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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A Unique 1,2-Acyl Migration for the Construction of Quaternary Carbon by Visible Light Irradiation of Platinum(II) Polypyridyl Complex and Molecular Oxygen.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
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A unique 1,2-acyl migration for the construction of quaternary carbon in a one-pot reaction under visible light is described. By irradiating a platinum(II) polypyridyl complex with visible light, enamine 1 is able to react with alcohol 2 to yield compound 3 featuring a quaternary carbon via 1,2-acyl migration and concurrent esterification. Studies on the mechanism reveal that the platinum(II) complex is able to generate singlet oxygen ((1)O2) that is responsible for this unprecedented intramolecular 1,2-acyl migration transformation.
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RNF213 Rare Variants in an Ethnically Diverse Population With Moyamoya Disease.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a rare, genetically heterogeneous cerebrovascular disease resulting from occlusion of the distal internal carotid arteries. A variant in the Ring Finger 213 gene (RNF213), altering arginine at position 4810 (p.R4810K), is associated with MMD in Asian populations. However, there are a lack of data on the role of RNF213 in patients with MMD of additional ethnicities and diasporic Asian populations. We investigate the contribution of RNF213 alterations to MMD in an ethnically diverse population based in the United States.
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[Research on spectrum correction algorithm of temperature measurement system based on FBG].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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In order to solve the problem that temperature sensor laying is complex and maintenance cost is high in the large-scale, multi-point real-time temperature monitoring process, the temperature monitoring system based on Fiber Bragg Grating was designed and developed. Using wavelength selectivity by optical fiber diffraction grating, a function of temperature and wavelength was established. Temperature of the measured position was inversed by calculating the wavelength variation through the optical fiber Bragg grating. Due to environmental, materials and other factors, the spectral distribution and temperature changes do not satisfy linear relationship. Therefore, designed the spectrum correction algorithm was designed, and function curve fitting of wavelength and temperature was completed with a degree of fitting greater than 99.7%. Experiments used FB136L-IAC-proof oven, LPT-200 diode, and 1 550 nm optical fiber to detect 20 to 280 degrees C temperature range of multi-point in real-time. The results show that when the temperature is changed by 1 degrees C, the corresponding center wavelength shifts about 0.04 nm to longer wavelengths. Compared with the test data from standard device, the error is less than +/- 0.3 degrees C. Meanwhile, the spectral correction algorithm was applied to the system to further improve the uniformity and accuracy of the temperature detection. Because the system uses fiber-optic sensor network, it has a strong anti-electromagnetic interference capability. The diffraction grating can achieve precise measurements, so it has big dynamic range and high accuracy. The innovation of the system is to ensure high-precision measurements, while still satisfy large-scale, multi-point, high anti-jamming capability of rapid laying, and has a strong practical value.
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Development toxicity of functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes on rare minnow embryos and larvae.
Nanotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Abstract Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are widely used in industrial and commercial applications, but few studies systematically evaluate their developmental toxicity on aquatic organism. Using rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) at early life stages as experimental models, developmental toxicity of functionalized single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) was investigated following exposure to 0-320?mg/L for 144?h. Results revealed that significantly increased in mortality and malformation was only observed after hatching. Decreased body length, heart rate and swimming speed provide a concentration-dependent manner on larvae; values of 144?h LC50 and EC50 were 140.8 and 109.8?mg/L, respectively. Antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase) and antioxidant enzyme related mRNA expressions were significant changed; cell apoptosis activities (caspase-3, -8, -9) and cell apoptosis related mRNA expressions were significant up-regulated; reactive oxygen species and DNA damage were significantly induced when the concentration of SWCNTs above 100?mg/L. Fluorescence and electron microscopy sliced observation show that SWCNTs were well dispersed in larvae within 0.5?h, eventually cleared from the larvae at 144?h. This is the first study to define uptake kinetics and to focus on behavioral consequences, physiological changes and mRNA expression following SWCNTs exposure in the early life stages of fish. The results obtained in the present study demonstrated that functionalized SWCNTs have the potential to affect aquatic life when released into the aquatic environment and reached high concentration. In the increasing economical context of SWCNTs, complementary studies must be undertaken, especially including mechanistic and environmental investigations.
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The in vivo characterization of electrospun heparin-bonded polycaprolactone in small-diameter vascular reconstruction.
Vascular
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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To evaluate the possibility of using heparin-bonded polycaprolactone grafts to replace small-diameter arteries.
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[Research on explosive temperature network monitoring system based on the linear frequency shift of spectrum].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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In order to obtain the different position temperature changes in the process of explosive casting accurate, stability and comprehensive, we designed the temperature monitoring system based on fiber Bragg grating spectral shift. Through the fiberoptic network, the system can monitor the different point temperature of melt-cast explosive real-time. According to the function of linear frequency shift of fiber Bragg grating wavelength with the grating of temperature, we get the temperature of different positions. Four channels share a broadband light source with a coupler. The Bragg wavelengths of the 5 gratings of each fiber are separated from each other. Using the gratings designed, spliced and packaged by our own, we can obtain temperature data through the demodulator. The temperature data was processed by the Origin to draw diagram time-temperature curve. The results show that the measured temperature data of the fiber Bragg grating can meet the requirements of experiment.
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Copper-catalyzed phosphorylation of sp(2) C-H bonds.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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The phosphorylation of the ortho C-H bonds in benzamides containing an 8-aminoquinoline moiety as a bidentate directing group with H-phosphonates using copper as a catalyst under mild temperature conditions is described. This method shows high functional group compatibility and selectively gives mono-substituted products.
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Aquatic environmental safety assessment and inhibition mechanism of chemicals for targeting Microcystis aeruginosa.
Ecotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of Gram-negative bacteria that produce an array of secondary compounds with selective bioactivity against vertebrates, invertebrates, fungi, bacteria and cell lines. Recently the main methods of controlling cyanobacteria are using chemicals, medicinal plants and microorganism but fewer involved the safety research in hydrophytic ecosystems. In search of an environmentally safe compound, 53 chemicals were screened against the developed heavy cyanobacteria bloom Microcystis aeruginosa using coexistence culture system assay. The results of the coexistence assay showed that 9 chemicals inhibited M. aeruginosa effectively at 20 mg L(-1) after 7 days of exposure. Among them dimethomorph, propineb, and paraquat were identified that they are safe for Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus obliquus, Carassius auratus (Goldfish) and Bacillus subtilis within half maximal effective concentration (EC50) values 5.2, 4.2 and 0.06 mg L(-1) after 7 days, respectively. Paraquat as the positive control observed to be more efficient than the other compounds with the inhibitory rate (IR) of 92 % at 0.5 mg L(-1). For the potential inhibition mechanism, the chemicals could destroy the cell ultrastructure in different speed. The safety assay proved dimethomorph, propineb and paraquat as harmless formulations or products having potential value in M. aeruginosa controlling, with the advantage of its cell morphology degrading ability.
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[Woody plant species composition and community structure in residual fragments of broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forests in Changbai Mountains area].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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The broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest represents the typical vegetation type of the eastern mountain area in Northeast China. However, due to the interference of human activities, the natural broad-leaved Korean pine forest only distributes in some residual fragments with unequal areas in Changbai Mountains and Small Hinggan Mountains. To compare and analyze the similarities and differences of broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forests in the different areas, we established six forest plots following the field protocol of the 50 hm2 forest plot in Panama (Barro Colorado Island, BCI) in 2012 in Changbai Mountain National Nature Reserve in Jilin Province and the eastern mountain area in Liaoning Province. All free-standing plant species with DBH (diameter at breast height) > or = 1 cm were mapped, tagged and identified to species. The results showed that there were 69 woody species in the six plots, comprising 42 genera and24 families. Aceraceae was the most species-rich family in all six plots. Most species belonged to the plant type of North Temperate Zone, with a minor subtropical plant species component. The statistics of species abundance, basal area, mean DBH, and importance value showed that there were obviously dominant species in each community. The DBH distribution of all individuals showed a reversed "J" type. However, the percentage of individuals in small size-class and large size-class varied in the six communities, which indicated that these communities were at different successional stages. Ranked by the importance value, the DBH distribution of the top three species in the six plots showed four distribution types: reversed "J" distribution, reversed "L" distribution, unimodal distribution, and partial peak distribution. Spatial distribution patterns of the main species in the six plots changed differently with species and size-class, and the distribution patterns of the same species varied in the different plots.
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[A new method of anti-jamming ability improvement for Michelson Interferometer].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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In order to improve anti-jamming capability of Michelson interferometer system, replace the traditional structure of the moving mirror scanning was replaced, an interference system based on electro-optic modulation of crystal refractive index was designed to achieve optical path scanning. The system modulated voltage signal on the variable refractive crystal, to generate cyclical changes, changed the refractive index to control optical path difference in the original optical path system. Using electronic scanning to replace of mechanical scanning, improved the system's noise immunity was improved. In the electro-optic modulation process, computed the maximum optical path difference of the system was computed, and analyzed of the crystal thickness and crystal diffraction efficiency of the modulation process were analyzed. The simulation experiment shows that, with the modulation voltage range increasing, the available range of the optical path is also increased, and the system spectrum resolving power will also increase accordingly. Meanwhile, in the modulation process set the modulation range was set to make the energy of diffraction energy losses less than 10% of the total energy, so as to ensure a better signal to noise ratio. Experimental results show that, as the modulation voltage changes, interference fringes occurred continuously moved. When the voltage is further increased, the nonlinear error appears. After non-linear error correction for the system, spectrum resolution reached to 7. 2 cm-1, slightly lower than the original system. But its anti-jamming capability is greatly enhanced, as in the absence of experimental platform for seismic conditions, conventional interferometer relative error is more than 20%, while the relative error of the system is less than 5%, in line with the design requirements. It was proved that the anti-jamming capability of the system was enhanced greatly, when the static electro-optical modulation was used.
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Key network approach reveals new insight into Alzheimer's disease.
IET Syst Biol
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder without curative treatment. Extensive data on pathological molecular processes have been accumulated over the last years. These data combined allows a systems biology approach to identify key regulatory elements of AD and to establish a model descriptive of the disease process which can be used for the development of therapeutic agents. In this study, the authors propose a closed network that uses a set of nodes (amyloid beta, tau, beta-secretase, glutamate, cyclin-dependent kinase 5, phosphoinositide 3-kinase and hypoxia-induced factor 1 alpha) as key elements of importance to the pathogenesis of AD. The proposed network, in total 39 nodes, is able to become a novel tool capable of providing new insights into AD, such as feedback loops. Further, it highlights interconnections between pathways and identifies their combination for therapy of AD.
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The MDM2 SNP309T>G polymorphism increases bladder cancer risk among Caucasians: a meta-analysis.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Published studies have evaluated associations between the MDM2 SNP309T>G polymorphism and bladder cancer susceptibility. However, these generated inconsistent results. The aim of the present investigation was to quantify the strength of association between MDM2 SNP309T>G polymorphism and bladder cancer risk by conducting a meta-analysis. We searched PubMed and Embase for related studies that had been published in English before April 1, 2014 and associations were assessed by summarizing the odds ratios (ORs) with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Five case-control studies with a total of 972 cases and 1,012 controls were finally identified to be eligible for the meta-analysis. Overall, the results indicated that there was no significant association between the MDM2 SNP309T>G polymorphism and bladder cancer risk (for the allele model G vs. T: OR=1.08, 95% CI 0.85-1.36, p=0.54; for the co-dominant model GG vs. TT: OR=1.20, 95% CI 0.74-1.93, p=0.46; for the dominant model GG+GT vs. TT: OR=0.98, 95% CI 0.80-1.20, p=0.83; for the recessive model GG vs. GT+TT: OR=1.20, 95% CI 0.83-1.74, p=0.33). However, on subgroup analysis by ethnicity, significant associations were found in Caucasians in three models (for the allele model G vs. T: OR=1.41, 95% CI 1.10-1.81, p=0.006; for the co-dominant model GG vs. TT: OR=2.16, 95% CI 1.28-3.63, p=0.004; for the recessive model GG vs. GT+TT: OR=2.06, 95% CI 1.31-3.22, p=0.002). In summary, the present meta-analysis provides evidence that the genotype for the MDM2 SNP309T>G polymorphism may be associated with genetic susceptibility to bladder cancer among Caucasians.
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Single-walled carbon nanotubes as candidate recombinant subunit vaccine carrier for immunization of grass carp against grass carp reovirus.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Grass carp reovirus (GCRV), the most pathogenic aquareovirus, can cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in fingerling and yearling grass carp. Vaccination by injection is by far the most effective method of combating disease. However it is labor intensive, costly and not feasible to vaccinate large numbers of the fish. Thus, an efficient and economic strategy for the prevention of GCRV infection becomes urgent. Here, functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as carrier were used to manufacture SWCNTs-VP7 subunit vaccine with chemical modification. Different developmental stages of grass carps were immunized by VP7/SWCNTs-VP7 subunit vaccine against GCRV by intramuscular injection and bath immunization. The results indicate that better immune responses of grass carp immunized with the SWCNTs-VP7 subunit vaccine were induced in comparison with VP7 subunit vaccine alone. Immunization doses/concentrations are significantly reduced (about 5-8 times) to prevent GCRV infection in different developmental stages of grass carp with injection or bath treatment when SWCNTs carrier was used. A good immune protective effect (relative percentage survival greater than 95%) is observed in smaller size fish (0.2 g) with SWCNTs-VP7 bath immunization. In addition, serum respiratory burst activity, complement activity, lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, immune-related genes and antibody levels were significantly enhanced in fish immunized with vaccine. This study suggested that functionalized SWCNTs was the promising carrier for recombinant subunit vaccine and might be used to vaccinate fish by bath approach.
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Antipsychotic polypharmacy in schizophrenia patients in China and its association with treatment satisfaction and quality of life: Findings of the third national survey on use of psychotropic medications in China.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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This study examined the use, demographic and clinical correlates of antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) and its associations with treatment satisfaction and quality of life (QOL) in schizophrenia patients in China.
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Gastroesophageal reflux in chronic cough and cough syncope and the effect of antireflux treatment: case report and literature review.
Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of antireflux treatment on gastroesophageal reflux (GER)-related cough syncope.
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Diphenyl ethers from Aspergillus sp. and their anti-A??? aggregation activities.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Two new compounds with the character of diphenyl ether structure, oxisterigmatocystin D (1) and 9-acetyldiorcinol B (6), were isolated from the endolichenic fungal strain Aspergillus sp. (No. 16-20-8-1), along with six known compounds, oxisterigmatocystin A (2), oxisterigmatocystin C (3), sterigmatocystin (4), diorcinol B (5), violaceol-I (7), and violaceol-II (8). The structures of the new compounds were determined by extensive NMR spectroscopic data, and the absolute configuration of 1 was established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Moreover, the A?42 aggregation inhibitory activities of 5-8 were evaluated by the standard thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence assay using epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) as the positive control. Compounds 7 and 8 displayed significant anti-A?42 aggregation activity with IC50 values of 5.1 and 2.3?M, respectively. Preliminary structure-activity relationship of these diphenyl ethers as anti-A?42 aggregation inhibitors was proposed.
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Power analysis and sample size estimation for sequence-based association studies.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Statistical methods have been developed to test for complex trait rare variant (RV) associations, in which variants are aggregated across a region, which is typically a gene. Power analysis and sample size estimation for sequence-based RV association studies are challenging because of the necessity to realistically model the underlying allelic architecture of complex diseases within a suitable analytical framework to assess the performance of a variety of RV association methods in an unbiased manner.
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Potential toxic effect of trifloxystrobin on cellular microstructure, mRNA expression and antioxidant enzymes in Chlorella vulgaris.
Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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This study investigated the effects of trifloxystrobin that one strobilurin used widely in the world as an effective fungicidal agent to control Asian soybean rust on aquatic unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris. We determined the potential toxic effect of trifloxystrobin on C. vulgaris, and found median inhibition concentration (IC(50)) value 255.58 (95% confidence interval, 207.81-330.29)?gL(-1). In addition, the algal cells were obviously depressed or shrunk at different concentrations by electron microscopy. In the study, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay showed changes in transcript abundances of three photosynthetic genes, psaB, psbC, and rbcL, and one energy gene, ATPs. The results showed that trifloxystrobin reduced the transcript abundances of the three genes and enhanced expression of ATPs after 48 and 96 h. The lowest abundances of psaB, psbC and rbcL transcripts in response to trifloxystrobin exposure were 58%, 79% and 60% of those of the control, respectively. For the potential toxic influences, trifloxystrobin could decrease the soluble protein and total antioxidant contents (T-AOC), and increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activity with a gradual concentration-response relationship. Overall, the present study demonstrated that trifloxystrobin could affect the activities of antioxidant enzymes, disrupts photosynthesis in C. vulgaris, and damage cellular structure.
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Assessment of trifloxystrobin uptake kinetics, developmental toxicity and mRNA expression in rare minnow embryos.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Trifloxystrobin (TFS) is the widely used strobilurin fungicide. However, little information is so far available regarding the uptake kinetics and developmental toxicity of TFS to fish. The present study was conducted to investigate the uptake kinetics, potential environment risk and toxicity of TFS on Gobiocypris rarus embryos. Results revealed that increased malformation, decreased body length and heart rate, affected spontaneous movement and swimming speed provide a gradual concentration-dependent manner; values of 144h LC50 (median lethal concentration) and EC50 (median effective concentration) were 1.11 and 0.86?gL(-1). Continuous exposure to TFS resulted in a steady accumulation with no evidence of elimination. Enzyme activities were significantly changed; reactive oxygen species and DNA damage were significantly induced after TFS treatment. Certain genes related to cell apoptosis (p53), metabolism (cyp1a), stress response (hsp70) and blood vessels (vezf1) development were all significantly up-regulated. This is the first study to define uptake kinetics and to focus on behavioral consequences, physiological changes and mRNA expression following TFS exposure in the early life stages of fish. Our results suggest that TFS is highly toxic to fish embryos.
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Revealing the active intermediates in the oxidation of formic acid on Au and Pt(111).
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2014
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The mechanisms of formic acid (HCOOH) oxidation on Au(111) under gas-phase and electrochemical conditions was studied by using density functional theory and then compared with the analogous processes on Pt(111). Our results demonstrate that a mechanism involving a single intermediate molecule is preferred on both Au and Pt(111). Furthermore, under gas-phase conditions, HCOOH oxidation proceeds through the same mechanism (formate pathway) on Au and Pt(111), whereas under electrochemical conditions, it can take place through significantly different mechanisms (formate and/or direct pathways), depending on the applied electrode potential. Our calculations help to rationalize conflicting experimental explanations and are crucial for understanding the mechanism of this fundamental (electro-)catalytic process.
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Cross-coupling hydrogen evolution reaction in homogeneous solution without noble metals.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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A highly efficient noble-metal-free homogeneous system for a cross-coupling hydrogen evolution (CCHE) reaction is developed. With cheap, earth-abundant eosin Y and molecular catalyst Co(dmgH)2Cl2, good to excellent yields for coupling reactions with a variety of isoquinolines and indole substrates and H2 have been achieved without any sacrificial oxidants. Mechanistic insights provide rich information on the effective, clean, and economic CCHE reaction.
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Developmental toxicity in rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) embryos exposed to Cu, Zn and Cd.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Using rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) embryos as experimental model, the developmental toxicity of Cu, Zn and Cd were investigated following exposure to 0.001-1.000mg/L for 72h, and the toxicity effects were evaluated by larval malformation rate, heart rate, pericardial area, spontaneous movements, tail length, enzyme activities and biomarker genes. Our results revealed that increased malformation rate provide a gradual dose-response relationship, and the most pronounced morphological alteration was heart and body malformations. Values of 72h EC50 with their 95 percent confidence intervals on G. rarus embryos were 0.103 (0.072-0.149)mg/L for Cu, 0.531 (0.330-1.060)mg/L for Zn, 0.219 (0.147-0.351)mg/L for Cd. Enzyme activities can be regard as a type of low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition. Stress and metabolism-related genes (hsp70, cyp1a and mt) were significantly up-regulated, development-related genes (wnt8a, vezf1 and mstn) were significantly down-regulated after the treatment by Cu, Zn and Cd. Overall, the present study points out Cu, Zn and Cd are highly toxic to G. rarus embryos. The information presented in this study will be helpful in fully understanding the toxicity induced by Cu, Zn and Cd in fish embryos.
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Variant association tools for quality control and analysis of large-scale sequence and genotyping array data.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Currently there is great interest in detecting associations between complex traits and rare variants. In this report, we describe Variant Association Tools (VAT) and the VAT pipeline, which implements best practices for rare-variant association studies. Highlights of VAT include variant-site and call-level quality control (QC), summary statistics, phenotype- and genotype-based sample selection, variant annotation, selection of variants for association analysis, and a collection of rare-variant association methods for analyzing qualitative and quantitative traits. The association testing framework for VAT is regression based, which readily allows for flexible construction of association models with multiple covariates and weighting themes based on allele frequencies or predicted functionality. Additionally, pathway analyses, conditional analyses, and analyses of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions can be performed. VAT is capable of rapidly scanning through data by using multi-process computation, adaptive permutation, and simultaneously conducting association analysis via multiple methods. Results are available in text or graphic file formats and additionally can be output to relational databases for further annotation and filtering. An interface to R language also facilitates user implementation of novel association methods. The VAT's data QC and association-analysis pipeline can be applied to sequence, imputed, and genotyping array, e.g., "exome chip," data, providing a reliable and reproducible computational environment in which to analyze small- to large-scale studies with data from the latest genotyping and sequencing technologies. Application of the VAT pipeline is demonstrated through analysis of data from the 1000 Genomes project.
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Triazole-induced toxicity in developing rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) embryos.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Using rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) at early-life stages as experimental models, the developmental toxicity of five widely used triazole fungicides (myclobutanil, fluconazole, flusilazole, triflumizole, and epoxiconazole) were investigated following exposure to 1-15 mg/L for 72 h. Meanwhile, morphological parameters (body length, body weight, and heart rate), enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), and acetyl cholinesterase (AChE)), and mRNA levels (hsp70, mstn, mt, apaf1, vezf1, and cyp1a) were also recorded following exposure to 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/L for 72 h. Results indicated that increased malformation and mortality, decreased body length, body weight, and heart rate provide a concentration-dependent pattern; values of 72 h LC50 (median lethal concentration) and EC50 (median effective concentration) ranged from 3 to 12 mg/L. Most importantly, the results of the present study suggest that even at the lowest concentration, 0.2 mg/L, five triazole fungicides also caused notable changes in enzyme activities and mRNA levels. Overall, the present study points out that those five triazole fungicides are highly toxic to the early development of G. rarus embryos. The information presented in this study will be helpful in better understanding the toxicity induced by triazole fungicides in fish embryos.
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Toxic effects of triazophos on rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) embryos and larvae.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Triazophos (TAP) has been widely used in agriculture for controlling insect pests and is a known organophosphorus pesticide. Due to TAP characteristics, such as high chemical and photochemical stability, its potential toxicity to aquatic organisms has gained great interest. To explore the potential developmental toxicity of TAP, Gobiocypris rarus embryos and larvae were exposed to various concentrations of TAP (0.1-15 mg L(-1)) until 72 h. Results showed that values of 72 h LC50 and EC50 were 7.44 and 5.60 mg L(-1) for embryos, 2.52 and 1.37 mg L(-1) for larvae. Increased malformation, decreased heart rate and body length provide a gradual concentration-dependent pattern. Enzyme activities and mRNA levels were significantly changed even at low concentration (0.05 mg L(-1) for embryos and 0.01 mg L(-(1) for larvae). Overall, the present study points out that TAP is likely a risk to the early development of G. rarus. The information presented in this study will be helpful in better understanding the toxicity induced by TAP in fish embryos and larvae.
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Effect of intestinal autochthonous probiotics isolated from the gut of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) on immune response and growth of A. japonicus.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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The study isolated 224 bacteria from the intestine of Apostichopus japonicus, then selected and identified three of the bacteria (HS1, HS7, and HS10) which demonstrated amylase, lipase, and protease production capacity as candidate probiotics for sea cucumbers. The three potential probiotics showed no pathogenicity both in hemolytic assays on sheep blood agar plates and after immersing sea cucumbers in a suspension of the bacteria. To reveal the effects of these three potential probiotics on the innate immunity of sea cucumbers, total coelomocyte counts, respiratory burst activity, superoxide dismutase activity, lysozyme activity, acid phosphatase activity, and phagocytic activity by coelomocytes were examined after feeding with four different diets for up to 28 days. Also the specific growth rate and survival rate were investigated after a 60-day feeding trial. Sea cucumbers were fed with 4 diets: one control, three diets supplemented with 1 × 10(9) cell g(-1) of HS1, HS7, and HS10 for 28-60 days. Results showed that sea cucumbers fed diets containing HS1, HS7, and HS10 had led to an enhanced cellular and humoral immune response, notably higher total coelomocytes counts, respiratory burst activity, lysozyme activity, acid phosphatase activity, and phagocytic activity, as recorded during the four weeks of probiotics administration. On the other hand, the survival rate among dietary treatments ranged from 90.71 to 97.97% with significant improvement (P < 0.05) compared to that of the control; and the growth rate observed in the sea cucumbers fed HS1 and HS7 showed sharp increases after 60 days feeding. The present study confirmed the potential beneficial effects of Pseudoalteromonas elyakovii HS1, Shewanella japonica HS7, and Vibrio tasmaniensis HS10 as dietary probiotics in A. japonicus.
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The effect of artemether on psychotic symptoms and cognitive impairment in first-episode, antipsychotic drug-naive persons with schizophrenia seropositive to Toxoplasma gondii.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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The objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of add-on artemether in first-episode, untreated people with schizophrenia, who were Toxoplasma gondii seropositive, and explore the change in T. gondii antibodies during treatment. In this eight-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 100 T. gondii seropositive participants with schizophrenia were randomized to either the artemether or placebo group. Participants in the artemether group received 80 mg artemether once per day during the second week (days 8-14) and the fourth week (days 22-28). Participants in the placebo group received identical looking placebo capsules. Psychopathology, adverse side effects and cognitive function were measured using standardized instruments. The group × time interaction effects for the scores of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) subscales and performances on all cognitive components were not significant, only the main effect of group was significant. Compared to the placebo group, artemether group participants showed significantly greater reduction in the PANSS negative symptom scale (F(1,46) = 4.7, p = 0.03) and the Clinical Global Impressions Scale (F(1,96) = 6.2, p = 0.01) scores, but there were no significant differences in the PANSS positive symptom and general psychopathology scales (p > 0.05). There were also no significant differences between the two groups in performance on any of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) cognitive domains. The artemether-risperidone combination is safe and well tolerated, but artemether as an adjunct to risperidone does not appear to alleviate cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Register (ChiCTR) TRC-13003145.
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Spontaneous intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in Budd-Chiari syndrome.
Ann Vasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) caused by hepatic venous outflow obstruction may result in portal hypertension and the development of intrahepatic collaterals that bypass the obstruction. Spontaneous intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunt (SIPSVS) is uncommon and may be associated with portal hypertension. SIPSVS is extremely rare in patients with BCS and has not been well documented. We report a case of SIPSVS in a 42-year-old woman with BCS caused by membranous obstruction and chronic thrombosis in the inferior vena cava (IVC). A direct vascular communication between the left portal vein and IVC was confirmed by sonography and a computed tomography angiography scan. The patient underwent successful percutaneous balloon angioplasty of the IVC. Surgical or endovascular treatment for SIPSVS was not carried out because the patient was asymptomatic and remained asymptomatic in terms of encephalopathy at a 1-year follow-up.
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Portal, mesenteric, and splenic vein thromboses after endovascular embolization for gastrointestinal bleeding caused by a splenic arteriovenous fistula.
Ann Vasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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We present an unusual case of portal, mesenteric, and splenic vein thromboses after endovascular embolization for gastrointestinal bleeding caused by a splenic arteriovenous fistula. The thromboses were successfully treated with anticoagulation therapy. The patient was a 37-year-old woman who presented with portal hypertension manifested by gastrointestinal bleeding with no evidence of liver disease. Splenic arteriography confirmed the presence of a high-flow arteriovenous fistulous communication from the splenic artery directly into the splenic vein. The arteriovenous fistula was successfully treated with percutaneous transarterial embolization by embolization coils and the patient achieved effective hemostasis. Low-molecular-weight heparin and warfarin were administrated to prevent thrombosis in the portal venous system after the procedure. Although anticoagulants were immediately administered, thromboses of the portal, mesenteric, and splenic veins were diagnosed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography after 10 days. Complete recanalization of the portal venous system confirmed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography was achieved by administering warfarin orally for 3 months.
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Long-term outcomes of patients with refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease following a minimally invasive endoscopic procedure: a prospective observational study.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most common digestive disease, affecting one third of the world's population. The minimally invasive endoscopic Stretta procedure is being increasingly used as an alternative strategy to manage refractory GERD. However, long-term benefits of this procedure have to be further evaluated in clinical settings. This prospective observational study was therefore conducted to evaluate the outcome of patients with refractory GERD 5 years after the Stretta procedure.
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Concentration, distribution, and human health risk assessment of endosulfan from a manufacturing facility in Huai'an, China.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Endosulfan concentrations and its distribution in air, soil, sediment and foodstuffs in the area surrounding a production facility in Huai'an, China were investigated because of its threats to the environment and human health. Air concentrations for endosulfan ?, endosulfan II and endosulfan sulfate measured in this study were several orders of magnitude higher than those reported previously for this region. Surface soil concentration ranges of endosulfan I, endosulfan II, and endosulfan sulfate were greater than in sediment. Endosulfan II was the greatest contributor to total endosulfan concentrations in both surface sediment and soil followed by endosulfan sulfate and endosulfan ?. However, a different concentration profile was observed in fish and crop samples, with endosulfan sulfate having the highest concentration followed by endosulfan I and endosulfan II. The concentration of ?endosulfans (endosulfans ? and II) in soil decreased rapidly with increasing distance from the plant by a factor of 10 within 45 km. Trace amounts of ?endosulfans were observed in deep soil layers which implied that these compounds are transported through the leaching of pore water in soil. This demonstrated that emissions from the manufacturing facility can lead to ground water contamination in the area near the plant. A screening level human health risk assessment of ?endosulfans based on the worst-case scenario was performed for people living in the vicinity of the manufacturing facility. The hazard indices were at least 2 orders of magnitude of <1, indicating no adverse health effects are likely to occur at current exposure levels, and the risk to human health is generally acceptable.
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The predictive performance and stability of six species distribution models.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Predicting species' potential geographical range by species distribution models (SDMs) is central to understand their ecological requirements. However, the effects of using different modeling techniques need further investigation. In order to improve the prediction effect, we need to assess the predictive performance and stability of different SDMs.
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A preliminary investigation of anti-reflux intervention for gastroesophageal reflux related childhood-to-adult persistent asthma.
Ann Surg Innov Res
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Childhood-to-adult persistent asthma is usually considered to be an atopic disease. However gastroesophageal reflux may also play an important role in this phenotype of asthma, especially when it is refractory to pulmonary medicine.
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Endovascular Treatment of an Unusual Primary Arterioportal Fistula Complicated by Cavernous Transformation of the Portal Vein Caused by Portal Thrombosis.
Ann Vasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2013
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We describe an elderly woman who presented with an unusual primary arterioportal fistula and cavernous transformation of the portal vein caused by portal thrombosis, which were subsequently managed with endovascular coil embolization and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt using 2 stents after balloon remodeling. This case shows a rarely seen condition in the elderly and a novel management strategy that should be considered in the management of this complex disease.
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PhenoMan: phenotypic data exploration, selection, management and quality control for association studies of rare and common variants.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
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?Next-generation sequencing and other high-throughput technology advances have promoted great interest in detecting associations between complex traits and genetic variants. Phenotype selection, quality control (QC) and control of confounders are crucial and can have a great impact on the ability to detect associations. Although there are programs to perform association analyses, e.g. PLINK and GenABEL, they cannot be used for comprehensive management and QC of phenotype data. To address this need PhenoMan was developed: to select individuals based on multiple phenotype criteria or population membership; control for missing covariate data; remove related individuals, duplicate samples and individuals with incorrect sex specification; recode primary traits and covariates; transform data; remove or winsorize outliers; select covariates for analysis; and create residuals. To ensure consistency and harmonization between analyses, a report is generated for every dataset. Summary statistics are also provided in graphical or text format. PhenoMan can be used for selection and manipulation of quantitative, disease and control data.
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Geometric optimization of a mathematical model of radiofrequency ablation in hepatic carcinoma.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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Radio frequency ablation (RFA) is an effective means of achieving local control of liver cancer. It is a particularly suitable mode of therapy for small and favorably located tumors. However, local progression rates are substantially higher for large tumors (>3.0 cm). In the current study, we report on a mathematical model based on geometric optimization to treat large liver tumors. A database of mathematical models relevant to the configuration of liver cancer was also established. The specific placement of electrodes and the frequency of ablation were also optimized. In addition, three types of liver cancer lesion were simulated by computer guidance incorporating mathematical models. This approach can be expected to provide a more effective and rationale mechanism for employing RFA in the therapy of hepatic carcinoma.
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Et4NI-catalyzed amidation of aldehydes and alcohols with ammonium salts.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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An efficient method for the oxidative amidation of benzylic aldehydes or alcohols with ammonium salts has been developed for the synthesis of primary amides using Et4NI as the catalyst and tert-butyl hydroperoxide as the oxidant. This amidation reaction is operationally straightforward and provides primary amides in moderate to good yields under mild conditions.
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A cascade cross-coupling hydrogen evolution reaction by visible light catalysis.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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Cross-dehydrogenative-coupling reaction has long been recognized as a powerful tool to form a C-C bond directly from two different C-H bonds. Most current processes are performed by making use of stoichiometric amounts of oxidizing agents. We describe here a new type of reaction, namely cross-coupling hydrogen evolution (CCHE), with no use of any sacrificial oxidants, and only hydrogen (H2) is generated as a side product. By combining eosin Y and a graphene-supported RuO2 nanocomposite (G-RuO2) as a photosensitizer and a catalyst, the desired cross-coupling products and H2 are achieved in quantitative yields under visible light irradiation at room temperature.
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Rare-Variant Extensions of the Transmission Disequilibrium Test: Application to Autism Exome Sequence Data.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
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Many population-based rare-variant (RV) association tests, which aggregate variants across a region, have been developed to analyze sequence data. A drawback of analyzing population-based data is that it is difficult to adequately control for population substructure and admixture, and spurious associations can occur. For RVs, this problem can be substantial, because the spectrum of rare variation can differ greatly between populations. A solution is to analyze parent-child trio data, by using the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT), which is robust to population substructure and admixture. We extended the TDT to test for RV associations using four commonly used methods. We demonstrate that for all RV-TDT methods, using proper analysis strategies, type I error is well-controlled even when there are high levels of population substructure or admixture. For trio data, unlike for population-based data, RV allele-counting association methods will lead to inflated type I errors. However type I errors can be properly controlled by obtaining p values empirically through haplotype permutation. The power of the RV-TDT methods was evaluated and compared to the analysis of case-control data with a number of genetic and disease models. The RV-TDT was also used to analyze exome data from 199 Simons Simplex Collection autism trios and an association was observed with variants in ABCA7. Given the problem of adequately controlling for population substructure and admixture in RV association studies and the growing number of sequence-based trio studies, the RV-TDT is extremely beneficial to elucidate the involvement of RVs in the etiology of complex traits.
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Meso-Cavo-Jugular Shunt for Complicated Portal Hypertension: A Case Report with 8 Years of Follow-up.
Ann Vasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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The treatment of portal hypertension caused by an occlusive lesion in the retrohepatic inferior vena cava and terminal portal venules is complicated because both portal and system venous flow are compromised.
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Fission yeast nucleolar protein Dnt1 regulates G2/M transition and cytokinesis by downregulating Wee1 kinase.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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Cytokinesis involves temporally and spatially coordinated action of the cell cycle, cytoskeletal and membrane systems to achieve separation of daughter cells. The septation initiation network (SIN) and mitotic exit network (MEN) signaling pathways regulate cytokinesis and mitotic exit in the yeasts Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively. Previously, we have shown that in fission yeast, the nucleolar protein Dnt1 negatively regulates the SIN pathway in a manner that is independent of the Cdc14-family phosphatase Clp1/Flp1, but how Dnt1 modulates this pathway has remained elusive. By contrast, it is clear that its budding yeast relative, Net1/Cfi1, regulates the homologous MEN signaling pathway by sequestering Cdc14 phosphatase in the nucleolus before mitotic exit. In this study, we show that dnt1(+) positively regulates G2/M transition during the cell cycle. By conducting epistasis analyses to measure cell length at septation in double mutant (for dnt1 and genes involved in G2/M control) cells, we found a link between dnt1(+) and wee1(+). Furthermore, we showed that elevated protein levels of the mitotic inhibitor Wee1 kinase and the corresponding attenuation in Cdk1 activity is responsible for the rescuing effect of dnt1? on SIN mutants. Finally, our data also suggest that Dnt1 modulates Wee1 activity in parallel with SCF-mediated Wee1 degradation. Therefore, this study reveals an unexpected missing link between the nucleolar protein Dnt1 and the SIN signaling pathway, which is mediated by the Cdk1 regulator Wee1 kinase. Our findings also define a novel mode of regulation of Wee1 and Cdk1, which is important for integration of the signals controlling the SIN pathway in fission yeast.
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Totally laparoscopic bypass surgery for aortoiliac occlusive disease in China.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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Totally laparoscopic aortic surgery is still in its infancy in China. One of the factors preventing adoption of this technique is its steep learning curve. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic surgery for aortoiliac occlusive disease (AIOD).
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In vivo anthelmintic effect of flavonol rhamnosides from Dryopteris crassirhizoma against Dactylogyrus intermedius in goldfish (Carassius auratus).
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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The purpose of the present study was to assess the anthelmintic property of plant-derived polyphenolic compounds extracted and isolated from Dryopteris crassirhizoma against Dactylogyrus intermedius in goldfish. The active ethyl acetate extract was loaded on an open silica gel column and eluted with chloroform-methanol. According to (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), (13)C-NMR, and mass spectral data, the structures of three purified compounds were identified as protocatechuic acid, sutchuenoside A, and kaempferitrin. Among these compounds, sutchuenoside A and kaempferitrin were observed to be effective with median effective concentration (EC50) of 3.01 and 2.71 mg L(-1), respectively. The alterations in the tegument of the parasites treated with isolated compound were examined using scanning electron microscopes. Ultrastructural micrographs revealed shrinkage of body surface, dense tegumental folds, and disheveled protuberances. The structural deformities in the treated parasites were indicative of an efficient anthelmintic activity of the isolated compound kaempferitrin. In addition, the 48-h median lethal concentration for sutchuenoside A and kaempferitrin against goldfish were 12.03- and 11.98-fold higher than corresponding EC50. The present results showed that ethyl acetate extract of D. crassirhizoma may be considered as a potent source, and sutchuenoside A and kaempferitrin as new natural parasitic agents against D. intermedius.
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Toxic effects of three strobilurins (trifloxystrobin, azoxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl) on mRNA expression and antioxidant enzymes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) juveniles.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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The strobilurins are used widely in the world as effective fungicidal agents to control Asian soybean rust. In this study, the early life stage of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), which is one of the most important aquaculture species in China, was chosen to measure the acute toxicity of three common strobilurin-derived fungicides (trifloxystrobin (TFS), azoxystrobin (AZ) and kresoxim-methyl (KM)). As endpoints, normal developmental parameters (lethal concentration (LC??) and average heart rate), expression of relative genes, and three antioxidant enzyme activities in the developing juveniles were recorded during a 48 h exposure. The results revealed that values of LC?? were TFS 0.051 (0.046-0.058) mg L?¹, AZ 0.549 (0.419-0.771) mg L?¹ and KM 0.338 (0.284-0.407) mg L?¹ for juveniles. For the potential toxicity mechanisms, these three fungicides increased catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activity and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, significantly inhibited expressions of three growth-related genes (IGF-1, IGF-2 and GHR) and two energy-related-genes (CCK and PYY), and caused pronounced up-regulation a stress-gene (HSP70). The present study demonstrated potential toxic effects of TFS, AZ and KM on the early development of C. idella. Overall, three strobilurins (TFS, AZ and KM) might cause serious damages to the aquatic species; therefore, their pollution supervision in water ecological environment should be strengthened.
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[Research on granary temperature network monitoring system based on the linear frequency shift of spectrum].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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In order to obtain the distribution of the temperature in the range of the granary precisely and stably, we designed a temperature measurement system of the fiber Bragg grating. Through the fiber-optic network the system can detect granary temperature in a wide range, and there is a linear relationship between the measured temperature by fiber Bragg grating and the center wavelength, so according to the function of spectrum linear frequency shift it obtained precise temperature in the granary. The working wavelengths of each grating in the system are separated from each other. After reflected by 3 dB coupler, the wavelength detection and demodulation system was used to measure the linear frequency shift of the plurality grating, and the system can get temperature data of everywhere in the granary. The experimental obtained the temperature information by equipments, such as LPT-101 light source, optical fiber with FBG encapsulated, magnification processing circuit, simulation granary, etc. With Origin software the diagram of the relationship between the frequency shift of the measured temperature and wavelength was drawn, and compared with the traditional measuring method of the K-type thermocouple measurement data. Experimental results show that the measured temperature of the fiber Bragg grating is closer to standard temperature, and the anti-jamming ability can meet the requirements of the granary large range temperature monitoring.
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[Research on detecting explosive content of 2, 4-dimitroanisole based on THz spectroscopy].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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In order to detect the content of a new kind of insensitive melting-cast explosive (DNAN), the system detected the THz characteristics wavelength of DNAN, and solved the content of DNAN by the Bill-Lambert law. Time coherent THz spectroscopy detection system was designed, in which the master system controlled stepper motor to get the micro-scanning of the photoelectric detector. The system parameters were calculated and derived for solving the content of DNAN, and THz characteristic spectrum of DNAN was obtained. Experiment used three methods to detect explosives samples with different content of DNAN, and the results show that the accuracy of this system is close to that of MINI-Z terahertz spectrometer currently broadly applied in THz spectroscopy detection equipment at home and abroad. On this basis, the optimization algorithm of characteristic absorption peak was designed, and by the origin software simulation analysis, it shows that the algorithm can further improve accuracy and stability of the detection system.
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Functional -141C Ins/Del polymorphism in the dopamine D2 receptor gene promoter and schizophrenia in a Chinese Han population.
J. Int. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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The association between a putative functional promoter polymorphism, -141C insertion/deletion (Ins/Del), in the dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2) and schizophrenia was investigated in a Chinese Han population.
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[Soil aggregate stability and soil organic carbon characteristics in Quercus variabilis and Pinus tabulaeformis plantations in Beijing area].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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Based on the field survey and laboratory analysis, this paper studied the soil aggregate stability and soil organic carbon characteristics in Quercus variabilis and Pinus tabulaeformis plantations in Beijing area. In the two plantations, the contents of soil macro-aggregates decreased with soil depth. In P. tabulaeformis plantation, soil macro-aggregates (>0.25 mm) occupied the majority, accounting for 71% -77% of the total; whereas in Q. variabilis plantation, no significant difference was observed in the contents of soil macro-aggregates and micro-aggregates (< or =0.25 mm), which accounted for 51% -58% and 42% -49%, respectively. Both the mean mass diameter and the geometrical mean mass diameter of the soil aggregates in P. tabulaeformis plantation were significantly higher than those in Q. variabilis plantation, and the fractal dimension (D) of the soil water-stable aggregates in P. tabulaeformis plantation was lower than that in Q. variabilis plantation, suggesting that P. tabulaeformis plantation was more favorable for the soil aggregate stability than Q. variabilis plantation. Also in the two plantations, the organic carbon content in soil water-stable aggregates decreased with soil depth. The organic carbon content in soil macro-aggregates was significantly higher in P. tabulaeformis plantation (58% -83%) than in Q. variabilis plantation (49% -66% ). It was suggested that in Beijing area, P. tabulaeformis plantation was more beneficial to the soil organic carbon protection, as compared with Q. variabilis plantation.
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Effects of three strains of intestinal autochthonous bacteria and their extracellular products on the immune response and disease resistance of common carp, Cyprinus carpio.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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The study isolated three strains of intestinal autochthonous bacteria Aeromonas veronii BA-1, Vibrio lentus BA-2, and Flavobacterium sasangense BA-3 from the intestinal tract of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). To reveal the effects of these three strains of bacteria on the innate immunity of carp, the lysozyme, complement C3, total serum protein, albumin and globulin levels, respiratory burst activity, phagocytic activity by blood leucocytes and the expression of IL-1b, lysozyme-C, and TNF-? were examined after feeding with seven different diets for up to 28 days. Also the survival of carp against Aeromonas hydrophila was challenged for 14 days. The carp were fed seven different diets: one control, three diets supplemented with 1 × 10(8) cell g(-1) of carp intestinal bacteria BA-1 (Group D-I), BA-2 (Group D-II) and BA-3 (Group D-III), and three diets supplemented with extracellular products FA-1 (Group E-I), FA-2 (Group E-II) and FA-3 (Group E-III) which were corresponding to the strains BA-1, BA-2, and BA-3, respectively, up to 28 days. For groups D-I, D-III, E-I and E-III, the innate immune parameters of carp were significantly increased, the expression of three immune-related genes in blood was significantly up-regulated examined during 7, 14, and 21 days of feeding, and the survival rate was improved. The study indicates that the two isolated intestinal autochthonous bacteria A. veronii BA-1 and F. sasangense BA-3 could positively influence immune response and enhance disease resistance of carp against A. hydrophila infection.
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Nickel cluster growth on defect sites of graphene: a computational study.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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Watching the defectives: DFT studies on the growth of nickel clusters on different graphene substrates shows that graphene defects essentially determine the morphology of the clusters. Defects greatly improve the catalytic reactivity of the larger clusters Nin (5?n?10). Smaller clusters Nin (n<4) efficiently open the band gap of defective graphene, allowing a way to modulate the electronic properties of the graphene.
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The metabolism of trifluoperazine (TFP) exhibits atypical kinetic behavior in both human liver microsomes (HLMs) and monkey liver microsomes (MyLM).
Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2013
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Glucuronidation reaction of trifluoperazine (TFP) is a typical probe reaction to phenotype the activity of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A4. The present study aims to compare the metabolic behavior of TFP in the liver microsomes from human and cynomolgus monkey, including the kinetic type and parameters. In vitro human liver microsome incubation system was used. The Eadie-Hofstee plot was used to determine the kinetic type. The results showed that the data for human liver microsomes (HLMs) and monkey liver microsomes (MyLMs)-catalyzed glucuronidation were best fit to the substrate inhibition model. For the metabolism of TFP in HLMs, the kinetic parameters were calculated to be 40 ± 5 and 140 ± 20 ?M for K m and K si values, respectively. For the MyLM-mediated metabolism of TFP, the K m and K si values were calculated to be 108 ± 10 and 250 ± 30 ?M, respectively. The same metabolic kinetic type and different kinetic parameters were demonstrated for the metabolism of TFP between HLMs and MyLMs. All these data were helpful for understanding the metabolism difference of TFP between human and monkey.
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Midterm results of intentional celiac artery coverage during TEVAR for type B aortic dissection.
J. Endovasc. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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To report the outcome of intended celiac artery coverage during thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) for type B aortic dissection with an intimal tear near the celiac artery (CA) orifice.
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Gastroesophageal reflux in bronchiectasis and the effect of anti-reflux treatment.
BMC Pulm Med
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Bronchiectasis is a progressive and fatal disease despite the available treatment regimens. Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) may play an important role in the progression of bronchiectasis. However, active anti-reflux intervention such as Stretta radiofrequency (SRF) and/or laparoscopic fundoplication (LF) have rarely been used to treat Bronchiectasis.
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Effects of praziquantel and sanguinarine on expression of immune genes and susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila in goldfish (Carassius auratus) infected with Dactylogyrus intermedius.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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Praziquantel and sanguinarine have been demonstrated positive therapeutic effects on monogenean Dactylogyrus intermedius; however, few studies have considered the post impacts of these antiparasitic chemicals on host after repelling the parasites. The changes of expression of selected immune genes (CCL-1, CXCL-8, IL-1?-1, IL-1?-2, TNF?-1, TNF?-2 and TGF-?) in gill, kidney and spleen and bacterial loads of Aeromonas hydrophila in gill, kidney, spleen and liver following bath administration of these antiparasitic chemicals were evaluated. The results showed that praziquantel and sanguinarine up-regulated to varying degrees of CXCL-8, IL-1?-1, IL-1?-2, TNF?-1 and TNF?-2 in gill, kidney and spleen. They both decreased the CCL-1 expression in gill while increased it in kidney and spleen. However, in all the tested tissues, the expression of TGF-? decreased in praziquantel treated goldfish whereas that increased in sanguinarine treated goldfish. The A. hydrophila challenge test showed that the praziquantel treatment enhanced the susceptibility to A. hydrophila while sanguinarine treatment decreased the susceptibility, as compared with the non-treated group. Overall, the results indicate that bath administration of praziquantel and sanguinarine modulates the immune related genes in goldfish and these may, to some extent, affect their ability to resist bacterial pathogens.
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[Research on detecting concentration of serum protein based on resonance Rayleigh scattering].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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The resonance Rayleigh scattering spectral detection system was designed based on the 2, 9, 16, 23-tetracarboxylate-phthalocyanine zinc and protein system. In the system, excitation light source is 405 nm wide band gap semiconductor lasers, and monochromator is 475 nm narrow-band band-pass filter, and the detector is low-noise and high-gain photoelectric amplifier based on blue-ray enhanced photodiode. Experiment shows that, the solutions strong absorption wavelength is near 420 nm. Under the action of incentive light, resonance Rayleigh scattering is generated at the resonant wavelength, and the scattering intensity is proportional to the protein content. The system uses 2, 9, 16, 23-tetracarboxylate as the spectrum probe to determine the concentration of serum proteins by resonance Rayleigh scattering method. Its linear detection range is 10 - 50 mg.mL-1, and its detection limit is 0. 001 mg.mL-1. The newly developed device for detecting concentration of the serum protein has the advantages of small size, low cost, low power consumption, and being easy to use.
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[Short-term death dynamics of trees in natural secondary poplar-birch forest in Changbai Mountains of Northeast China].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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Taking the 5 hm2 sampling plot in the natural secondary poplar-birch forest in Changbai Mountains as test object, and based on the two census data in 2005 and 2010, an analysis was made on the main tree species composition and quantity, size class distribution of dead individuals, and regeneration characteristics of the main tree species in different habitat types of the plot in 2005-2010. In the five years, the species number of the individuals with DBH> or = 1 cm increased from 46 to 47, among which, 3 species were newly appeared, and 2 species were disappeared. The number of the individuals changed from 16509 to 15027, among which, 2150 individuals died, accounting for 13% of the whole individuals in 2005, and 668 individuals were newly increased. The basal area of the trees increased from 28.79 m2.m-2 to 30.55 m2.m-2, with that of 41 species increased while that of 6 species decreased. The decrease of the basal area of Betula platyphylla and Populus davidiana accounted for 72.3% of the total decrease. Small individuals had higher mortality, as compared with large ones, and the mortality of the individuals with DBH<5 cm occupied 65% of the total. B. platyphylla and P. davidiana contributed most in the dead individuals with large DBH. No difference was observed in the tree mortality among different habitat types, but the mortality of the individuals with different size classes showed greater variation.
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Screening of plant extracts for anthelmintic activity against Dactylogyrus intermedius (Monogenea) in goldfish (Carassius auratus).
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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With the aim of finding natural anthelmintic agents against Dactylogyrus intermedius (Monogenea) in goldfish (Carassius auratus), 26 plants were screened for antiparasitic properties using in vivo anthelmintic efficacy assay. The results showed that Caesalpinia sappan, Lysima chiachristinae, Cuscuta chinensis, Artemisia argyi, and Eupatorium fortunei were found to have 100% anthelmintic efficacy at 125, 150, 225, 300, and 500 mg L(-1) after 48 h of exposure. Crude extract of the five plants were further partitioned with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water to obtain anthelmintically active fractions with various polarity. Among these fractions tested, the ethyl acetate extract of L. chiachristinae was found to be the most effective with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) value of 5.1 mg/L after 48 h of exposure. This was followed by ethyl acetate extract of C. chinensis (48 h-EC50?=?8.5 mg L(-1)), chloroform extracts of C. sappan (48 h-EC50?=?15.6 mg L(-1)), methanol extract of C. chinensis (48 h-EC50?=?15.9 mg L(-1)), and chloroform and petroleum ether extract of L. chiachristinae (EC50 values of 17.2 and 21.1 mg/L, respectively), suggesting that these plants, as well as the active fractions, provide potential sources of botanic drugs for the control of D. intermedius in aquaculture.
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Algicidal activity of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bung on Microcystis aeruginosa--towards identification of algicidal substance and determination of inhibition mechanism.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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The present study was to isolate and identify a potent algicidal compound from extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza and study the potential inhibition mechanism on Microcystis aeruginosa. Column chromatography and bioassay-guided fractionation methods were carried out to yield neo-przewaquinone A, which was identified by spectral analysis. The EC50 of neo-przewaquinone A on M. aeruginosa were 4.68 mg L(-1). In addition, neo-przewaquinone A showed relatively higher security on Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scenedesmus obliquus, with the EC50 values of 14.78 and 10.37 mg L(-1), respectively. For the potential inhibition mechanisms, neo-przewaquinone A caused M. aeruginosa cells morphologic damage or lysis, increased malondialdehyde content and decreased the soluble protein content, total antioxidant and superoxide dismutase activity, and significantly inhibited three photosynthesis-related genes (psaB, psbD, and rbcL). The results demonstrated the algicidal effect of neo-przewaquinone A on M. aeruginosa and provided the possible inhibition mechanisms.
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Right bronchopleural fistula treated with a novel, Y-shaped, single-plugged, covered, metallic airway stent.
Acta Radiol
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is an infrequent but life-threatening complication after pneumonectomy. The incidence of BPF reported in the literature varies from 0.3% to 20%.
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Endovascular treatment for extrahepatic portal vein bifurcation stenosis after a whipple procedure using the kissing stents technique.
Ann Vasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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A 57-year-old man presented with a rare extrahepatic portal vein bifurcation scar stenosis involving the proximal splenic vein and superior mesenteric vein after a Whipple procedure. He was treated with endovascular coil embolization for the gastroesophageal varices and kissing stents for the portal vein bifurcation stenosis. This case illustrates a rarely seen complication after the Whipple procedure and a novel management strategy that can be considered in the management of this complex disease.
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CT features of focal organizing pneumonia: An analysis of consecutive histopathologically confirmed 45 cases.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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OBJECTIVE: To study the CT characteristics of solitary focal organizing pneumonia (FOP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chest CT of consecutive 45 patients (34 males and 11 females, median age: 56 years) with confirmed FOP were analyzed. The CT features between large FOP (>3cm, n=27) and small FOP (?3cm, n=18) were compared. RESULTS: FOP lesions predominately located in peripheral lungs (86.7%), with the right lower lobe being most common lobe (44.4%). No lesion mainly located in the inner 1/3 of lungs. All large lesions were polygon in shape and had an irregular margin, while small lesions were more likely to be round or oval with an irregular or smooth border. Air bronchogram or small bubble-like lucency was present in majority of the lesions. 42.2% of lesions had incompact internal structure with inhomogeneous density besides air component. Most lesions were associated with a contraction or convergence of surrounding vessels; while no pulmonary vessel was interrupted abruptly by a small FOP lesion. Majority of large lesions had broad contact with the pleura, while only one patient had mild pleural effusion. Mild mediastinal lymph nodes enlargement was present in about 1/5 of the patients. CONCLUSION: Compared with the known CT features of lung cancer, our results suggest differential diagnosis can often be made for large FOP, while small FOP may resemble lung cancer.
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TM4SF20 ancestral deletion and susceptibility to a pediatric disorder of early language delay and cerebral white matter hyperintensities.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) of the brain are important markers of aging and small-vessel disease. WMHs are rare in healthy children and, when observed, often occur with comorbid neuroinflammatory or vasculitic processes. Here, we describe a complex 4 kb deletion in 2q36.3 that segregates with early childhood communication disorders and WMH in 15 unrelated families predominantly from Southeast Asia. The premature brain aging phenotype with punctate and multifocal WMHs was observed in ~70% of young carrier parents who underwent brain MRI. The complex deletion removes the penultimate exon 3 of TM4SF20, a gene encoding a transmembrane protein of unknown function. Minigene analysis showed that the resultant net loss of an exon introduces a premature stop codon, which, in turn, leads to the generation of a stable protein that fails to target to the plasma membrane and accumulates in the cytoplasm. Finally, we report this deletion to be enriched in individuals of Vietnamese Kinh descent, with an allele frequency of about 1%, embedded in an ancestral haplotype. Our data point to a constellation of early language delay and WMH phenotypes, driven by a likely toxic mechanism of TM4SF20 truncation, and highlight the importance of understanding and managing population-specific low-frequency pathogenic alleles.
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Effects of dietary supplementation of probiotic Shewanella colwelliana WA64, Shewanella olleyana WA65 on the innate immunity and disease resistance of abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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The effects of dietary administration of two probiotics, Shewanella colwelliana WA64 and Shewanella olleyana WA65, on the innate immunity of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino), and survival of juvenile abalone challenged with Vibrio harveyi have been studied. Two groups of abalone were fed with three different diets: one control, and two diets supplemented with 10(9) cell g(-1) of probiotic WA64 (WA64 diet) and WA65 (WA65 diet) for up to four weeks. Results showed that abalone fed diets containing S. colwelliana WA64 and S. olleyana WA65 had led to an enhanced cellular and humoral immune response, notably higher haemocytes, respiratory burst activity, serum lysozyme activity and total protein levels were recorded after one week of probiotic administration. On the other hand, mortality after the challenges with V. harveyi in the group fed with control diet ranged from 77 to 80%, while mortality rates observed in the groups fed with diets supplemented with WA64 and WA65 ranged from 27 to 50% and 30-43%, respectively. The results demonstrated potential for S. colwelliana WA64 and S. olleyana WA65 to improve innate immunity and disease resistance in H. discus hannai.
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Surgical treatment of carotid body tumor: case report and literature review.
J Geriatr Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2013
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Carotid body tumors (CBT) are rare chemical receptor tumors. We report nine cases of CBT who were diagnosed at our center during 2004 to 2008 with a literature review. Of these nine patients, eight underwent complete resection, one received palliative resection due to the malignant nature of the tumor, and the other one refused surgery. No perioperative mortality and stroke occurred. During a mean follow up of 2.2 years, no deaths related to CBT occurred. Surgical treatment for CBT is relatively safe. The surgeon should be careful to maintain the integrity of carotid artery, and prevent cerebral ischemia and cranial nerve injuries in order to improve outcome.
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CT and MR features of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: an analysis of consecutive 49 cases.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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To study the CT and MR features of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC).
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Variability in the correlation between Asian dust storms and chlorophyll a concentration from the North to Equatorial Pacific.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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A long-term record of Asian dust storms showed seven high-occurrence-frequency centers in China. The intrusion of Asian dust into the downwind seas, including the China seas, the Sea of Japan, the subarctic North Pacific, the North Pacific subtropical gyre, and the western and eastern Equatorial Pacific, has been shown to add nutrients to ocean ecosystems and enhance their biological activities. To explore the relationship between the transported dust from various sources to the six seas and oceanic biological activities with different nutrient conditions, the correlation between monthly chlorophyll a concentration in each sea and monthly dust storm occurrence frequencies reaching the sea during 1997-2007 was examined in this study. No correlations were observed between dust and chlorophyll a concentration in the <50 m China seas because atmospheric deposition is commonly believed to exert less impact on coastal seas. Significant correlations existed between dust sources and many sea areas, suggesting a link between dust and chlorophyll a concentration in those seas. However, the correlation coefficients were highly variable. In general, the correlation coefficients (0.54-0.63) for the Sea of Japan were highest, except for that between the subarctic Pacific and the Taklimakan Desert, where it was as high as 0.7. For the >50 m China seas and the North Pacific subtropical gyre, the correlation coefficients were in the range 0.32-0.57. The correlation coefficients for the western and eastern Equatorial Pacific were relatively low (<0.36). These correlation coefficients were further interpreted in terms of the geographical distributions of dust sources, the transport pathways, the dust deposition, the nutrient conditions of oceans, and the probability of dust storms reaching the seas.
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Cobalt-catalyzed oxidative isocyanide insertion to amine-based bisnucleophiles: diverse synthesis of substituted 2-aminobenzimidazoles, 2-aminobenzothiazoles, and 2-aminobenzoxazoles.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Cobalt catalysis: Synthesis of substituted 2-aminobenzimidazoles, 2-aminobenzothiazoles, and 2-aminobenzoxazoles was achieved by using cobalt(II) acetate catalyzed isocyanide insertion to o-diaminobenzene, 2-aminobenzenethiol, and 2-aminophenol derivatives in 1,4-dioxane (see scheme). It was found that the reaction proceeded efficiently to give the desired products in up to 95?% isolated yields by C-N and C-S (O, N) formation in a single step.
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Human health risk assessment of occupational and residential exposures to dechlorane plus in the manufacturing facility area in China and comparison with e-waste recycling site.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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A screening level human health risk assessment based on the worst-case scenario was conducted on the occupational and residential exposures to dechlorane plus (DP) in the manufacturing facility region and an electronic-waste (e-waste) recycling site in China, which are two of the most polluted areas of DP in the world. Total estimated exposure doses (EEDs) via dietary intake, dermal contact, and inhalation was approximately 0.01 mg kg(-1) d(-1) for people living in the manufacturing facility region. In comparison, total EEDs (approximate 0.03 ?g kg(-1), d(-1)) were 300-fold lower in people living near an e-waste recycling site in China. Chronic oral, dermal, and inhalation reference doses (RfDs) were estimated to be 5.0, 2.0, and 0.01 mg kg(-1)d (-1), respectively. The oral RfD was markedly greater than Mirex (2×10(-4) mg kg(-1) d(-1)) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209; 7×10(-3) mg kg(-1) d(-1)), which have been or might be replaced by DP as a flame retardant with less toxicity. Monte Carlo simulation was used to generate the probability densities and functions for the hazard index which was calculated from the EEDs and RfDs to assess the human health risk. The hazard index was three orders of magnitude lower than 1, suggesting that occupational and residential exposures were relatively safe in the manufacturing facility region and e-waste recycling site.
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Testing for rare variant associations in the presence of missing data.
Genet. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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For studies of genetically complex diseases, many association methods have been developed to analyze rare variants. When variant calls are missing, naïve implementation of rare variant association (RVA) methods may lead to inflated type I error rates as well as a reduction in power. To overcome these problems, we developed extensions for four commonly used RVA tests. Data from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute-Exome Sequencing Project were used to demonstrate that missing variant calls can lead to increased false-positive rates and that the extended RVA methods control type I error without reducing power. We suggest a combined strategy of data filtering based on variant and sample level missing genotypes along with implementation of these extended RVA tests.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.