Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is isolated frequently from surgical site infections and other soft tissue infections. There are limited data examining the prevalence of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) among Egyptian patients after surgery. The current study determined the prevalence of MRSA isolated from surgical site and soft tissue infections at Minia University Hospital (MUH), determined their susceptibility to ?-lactams and other antimicrobials, and examined their mecA gene expression.
A total of 244 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were isolated from 180 dairy and pharmaceutical products that were collected from different areas in Minia governorate, Egypt. LAB were identified phenotypically on basis of morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. Lactobacillus isolates were further confirmed using PCR-based assay. By combination of phenotypic with molecular identification Lactobacillus spp. were found to be the dominant genus (138, 76.7%) followed by Streptococcus spp. (65, 36.1%) and Lactococcus spp. (27, 15%). Some contaminant organisms such as (Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., mould and yeast) were isolated from the collected dairy samples but pharmaceutical products were free of such contaminants. Susceptibility of LAB isolates to antibiotics representing all major classes was tested by agar dilution method. Generally, LAB were highly susceptible to Beta-lactams except penicillin. Lactobacilli were resistant to vancomycin, however lactococci and streptococci proved to be very susceptible. Most strains were susceptible to tetracycline and showed a wide range of streptomycin MICs. The MICs of erythromycin and clindamycin for most of the LAB were within the normal range of susceptibility. Sixteen Lactobacillus, 8 Lactococcus and 8 Streptococcus isolates including all tetracycline and/or erythromycin resistant strains were tested for the presence of tetracycline and/or erythromycin resistant genes [tet(M) and/or erm(B)]. PCR assays shows that some resistant strains harbor tet(M) and/or erm(B) resistance genes.
With the re-emergence of older antibiotics as valuable choices for treatment of serious infections, we studied the aminoglycoside resistance of Gram-negative bacteria isolated from patients with ear, urinary tract, skin, and gastrointestinal tract infections at Minia university hospital in Egypt. Escherichia coli (mainly from urinary tract and gastrointestinal tract infections) was the most prevalent isolate (28.57%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (25.7%) (mainly from ear discharge and skin infections). Isolates exhibited maximal resistance against streptomycin (83.4%), and minimal resistance against amikacin (17.7%) and intermediate degrees of resistance against neomycin, kanamycin, gentamicin, and tobramycin. Resistance to older aminoglycosides was higher than newer aminoglycosides. The most common aminoglycoside resistance phenotype was that of streptomycin resistance, present as a single phenotype or in combination, followed by kanamycin-neomycin as determined by interpretative reading. The resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were capable of producing aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes and using efflux as mechanisms of resistance. Using checkerboard titration method, the most frequently-observed outcome in combinations of aminoglycosides with ?-lactams or quinolones was synergism. The most effective combination was amikacin with ciprofloxacin (100% Synergism), whereas the least effective combination was gentamicin with amoxicillin (53.3% Synergistic, 26.7% additive, and 20% indifferent FIC indices). Whereas the studied combinations were additive and indifferent against few of the tested strains, antagonism was never observed. The high resistance rates to aminoglycosides exhibited by Gram-negative bacteria in this study could be attributed to the selective pressure of aminoglycoside usage which could be controlled by successful implementation of infection control measures.
A total of 187 isolates from 470 clinical specimens were collected from three hospitals in El-Minia governorate and identified as 132 Staphylococcus aureus strains and 55 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) strains. Susceptibility of isolates to antimicrobial agents was tested by the agar dilution method. The isolated S. aureus strains showed low resistance to vancomycin (1.5%), amikacin (2.3%) and gatifloxacin (3.8%). Vancomycin was the most effective antibiotic against CoNS. The ampicillin-resistant isolates were tested for ?-lactamase production where, 61.7% of S. aureus and 42.9% of CoNS were positive for ?-lactamase enzyme. Beta-lactamase producing strains were screened for their plasmid profile using alkaline lysis method. Some of these strains carried at least one plasmid suggesting plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance. When cells of these strains were exposed to curing agent ethidium bromide, the production of the ?-lactamase was lost. Resistance by efflux was studied by a modified fluorometric assay. Addition of uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) increased norfloxacin accumulation in quinolone resistant S. aureus strains, suggesting endogenous energy-dependent efflux. Combinations of ciprofloxacin with four antimicrobial agents against methicillin resistant S.aureus (MRSA) strains were investigated using decimal assay for additivity (DAA) technique. Synergistic interaction was observed between ciprofloxacin and oxacillin. ciprofloxacin plus cefepime and gentamicin appeared to be additive, while ciprofloxacin plus erythromycin was antagonistic.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ciprofloxacin (CIP), N-acetylcysteine (NAC) alone and in combination on biofilm production and pre-formed mature biofilms on ureteral stent surfaces. Two strains each of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Klebseilla pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris, recently isolated from patients undergoing ureteral stent removal and shown to be capable of biofilm production, were used in this study. The inhibitory effects of ciprofloxacin, N-acetylcysteine and ciprofloxacin/N-acetylcysteine combination were determined by static adherence assay. Ciprofloxacin (MIC and 2 MIC) and N-acetylcysteine (2 and 4 mg/ml) inhibited biofilm production by > or = 60% in all tested microorganisms. Disruption of pre-formed biofilms of all tested microorganisms was found to be > or = 78% in the presence of ciprofloxacin (MIC and 2 MIC) and > or = 62% in the presence of N-acetylcysteine (2 and 4 mg/ml), compared to controls. Ciprofloxacin/N-acetylcysteine showed the highest inhibitory effect on biofilm production (94-100%) and the highest disruptive effect on the pre-formed biofilms (86-100%) in comparison to controls. N-acetylcysteine was found to increase the therapeutic efficacy of ciprofloxacin by degrading the extracellular polysaccharide matrix of biofilms. These data are statistically significant. The inhibitory effects of ciprofloxacin and N-acetylcysteine on biofilm production were also verified by scanning electron microscope (SEM). In conclusion, Ciprofloxacin/N-acetylcysteine combinations have the highest inhibitory effect on biofilm production and the highest ability to eradicate pre-formed mature biofilms.
Staphylococci are a common cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infections. The present study evaluated biofilm forming capacity and the presence of both icaA and icaD genes among staphylococci strains isolated from patients undergoing ureteral catheterization.
We report herein the synthesis of some N-Mannich bases in addition to different N-4 substituents of norfloxacin. The antibacterial activities of the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated and correlated with their physicochemical properties. Results revealed that some of the tested compounds exhibited better inhibitory activities than the reference antibiotic norfloxacin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus strains. Correlation results showed that there is no single physicochemical parameter that can determine the effect of N-4 piperazinyl group on the activity of these fluoroquinolones, where lipophilicity, molecular mass and electronic factors may influence the activity.
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