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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Expressions of aquaporin-4, matrix metallo-proteinase-2 and matrix metallo-proteinase-14 in peritumor edematous zone of glioma and clinical implications].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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To distinguish the expressions of matrix metallo-poteinase and aquaporin in peritumor edematous zone and normal brain tissue for different pathological levels of glioma and explore the relationship of glioma cell invasiveness and brain edema.
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A New Exploration for Gallbladder Polyps: Gallbladder Polypectomy by Endolap Technique.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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Abstract Gallbladder polyps are most commonly treated with cholecystectomy, which is associated with various complications. For benign disease, preserving the gallbladder is preferable. Since 1994, we have been exploring percutaneous polypectomy and have recently developed an improved new technique. This study reports a new endoscopic-laparoscopic (Endolap) technique for the removal of polyps and the preservation of the gallbladder. Nine Chinese mini-pigs were used to observe mucosal regeneration. Microwaves of 50-70 mA for 9 seconds were safe, and the gallbladder mucosa of pigs recovered to nearly normal 2 weeks later. In the clinical cases, 60 patients with gallbladder polyps were studied. With the patient under general anesthesia, each polyp stem was coagulated, and then the polyp was removed. All procedures were successful at between 60 and 135 minutes. The success rate was 93.33% (56/60). A retrospective analysis was conducted to assess the recovery of gallbladder function. All patients were followed up and symptom-free, without recurrence of the polyps; 3 months after the operation, the volume and contraction of the gallbladder recovered to preoperative levels. Thus the Endolap technique is reliable for removing benign gallbladder polyps and is applicable to a wider range of clinical situations than percutaneous polypectomy.
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[The research on residual amplitude modulation characteristics in fiber frequency modulation spectroscopy].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Frequency modulation spectroscopy (FMS) not only can be used to simultaneously measure the absorption and dispersion of atoms and molecules, but is the key technology of the noise immunity cavity enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy (NICE-OHMS). The optical devices or the instability of output light polarization of the laser source will induce the residual amplitude modulation (RAM) in the FMS. RAM greatly limits the FMS technology application in trace gas detection, so the research on the RAM characteristics in the FMS has very important significance. Firstly, the lineshape of FMS without absorption was analyzed, and the impact factors on the RAM were acquired, then the influence of input and output polarization direction and electro-optical modulation (EOM) temperature was measured, respectively. They all have linear relationship with the RAM. The results verify the theoretical analysis and provide the basis for reducing the RAM and other related working.
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Diastereo- and enantioselective propargylation of benzofuranones catalyzed by pybox-copper complex.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Diastereo- and enantioselective preparation of 2,2-disubstituted benzofuran-3(2H)-one has been realized by a pybox-copper catalyzed reaction between 2-substituted benzofuran-3(2H)-one and propargyl acetate. The utility of this method was demonstrated by further transformation of the terminal alkyne into a methyl ketone without loss of enantiomeric purity.
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Chemoselective Synthesis of Trifluoromethylated ?-Butenolide Derivatives via Phosphine-Promoted Tandem Reaction of Allylic Carbonates and Trifluoromethyl Ketones.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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A novel chemoselective phosphine-mediated tandem reaction between nonsubstituted MBH carbonates and aryl trifluoromethyl ketones is described. The product selectivity of the reaction is easily tunable by changing the ratios of the two reactants, and mono- or bicyclic bistrifluoromethylated vinyl ?-butenolide products can be prepared with good chemoselectivity in modest-to-good yields and diastereoselectivities. The formation of the bicyclic ?-butenolide structures via a one-pot four-step sequence under phosphine catalysis is unprecedented.
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Initial 3-Weeks' Apixaban Versus Dual-Antiplatelet Therapy (Clopidogrel and Aspirin) Followed by Clopidogrel Alone in High-Risk Patients with Acute Non-Disabling Cerebrovascular Events (ADANCE): Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.
Clin Drug Investig
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Nondisabling cerebrovascular events represent the largest group of cerebrovascular disease with a high risk of recurrent stroke. A recent trial demonstrated that dual-antiplatelet therapy (clopidogrel and aspirin), compared with aspirin monotherapy, reduced the risk of recurrent stroke and was not associated with increased risk of hemorrhagic events. Apixaban, a new oral anticoagulant, has been proven to be as safe and effective as traditional anticoagulants while carrying significantly less risk of intracranial hemorrhage. Patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA)/minor stroke might benefit from apixaban treatment; therefore, an adequately powered randomized study is needed.
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Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Avena based on chloroplast intergenic spacer psbA-trnH and single-copy nuclear gene Acc1.
Genome
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Two uncorrelated nucleotide sequences, chloroplast intergenic spacer psbA-trnH and acetyl CoA carboxylase gene (Acc1), were used to perform phylogenetic analyses in 75 accessions of the genus Avena, representing 13 diploids, seven tetraploid, and four hexaploids by maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference. Phylogenic analyses based on the chloroplast intergenic spacer psbA-trnH confirmed that the A genome diploid might be the maternal donor of species of the genus Avena. Two haplotypes of the Acc1 gene region were obtained from the AB genome tetraploids, indicating an allopolyploid origin for the tetraploid species. Among the AB genome species, both gene trees revealed differences between Avena agadiriana and the other species, suggesting that an AS genome diploid might be the A genome donor and the other genome diploid donor might be the Ac genome diploid Avena canariensis or the Ad genome diploid Avena damascena. Three haplotypes of the Acc1 gene have been detected among the ACD genome hexaploid species. The haplotype that seems to represent the D genome clustered with the tetraploid species Avena murphyi and Avena maroccana, which supported the CD genomic designation instead of AC for A. murphyi and A. maroccana.
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Translational gap in glioma research.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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During the last five decades, enormous advances in treatment modalities for cancer and a better understanding of cancer cell biology have been accomplished but the prognosis of patients carrying malignant gliomas still remains poor despite hundreds of clinical trials have been carried out. In this article we review phase II clinical trials that have been completed and published in PubMed during 2011 in order to investigate potential reasons of clinical failure. We suggest that a translational gap, defined as a failure to translate basic research into clinical trials design may explain the poor outcome of phase II clinical trials.
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Possible role of interleukin-1? in type 2 diabetes onset and implications for anti-inflammatory therapy strategies.
PLoS Comput. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Increasing evidence of a role of chronic inflammation in type 2 diabetes progression has led to the development of therapies targeting the immune system. We develop a model of interleukin-1? dynamics in order to explain principles of disease onset. The parameters in the model are derived from in vitro experiments and patient data. In the framework of this model, an IL-1? switch is sufficient and necessary to account for type 2 diabetes onset. The model suggests that treatments targeting glucose bear the potential of stopping progression from pre-diabetes to overt type 2 diabetes. However, once in overt type 2 diabetes, these treatments have to be complemented by adjuvant anti-inflammatory therapies in order to stop or decelerate disease progression. Moreover, the model suggests that while glucose-lowering therapy needs to be continued all the way, dose and duration of the anti-inflammatory therapy needs to be specifically controlled. The model proposes a framework for the discussion of clinical trial outcomes.
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Pharmacological inhibition of O-GlcNAcase (OGA) prevents cognitive decline and amyloid plaque formation in bigenic tau/APP mutant mice.
Mol Neurodegener
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are the defining pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increasing the quantity of the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) post-translational modification of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins slows neurodegeneration and blocks the formation of NFTs in a tauopathy mouse model. It remains unknown, however, if O-GlcNAc can influence the formation of amyloid plaques in the presence of tau pathology.
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Hematopoietic cells-derived Jnk1 is crucial for chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis in an experimental model of liver injury.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Chronic liver injury triggers complications such as liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which are associated with alterations in distinct signaling pathways. Of particular interest is the interaction between mechanisms controlled by IKK?/NEMO, the regulatory IKK subunit, and Jnk activation for directing cell death and survival. In the present study, we aimed to define the relevance of Jnk in hepatocyte-specific NEMO knockout mice (NEMO(?hepa)), a genetic model of chronic inflammatory liver injury.
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Chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer demonstrate active epithelial-mesenchymal transition profile, regulated by miR-217-SIRT1 pathway.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is supposed to be an inflammation induced response which may take a central role in tumorigenesis. Since recent evidence indicates that microRNAs may be involved in EMT, the present study set out to reveal the miRNA which might regulate the EMT in CP (chronic pancreatitis) and PC (pancreatic cancer) and its potential mechanism. Firstly, we provided evidence that both CP and PC tissues demonstrated active EMT profile. Consistently, miR-217 was obviously down-regulated in CP, PC and TGF-?1 treated PC cells, while negatively correlated to its direct target SIRT1. Moreover, either ectopic expression of miR-217 or inhibition of SIRT1 remarkably induced mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) in TGF-?1 treated PC cells. On the contrary, miR-217 inhibitor promoted EMT in PC cells but not in SIRT-knockdown PC cells. Clinical information from a cohort of 54 PC patients demonstrated that down-regulated miR-217 was positively correlated with late tumor stage, lymphatic invasion, vascular infiltration and distant metastasis. These results suggest that the overexpressed TGF-?1 in inflammation triggers the deregulation of the miR-217-SIRT1 pathway and then promotes the EMT process, which might be involved in the tumorigenesis of PC. Additionally, miR-217 may function as a novel target and predictor for PC prevention and therapy.
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Active Contour-Based Cell Segmentation during Freezing and Its Application in Cryopreservation.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Water permeability of the plasma membrane plays an important role in making optimal cryopreservation protocols for different types of cells. To quantify water permeability effectively, automated cell volume segmentation during freezing is necessary. Unfortunately, there exists so far no efficient and accurate segmentation method to handle this kind of image processing task gracefully. The existence of extracellular ice and variable background present significant challenges for most traditional segmentation algorithms. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to reliably extract cells from extracellular ice which attaches to or surrounds cells. Our method operates on temporal image sequences and is composed of two steps. First, for each image from the sequence, a greedy search strategy is employed to track approximate locations of cells in motion. Second, we utilize a localized competitive active contour model to obtain the contour of each cell. Based on the first step's result, the initial contour for level set evolution can be determined appropriately, thus considerably easing the pain of initialization for active contour model. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is efficient and effective in segmenting cells during freezing.
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Diffraction interference induced superfocusing in nonlinear Talbot effect.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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We report a simple, novel subdiffraction method, i.e. diffraction interference induced superfocusing in second-harmonic (SH) Talbot effect, to achieve focusing size of less than ?SH/4 (or ?pump/8) without involving evanescent waves or subwavelength apertures. By tailoring point spread functions with Fresnel diffraction interference, we observe periodic SH subdiffracted spots over a hundred of micrometers away from the sample. Our demonstration is the first experimental realization of the Toraldo di Francia's proposal pioneered 62 years ago for superresolution imaging.
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Influence of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on the viscosity of dimethyl sulfoxide-H2O-NaCl and glycerol-H2O-NaCl ternary systems at subzero temperatures.
Cryobiology
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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The viscosity, at subzero temperatures, of ternary solutions commonly used in cryopreservation is tremendously important for understanding ice formation and molecular diffusion in biopreservation. However, this information is scarce in the literature. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, the effect of nanoparticles on the viscosity of these solutions has not previously been reported. The objectives of this study were thus: (i) to systematically measure the subzero viscosity of two such systems, dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO)-H2O-NaCl and glycerol-H2O-NaCl; (ii) to explore the effect of hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles on the viscosity; and (iii) to provide models that precisely predict viscosity at multiple concentrations of cryoprotective agent (CPA) in saline solutions at subzero temperatures. Our experiments were performed in two parts. We first measured the viscosity at multiple CPA concentrations [0.3-0.75 (w/w)] in saline solution with and without nanoparticles at subzero temperatures (0 to -30°C). The data exhibited a good fit to the Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) equation. We then measured the viscosity of residual unfrozen ternary solutions with and without nanoparticles during equilibrium freezing. HA nanoparticles made the solution more viscous, suggesting applications for these nanoparticles in preventing cell dehydration, ice nucleation, and ice growth during freezing and thawing in cryopreservation.
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Effect of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on osmotic responses of pig iliac endothelial cells.
Cryobiology
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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In order to fully explore the potential applications of nanoparticles in biopreservation, it is necessary to study the effect of nanoparticles on cell membrane permeabilities. The aim of this study is therefore to comparatively evaluate the osmotic responses of pig iliac endothelial cells in the absence and presence of commercially available hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. The results indicate that, after the introduction of 0.0 1 wt% hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, the dependence of cell membrane hydraulic conductivity (Lp) on temperature still obeys the Arrhenius relationship, while the reference value of the hydraulic conductivity of the cell membrane at 273.15K (Lpg) and the activation energy for water transport across cell membrane (ELp) change from 0.77 × 10(-14)m/Pa/s and 15.65 kJ/mol to 0.65 × 10(-14)m/Pa/s and 26.14 kJ/mol. That is to say, the reference value of the hydraulic conductivity of the cell membrane has been slightly decreased while the activation energy for water transport across cell membrane has been greatly enhanced, and thus it implies that the hydraulic conductivity of cell membrane are more sensitive to temperature in the presence of nanoparticles. These findings are of potential significance to the optimization of nanoparticles-aided cryopreservation.
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Pinocembrin protects the brain against ischemia-reperfusion injury and reverses the autophagy dysfunction in the penumbra area.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pinocembrin on brain ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and the potential involvement of autophagy activity changes in the penumbra area in the mechanisms of pinocembrin activity. Focal cerebral I/R model was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h followed by 24 h reperfusion. Pinocembrin was administered intravenously at different doses (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg, respectively) at the onset of reperfusion. Neurological function, brain infarction and brain swelling ratio were evaluated. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method and immunohistochemical analysis (Caspase-3) were used to evaluate apoptosis in the penumbra cortex. Two key proteins of autophagy, LC3B and Beclin1, were detected by western blot. The results showed that pinocembrin-treatment could significantly reduce neurological deficit scores, infarct volume, cerebral edema and improve pathological lesion in the I/R rats. Pinocembrin-treatment could also reduce the number of TUNEL-positive and Caspase-3-positive neurons, and upregulate the expression of LC3B and Beclin1 in penumbra area. These results suggested that pinocembrin could protect the brain against I/R injury, and the possible mechanisms might be attributed to inhibition of apoptosis and reversed autophagy activity in penumbra area.
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Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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To examine and quantify the potential dose-response relation between fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of all cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality.
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Efficient production of flavonoids in Fagopyrum tataricum hairy root cultures with yeast polysaccharide elicitation and medium renewal process.
Pharmacogn Mag
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum), an excellent edible and medicinal crop, has been widely used as a daily diet and traditional medicine for a long time. The major functional components of Fagopyrum tataricum have been demonstrated to be flavonoids (i.e. rutin and quercetin), which had notable andioxidant, antidiabetic, hypocholesterolemic and antitumor activities. Hairy root culture is a convenient and efficient plant tissue culture system for large scale production of bioactive metabolites.
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Normal mesenteric lymph ameliorates acute kidney injury following lipopolysaccharide challenge in mice.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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The kidney is one of the prior damaged organs subjected to severe infection and sepsis shock. Our previous studies have shown that the normal mesenteric lymph (NML) obtained from healthy dogs could alleviate multiple organ injuries following endotoxic shock. In the current study, we further investigated the beneficial effect of NML from healthy mice on acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice.
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Post-shock Mesenteric Lymph Drainage Ameliorates Cellular Immune Function in Rats Following Hemorrhagic Shock.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Disturbance of immunity is an important factor to modulate inflammatory responses after severe shock. Post-shock mesenteric lymph (PSML) return plays an adverse role in multiple organ injuries induced by the hemorrhagic shock, and the inflammatory factors are involved in this process. However, whether the PSML can exacerbate immune dysfunctions that modulate inflammatory response to the hemorrhagic shock remains unknown. In the present study, the effects of PSML drainage on the distribution of T lymphocyte subgroup, the release of inflammatory factors, and apoptosis of thymocytes were investigated; the effect of PSML on the specific parameters of cellular immune function was also determined. Results showed that PSML drainage reduced the increased levels of CD3+, CD3?+?CD4+, CD4?+?CD25+ lymphocytes, IFN-?, and the ratios of CD3?+?CD4+/CD3?+?CD4- in blood of the shocked rats at 3 h after resuscitation; PSML drainage also abolished the decreased IL-4 level and restored the higher ratio of IFN-?/IL-4 to normal levels. Tissue injury, including enlarged intermembrance space and edema with congestion in the medulla, increased apoptotic cells and bax expression, decreased number of cells in the S phase, and bcl-2 expression were observed in the thymus after hemorrhagic shock. PSML drainage reversed these effects. In particular, PSML drainage increased the proliferation index and decreased p53 expression of thymocytes. These results suggest that hyperimmunity occurred at early stages of hemorrhagic shock with resuscitation and that PSML drainage could markedly improve cellular immune function that is responsible for the reduced inflammatory responses.
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Changes in renal tissue proteome induced by mesenteric lymph drainage in rats after hemorrhagic shock with resuscitation.
Shock
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Kidney injury commonly occurs after hemorrhagic shock. Previous studies have shown that post-hemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph (PHSML) return negatively affects the kidneys and may induce injury. This study investigates the effect of PHSML drainage on the proteome in renal tissue. A controlled hemorrhagic shock model was established in the shock and shock+drainage groups. After 1 h of hypotension, fluid resuscitation was implemented within 30 min. Meanwhile, PHSML was drained in the shock+drainage group. After 3 h of resuscitation, renal tissue was extracted for proteome analysis using two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis. Differential proteins with intensities that either increased or decreased by 1.5-fold or greater were selected for trypsin digestion and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry and tandem TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to validate the identified partial proteins. Compared with the sham group, hnRNPC and Starp decreased in the shock group, whereas Hadha, Slc25a13, Atp5b, hnRNPC, Starp, Rps3, and actin were downregulated in the shock+drainage group. Meanwhile, Atp5b and actin decreased in the shock+drainage group relative to the shock group. The identified proteins can be classified into different categories, such as cell proliferation (hnRNPC, Strap, and Rps3), energy metabolism (Hadha, Atp5b, and Slc25a13), cell motility, and cytoskeleton (actin). Moreover, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay measurement validated the changed levels of Atp5b and Actg2. Our findings provide a starting point for investigating the functions of differentially expressed proteins in acute kidney injury induced by hemorrhagic shock. These findings hold great potential for the development of therapeutic interventions.
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Bilaterally innervated dorsal digital flap for sensory reconstruction of digits.
Injury
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Providing sensory coverage in digits continues to be a challenging problem. This study reports the sensory reconstruction of digits with bilaterally innervated dorsal digital flaps and compares the results between dual- and single-innervated flaps.
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Effect of vascular network and nanoparticles on heat transfer and intracellular ice formation in tumor tissues during cryosurgery.
Cryo Letters
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Cryosurgery is a physical therapy of tumor treatment which is welcome in clinics for its minimally invasive advantage. However, the high recurrence rate makes the conventional cryosurgery unsatisfactory, which needs adjuvant treatment such as introduction of nanoparticles.
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Direct and reversed dorsal digital island flaps: A review of 65 cases.
Injury
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Reconstruction of soft tissue defects in fingers continues to be a challenging problem. The purpose of this study is to report the reconstruction of small-to-moderate defects of fingers with dorsal digital island flap (DDIF) and to evaluate the efficacy of use of the flap.
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Minichromosome Maintenance (MCM) Family as potential diagnostic and prognostic tumor markers for human gliomas.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Gliomas are the most common type of all central nervous system tumors. Almost all patients diagnosed with these tumors have a poor prognostic outcome. We aimed to identify novel glioma prognosis-associated candidate genes.
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Pioglitazone reduces lipid droplets in cholesterolosis of the gallbladder by increasing ABCA1 and NCEH1 expression.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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As a cholesterol-induced metabolic disease, cholesterolosis of the gallbladder is often resected clinically, which could lead to many complications. The histopathology of cholesterolosis is due to excessive lipid droplet accumulation in epithelial and subcutaneous tissues. The main components of lipid droplets are cholesterol esters (CEs). Removal of CEs from gallbladder epithelial cells (GBECs) is very important for maintaining intracellular cholesterol homeostasis and for treating cholesterol-related diseases. In this study, pioglitazone was used to reduce intracellular CEs. To further elucidate the mechanism, cholesterolosis GBECs were treated with pioglitazone, 22-(R)-hydroxycholesterol (a liver X receptor ? (LXR?) agonist), or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) siRNA. Western blotting for PPAR?, LXR?, ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), and neutral cholesteryl ester hydrolase 1 (NCEH1) was performed. At length, cholesterol efflux to apoA-I was measured, and oil red O staining was used to visualize lipid droplet variations in cells. In conclusion, we observed that pioglitazone increased ABCA1 expression in an LXR-dependent manner and NCEH1 expression in an LXR?-independent manner, which mobilized CE hydrolysis and cholesterol efflux to reduce lipid droplet content in cholesterolosis GBECs. Our data provide a plausible alternative to human gallbladder cholesterolosis.
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Dietary calcium intake and mortality risk from cardiovascular disease and all causes: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.
BMC Med
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Considerable controversy exists regarding the association between dietary calcium intake and risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease and all causes. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to examine the controversy.
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Mesenteric lymph duct ligation after hemorrhagic shock enhances the ATP level and ATPase activity in rat kidneys.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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Kidney injury commonly occurs following hemorrhagic shock. This study aims to observe the effects of mesenteric lymph duct ligation (MLDL) on the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels and the cell membrane adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity in the kidneys of rats subjected to hemorrhagic shock.
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The effect of solution nonideality on modeling transmembrane water transport and diffusion-limited intracellular ice formation during cryopreservation.
J Appl Phys
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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A new model was developed to predict transmembrane water transport and diffusion-limited ice formation in cells during freezing without the ideal-solution assumption that has been used in previous models. The model was applied to predict cell dehydration and intracellular ice formation (IIF) during cryopreservation of mouse oocytes and bovine carotid artery endothelial cells in aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) solution with glycerol as the cryoprotectant or cryoprotective agent. A comparison of the predictions between the present model and the previously reported models indicated that the ideal-solution assumption results in under-prediction of the amount of intracellular ice at slow cooling rates (<50?K/min). In addition, the lower critical cooling rates for IIF that is lethal to cells predicted by the present model were much lower than those estimated with the ideal-solution assumption. This study represents the first investigation on how accounting for solution nonideality in modeling water transport across the cell membrane could affect the prediction of diffusion-limited ice formation in biological cells during freezing. Future studies are warranted to look at other assumptions alongside nonideality to further develop the model as a useful tool for optimizing the protocol of cell cryopreservation for practical applications.
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Exogenous normal lymph alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury through lessening the adhesion molecules.
Acta Cir Bras
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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To evaluate the role of exogenous normal lymph (ENL) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in rats.
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Association of EMP1 with gastric carcinoma invasion, survival and prognosis.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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The aim of this study was to determine the expression and function of epithelial membrane protein 1 (EMP1) in gastric carcinoma. Gastric samples were taken from cancer lesions and adjacent normal tissue in gastric cancer patients immediately after endoscopic biopsy. A portion of the sample was either fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and embedded in paraffin for immunohistochemistry or stored in liquid nitrogen for western blotting. In order to determine protein expression of EMP1 in gastric cancer (n=65) and normal tissue (n=27), semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry and western blotting were utilized. For in vitro studies, the human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901 was maintained in RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. Recombinant lentivirus mediated overexpression of EMP1 in SGC-7901 cells was quantified with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blotting. Control SGC-7901 cells were transfected with an empty vector. To further study the effect of EMP1 overexpression in SGC-7901 cells, cell proliferation, cell apoptosis and migration and invasion assays were conducted. The expression of EMP1 was significantly lower in gastric cancer tissue compared to normal tissue using both immunohistochemistry (41.5 vs. 70.4% of tissues, P<0.05) and western blotting (0.153 ± 0.012 vs. 0.626 ± 0.058, P<0.05). Decreased expression of EMP1 was significantly correlated with tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis, clinical stage and histological grade of patients with gastric cancer (P<0.05). According to Kaplan-Meier analysis, low EMP1 expression correlated significantly with poor overall 5-year survival (47.4 vs. 70.3% survival, P<0.05). SGC-7901 cells transfected with EMP1 had a lower survival fraction, higher cell apoptosis (13.2 ± 1.5% vs. 2.2 ± 0.5%, P<0.05), significant decrease in migration and invasion (157.0 ± 16.0 and 112.0 ± 12.0, respectively vs. 243.0 ± 21.0 and 203.0 ± 19.0, respectively, P<0.05), higher caspase-9 (0.501 ± 0.050 vs. 0.114 ± 0.010, P<0.05) and lower VEGFC protein expression 0.135 ± 0.011 vs. 0.619 ± 0.074, P<0.05) relative to cells not transfected with EMP1. Low EMP1 expression in gastric cancer is associated with increased disease severity, suggesting that EMP1 may be a negative regulator of gastric cancer.
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The hepatocyte phase of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI in the evaluation of hepatic fibrosis and early liver cirrhosis in a rat model: an experimental study.
Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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To evaluate the hepatocyte phase of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI in the early diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis and assessment of liver function in a rat model.
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A new strategy of minimally invasive surgery for cholecystolithiasis: calculi removal and gallbladder preservation.
Dig Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Cholecystolithiasis is a common disease. Cholecystectomy is the main treatment method but is associated with various complications in some patients. This study explores a novel, minimally invasive surgery for the removal of calculi and the preservation of the gallbladder using a laparoscope combined with the soft choledochoscope.
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Mesenteric lymph reperfusion after superior mesenteric artery occlusion shock exacerbates endotoxin translocation in brain.
Acta Cir Bras
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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To determine the role of mesenteric lymph reperfusion (MLR) on endotoxin translocation in brain to discuss the mechanism of brain injury subjected to superior mesenteric artery occlusion (SMAO) shock.
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Bidirectional regulation between TMEFF2 and STAT3 may contribute to Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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The transmembrane protein with epidermal growth factor and two follistatin motifs 2 (TMEFF2) is a single-pass transmembrane protein, and it is downregulated in human gastric cancer and levels correlate with tumor progression and time of survival. However, the mechanism of its dysregulation in gastric cancer is little known. Here we investigate its regulatory mechanism and the bidirectional regulation between TMEFF2 and STAT3 in gastric carcinogenesis. TMEFF2 expression was decreased after Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in vivo and in vitro. STAT3 directly binds to the promoter of TMEFF2 and regulates H. pylori-induced TMEFF2 downregulation in normal gastric GES-1 cells and gastric cancer AGS cells. Conversely, TMEFF2 may suppress the phosphorylation of STAT3 and TMEFF2-induced downregulation of STAT3 phosphorylation may depend on SHP-1. A highly inverse correlation between the expression of TMEFF2 and pSTAT3 was also revealed in gastric tissues. We now show the deregulation mechanism of TMEFF2 in gastric carcinogenesis and identify TMEFF2 as a new target gene of STAT3. The phosphorylation of STAT3 may be negatively regulated by TMEFF2, and the bidirectional regulation between TMEFF2 and STAT3 may contribute to H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis.© 2014 UICC.
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Vasopressin decreases neuronal apoptosis during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
Neural Regen Res
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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The American Heart Association and the European Resuscitation Council recently recommended that vasopressin can be used for cardiopulmonary resuscitation, instead of epinephrine. However, the guidelines do not discuss the effects of vasopressin during cerebral resuscitation. In this study, we intraperitoneally injected epinephrine and/or vasopressin during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a rat model of asphyxial cardiac arrest. The results demonstrated that, compared with epinephrine alone, the pathological damage to nerve cells was lessened, and the levels of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 expression were significantly decreased in the hippocampus after treatment with vasopressin alone or the vasopressin and epinephrine combination. No significant difference in resuscitation effects was detected between vasopressin alone and the vasopressin and epinephrine combination. These results suggest that vasopressin alone or the vasopressin and epinephrine combination suppress the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathways and reduce neuronal apoptosis during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
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Spinal cord demyelination combined with hyperhomocysteinemia: a case report.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) has been recognized as an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic vascular disease. Here we report a patient who suffered from spinal cord demyelination combined with HHcy. The patient was admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of acute myelitis. However, hormone therapy was ineffective. Further investigations revealed that he had HHcy and a homozygous mutation of the gene encoding methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) c.677C>T, which is a key enzyme involved in homocysteine metabolism. In view of these findings, we treated the patient with B vitamins and his symptoms gradually improved. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging performed 3 months after onset showed near recovery of the lesion. To our knowledge, similar reports are rare.
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Pathway-based analysis of breast cancer.
Am J Transl Res
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Although HER2 and ER pathways are predominant pathways altered in breast cancer, it is now well accepted that many other signaling pathways are also involved in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. The understanding of these additional pathways may assist in identifying new therapeutic approaches for breast cancer.
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Mesenteric lymph drainage alleviates acute kidney injury induced by hemorrhagic shock without resuscitation.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study aimed to investigate the effect of mesenteric lymph drainage on the acute kidney injury induced by hemorrhagic shock without resuscitation. Eighteen male Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham, shock, and drainage groups. The hemorrhagic shock model (40 mmHg, 3 h) was established in shock and drainage groups; mesenteric lymph drainage was performed from 1 h to 3 h of hypotension in the drainage group. The results showed that renal tissue damage occurred; the levels of urea, creatinine, and trypsin in the plasma as well as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), receptor of advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), malondialdehyde (MDA), lactic acid (LA), and 2,3-DPG in the renal tissue were increased in the shock group after 3 h of hypotension. Mesenteric lymph drainage lessened the following: renal tissue damage; urea and trypsin concentrations in the plasma; ICAM-1, RAGE, TNF-?, MDA, and LA levels in the renal tissue. By contrast, mesenteric lymph drainage increased the 2,3-DPG level in the renal tissue. These findings indicated that mesenteric lymph drainage could relieve kidney injury caused by sustained hypotension, and its mechanisms involve the decrease in trypsin activity, suppression of inflammation, alleviation of free radical injury, and improvement of energy metabolism.
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DABCO catalyzed cross-Rauhut-Currier/transesterification reactions of activated alkenes with phenyl acrylates: scope and mechanistic insight.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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DABCO catalyzed the cross-Rauhut-Currier/transesterification reaction of ?-cyano-?,?-unsaturated ketones and aryl acrylates was discovered. The reaction rate law was determined by an integral method under pseudo-first-order reaction conditions, which assisted in proposing the mechanism of cross-Rauhut-Currier reaction promoted by Brønsted acid and establishing the rate-determining step.
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[Microsurgical treatment regimens of cavernous sinus hemangioma].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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To analyze the microsurgical treatment regimens of cavernous sinus hemangioma.
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Cinepazide maleate protects PC12 cells against oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced injury.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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Our previous study showed that cinepazide maleate (CM) was as effective and safe as mildronate in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke in a randomized, double-blind, active-controlled phase II multicenter trial, but underlying mechanism(s) is not well understood. As an extending study, here we demonstrated that CM could protect neuronal cells by affecting mitochondrial functions. PC12 cells were exposed to 2.5 h oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by a 24 h reoxygenation, and then treated with different concentrations (1, 10, 100 ?M) of CM. Among various concentrations, 10 ?M CM exhibited most significant protection on PC12 cells against OGD injury. CM was found to suppress OGD-induced oxidative stress, as supported by its capability of reducing intracellular reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde production and enhancing superoxide dismutase activity. Importantly, our results showed that CM could preserve mitochondrial functions, as revealed by its capability of stabilizing mitochondrial membrane potential, improving OGD-induced suppression of mitochondrial respiratory complex activities and enhancing ATP production. In summary, our present study provides the first evidence that CM can protect neuronal cells against OGD injury by preserving mitochondrial functions.
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Divergent total syntheses of (-)-lycopladine d, (+)-fawcettidine, and (+)-lycoposerramine q.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2013
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Enantioselective total syntheses of (+)-fawcettidine and (+)-lycoposerramine Q as well as the first total synthesis of (-)-lycopladine D from a common intermediate have been accomplished by a divergent path. The common intermediate was derived from a Hajos-Parrish-like diketone by a stereoselective Birch reduction and a Suzuki coupling. The synthesis of (-)-lycopladine D featured an allylic oxidation and a biomimetic aminoketalization while the route to (+)-fawcettidine and (+)-lycoposerramine Q highlighted an oxidative rearrangement.
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Effect of mesenteric lymph duct ligation on gene expression profiles of renal tissue in hemorrhagic shock rats with fluid resuscitation.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2013
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Abstract Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI), a common pathological process following hemorrhagic shock, can lead to an internal milieu disorder, which is an important factor of multiple organ failure (MOF). It has been shown that the mesenteric lymph return plays a deleterious effect on MOF induced by hemorrhagic shock. In this study, we investigated the effects of mesenteric lymph duct ligation (MLDL) on gene expression profiles of renal tissue following hemorrhagic shock with fluid resuscitation. Methods: After establishment of hemorrhagic shock model and fluid resuscitation in rats of shock and shock ligation groups, the MLDL was performed in shock ligation group, and only threading under the mesenteric lymph duct in the shock group. Then, the fixed position renal tissue was taken out for homogenate in two groups at 3?h after resuscitation, the total mRNA was extracted, reversely transcribed into cDNAs and marked with Cy3 and Cy5. The cDNAs were subjected for microarray scanning with 12,028 cDNA probes; the differentially expressed genes between two groups were analyzed. Results: In the 5812 valid dates of rat genomes transcription, there were 34 known differentially expressed genes between the two groups, of which 11 genes were up-regulated whereas 23 genes were down-regulated by MLDL. These different expressed genes encoding protein function were mainly involved in signal transduction, transcription regulation, metabolism, transport, cell growth, cell cycle, cell adhesion, cell movement, cellular component, and biological process. Conclusions: The mechanism of MLDL alleviating the AKI aftershock might be associated with up- or down-regulation of the above gene expressions.
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[Laparoscopic with extralevator abdominoperineal excision for low rectal carcinoma].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
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To explore the feasibility of laparoscopic with extralevator abdominoperineal excision (LELAPE group) for low rectal cancer.
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Phosphine catalyst-controlled cycloaddition or dienylation reactions of trifluoromethyl aryl ketones with bis-substituted allenoates.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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A chemoselective phosphine-catalyzed cycloaddition or dienylation reaction between trifluoromethyl-substituted ketones and bis-substituted allenoates was described. Under the catalysis of triarylphosphine, the reaction gave a range of trifluoromethylated tetrahydrofurans with broad substrate tolerance and good to excellent stereoselectivity, while the use of trialkylphosphine switched the reaction pathway to furnish CF3-substituted dienyl tertiary alcohols chemoselectively. Moreover, a preliminary study on the asymmetric version of the reaction was also performed, which represents the first example of a phosphine-catalyzed asymmetric reaction between allenoates and carbonyl compounds.
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Jnk1 in murine hepatic stellate cells is a crucial mediator of liver fibrogenesis.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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The c-Jun N-terminal kinase-1 (Jnk1) gene has been shown to be involved in liver fibrosis. Here, we aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism and define the cell type involved in mediating the Jnk1-dependent effect on liver fibrogenesis.
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Discovery of the neuroprotective effects of alvespimycin by computational prioritisation of potential anti-parkinson agents.
FEBS J.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Based on public gene expression data, we propose a computational approach to optimise gene expression signatures for the use with Connectivity Map (CMap) to reposition drugs or discover lead compounds for Parkinsons disease (PD). This approach integrates genetic information from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, the Parkinsons disease gene expression database (ParkDB), the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database and the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) with the goal of identifying a set of interesting genes for use in computational drug screening via CMap. The results showed that CMap, using the top 20 differentially expressed (DE) genes identified by our approach as a gene expression signature, outperformed the same method using all DE genes (535) as a signature. Utilising this approach, the candidate compound, alvespimycin (17-DMAG), was selected for experimental evaluation in a model of rotenone-induced toxicity in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and isolated rat brain mitochondria. The results showed that 17-DMAG significantly attenuated rotenone-induced toxicity as reflected by the increase of cell viability, the reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and a reduction in mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction. In conclusion, this computational method provides an effective systematic approach for drug repositioning or lead compound discovery for PD, and the discovery of the neuroprotective effects of 17-DMAG suggests the practicability of this method. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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miRNA-141, downregulated in pancreatic cancer, inhibits cell proliferation and invasion by directly targeting MAP4K4.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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miRNAs are associated with various types of cancer due to their ability to affect expression of genes that modulate tumorigenesis. In this study, we explored the role of miR-141 in pancreatic cancer. The analysis of clinical characteristics showed that miR-141 was significantly downregulated in tissues and cell lines of pancreatic cancer. Moreover, the decreased miR-141 level was significantly associated with tumor size and TNM stage, as well as lymph node and distant metastasis. Meanwhile, both Kaplan-Meier and multivariate survival analysis showed decreased miR-141 were associated with overall survival. Overexpression of miR-141 in pancreatic cancer cells inhibited cell proliferation, clonogenicity, and invasion; induced G1 arrest and apoptosis; and enhanced chemosensitivity. To understand how miR-141 mediates the phenotype of pancreatic cancer cells, a bioinformatics tool was used to identify MAP4K4 as a potential target of miR-141. The Dual-Luciferase reporter gene assay showed that miR-141 binds directly to the 3-untranslated region (3UTR) of MAP4K4 to inhibit MAP4K4 expression. Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses revealed that MAP4K4 expression was inversely correlated with miR-141 expression both in pancreatic cancer samples and cell lines. Knockdown of MAP4K4 inhibited cell proliferation, clonogenicity, and invasion, induced G1 arrest and apoptosis, and enhanced chemosensitivity. In a nude mouse xenograft model, both overexpression of miR-141 and knockdown of MAP4K4 significantly repressed pancreatic cancer cell growth. Therefore, we conclude that miR-141 targets MAP4K4, acts as a tumor suppressor in pancreatic cancer cells, and may serve as a novel therapeutic agent for miRNA-based pancreatic cancer therapy.
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[Clinical application of BCR/ABL probes in myeloproliferative disorders].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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This study was purposed to explore the application value of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) detection in differential diagnosis of chronic myeloproliferative disorders (CMPD) and Ph(+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph(+) ALL), as well as in dynamic monitoring of minimal residual disease (MRD) after treatment. The BCR/ABL fusion gene of newly diagnosed and treated cases was detected by using BCR/ABL (ES) probe and BCR/ABL (DF) probe respectively. The results showed that among 49 newly diagnosed cases considered as CMPD, 28 cases met the criterion of CML morphologically, out of them 23 cases were eventually diagnosed to be CML and with morphological consistent rate 82.1% (23/28), the sensitivity and specificity all were 100% (23/23). The BCR/ABL positive rate of eventually diagnosed cases was 81.3% ± 17.7%. Among 13 cases received allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), 9 cases achieved long-term disease-free survival and 4 cases relapsed, the several monitoring for whom after donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) and imatinib treatment or allo-HSCT showed BCR/ABL negative. Among 16 cases treated with imatinib, 11 cases remained BCR/ABL negative after 1 year; 5 cases showed BCR/ABL positive during 6, 7 and 10 years after treatment, respectively, but out of them BCR/ABL positive in 1 case turned negative after allo-HSCT. It is concluded that the FISH is sensitive and specific diagnostic technique, the detection of BCR/ABL fusion gene in newly diagnosed and treated cases by using 2 different probes can help to fast and accurately determine the differential diagnosis for CML and Ph(+) ALL, and dynamically monitor the MRD after treatment with imatinib and allo-HSCT.
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Isolation, identification and expression of specific human CD133 antibodies.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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CD133, a 120?KDa glycoprotein is a transmembrane glycoprotein which has been recently used as a cancer stem cell (CSCs) marker in a variety of carcinomas. CD133(+) cells possess strong tumorigenicity, responsible for tumor initiation and maintenance. Therefore, the goal of our study was to develop a novel CD133 humanized antibody as a promising target for cancer therapy. CD133 purified proteins were used for panning the naive human-semi-synthetic Tomlinson I + J phagemid library. The second extracellular domain (loop1) and the third extracellular domain (loop2) of CD133 were expressed in E. coli. In this study, we adopted a novel five-round selection strategy based on moderate stringent selection during the first rounds. This unique strategy was aimed at avoiding the loss of rare phages with high affinity to target proteins. After the five rounds of specific panning, six phage-antibody clones which specifically recognized recombinant human CD133 protein were obtained. The desirable phage clone named CD133-scFv-1 was cloned into the expression vector, then induced and purified. We show that CD133-scFv-1 and commercial murine antibody 293C3 could compete with each other in the indirect competitive immunoassay. Our work may lay the groundwork for future studies involving biological functions and applications of the CD133 humanized antibody.
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Controversies and evolving new mechanisms in subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Prog. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Despite decades of study, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) continues to be a serious and significant health problem in the United States and worldwide. The mechanisms contributing to brain injury after SAH remain unclear. Traditionally, most in vivo research has heavily emphasized the basic mechanisms of SAH over the pathophysiological or morphological changes of delayed cerebral vasospasm after SAH. Unfortunately, the results of clinical trials based on this premise have mostly been disappointing, implicating some other pathophysiological factors, independent of vasospasm, as contributors to poor clinical outcomes. Delayed cerebral vasospasm is no longer the only culprit. In this review, we summarize recent data from both experimental and clinical studies of SAH and discuss the vast array of physiological dysfunctions following SAH that ultimately lead to cell death. Based on the progress in neurobiological understanding of SAH, the terms "early brain injury" and "delayed brain injury" are used according to the temporal progression of SAH-induced brain injury. Additionally, a new concept of the vasculo-neuronal-glia triad model for SAH study is highlighted and presents the challenges and opportunities of this model for future SAH applications.
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Glial cell-expressed mechanosensitive channel TRPV4 mediates infrasound-induced neuronal impairment.
Acta Neuropathol.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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Vibroacoustic disease, a progressive and systemic disease, mainly involving the central nervous system, is caused by excessive exposure to low-frequency but high-intensity noise generated by various heavy transportations and machineries. Infrasound is a type of low-frequency noise. Our previous studies demonstrated that infrasound at a certain intensity caused neuronal injury in rats but the underlying mechanism(s) is still largely unknown. Here, we showed that glial cell-expressed TRPV4, a Ca(2+)-permeable mechanosensitive channel, mediated infrasound-induced neuronal injury. Among different frequencies and intensities, infrasound at 16 Hz and 130 dB impaired rat learning and memory abilities most severely after 7-14 days exposure, a time during which a prominent loss of hippocampal CA1 neurons was evident. Infrasound also induced significant astrocytic and microglial activation in hippocampal regions following 1- to 7-day exposure, prior to neuronal apoptosis. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of glial activation in vivo protected against neuronal apoptosis. In vitro, activated glial cell-released proinflammatory cytokines IL-1? and TNF-? were found to be key factors for this neuronal apoptosis. Importantly, infrasound induced an increase in the expression level of TRPV4 both in vivo and in vitro. Knockdown of TRPV4 expression by siRNA or pharmacological inhibition of TRPV4 in cultured glial cells decreased the levels of IL-1? and TNF-?, attenuated neuronal apoptosis, and reduced TRPV4-mediated Ca(2+) influx and NF-?B nuclear translocation. Finally, using various antagonists we revealed that calmodulin and protein kinase C signaling pathways were involved in TRPV4-triggered NF-?B activation. Thus, our results provide the first evidence that glial cell-expressed TRPV4 is a potential key factor responsible for infrasound-induced neuronal impairment.
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[Changes of erythrocyte rheology in rabbits with acute renal failure].
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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To observe the change of erythrocyte theology in rabbits with acute renal failure (ARF).
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Beneficial effects of a polysaccharide from Salvia miltiorrhiza on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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In the present study, one water-soluble polysaccharide (SMP1) was isolated from the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza. The cardio-protective potential of SMP1 was studied in the ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) model of rats in vivo. Results showed that 30 min of left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion (LAD) followed by 4 h of reperfusion markedly decreased myocardial superoxide dismutase (SOD), Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase activities and increased myocardial malondialdehyde (MDA) level and serum activities of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in I/R rats. An increase in infarct size and high apoptosis index of cardiac cell were also observed in IR rats. Administration of SMP1 400 and 800 mg/kg significantly reversed these biochemical parameters in the I/R rats to the normal levels in sham control rats. The infarct sizes and the percent of TUNEL-positive cells were found significantly decreased in SMP1-treated groups compared to I/R rats. Taken together, the present study clearly suggests SMP1 has a protective effect against myocardial I/R injury in rats by ameliorating oxidative stress and inhibiting myocardial apoptosis.
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Baseline serum uric acid level as a predictor of cardiovascular disease related mortality and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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Serum uric acid (SUA) levels have been used to predict cardiovascular and all-cause mortality event, but the data have yielded conflicting results. We investigated whether SUA was an independent predictor for cardiovascular or all-cause mortality with prospective studies by meta-analysis.
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miR-125b inhibits Connexin43 and promotes glioma growth.
Cell. Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2013
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MicroRNA is strongly associated with tumor growth and development. This study examined the potential roles of miR-125b in glioma growth. We found that miR-125b promotes glioma cell line growth and clone formation, and protects the glioma cells from apoptosis in vitro. The miR-125b-transfected glioma cells also demonstrated increased growth after in vivo transplantation. We further identified that miR-125b inhibits Connexin43 expression, and the overexpression of Connexin43 antagonizes the effects of miR-125b in cell growth and anti-apoptosis. We conclude that miR-125b regulates glioma growth partly through Connexin43 protein.
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Exogenous normal lymph alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute kidney injury in rats.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common pathological process which occurs in hemorrhage, intoxication, etc. It has been shown that the lymphatic circulation plays an important regulatory role in the pathogenesis of hemorrhage shock, and that exogenous normal lymph (ENL) has a beneficial effect on multiple organ injuries. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ENL on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced AKI in rats.
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Simultaneous determination of imperatorin and its metabolites in vitro and in vivo by a GC-MS method: application to a bioavailability and protein binding ability study in rat plasma.
Biomed. Chromatogr.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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In this study, a simple and sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed for the study of bioavailability and protein binding and the metabolism of imperatorin in rat. The results showed that the pharmacokinetics of imperatorin after intravenous and oral administration in rats exhibited linear characteristics. The absolute bioavailability of imperatorin was calculated as ~3.85, ~33.51 and ~34.76% for 6.25, 12.5 and 25 mg/kg, respectively. The low bioavailability of imperatorin may be attributed to the poor absorption or extensive metabolism. The phase I metabolites of imperatorin formed in vitro by rat liver microsomes were studied, and two metabolites were isolated and identified as xanthotoxol and heraclenin. Following oral administration of imperatorin, one metabolite (heraclenin) was detected in rat plasma, and two potential metabolites (xanthotoxol and heraclenin) were detected in rat urine. However, none of potential metabolites was detected in rat feces and bile. The results showed that the metabolites of imperatorin were excreted by kidney, and heraclenin was associated with an active component. Demethylation and oxygenization were the main metabolic pathways. In vitro plasma protein binding of imperatorin was 90.1 and 92.6% for the spiked rat plasma concentrations of 1.0 and 50.0 µg/mL, respectively, indicating that imperatorin showed slow distribution into the intra- and extracellular space. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Role of RhoA in regulating the pump function of isolated lymphatics from hemorrhagic shock rats.
Shock
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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The aim of this present study was to examine changes in RhoA protein levels and the role in RhoA in lymphatic contractility and reactivity after hemorrhagic shock. Levels of RhoA and phospho-RhoA in lymphatic tissue isolated from hemorrhagic shock rats were measured, and the contractility and reactivity to substance P of lymphatics isolated from control rats and rats subjected to shock 0.5 and 2 h were determined with an isolated lymphatic perfusion system at a transmural pressure of 3 cmH2O. At the same time, lymphatics isolated from rats subjected to shock 0.5 and 2 h were incubated with agonists and antagonists of RhoA/Rho kinase signaling. Contractile frequency, end-diastolic and end-systolic diameter, and passive diameter were recorded and used to calculate lymphatic tonic index, contractile amplitude, and fractional pump flow. After stimulation with a gradient of substance P, the differences between the preadministration and postadministration values of contractile frequency, contractile amplitude, tonic index, and fractional pump flow were calculated to further assess lymphatic reactivity. RhoA protein levels were significantly increased at 0.5 h after shock but decreased at 2 and 3 h after shock; p-Rho levels were initially increased after shock and subsequently decreased. The contractility and reactivity of 0.5-h-shocked lymphatics were significantly reduced by the RhoA antagonist C3 transferase and the Rho kinase antagonist Y-27632. The RhoA agonist U-46619 increased the contractility and reactivity of 2-h-shocked lymphatics, whereas Y-27632 suppressed the effect of U-46619. Okadaic acid, an inhibitor of myosin light-chain phosphatase, had no effect on the contractility of 2-h-shocked lymphatics, but improved lymphatic reactivity. These results suggest that RhoA is involved in the modulation of lymphatic pump function during hemorrhagic shock and that its effects may be mediated by Rho kinase and MLCP.
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Protective effects of the novel adenosine derivative WS0701 in a mouse model of posttraumatic stress disorder.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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Aim:To investigate the effects of the novel N6-substituted adenosine derivative {(2R,3S,4R,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-[6-[(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)amino]-9H-purin-9-yl]tetrahydrofuran-2-yl} methyl decanoate (WS0701) on stress-induced excessive fear, anxiety, and cognitive deficits in a mouse model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).Methods:Male mice underwent a conditioned foot shock and single prolonged stress procedure to induce PTSD. Contextual/cued fear, elevated plus-maze, open field and novel object recognition tests were conduced to assess PTSD-like behaviors. From d 1, the mice were orally administered WS0701 (7.5, 15, or 30 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) or paroxetine (10 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) for two weeks. Apoptosis of hippocampal neurons was detected using flow cytometry and TUNEL staining, and expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in the hippocampus was measured with Western boltting and qPCR assays.Results:WS0701 administration significantly alleviated fear, anxious behaviors and memory deficits in the mouse model of PTSD. Furthermore, WS0701 administration significantly reduced the stress-induced apoptosis of hippocampal neurons, and increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio in the hippocampus. The positive control drug paroxetine exerted similar effects on PTSD-like behaviors and hippocampal neuron apoptosis in the mouse model of PTSD, which were comparable to those caused by the high dose of WS0701.Conclusion:WS0701 effectively mitigates stress-induced PTSD-like behaviors in mice, partly via inhibition of neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus.
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Significant Reduction of the GLUT3 Level, but not GLUT1 Level, Was Observed in the Brain Tissues of Several Scrapie Experimental Animals and Scrapie-Infected Cell Lines.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Glucose transporters 1 (GLUT1) and 3 (GLUT3) belong to the solute carrier family 2 (SLC2, facilitated glucose transporter) and are the two most important glucose transporters (GLUTs) in brain tissue, and between them, GLUT3 is the primary one for neurons, which is responsible for glucose uptake. To obtain insights into the possible alterations of GLUT1 and GLUT3 in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), the protein levels of GLUT1 and GLUT3 in the brain tissues of agents 263K- and 139A-infected hamsters, as well as agents 139A- and ME7-infected mice, were evaluated. Western blots, immunofluorescent assay (IFA), and immunohistochemical (IHC) assays revealed that at the terminal stages of the infection, GLUT3 level in the brain tissues of scrapie-infected rodents was significantly downregulated, while GLUT1 level remained almost unchanged. The decline of GLUT3 level was closely related with prolonged incubation time. In line with these results in vivo, the GLUT3 level in a prion persistently infected cell line SMB-S15 was also lower than that of its normal cell line SMB-PS. Moreover, the level of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1?), which positively regulated the expressions of GLUTs, was also markedly downregulated in the brains of several scrapie-infected animals. In vitro glucose uptake assays illustrated a markedly decreased 2-[N-(7-nitrobenze-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxyglucose uptake activity in SMB-S15 cells. Our data indicate that the reduction of GLUT3 is a common phenomenon in prion diseases, which occurs much earlier than the appearance of clinical symptoms. Defect in glucose uptake and metabolism of neurons, like in other neurodegenerative diseases, for example, Alzheimers disease (AD), may be one of the essential processes in the pathogenesis of prion diseases.
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Combined microextraction by packed sorbent and high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection for rapid analysis of ractopamine in porcine muscle and urine samples.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2013
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A method for rapid analysis of ractopamine in porcine muscle and urine was developed and validated. The method was based on combined of microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) and high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). Parameters of the MEPS procedure affecting extraction efficiency were optimised. Optimum extraction conditions were 100 ?L of sample in five extraction cycles and sampling time of <3 min. Compared with solid-phase extraction, the MEPS procedure required less extraction time, sample volume and consumption of organic solvents. The method demonstrated high linearity within 0.01-2 ?g/mL for porcine muscle and urine samples (R(2)>0.9985). Accuracies of muscle and urine analyses were 93.9-109.2% and 93.4-105.1%, respectively. Intra-day and inter-day precisions (RSD%) were lower than 11.8% for both analyses. The method was applied for rapid analysis of ractopamine in biological samples. The method was simpler and could be used to screen other ?2-agonists in other extraction media.
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Role of protein kinase G on the post-shock mesenteric lymph blockage ameliorating vascular calcium sensitivity.
Acta Cir Bras
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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To investigate the role of protein kinase G (PKG) in blocking post-shock mesenteric lymph (PSML) return ameliorating the calcium sensitivity in hemorrhagic shock rats.
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Mitochondrial Modulation of Apoptosis Induced by Low-dose Radiation in Mouse Testicular Cells.
Biomed. Environ. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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To investigate whether apoptosis induced by low-dose radiation (LDR) is regulated by mitochondrial pathways in testicular cells.
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Exogenous normal lymph alleviates microcirculation disturbances and abnormal hemorheological properties in rats with disseminated intravascular coagulation.
Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Disturbances of the microcirculation and abnormal hemorheological properties are important factors that play an important role in disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and result in organ dysfunction or failure. In the present study, we established an animal model of DIC using intravenous Dextran 500 in rats, and used exogenous normal lymph corresponding to 1/15 of whole blood volume for injection through the left jugular vein. We found that normal lymph could improve the blood pressure and survival time of rats with DIC. The results regarding the mesenteric microcirculation showed that the abnormality of the diameter of mesenteric microvessels and micro-blood flow speed in the DIC+lymph group was significantly less than in the DIC+saline group. Whole blood viscosity, relative viscosity, plasma viscosity, hematocrit (Hct), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and electrophoresis time of erythrocytes were significantly increased in the DIC+saline group compared to the control group. The electrophoretic length and migration of erythrocytes from the DIC+saline and DIC+lymph groups were significantly slower than the control group. Blood relative viscosity, Hct, ESR, and electrophoretic time of erythrocytes were significantly increased in the DIC+lymph group compared to the control group. Whole blood viscosity, relative viscosity and reduced viscosity were significantly lower in the DIC+lymph group than in the DIC+saline group, and erythrocyte deformability index was also significantly higher than in the DIC+saline and control groups. These results suggest that exogenous normal lymph could markedly improve the acute microcirculation disturbance and the abnormal hemorheological properties in rats with DIC induced by Dextran 500.
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Inhibitory effect of melanoma differentiation associated gene-7/interleukin-24 on invasion in vitro of human melanoma cancer cells.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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The acquisition of metastasis potential is a critical point for malignant tumors. Melanoma differentiation associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24) is a potential tumor suppress gene and frequently down-regulated in malignant tumors. It has been implicated that overexpression of MDA-7 led to proliferation inhibition in many types of human tumor. Invasion is an important process which is potential to promote tumor metastasis. However, the role and potential molecular mechanism of mda-7/IL-24 to inhibit the invasion of human melanoma cancer is not fully clear. In this report, we identified a solid role for mda-7/IL-24 in invasion inhibition of human melanoma cancer LiBr cells, including decreasing of adhesion and invasion in vitro, blocking cell cycle, down-regulating the expression of ICAM-1, MMP-2/9, CDK1, the phosphorylation of ERK and Akt, NF-?B and AP-1 transcription activity. Meanwhile, there was an increased expression of PTEN in mda-7/IL-24 over-expression LiBr cells. Our results demonstrated that mda-7/IL-24 is a potential invasion suppress gene, which inhibits the invasion of LiBr cells by the down-regulation of ICAM-1, MMP-2/9, PTEN, and CDK1 expression. The molecular pathways involved were the MAPK/ERK, PI3K-Akt, NF-?B, and AP-1. These findings suggest that mda-7/IL-24 may be used as a possible therapeutic strategy for human melanoma cancer.
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Obstructive sleep apnea and risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2013
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The association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been examined in many studies. However, the findings are not entirely consistent across studies. Our goal was to evaluate the association between OSA and risk of CVD and all-cause mortality by performing a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.