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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The sulfur-bubble template-mediated synthesis of uniform porous g-C3N4 with superior photocatalytic performance.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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A facile sulfur-bubble template-mediated synthesis of uniform porous g-C3N4 has been developed for the first time. The obtained sulfur-mediated g-C3N4 presents a uniform porous structure with higher BET surface area and displays superior photocatalytic performance compared with pure g-C3N4.
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Durability, inactivation and regeneration of silver tetratantalate in photocatalytic H2 evolution.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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The prepared Ag2Ta4O11 photocatalyst exhibits durable activity for H2 production from water. We investigated the durability, inactivation and regeneration mechanism in depth. This work provides a new perspective and makes an important step for the research on Ag-based photocatalysts.
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Charging-free electrochemical system for harvesting low-grade thermal energy.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Efficient and low-cost systems are needed to harvest the tremendous amount of energy stored in low-grade heat sources (<100 °C). Thermally regenerative electrochemical cycle (TREC) is an attractive approach which uses the temperature dependence of electrochemical cell voltage to construct a thermodynamic cycle for direct heat-to-electricity conversion. By varying temperature, an electrochemical cell is charged at a lower voltage than discharge, converting thermal energy to electricity. Most TREC systems still require external electricity for charging, which complicates system designs and limits their applications. Here, we demonstrate a charging-free TREC consisting of an inexpensive soluble Fe(CN)6 (3-/4-) redox pair and solid Prussian blue particles as active materials for the two electrodes. In this system, the spontaneous directions of the full-cell reaction are opposite at low and high temperatures. Therefore, the two electrochemical processes at both low and high temperatures in a cycle are discharge. Heat-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 2.0% can be reached for the TREC operating between 20 and 60 °C. This charging-free TREC system may have potential application for harvesting low-grade heat from the environment, especially in remote areas.
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Prediction of Crystal Morphology of Cyclotrimethylene Trinitramine in the Solvent Medium by Computer Simulation: a Case of Cyclohexanone Solvent.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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The crystal morphology of the energetic material cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (also known as RDX) influenced by the solvent effect was investigated via the molecular dynamics simulation. The modified attachment energy (MAE) model was established by incorporating the growth parameter - solvent term. The adsorption interface models were used to study the adsorption interactions between solvent and RDX surfaces. The RDX crystal morphology grown from the cyclohexanone (CYC) solvent as a case investigation was calculated by the MAE model. The calculation results indicated that due to the effect of CYC solvent, (210) and (111) faces had the greatest morphology importance on the final RDX crystal, while the morphology importance of (020), (002) and (200) faces reduced. The predicted RDX morphology was in reasonable agreement with the observed experiment result.
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A Quantitative Method for Weight Selection in SGDDP.
J Biopharm Stat
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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ABSTRACT Ethnic factors pose major challenge to evaluating the treatment effect of a new drug in a targeted ethnic (TE) population in emerging regions based on the results from a multi-regional clinical trial (MRCT) (ICHE5, 1998). To address this issue with statistical rigor, Huang, et al. (2012) proposed a new design of a simultaneous global drug development program (SGDDP) which used weighted Z tests to combine the information collected from the non-targeted ethnic (NTE) group in the MRCT with that from the TE group in both the MRCT and a simultaneously designed local clinical trial (LCT). An important and open question in the SGDDP design was how to downweight the information collected from the NTE population to reflect the potential impact of ethnic factors and ensure that the effect size for TE patients is clinically meaningful. In this paper, we will relate the weight selection for the SGDDP to Method 1 proposed in the Japanese regulatory guidance published by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) in 2007. Method 1 is only applicable when true effect sizes are assumed to be equal for both TE and NTE groups. We modified the Method 1 formula for more general scenarios, and use it to develop a quantitative method of weight selection for the design of the SGDDP which at the same time, also provides sufficient power to descriptively check the consistency of the effect size for TE patients to a clinically meaningful magnitude.
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Two new triterpenoids from Callicarpa kwangtungensis.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Two new triterpenoids, 2?,3?,16?,19?,23-pentahydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (1) and 2?,3?,11?,21?,23-pentahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (2), were isolated from the aerial parts of Callicarpa kwangtungensis. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D analyses, as well as MS and IR spectra.
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[Influence of thoracoscopic surgery on inflammatory reaction of the body ? for early peripheral lung cancer patients].
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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It has been proven that video assited thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) achieved the same survival rates compared with traditional open chest operation in the treatment of early stage of lung cancer. but it is unclear if there is any difference of body inflammatory reaction between the two operation. The aim of this study is to investigate the changes of inflammatory state of thoracoscopic radical lobectomy in early peripheral lung cancer patients.
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Opposite Neural Trajectories of Apolipoprotein E ?4 and ?2 Alleles with Aging Associated with Different Risks of Alzheimer's Disease.
Cereb. Cortex
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ?4 allele is a confirmed genetic risk factor and the APOE ?2 allele is a protective factor related to late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). Intriguingly, recent studies demonstrated similar brain function alterations between APOE ?2 and ?4 alleles, despite their opposite susceptibilities to AD. To address this apparent discrepancy, we recruited 129 cognitively normal elderly subjects, including 36 ?2 carriers, 44 ?3 homozygotes, and 49 ?4 carriers. All subjects underwent resting-state functional MRI scans. We hypothesized that aging could influence the APOE ?2 and ?4 allele effects that contribute to their appropriate AD risks differently. Using the stepwise regression analysis, we demonstrated that although both ?2 and ?4 carriers showed decreased functional connectivity (FC) compared with ?3 homozygotes, they have opposite aging trajectories in the default mode network-primarily in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex. As age increased, ?2 carriers showed elevated FC, whereas ?4 carriers exhibited decreased FC. Behaviorally, the altered DMN FC positively correlated with information processing speed in both ?2 and ?4 carriers. It is suggested that the opposite aging trajectories between APOE ?2 and ?4 alleles in the DMN may reflect the antagonistic pleiotropic properties and associate with their different AD risks.
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Liver Computed Tomographic Perfusion in the Assessment of Microvascular Invasion in Patients With Small Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Invest Radiol
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Detecting microvascular invasion (mVI) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma is a diagnostic challenge. The present study aimed to acquire a series of quantitative perfusion parameters from liver computed tomography (CT) with a 320-slice scanner in patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma (sHCC) and study its efficacy in identifying mVI.
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[Methylation of Runx3 promoter in different breast lesions].
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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To investigate the methylation status of Runx3 promoter and Runx3 expression in breast lesion tissues.
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Statistical Properties of the Design for Simultaneous Global Drug Development Program.
J Biopharm Stat
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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ABSTRACT Huang et al (2012) proposed a design for the Simultaneous Global Drug Development Program (SGDDP) to assess the impact of ethnic factors on the effect of a new treatment for a targeted ethnic (TE) population. They used weighted-Z tests to combine the information collected from the TE and non-TE (NTE) subgroups in the SGDDP based on the fundamental assumption on their shared biological commonality. In this paper, we mathematically formulated this assumption as the quantitative interaction between treatment effect and subgroup. We used it to more rigorously describe the hypotheses, and showed the unbiasedness of the weighted-Z test. Moreover, to study the loss of efficiency from down weighting the NTE information in Huang (2012)'s design, we compared the power of their test with that of the uniformly most powerful (UMP) test, which we showed was also a weighted-Z test. We discussed that the choice of weight should balance the maximization of power when the assumption holds and the minimization of bias otherwise.
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Super-oscillation focusing lens based on continuous amplitude and binary phase modulation.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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In this paper, we numerically demonstrate the advantage of utilizing continuous amplitude and phase modulation in super-oscillation focusing lens design. Numerical results show that compared with simple binary amplitude modulation, continuous amplitude and phase modulation can greatly improve the super-oscillation focusing performance by increasing the central lobe intensity and the ratio of its energy to the total energy, reducing the sidelobe intensity, and substantially extending the field of view. Our study also reveals the role of phase distribution in reducing the spatial frequency bandwidth of the super-oscillation optical field on the focal plane. Based on continuous amplitude and binary phase modulation, a lens was designed with double layer metal slit array for wavelength of 4.6 µm. COMSOL is used to carry out the 2D simulation. The lens focal length is 40.18? and the focal spot FWHM is 0.308?. Two largest sidelobes are located right next to the central lobe with intensity about 40% of the central lobe intensity. Except for the two sidelobes, other sidelobes have intensity less than 25% of the central lobe intensity, which leads to a clear field of view on the whole focal plane.
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Smoking in infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome: baseline validation of self-report and effects on phenotype.
Hum. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Do women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) seeking fertility treatment report smoking accurately and does participation in infertility treatment alter smoking?
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Membrane-free battery for harvesting low-grade thermal energy.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Efficient and low-cost systems are desired to harvest the tremendous amount of energy stored in low-grade heat sources (<100 °C). An attractive approach is the thermally regenerative electrochemical cycle (TREC), which uses the dependence of electrode potential on temperature to construct a thermodynamic cycle for direct heat-to-electricity conversion. By varying the temperature, an electrochemical cell is charged at a lower voltage than discharged; thus, thermal energy is converted to electricity. Recently, a Prussian blue analog-based system with high efficiency has been demonstrated. However, the use of an ion-selective membrane in this system raises concerns about the overall cost, which is crucial for waste heat harvesting. Here, we report on a new membrane-free battery with a nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) cathode and a silver/silver chloride anode. The system has a temperature coefficient of -0.74 mV K(-1). When the battery is discharged at 15 °C and recharged at 55 °C, thermal-to-electricity conversion efficiencies of 2.6% and 3.5% are achieved with assumed heat recuperation of 50% and 70%, respctively. This work opens new opportunities for using membrane-free electrochemical systems to harvest waste heat.
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High Feasibility of Liquid-Based Cytological Samples for Detection of EGFR Mutations in Chinese Patients with NSCLC.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Activating mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) could predict response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the detection of EGFR mutation is frequently challenging in clinical practice for the lack of tumor tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of performing EGFR mutation testing on various types of liquid-based cytology (LBC) samples.
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An advanced Ag-based photocatalyst Ag2Ta4O11 with outstanding activity, durability and universality for removing organic dyes.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Constructing Ag-based photocatalysts by the incorporation of Ag(+) ions into metal/nonmetal oxides for removing organic pollutants is a recently developed strategy, but overcoming their own photocorrosion is still a tremendous challenge. In this work, an advanced Ag-based photocatalyst Ag2Ta4O11 is obtained by this strategy, which exhibits improved photocatalytic activity compared with Ta2O5 and the universality for degrading several organic dyes. Importantly, the Ag2Ta4O11 photocatalyst has outstanding durability and reusability, which indicates that it has potential application prospects for organic wastewater treatment in the printing and dyeing industry.
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Down-regulation of connexin43 and connexin32 in keratocystic odontogenic tumours: potential association with clinical features.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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The objective of this study was to explore the potential involvement of connexin43 (Cx43) and connexin32 (Cx32), two vital members of the connexin families, in the pathogenesis of keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOT).
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Newcastle disease virus vaccine encapsulated in biodegradable nanoparticles for mucosal delivery of a human vaccine.
Hum Vaccin Immunother
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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An overwhelming number of medicines on the market are oral medicine with the disadvantage of lower bioavailability universally. Newcastle disease (ND) has become a serious disease that threatens the poultry industries in many countries, and there are no treatments available for ND. The biodegradable materials could be surface modified and protect antigen or DNA from damage. Furthermore, nanoparticles are also a potential drug delivery with proper size. However, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines encapsulated in nanoparticles were widely used due to their proved a high safety and induced quicker and better mucosal and humoral immune responses. Here we review the results of mucosal immune delivery system for ND. Due to the safety, low toxicity, and better immunogenicity of the mucosal immune delivery system, our studies provide a clearly view that used the biodegradable materials to research and develop the human vaccines to save more patients' lives. These promising results provide a foundation for testing the approach in humans.
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Ammonium-oxidizing bacteria facilitate aerobic degradation of sulfanilic acid in activated sludge.
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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Sulfanilic acid (SA) is a toxic sulfonated aromatic amine commonly found in anaerobically treated azo dye contaminated effluents. Aerobic acclimatization of SA-degrading mixed microbial culture could lead to co-enrichment of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) because of the concomitant release of ammonium from SA oxidation. To what extent the co-enriched AOB would affect SA oxidation at various ammonium concentrations was unclear. Here, a series of batch kinetic experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of AOB on aerobic SA degradation in an acclimatized activated sludge culture capable of oxidizing SA and ammonium simultaneously. To account for the effect of AOB on SA degradation, allylthiourea was used to inhibit AOB activity in the culture. The results indicated that specific SA degradation rate of the mixed culture was negatively correlated with the initial ammonium concentration (0-93 mM, R²= 0.99). The presence of AOB accelerated SA degradation by reducing the inhibitory effect of ammonium (? 10 mM). The Haldane substrate inhibition model was used to correlate substrate concentration (SA and ammonium) and oxygen uptake rate. This study revealed, for the first time, that AOB could facilitate SA degradation at high concentration of ammonium (? 10 mM) in an enriched activated sludge culture.
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[Clinical evaluations of lateral supraorbital microsurgical approach for sellar tumors].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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To assess the efficacy and safety of lateral supraorbital (LSO) approach for removing sellar tumors.
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Assessing outcomes for cost-utility analysis in depression: comparison of five multi-attribute utility instruments with two depression-specific outcome measures.
Br J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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Background Many mental health surveys and clinical studies do not include a multi-attribute utility instrument (MAUI) that produces quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). There is also some question about the sensitivity of the existing utility instruments to mental health. Aims To compare the sensitivity of five commonly used MAUIs (Assessment of Quality of Life - Eight Dimension Scale (AQoL-8D), EuroQoL-five dimension (EQ-5D-5L), Short Form 6D (SF-6D), Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3), 15D) with that of disease-specific depression outcome measures (Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10)) and develop 'crosswalk' transformation algorithms between the measures. Method Individual data from 917 people with self-report depression collected as part of the International Multi-Instrument Comparison Survey. Results All the MAUIs discriminated between the levels of severity measured by the K10 and the DASS-21. The AQoL-8D had the highest correlation with the disease-specific measures and the best goodness-of-fit transformation properties. Conclusions The algorithms developed in this study can be used to determine cost-effectiveness of services or interventions where utility measures are not collected.
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Effect of Surface Topography and Bioactive Properties on Early Adhesion and Growth Behavior of Mouse Preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 Cells.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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The effects of bioactive properties and surface topography of biomaterials on the adhesion and spreading properties of mouse preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells was investigated by preparation of different surfaces. Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) electrospun fibers (ES) were produced as a porous rough surface. In our study, coverslips were used as a substrate for the immobilization of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and collagen type I (COL I) in the preparation of bioactive surfaces. In addition, COL I was immobilized onto porous electrospun fibers surfaces (E-COL) to investigate the combined effects of bioactive molecules and topography. Untreated coverslips were used as controls. Early adhesion and growth behavior of MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the different surfaces were studied at 6, 12, and 24 h. Evaluation of cell adhesion and morphological changes showed that the all the surfaces were favorable for promoting the adhesion and spreading of cells. CCK-8 assays and flow cytometry revealed that both topography and bioactive properties were favorable for cell growth. Analysis of ?1, ?1, ?2, ?5, ?10 and ?11 integrin expression levels by immunofluorescence, real-time RT-PCR, and Western blot and indicated that surface topography plays an important role in the early stage of cell adhesion. However, the influence of topography and bioactive properties of surfaces on integrins is variable. Compared with any of the topographic or bioactive properties in isolation, the combined effect of both types of properties provided an advantage for the growth and spreading of MC3T3-E1 cells. This study provides a new insight into the functions and effects of topographic and bioactive modifications of surfaces at the interface between cells and biomaterials for tissue engineering.
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Heat shock protein 27 phosphorylation in the proliferation and apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells induced by high glucose through the phosphoinositide 3?kinase/Akt and extracellular signal?regulated kinase 1/2 pathways.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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In the present study, the effect of the heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) signaling pathway on the proliferation and apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) induced by high glucose (HG) was investigated. HUVEC proliferation in the indicated conditions was measured by the alamarBlue® assay. Apoptosis in HUVECs cultured with HG was analyzed by an Annexin V?fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide apoptosis detection kit. HSP27 activity was evaluated by western blotting with specific phospho?HSP27 antibody. HUVEC proliferation induced by HG was observed to be reduced by the HSP27 inhibitor quercetin in a concentration?dependent manner, with a concomitant increase in apoptosis. The phosphorylation of HSP27 induced by HG was blocked by the specific phosphoinositide 3?kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 and the specific extracellular signal?regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 inhibitor U0126 in a concentration?dependent manner, with peak inhibition rates of 62.6 and 56.1%, respectively. LY294002 and U0126 also reduced HUVEC proliferation with a concomitant increase in apoptotic rate. In conclusion, HSP27 phosphorylation is important in mediating the proliferation and apoptosis of HUVECs induced by high glucose, and PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 are important signaling pathways that contribute to HSP27 phosphorylation.
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ABO blood group, Epstein-Barr virus infection and prognosis of patients with non-metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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A prior study showed blood type A/AB to be associated with an increased risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) compared to subjects with blood type O. However, the relationship between ABO blood groups and prognosis of NPC patients is still questionable. In addition, whether Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with prognosis of NPC patients with different ABO blood groups is unclear.
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Surgical treatment of celiomesenteric trunk aneurysm-7 case report.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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The celiomesenteric trunk is a rare anomaly characterized by a common origin of the celiac axis and superior mesenteric artery from the aorta, which accounts for less than 1% of all celiac artery anomalies, so the aneurysm occurred in such trunk is even rarer. There have been few reports on how to diagnose and deal with such malformed celiomesenteric trunk aneurysms till now. This paper tries to summarize the experience of how to expose and excise such kind of aneurysm according to the seven cases' data. The clinic data were collected retrospectively. There were seven cases with celiomesenteric trunk aneurysm from February 2000 to February 2013, including 5 males and 2 females aged 35~62. The operations were done including aneurysm resection and vascular reconstruction under general anesthesia. The operated patients were followed-up at the sixth month and each year post operation. The vascular stomas were detected or examined by Color Doppler Sonography, spiral Computed Tomography angiography (SCTA). The seven operated patients were cured and discharged from hospital, and they were followed up for 3~10 years (mean time 5 years), with four patients being followed up longer than 5 years. No sign of intestinal ischemia or hepatic ischemia or splenic ischemia was found, and no image of anastomosis stricture or stenosis was found during the follow-up. Five patients are alive now while two patients were dead, with one dying of large area myocardial infarction unexpectedly at 6 years post operation and the other dying of cerebral infarction abruptly at 4 years post operation. It is an effective and safe method to treat the celiomesenteric trunk aneurysm by using by-pass operation with artificial blood vessels, originating from inferior kidney aorta to visceral arteries including hepatic artery, splenic artery and superior mesenteric artery. Its short-term and middle-term effects are relatively better.
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Development of Second-Generation Small-Molecule RhoA Inhibitors with Enhanced Water Solubility, Tissue Potency, and Significant in vivo Efficacy.
ChemMedChem
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
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RhoA, a member of the Rho GTPases, is involved in a variety of cellular functions and could be a suitable therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, few small-molecule RhoA inhibitors have been reported. Based on our previously reported lead compounds, 32 new 2-substituted quinoline (or quinoxaline) derivatives were synthesized and tested in biological assays. Six compounds showed high RhoA inhibitory activities, with IC50 values of 1.17-1.84??M. Among these, (E)-3-(3-(ethyl(quinolin-2-yl)amino)phenyl)acrylic acid (26?b) and (E)-3-(3-(butyl(quinolin-2-yl)amino)phenyl)acrylic acid (26?d) demonstrated noticeable vasorelaxation effects against phenylephrine-induced contraction in thoracic aorta artery rings, and compound 26?b had good water solubility and showed significant in vivo efficacy, which was similar to that of 5-(1,4-diazepane-1-sulfonyl)isoquinoline (fasudil) in a subarachnoid hemorrhage-cardiovascular model. To the best of our knowledge, compound 26?b is the first example of a small- molecule RhoA inhibitor with potent in vivo efficacy, which could serve as a good lead for designing cardiovascular agents.
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Identification of a novel orthohepadnavirus in pomona roundleaf bats in China.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2014
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Bats in Myanmar, Gabon, and Panama have been found to harbor diverse hepadnaviruses. Here, we report a novel hepadnavirus in 4 of 20 pomona roundleaf bats from Yunnan province, China. This virus contains 3,278 nucleotides (nt) in the full circularized genome, with four predicted open frames (ORFs) reading in the same direction. Full genomic sequence comparisons and evolutionary analysis indicate that this virus is a member of a new species within the genus Orthohepadnavirus.
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Possible Role of Raf-1 Kinase in the Development of Cerebral Vasospasm and Early Brain Injury After Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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This study aims to clarify the potential role of Raf-1 kinase in cerebral vasospasm (CVS) and early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Two experimental SAH models in rats, including cisterna magna double injection model for CVS study and prechiasmatic cistern single injection model for EBI study, were performed in this research. As a specific inhibitor of Raf-1, BAY 43-9006 was used in this study. In CVS study, time course study showed that the basilar artery exhibited vasospasm after SAH and became most severe at day 5, and the phosphorylation of Raf-1 had the same trends, while both vasospasm and the phosphorylation of Raf-1 induced by SAH were inhibited by BAY 43-9006 treatment. In addition, BAY 43-9006 treatment significantly reversed the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and the activation of NF-?B induced by SAH and decreased the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of IL-6 and IL-1?. In EBI study, BAY 43-9006 treatment significantly suppressed the brain injury induced by SAH. Besides, BAY 43-9006 inhibited the phosphorylation of Raf-1 and ERK1/2; decreased the protein levels of COX-2, VEGF, and MMP-9; and reversed the activation of NF-?B induced by SAH. These results demonstrate that Raf-1 kinase contributes to CVS and EBI after SAH by enhancing the activation of the Raf-1/ERK1/2 and Raf-1/NF-?B signaling pathways, and that the inhibition of these pathways might offer new treatment strategies for CVS and EBI.
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A DTI-based tractography study of effects on brain structure associated with prenatal alcohol exposure in newborns.
Hum Brain Mapp
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is known to have severe, long-term consequences for brain and behavioral development already detectable in infancy and childhood. Resulting features of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders include cognitive and behavioral effects, as well as facial anomalies and growth deficits. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography were used to analyze white matter (WM) development in 11 newborns (age since conception <45 weeks) whose mothers were recruited during pregnancy. Comparisons were made with nine age-matched controls born to abstainers or light drinkers from the same Cape Coloured (mixed ancestry) community near Cape Town, South Africa. DTI parameters, T1 relaxation time, proton density and volumes were used to quantify and investigate group differences in WM in the newborn brains. Probabilistic tractography was used to estimate and to delineate similar tract locations among the subjects for transcallosal pathways, cortico-spinal projection fibers, and cortico-cortical association fibers. In each of these WM networks, the axial diffusivity was the parameter that showed the strongest association with maternal drinking. The strongest relations were observed in medial and inferior WM, regions in which the myelination process typically begins. In contrast to studies of older individuals with PAE, fractional anisotropy did not exhibit a consistent and significant relation with alcohol exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first DTI-tractography study of prenatally alcohol exposed newborns. Hum Brain Mapp, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Mapping of Incontinence Quality of Life (I-QOL) scores to Assessment of Quality of Life 8D (AQoL-8D) utilities in patients with idiopathic overactive bladder.
Health Qual Life Outcomes
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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The Incontinence Quality of Life (I-QOL) questionnaire is a commonly used and validated incontinence specific QOL instrument. The objective of this study is to develop an algorithm to map I-QOL to the Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL) 8D utility instrument in patients with idiopathic overactive bladder (iOAB).
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The glottaltopogram: a method of analyzing high-speed images of the vocal folds.
Comput Speech Lang
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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Laryngeal high-speed videoendoscopy is a state-of-the-art technique to examine physiological vibrational patterns of the vocal folds. With sampling rates of thousands of frames per second, high-speed videoendoscopy produces a large amount of data that is difficult to analyze subjectively. In order to visualize high-speed video in a straightforward and intuitive way, many methods have been proposed to condense the three-dimensional data into a few static images that preserve characteristics of the underlying vocal fold vibratory patterns. In this paper, we propose the "glottaltopogram," which is based on principal component analysis of changes over time in the brightness of each pixel in consecutive video images. This method reveals the overall synchronization of the vibrational patterns of the vocal folds over the entire laryngeal area. Experimental results showed that this method is effective in visualizing pathological and normal vocal fold vibratory patterns.
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From KIDSCREEN-10 to CHU9D: creating a unique mapping algorithm for application in economic evaluation.
Health Qual Life Outcomes
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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The KIDSCREEN-10 index and the Child Health Utility 9D (CHU9D) are two recently developed generic instruments for the measurement of health-related quality of life in children and adolescents. Whilst the CHU9D is a preference based instrument developed specifically for application in cost-utility analyses, the KIDSCREEN-10 is not currently suitable for application in this context. This paper provides an algorithm for mapping the KIDSCREEN-10 index onto the CHU9D utility scores.
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The Adaptor Protein p62 Is Involved in RANKL-induced Autophagy and Osteoclastogenesis.
J. Histochem. Cytochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Previous studies have implicated autophagy in osteoclast differentiation. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of p62, a characterized adaptor protein for autophagy, in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Real-time quantitative PCR and western blot analyses were used to evaluate the expression levels of autophagy-related markers during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in mouse macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. Meanwhile, the potential relationship between p62/LC3 localization and F-actin ring formation was tested using double-labeling immunofluorescence. Then, the expression of p62 in RAW264.7 cells was knocked down using small-interfering RNA (siRNA), followed by detecting its influence on RANKL-induced autophagy activation, osteoclast differentiation, and F-actin ring formation. The data showed that several key autophagy-related markers including p62 were significantly altered during RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. In addition, the expression and localization of p62 showed negative correlation with LC3 accumulation and F-actin ring formation, as demonstrated by western blot and immunofluorescence analyses, respectively. Importantly, the knockdown of p62 obviously attenuated RANKL-induced expression of autophagy- and osteoclastogenesis-related genes, formation of TRAP-positive multinuclear cells, accumulation of LC3, as well as formation of F-actin ring. Our study indicates that p62 may play essential roles in RANKL-induced autophagy and osteoclastogenesis, which may help to develop a novel therapeutic strategy against osteoclastogenesis-related diseases.
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Genome-wide association study identifies variants in PMS1 associated with serum ferritin in a Chinese population.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Only a small proportion of genetic variation in serum ferritin has been explained by variant genetic studies, and genome-wide association study (GWAS) for serum ferritin has not been investigated widely in Chinese population. We aimed at exploring the novel genetic susceptibility to serum ferritin, and performed this two stage GWAS in a healthy Chinese population of 3,495 men aged 20-69 y, including 1,999 unrelated subjects in the first stage and 1,496 independent individuals in the second stage. Serum ferritin was measured with electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, and DNA samples were collected for genotyping. A total of 1,940,243 SNPs were tested by using multivariate linear regression analysis. After adjusting for population stratification, age and BMI, the rs5742933 located in the 5'UTR region of PMS1 gene on chromosome 2 was the most significantly associated with ferritin concentrations (P-combined? =?2.329×10(-10)) (? ?= ?-0.11, 95% CI: -0.14, -0.07). Moreover, this marker was about 200 kb away from the candidate gene SLC40A1 which is responsible for iron export. PMS1 gene was the novel genetic susceptibility to serum ferritin in Chinese males and its relation to SLC40A1 needs further study.
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[Sling suspension: a new technique of treating uterine prolapse].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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To report a novel surgical technique of laparoscopic extraperitoneal sling suspension for uterine prolapse and evaluate its efficacy.
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Synthetic antibodies with a human framework that protect mice from lethal Sudan ebolavirus challenge.
ACS Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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The ebolaviruses cause severe and rapidly progressing hemorrhagic fever. There are five ebolavirus species; although much is known about Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) and its neutralization by antibodies, little is known about Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV), which is emerging with increasing frequency. Here we describe monoclonal antibodies containing a human framework that potently inhibit infection by SUDV and protect mice from lethal challenge. The murine antibody 16F6, which binds the SUDV envelope glycoprotein (GP), served as the starting point for design. Sequence and structural alignment revealed similarities between 16F6 and YADS1, a synthetic antibody with a humanized scaffold. A focused phage library was constructed and screened to impart 16F6-like recognition properties onto the YADS1 scaffold. A panel of 17 antibodies were characterized and found to have a range of neutralization potentials against a pseudotype virus infection model. Neutralization correlated with GP binding as determined by ELISA. Two of these clones, E10 and F4, potently inhibited authentic SUDV and conferred protection and memory immunity in mice from lethal SUDV challenge. E10 and F4 were further shown to bind to the same epitope on GP as 16F6 with comparable affinities. These antibodies represent strong immunotherapeutic candidates for treatment of SUDV infection.
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[Activation of p21(WAF1/CIP1) by small activating RNA inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in BEL-7402 hepatoma cell].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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To evaluate the anti neoplastic effects of p21(WAF1/CIP1) transcriptional activation induced by duplex RNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line BEL-7402.
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Helium superfluidity. Shapes and vorticities of superfluid helium nanodroplets.
Science
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Helium nanodroplets are considered ideal model systems to explore quantum hydrodynamics in self-contained, isolated superfluids. However, exploring the dynamic properties of individual droplets is experimentally challenging. In this work, we used single-shot femtosecond x-ray coherent diffractive imaging to investigate the rotation of single, isolated superfluid helium-4 droplets containing ~10(8) to 10(11) atoms. The formation of quantum vortex lattices inside the droplets is confirmed by observing characteristic Bragg patterns from xenon clusters trapped in the vortex cores. The vortex densities are up to five orders of magnitude larger than those observed in bulk liquid helium. The droplets exhibit large centrifugal deformations but retain axially symmetric shapes at angular velocities well beyond the stability range of viscous classical droplets.
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Escherichia coli growth and transport in the presence of nanosilver under variable growth conditions.
Environ Technol
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Nanosilver (silver nanoparticles) has the ability to anchor to the bacterial cell membrane and subsequently penetrate it, thereby causing structural changes (i.e., permeability) in the cell membrane and death of the cell. The bacterial responses to the presence of nanosilver usually vary depending on the concentration of nanosilver particles, exposure time and the bacterial physiological stage. Since bacterial anabolism dependents upon a stoichiometric ratio of carbon and inorganic elements (nutrients), the macronutrient ratio, i.e. carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) thus plays an important role of bacterial responses to the exposure of nanosilver. This study investigated the responses of Escherichia coli to the exposure of nanosilver under variable growth conditions. It was discovered that E. coli grown under different growth conditions had different responses to the presence of nanosilver. E. coli had least resistance to the toxicity of nanosilver when cultured under carbon-limited conditions. However, the presence of rhamnolipid, a commonly utilized biosurfactant for soil remediation increased the resistance of E. coli to nanosilver. The transport of E. coli cultured under carbon-limited conditions was further studied in silica sand columns. E. coli adsorption in silica sand increased when cultured in the presence of nanosilver. On the contrary, E. coli adsorption in silica sand was significantly reduced when cultured in the presence of rhamnolipid.
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Construction and in vivo evaluation of a mammary gland-specific expression vector for human lysozyme.
Plasmid
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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A mammary gland-specific expression vector p205C3 was constructed with the 5'- and 3'-flanking regions of ?-lactoglobulin gene and the first intron of ?-casein gene of Chinese dairy goat as regulatory sequences. Human lysozyme (hLYZ) cDNA from mammary gland was cloned into p205C3 and the recombinant vector was used to generate transgenic mice by microinjection. Based on the lysoplate assay, four female offspring of one male founder were detected expressing recombinant hLYZ in their milk at the levels of 5-200?mg/l, and the expressed protein had the same molecular weight as that of normal hLYZ. Besides mammary glands, ectopic expressions were also found in the spleens and the small intestines of the transgenic mice. Among the offspring, the female transgenic mice maintained and expressed the transgene stably with a highest expression level of 750?mg/l. Therefore, p205C3 could be used to develop animal mammary gland bioreactors expressing hLYZ.
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RNA triplexes: from structural principles to biological and biotech applications.
Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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The diverse biological functions of RNA are determined by the complex structures of RNA stabilized by both secondary and tertiary interactions. An RNA triplex is an important tertiary structure motif that is found in many pseudoknots and other structured RNAs. A triplex structure usually forms through tertiary interactions in the major or minor groove of a Watson-Crick base-paired stem. A major-groove RNA triplex structure is stable in isolation by forming consecutive major-groove base triples such as U·A-U and C(+) ·G-C. Minor-groove RNA triplexes, e.g., A-minor motif triplexes, are found in almost all large structured RNAs. As double-stranded RNA stem regions are often involved in biologically important tertiary triplex structure formation and protein binding, the ability to sequence specifically target any desired RNA duplexes by triplex formation would have great potential for biomedical applications. Programmable chemically modified triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) and triplex-forming peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) have been developed to form TFO·RNA2 and PNA·RNA2 triplexes, respectively, with enhanced binding affinity and sequence specificity at physiological conditions. Here, we (1) provide an overview of naturally occurring RNA triplexes, (2) summarize the experimental methods for studying triplexes, and (3) review the development of TFOs and triplex-forming PNAs for targeting an HIV-1 ribosomal frameshift-inducing RNA, a bacterial ribosomal A-site RNA, and a human microRNA hairpin precursor, and for inhibiting the RNA-protein interactions involving human RNA-dependent protein kinase and HIV-1 viral protein Rev. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Conflict of interest: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article.
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Development and psychometric testing of the Chinese Postnatal Risk Factors Questionnaire (CPRFQ) for postpartum depression.
Arch Womens Ment Health
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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This article describes the development and psychometric assessment of the Chinese Postnatal Risk Factors Questionnaire (CPRFQ). There were four phases in this process: (1) the items were generated using a literature review and a focus group, (2) content validity was evaluated by an expert panel, (3) a pilot study was conducted with 45 postpartum women to refine the scale, and (4) a convenience sample of 256 postpartum women in China was recruited to complete the questionnaire. Construct validity was established by exploratory factor analysis; a four-factor structure of the scale was accepted (social and family, personality and relationship, mother and infant, maternal feelings and 'doing the month'). These factors explained 47.46 % of the variance. Pearson's correlation coefficient was conducted to test convergent validity with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) (r?=?0.54; p?
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Decreased effective connectivity from cortices to the right parahippocampal gyrus in Alzheimer's disease subjects.
Brain Connect
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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This study's purpose was to detect effective connectivity (EC) changes in the default mode network (DMN) and hippocampus network (HN) in 20 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 20 cognitively normal (CN) subjects, using multivariate Granger causality. We used the maximum coefficients in the multivariate autoregression model to quantitatively measure the different EC strength levels between the CN and AD groups. It was demonstrated that the EC strength difference can classify AD from CN subjects. Further, the right parahippocampal gyrus (PHP_R) showed imbalanced bidirectional EC connections. The PHP_R received weaker input connections from the neocortices, but its output connections were significantly increased in AD. These findings may provide neural physiological mechanisms for interpreting AD subjects' memory deficits during the encoding processes.
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Phenotypic modulation of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells in a rat model of cavernous neurectomy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) are at high risk for erectile dysfunction (ED) due to potential cavernous nerve (CN) damage during surgery. Penile hypoxia after RP is thought to significantly contribute to ED pathogenesis.
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A feasibility study of cyclophosphamide, trastuzumab, and an allogeneic GM-CSF-secreting breast tumor vaccine for HER2+ metastatic breast cancer.
Cancer Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-secreting tumor vaccines are bioactive, but limited by disease burden and immune tolerance. Cyclophosphamide augments vaccine activity in tolerant neu mice and in patients with metastatic breast cancer. HER2-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) enhance vaccine activity in neu mice. We hypothesized that cyclophosphamide-modulated vaccination with HER2-specific mAb safely induces relevant HER2-specific immunity in neu mice and patients with HER2+ metastatic breast cancer. Adding both cyclophosphamide and the HER2-specific mAb 7.16.4 to vaccination maximized HER2-specific CD8+ T-cell immunity and tumor-free survival in neu transgenic mice. We, therefore, conducted a single-arm feasibility study of cyclophosphamide, an allogeneic HER2+ GM-CSF-secreting breast tumor vaccine, and weekly trastuzumab in 20 patients with HER2+ metastatic breast cancer. Primary clinical trial objectives were safety and clinical benefit, in which clinical benefit represents complete response + partial response + stable disease. Secondary study objectives were to assess HER2-specific T-cell responses by delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and intracellular cytokine staining. Patients received three monthly vaccinations, with a boost 6 to 8 months from trial entry. This combination immunotherapy was safe, with clinical benefit rates at 6 months and 1 year of 55% [95% confidence interval (CI), 32%-77%; P = 0.013] and 40% (95% CI, 19%-64%), respectively. Median progression-free survival and overall survival durations were 7 months (95% CI, 4-16) and 42 months (95% CI, 22-70), respectively. Increased HER2-specific DTH developed in 7 of 20 patients [of whom 4 had clinical benefit (95% CI, 18-90)], with a trend toward longer progression-free survival and overall survival in DTH responders. Polyfunctional HER2-specific CD8+ T cells progressively expanded across vaccination cycles. Further investigation of cyclophosphamide-modulated vaccination with trastuzumab is warranted.
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The Neuroprotection of Lysosomotropic Agents in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Probably Involving the Apoptosis Pathway Triggering by Cathepsins via Chelating Intralysosomal Iron.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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?-Lipoic acid-plus (LAP), an amine derivative of ?-lipoic acid (LA), could protect cells against oxidant challenges via chelating intralysosomal iron. However, the application of LAP in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is still not well known. This study was designed to evaluate the potential neuroprotection of LAP on the early brain injury (EBI) and the underlying mechanisms in a rat model of SAH. The SAH models were induced in Sprague-Dawley rats. LA and LAP were oral administration and lasted for 72 h once a day. The brain tissue samples were obtained for assay at 72 h after SAH. In experiment 1, we found that lysosome amounts in neurons decreased significantly in SAH group, and LAP (100 mg/kg) could stabilize lysosomal membrane markedly based on lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) expression in neurons by immunofluorescence. Hence, the LAP dosages of 100 and 150 mg/kg were applied in experiment 2. Firstly, Western blot analysis showed that the protein levels of cathepsin B/D, caspase-3, Bax, ferritin, and heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) markedly increased after SAH, which were further confirmed by double immunofluorescence staining and reversed by LA and LAP treatments. In addition, LA and LAP also reduced oxidative stress and iron deposition in brain tissue. Furthermore, LA and LAP significantly ameliorated brain edema, blood-brain barrier injury, cortical apoptosis, and neurological behavior impairment induced by SAH. Finally, it is noteworthy that LAP exerted more significant effects than LA on these parameters as described above. LAP probably exerted neuroprotective effects via targeting lysosomes and chelating intralysosomal iron in EBI post-SAH in rats.
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The Combination Use of Platelet-Rich Fibrin and Treated Dentin Matrix for Tooth Root Regeneration by Cell Homing.
Tissue Eng Part A
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Endogenous regeneration through cell homing provides an alternative approach for tissue regeneration, except cell transplantation, especially considering clinical translation. However, tooth root regeneration through cell homing remains a provocative approach in need of intensive study. Both platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) and treated dentin matrix (TDM) are warehouses of various growth factors, which can promote cell homing. We hypothesized that endogenous stem cells are able to sense biological cues from PRF membrane and TDM, and contribute to the regeneration of tooth root, including soft and hard periodontal tissues. Therefore, the biological effects of canine PRF and TDM on periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were evaluated respectively in vitro. Beagle dogs were used as orthotopic transplantation model. It was found that PRF significantly recruited and stimulated the proliferation of PDLSCs and BMSCs in vitro. Together, PRF and TDM induced cell differentiation by upregulating the mineralization-related gene expression of bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteopotin (OPN) after 7 days coculture. In vivo, transplantation of autologous PRF and allogeneic TDM into fresh tooth extraction socket achieved successful root regeneration 3 months postsurgery, characterized by the regeneration of cementum and periodontal ligament (PDL)-like tissues with orientated fibers, indicative of functional restoration. The results suggest that tooth root connected to the alveolar bone by cementum-PDL complex can be regenerated through the implantation of PRF and TDM in a tooth socket microenvironment, probably by homing of BMSCs and PDLSCs. Furthermore, bioactive cues and inductive microenvironment are key factors for endogenous regeneration. This approach provides a tangible pathway toward clinical translation.
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Interaction of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/frontotemporal lobar degeneration-associated fused-in-sarcoma with proteins involved in metabolic and protein degradation pathways.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Fused-in-sarcoma (FUS) is a nuclear protein linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Under pathologic conditions, FUS frequently is accumulated in cytosoplasm, but how this altered distribution affects the protein interaction pattern of FUS is unclear. Using dual-tag affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we compared the interactome of the wild-type FUS and the P525 L mutant, which causes juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with the most severe phenotypes. The mutant FUS retained the ability to bind proteins involved in RNA metabolism. We found significant increased binding of P525 L to many metabolic enzymes. Furthermore, we identified and confirmed some novel interactions between FUS and proteins involved in neurodegenerative diseases and/or ubiquitin proteasome pathway, such as VCP/p97, PSF, UBA 1, and 26S proteosome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 12 (PSMD12/Rpn5). Accordingly, we have observed significantly reduced ATP levels and increased accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated proteins in cells with FUS accumulation. Therefore, our study suggested new mechanisms whereby FUS accumulation leads to defective energy metabolism and protein degradation by directly interacting with key regulators in these pathways.
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Curcumol induces HSC-T6 cell death through suppression of Bcl-2: Involvement of PI3K and NF-?B pathways.
Eur J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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The major feature in the molecular pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis requires maintenance of the activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) phenotype by both proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis. Thus, the induction of activated HSCs apoptosis has been proposed as an antifibrotic treatment strategy. Curcumol has pro-apoptotic activity in a number of cancer cell types. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that the interruption of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) signaling pathway by curcumol might induce apoptosis of activated HSCs. Our results indicated that curcumol-induced growth inhibition correlated with apoptosis induction as evidenced by Annexin V staining, and cleavage of caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in HSC-T6. Importantly, we show that the apoptotic effect of curcumol was specific to the activated HSCs (HSC-T6). Suppression of the NF-?B translocation via inhibition of I?B-? phosphorylation by the curcumol led to the inhibition of expression of NF-?B-regulated gene, e.g. Bcl-xL and Bcl-2, in a PI3K-dependent manner, which is upstream of NF-?B activation. Also, curcumol-mediated apoptosis of HSC-T6 were reversed by LY294002 and Bay 11-7082. Taken together, our findings perfectly support the hypothesis and demonstrate that the inhibition of PI3K/NF-?B pathway by curcumol lead to HSC-T6 apoptosis. Thus, our study indicates that curcumol is a potential candidate for further preclinical study aimed at the treatment of liver fibrosis.
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Primary mediastinal adenocarcinoma originating from a calcified nodule.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Primary mediastinal adenocarcinoma is rare, but its originating from a calcified nodule is even more unusual. We present herein a 55-year-old female with a superior mediastinal mass, first discovered 2 years prior that changed dramatically from its original appearance as a calcified nodule. The mass was completely resected, and histopathological examination revealed a primary adenocarcinoma. The patient has been disease-free for over 13 months since surgery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of mediastinal adenocarcinoma to demonstrate such a surprising course of development.
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A major quantitative trait locus conferring adult plant partial resistance to crown rust in oat.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Crown rust, caused by Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae, is the most important disease of oat worldwide. Adult plant resistance (APR), based upon partial resistance, has proven to be a durable rust management strategy in other cereal rust pathosystems. The crown rust APR in the oat line MN841801 has been effective for more than 30 years. The genetic basis of this APR was studied under field conditions in three recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations: 1) AC Assiniboia/MN841801, 2) AC Medallion/MN841801, and 3) Makuru/MN841801. The populations were evaluated for crown rust resistance with the crown rust isolate CR251 (race BRBB) in multiple environments. The 6 K oat and 90 K wheat Illumina Infinium single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays were used for genotyping the AC Assiniboia/MN841801 population. KASP assays were designed for selected SNPs and genotyped on the other two populations.
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Further insights into the composition, source and toxicity of pahs in size-resolved PM in a megacity in China.
Environ. Toxicol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured. The average concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 reached 209.75 ?g/m(3) and 141.87 ?g/m(3) ; and those of ?PAHs were 41.46 ng/m(3) for PM10 and 36.77 ng/m(3) for PM2.5 . The mass ratio concentrations were 219.23 ?g/g and 311.01 ?g/g in PM10 and PM2.5 , respectively. Three sources and their contributions for PAHs were obtained. For individual-input mode, diesel exhaust source contributed 46.77% (PM10 ) and 41.12% (PM2.5 ) for mass concentration; 48.69% (PM10 ) and 39.47% (PM2.5 ) for mass ratio concentration while gasoline exhaust source were 31.02% (PM10 ), 39.47% (PM2.5 ) and 28.95% (PM10 ), 36.46% (PM2.5 ), respectively for each concentration. As to coal combustion source, 22.22% and 19.41% to PM10 and PM2.5 for mass concentration, as well as 22.36% as 15.89% for mass ratio concentration, were observed. For combined-input mode, same source categories were obtained. Source contributions to PM10 and PM2.5 were diesel exhaust (40.70% and 36.64% for mass concentration; 49.19% and 38.47% for mass ratio concentration), gasoline exhaust (35.09% and 38.47%; 32.50% and 33.43%) and coal combustion (24.21% and 24.89%; 18.31% and18.17%). Source risk assessment showed that vehicle emission was a significant contributor. The findings can help elucidate sources of PAHs and provide good evidence for further applications of Unmix model and deeper studies about PAHs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Knockdown of EIF3D suppresses proliferation of human melanoma cells through G2/M phase arrest.
Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Skin cancer is the most common malignancy with increasing incidence rates worldwide. The advanced form of skin cancer, melanoma, is resistant to conventional treatment methods, which puts a burden on researchers to identify alternative effective therapeutic approach. Herein, the current study was designed to identify the effects of si-RNA mediated silencing of EIF3D against melanoma cell survival. Briefly, lentivirus-mediated RNA interference system was employed to knock down EIF3D expression in A375 and A431 melanoma cells. The cell proliferation was analyzed by MTT and colony formation assays. The cell cycle progression was investigated using flow cytometry. Results revealed that si-RNA mediated knockdown of EIF3D significantly reduced the gene and protein expression levels of EIF3D in melanoma cells. Furthermore, knockdown of EIF3D led to a significant reduction in cell proliferation due to G2 /M phase cell cycle arrest. Apparently, the study demonstrated the critical involvement of EIF3D in the survival and progression of melanoma cells and depletion of EIF3D could be developed as a possible therapeutic option in the gene targeted treatment of melanoma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Novel EP4 receptor agonist-bisphosphonate conjugate drug (C1) promotes bone formation and improves vertebral mechanical properties in the ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal bone loss.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Current treatments for postmenopausal osteoporosis aim to either promote bone formation or inhibit bone resorption. The C1 conjugate drug represents a new treatment approach by chemically linking the anti-resorptive compound alendronate (ALN) with the anabolic agent prostanoid EP4 receptor agonist (EP4a) through a linker molecule (LK) to form a conjugate compound. This enables the bone-targeting ability of ALN to deliver EP4a to bone sites and mitigate the systemic side effects of EP4a, while also facilitating dual anti-resorptive and anabolic effects. In vivo hydrolysis is required to release the EP4a and ALN components for pharmacological activity. Our study investigated the in vivo efficacy of this drug in treating established bone loss using an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model of postmenopausal osteopenia. In a curative experiment, 3-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were OVX, allowed to lose bone for 7 weeks, then treated for 6 weeks. Treatment groups consisted of C1 conjugate at low and high doses, vehicle-treated OVX and sham, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ), and mixture of unconjugated ALN-LK and EP4a to assess the effect of conjugation. Results showed that weekly administration of C1 conjugate dose-dependently increased bone volume in trabecular bone, which partially or completely reversed OVX-induced bone loss in the lumbar vertebra and improved vertebral mechanical strength. The conjugate also dose-dependently stimulated endocortical woven bone formation and intracortical resorption in cortical bone, with high dose treatment increasing the mechanical strength but compromising the material properties. Conjugation between the EP4a and ALN-LK components was crucial to the drug's anabolic efficacy. To our knowledge, the C1 conjugate represents the first time that a combined therapy using an anabolic agent and the anti-resorptive compound ALN has shown significant anabolic effects which reversed established osteopenia. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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Cognitive overload? An exploration of the potential impact of cognitive functioning in discrete choice experiments with older people in health care.
Value Health
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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This exploratory study sought to investigate the effect of cognitive functioning on the consistency of individual responses to a discrete choice experiment (DCE) study conducted exclusively with older people.
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Immobilization of trypsin on miniature incandescent bulbs for infrared-assisted proteolysis.
Anal. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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A novel efficient proteolysis approach was developed based on trypsin-immobilized miniature incandescent bulbs and infrared (IR) radiation. Trypsin was covalently immobilized in the chitosan coating on the outer surface of miniature incandescent bulbs with the aid of glutaraldehyde. When an illuminated enzyme-immobilized bulb was immersed in protein solution, the emitted IR radiation could trigger and accelerate heterogeneous protein digestion. The feasibility and performance of the novel proteolysis approach were demonstrated by the digestion of hemoglobin (HEM), cytochrome c (Cyt-c), lysozyme (LYS), and ovalbumin (OVA) and the digestion time was significantly reduced to 5 min. The obtained digests were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS with the sequence coverages of 91%, 77%, 80%, and 52% for HEM, Cyt-c, LYS, and OVA (200 ng ?L(-1) each), respectively. The suitability of the prepared bulb bioreactors to complex proteins was demonstrated by digesting human serum.
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Dermatosis as the initial presentation of gastric cancer: two cases.
Chin. J. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2014
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Paraneoplastic dermatoses are known to be certain dermatosis related with tumor. The common paraneoplastic dermatoses are acanthosis nigricans, acquired ichthyosis, dermatomyositis, erythroderma, and so on. Here we report two cases of paraneoplastic dermatoses associated with gastric cancer. One case was a 57-year-old man with dermatomyositis and proved to be associated with gastric cancer through stomachoscopy. The other was a 66-year-old man with erythroderma and proved to be associated with gastric cancer through stomachoscopy. Both cases were treated with radical total gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy (D2) and esophagojejunostomy of Roux-en-Y. The skin symptom of both cases had improved a lot but still existed after operation. Paraneoplastic dermatoses can be seen as the early manifestation of visceral carcinomas. As a result, gastric cancers should be excluded in the patients with paraneoplastic dermatoses.
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Targeting miR-23a in CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes prevents tumor-dependent immunosuppression.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) have potent antitumor activity and therefore are leading candidates for use in tumor immunotherapy. The application of CTLs for clinical use has been limited by the susceptibility of ex vivo-expanded CTLs to become dysfunctional in response to immunosuppressive microenvironments. Here, we developed a microRNA-targeting (miRNA-targeting) approach that augments CTL cytotoxicity and preserves immunocompetence. Specifically, we screened for miRNAs that modulate cytotoxicity and identified miR-23a as a strong functional repressor of the transcription factor BLIMP-1, which promotes CTL cytotoxicity and effector cell differentiation. In a cohort of advanced lung cancer patients, miR-23a was upregulated in tumor-infiltrating CTLs, and expression correlated with impaired antitumor potential of patient CTLs. We determined that tumor-derived TGF-? directly suppresses CTL immune function by elevating miR-23a and downregulating BLIMP-1. Functional blocking of miR-23a in human CTLs enhanced granzyme B expression, and in mice with established tumors, immunotherapy with just a small number of tumor-specific CTLs in which miR-23a was inhibited robustly hindered tumor progression. Together, our findings provide a miRNA-based strategy that subverts the immunosuppression of CTLs that is often observed during adoptive cell transfer tumor immunotherapy and identify a TGF-?-mediated tumor immune-evasion pathway.
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Polymorphisms of progesterone receptor and ovarian cancer risk: A systemic review and meta-analysis.
J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Growing bodies of studies have investigated the associations between three progesterone receptor (PGR) polymorphisms, +331G/A, Alu insertion and Val660Leu, and susceptibility to ovarian cancer, but the results remain controversial and inconclusive. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to derive a more precise estimation of the associations.
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In vivo distribution and pharmacokinetics of multiple active components from Danshen and Sanqi and their combination via inner ear administration.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2014
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Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Labiatae sp. plant, Chinese name Danshen) and Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen (Araliaceae plant, Chinese name Sanqi) have a long history in treating coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and inner ear disorders in traditional Chinese medicine. To provide a rational basis for the use of these herbs in clinical practice, we investigated the in vivo distribution and pharmacokinetics of marker agents in Danshen and Sanqi via intravenous and inner ear administration and explored the potential interactions of these agents in compound prescription.
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Comparison of laparoscopic peritoneal vaginoplasty and sigmoid colon vaginoplasty performed during radical surgery for primary vaginal carcinoma.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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Radical surgery of primary vaginal carcinoma typically involves partial or complete resection of the vagina, and young patients in particular can experience sexual dysfunction after surgery. Vaginoplasty is mandatory for this population, multiple vaginal reconstructive techniques have been reported. Here we attempted to determine whether the peritoneum is a feasible alternative to the sigmoid colon in vaginoplasty performed during radical surgery.
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Rhamnolipid surface thermodynamic properties and transport in agricultural soil.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Rhamnolipid is a biosurfactant produced by several Pseudomonas species, which can wet hydrophobic soils by lowering the cohesive and/or adhesive surface tension. Because of its biodegradability, rhamnolipid applications bring minimal adverse impact on the soil and groundwater as compared with that of chemical wetting agents. Subsequently, rhamnolipid applications have more advantages when used to improve irrigation in the agricultural soil, especially under draught conditions. In the presence of rhamnolipid, water surface tension dropped linearly with the increase of rhamnolipid concentration until the rhamnolipid critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 30 mg/L was reached. Below the CMC, rhamnolipid had linear adsorption isotherms on the soil with a partition coefficient of 0.126 L/kg. Rhamnolipid transport breakthrough curves had a broad and diffuse infiltration front, indicating retention of rhamnolipid on the soil increased with time. Rhamnolipid transport was found to be well represented by the advection-dispersion equation based on a local equilibrium assumption. When applied at concentrations above the CMC, the formed rhamnolipid micelles prevented rhamnolipid adsorption (both equilibrium adsorption and kinetic adsorption) in the soil. It was discovered in this research that rhamnolipid surface thermodynamic properties played the key role in controlling rhamnolipid transport. The attractive forces between rhamnolipid molecules contributed to micelle formation and facilitated rhamnolipid transport.
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Effects of the coexistence of late-life depression and mild cognitive impairment on white matter microstructure.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Late-life depression (LLD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are associated with white matter (WM) disruptions of the fronto-limbic and interhemispheric tracts implicated in mood regulation and episodic memory functions. This work investigates the extent of these WM abnormalities in patients LLD and aMCI when these diseases occur alone and when they coexist.
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Cigarette Smoking Promotes Inflammation in Patients with COPD by Affecting the Polarization and Survival of Th/Tregs through Up-Regulation of Muscarinic Receptor 3 and 5 Expression.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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CD4+ T cells in the lung are involved in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), although CD4+ T cell subsets and the direct effect of smoking on these cells, especially the expression of MRs, have not been comprehensively examined.
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Treg/IL-17 Ratio and Treg Differentiation in Patients with COPD.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic pulmonary and systematic inflammation. An abnormal adaptive immune response leads to an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory processes. T-helper (Th), T-cytotoxic (Tc) and T-regulatory (Treg) cells may play important roles in immune and inflammatory responses. This study was conducted to clarify the changes and imbalance of cytokines and T lymphocyte subsets in patients with COPD, especially during acute exacerbations (AECOPD).
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Two new compounds from the fungus Penicilliumcrustosum YN-HT-15.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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Our current natural product program researches the second metabolites of a fungus Penicilliumcrustosum YN-HT-15 isolated from the red soil (Yunnan Province, China), to discover potential antitumor chemical entities. Two new compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the fermentation broth of the fungus, and their structures were characterized as 1-(2,4-dihydroxy-5-methyl-3-methylsulfanylmethyl-phenyl)-ethanone (1) and R-3-(3-acetyl-2,6-dihydroxy-5-methylphenyl)-2-methyl-propionic acid methyl ester (2) on the basis of spectroscopic data.
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Diagnosis and treatment of traumatic internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm primarily manifested by repeated epistaxis.
Turk Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2013
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The current study aims to explore the diagnosis and treatment of traumatic internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm (TICAP) primarily manifested by repeated epistaxis. MATERIAL and
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The properties research of polymerized human placenta hemoglobin before and after lyophilization.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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In this study, lyophilization was applied to polymerized human placenta hemoglobin (PolyPHb) solution. The lyophilization process was carried out with freezing at - 70°C for 5 h and two phases of drying: the first phase of drying was carried out at -35°C-35°C for 16 h and the second phase at 35°C for 8 h. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, methemoglobin (MetHb) content, oxygen-carrying capacity, Fe(3+) content, pH, UV spectrum, average molecular weight and its distribution, circular dichroism, SDS-PAGE, P50, crystal osmotic pressure, colloid osmotic pressure, zeta potential, average particle size, and other indicators were measured before and after lyophilization. Residual water content and rehydration time of the lyophilized products were also evaluated. All the indicators of lyophilized samples showed that the physical and biochemical properties of PolyPHb are not markedly changed before and after lyophilization. In this light, lyophilization may be a promising method for the preservation of PolyPHb solution.
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Exogenous Hydrogen Sulfide Protects against Doxorubicin-Induced Inflammation and Cytotoxicity by Inhibiting p38MAPK/NF?B Pathway in H9c2 Cardiac Cells.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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Background/Aim: We have demonstrated that exogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) protects H9c2 cardiac cells against the doxorubicin (DOX)-induced injuries by inhibiting p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and that the p38 MAPK/nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) pathway is involved in the DOX-induced inflammatory response and cytotoxicity. The present study attempts to test the hypothesis that exogenous H2S might protect cardiomyocytes against the DOX-induced inflammation and cytotoxicity through inhibiting p38 MAPK/NF-?B pathway. Methods: H9c2 cardiac cells were exposed to 5?M DOX for 24 h to establish a model of DOX cardiotoxicity. The cells were pretreated with NaHS( a donor of H2S) or other drugs before exposure to DOX. Cell viability was analyzed by cell counter kit 8 ( CCK-8), The expression of NF-?B p65 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was detected by Western blot assay. The levels of interleukin-1? (IL-1?), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Our findings demonstrated that pretreatment of H9c2 cardiac cells with NaHS for 30 min before exposure to DOX markedly ameliorated the DOX-induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NF-?B p65 subunit. Importantly, the pretreatment with NaHS significantly attenuated the p38 MAPK/NF-?B pathway-mediated inflammatory responses induced by DOX, as evidenced by decreases in the levels of IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-?. In addition, application of NaHS or IL-1? receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) or PDTC (an inhibitor of NF-?B) attenuated the DOX-induced expression of iNOS and production of nitric oxide (NO), respectively. Furthermore, IL-1Ra also dramatically reduced the DOX-induced cytotoxicity and phosphorylation of NF-?B p65. The pretreatment of H9c2 cells with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) prior to exposure to DOX depressed the phosphorylation of NF-?B p65 induced by DOX. Conclusion: The present study has demonstrated the new mechanistic evidence that exogenous H2S attenuates the DOX-induced inflammation and cytotoxicity by inhibiting p38 MAPK/NF-?B pathway in H9c2 cardiac cells. We also provide novel data that the interaction between NF-?B pathway and IL-1? is important in the induction of DOX-induced inflammation and cytotoxicity in H9c2 cardiac cells. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.