The clinical efficacy of anti-angiogenic therapies has been difficult to predict, and biomarkers that can predict responsiveness are sorely needed in this era of personalized medicine. CVX-060 is an angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) targeting therapeutic, consisting of two peptides that bind Ang2 with high affinity and specificity, covalently fused to a scaffold antibody. In order to optimize the use of this compound in the clinic the construction of a predictive model is described, based on the efficacy of CVX-060 in 13 cell line and 2 patient-derived xenograft models. Pretreatment size tumors from each of the models were profiled for the levels of 27 protein markers of angiogenesis, SNP haplotype in 5 angiogenesis genes, and somatic mutation status for 11 genes implicated in tumor growth and/or vascularization. CVX-060 efficacy was determined as tumor growth inhibition (TGI%) at termination of each study. A predictive statistical model was constructed based on the correlation of these efficacy data with the marker profiles, and the model was subsequently tested by prospective analysis in 11 additional models. The results reveal a range of CVX-060 efficacy in xenograft models of diverse tissue types (0-64% TGI, median = 27%) and define a subset of 3 proteins (Ang1, EGF, Emmprin), the levels of which may be predictive of TGI by Ang2 blockade. The direction of the associations is such that better efficacy correlates with high levels of target and low levels of compensatory/antagonizing molecules. This effort has revealed a set of candidate predictive markers for CVX-060 efficacy that will be further evaluated in ongoing clinical trials.
influenza viruses (IFVs) frequently achieve resistance to antiviral drugs, necessitating the development of compounds with novel mechanisms of action. DAS181 (Fludase), a sialidase fusion protein, may have a reduced potential for generating drug resistance due to its novel host-targeting mechanism of action.
The first step in infection by human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) is binding to the surface of respiratory epithelial cells via interaction between viral receptor-binding molecules and sialic acid-containing receptors. DAS181, a recombinant sialidase protein containing the catalytic domain of Actinomyces viscosus sialidase, removes cell surface sialic acid, and we proposed that it would inhibit HPIV infection.
The influenza virus (IFV) infection models commonly used to evaluate antiviral agents (e.g. MDCK cell line and mice) are limited by physiological differences from the human respiratory tract in vivo. Here we report the pharmacodynamics of DAS181, a sialidase fusion protein that inhibits influenza infection, in the model systems of well-defined human airway epithelium (HAE) culture and ex vivo culture of fresh human bronchial tissue, both of which are close mimics of the human respiratory tract in vivo.
Antiviral drug resistance for influenza therapies remains a concern due to the high prevalence of H1N1 2009 seasonal influenza isolates which display H274Y associated oseltamivir-resistance. Furthermore, the emergence of novel H1N1 raises the potential that additional reassortments can occur, resulting in drug resistant virus. Thus, additional antiviral approaches are urgently needed. DAS181 (Fludase), a sialidase fusion protein, has been shown to have inhibitory activity against a large number of seasonal influenza strains and a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) strain (H5N1). Here, we examine the in vitro activity of DAS181 against a panel of 2009 oseltamivir-resistant seasonal H1N1 clinical isolates. The activity of DAS181 against nine 2009, two 2007, and two 2004 clinical isolates of seasonal IFV H1N1 was examined using plaque number reduction assay on MDCK cells. DAS181 strongly inhibited all tested isolates. EC50 values remained constant against isolates from 2004, 2007, and 2009, suggesting that there was no change in DAS181 sensitivity over time. As expected, all 2007 and 2009 isolates were resistant to oseltamivir, consistent with the identification of the H274Y mutation in the NA gene of all these isolates. Interestingly, several of the 2007 and 2009 isolates also exhibited reduced sensitivity to zanamivir, and accompanying HA mutations near the sialic acid binding site were observed. DAS181 inhibits IFV that is resistant to NAIs. Thus, DAS181 may offer an alternative therapeutic option for seasonal or pandemic IFVs that become resistant to currently available antiviral drugs.
DAS181 is a novel candidate therapeutic agent against influenza virus which functions via the mechanism of removing the virus receptor, sialic acid (Sia), from the adjacent glycan structures. DAS181 and its analogues have previously been shown to be potently active against multiple strains of seasonal and avian influenza virus strains in several experimental models, including cell lines, mice, and ferrets. Here we demonstrate that DAS181 treatment leads to desialylation of both alpha2-6-linked and alpha2-3-linked Sia in ex vivo human lung tissue culture and primary pneumocytes. DAS181 treatment also effectively protects human lung tissue and pneumocytes against the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 (A/Vietnam/3046/2004). Two doses of DAS181 treatment given 12 h apart were sufficient to block H5N1 infection in the ex vivo lung tissue culture. These findings support the potential value of DAS181 as a broad-spectrum therapeutic agent against influenza viruses, especially H5N1.
The recent emergence of a novel pandemic influenza A(H1N1) strain in humans exemplifies the rapid and unpredictable nature of influenza virus evolution and the need for effective therapeutics and vaccines to control such outbreaks. However, resistance to antivirals can be a formidable problem as evidenced by the currently widespread oseltamivir- and adamantane-resistant seasonal influenza A viruses (IFV). Additional antiviral approaches with novel mechanisms of action are needed to combat novel and resistant influenza strains. DAS181 (Fludase) is a sialidase fusion protein in early clinical development with in vitro and in vivo preclinical activity against a variety of seasonal influenza strains and highly pathogenic avian influenza strains (A/H5N1). Here, we use in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models to evaluate the activity of DAS181 against several pandemic influenza A(H1N1) viruses.
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