal toxicity. Owing to the superiority of those significant bioactivities, methyl salicylate glycosides have became a hot research area in NSAIDs for several years. This paper compiles all 9 naturally occurring methyl salicylate glycosides, their distribution of the resource and pharmacological mechanism, which could contribute to the new drug discovery.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.