JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A long journey to effective obesity treatments: is there light at the end of the tunnel?
Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
As the obesity epidemic continues, more Americans are getting fatter, having more weight-related problems such as cardiovascular disease, and are experiencing new metabolic dysfunctions. For over 50 years, the adipose tissue (AT), commonly referred to as fat, has been of interest to academic and clinical scientists, public health officials and individuals interested in body composition and image including much of the average public, athletes, parents, etc. On one hand, efforts to alter body shape, weight and body fat percentage still include bizarre and scientifically unfounded methods. On the other hand, significant new scientific strides have been made in understanding the growth, function and regulation of anatomical and systemic AT. Markers of transition/conversion of precursor cells that mature to form lipid assimilating adipocytes have been identified. Molecular master regulators such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins were uncovered and regulatory mechanisms behind variables of adiposity defined and refined. Interventions including pharmaceutical compounds, surgical, psychosocial interventions have also been tested. Has all of the preceding research helped alleviate the adverse physiologies of overweight and/or obese people? Does research to date point to new modalities that should be the focus of efforts to rid the world of obesity-related problems in the 21st century? This review provides a general overview of scientific efforts to date and a provocative view of the future for adiposity.
Related JoVE Video
Emerging roles of zinc finger proteins in regulating adipogenesis.
Cell. Mol. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Proteins containing the zinc finger domain(s) are named zinc finger proteins (ZFPs), one of the largest classes of transcription factors in eukaryotic genomes. A large number of ZFPs have been studied and many of them were found to be involved in regulating normal growth and development of cells and tissues through diverse signal transduction pathways. Recent studies revealed that a small but increasing number of ZFPs could function as key transcriptional regulators involved in adipogenesis. Due to the prevalence of obesity and metabolic disorders, the investigation of molecular regulatory mechanisms of adipocyte development must be more completely understood in order to develop novel and long-term impact strategies for ameliorating obesity. In this review, we discuss recent work that has documented that ZFPs are important functional contributors to the regulation of adipogenesis. Taken together, these data lead to the conclusion that ZFPs may become promising targets to combat human obesity.
Related JoVE Video
Cell culture purity issues and DFAT cells.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes, in vitro, has been pursued/documented for over forty years. The subsequent progeny cells are named dedifferentiated adipocyte-derived progeny cells (DFAT cells). DFAT cells are proliferative and likely to possess mutilineage potential. As a consequence, DFAT cells and their progeny/daughter cells may be useful as a potential tool for various aspects of tissue engineering and as potential vectors for the alleviation of several disease states. Publications in this area have been increasing annually, but the purity of the initial culture of mature adipocytes has seldom been documented. Consequently, it is not always clear whether DFAT cells are derived from dedifferentiated mature (lipid filled) adipocytes or from contaminating cells that reside in an impure culture.
Related JoVE Video
Bovine dedifferentiated adipose tissue (DFAT) cells: DFAT cell isolation.
Adipocyte
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dedifferentiated fat cells (DFAT cells) are derived from lipid-containing (mature) adipocytes, which possess the ability to symmetrically or asymmetrically proliferate, replicate, and redifferentiate/transdifferentiate. Robust cell isolation and downstream culture methods are needed to isolate large numbers of DFAT cells from any (one) adipose depot in order to establish population dynamics and regulation of the cells within and across laboratories. In order to establish more consistent/repeatable methodology here we report on two different methods to establish viable DFAT cell cultures: both traditional cell culture flasks and non-traditional (flat) cell culture plates were used for ceiling culture establishment. Adipocytes (maternal cells of the DFAT cells) were easier to remove from flat culture plates than flasks and the flat plates also allowed cloning rings to be utilized for cell/cell population isolation. While additional aspects of usage of flat-bottomed cell culture plates may yet need to be optimized by definition of optimum bio-coating to enhance cell attachment, utilization of flat plate approaches will allow more efficient study of the dedifferentiation process or the DFAT progeny cells. To extend our preliminary observations, dedifferentiation of Wagyu intramuscular fat (IMF)-derived mature adipocytes and redifferentiation ability of DFAT cells utilizing the aforementioned isolation protocols were examined in traditional basal media/differentiation induction media (DMI) containing adipogenic inducement reagents. In the absence of treatment approximately 10% isolated Wagyu IMF-mature adipocytes dedifferentiated spontaneously and 70% DFAT cells displayed protracted adipogenesis 12 d after confluence in vitro. Lipid-free intracellular vesicles in the cytoplasm (vesicles possessing an intact membrane but with no any observable or stainable lipid inside) were observed during redifferentiation. One to 30% DFAT cells redifferentiated into lipid-assimilating adipocytes in the DMI media, with distinct lipid-droplets in the cytoplasm and with no observable lipid-free vesicles inside. Moreover, a high confluence level promoted the redifferentiation efficiency of DFAT cells. Wagyu IMF dedifferentiated DFAT cells exhibited unique adipogenesis modes in vitro, revealing a useful cell model for studying adipogenesis and lipid metabolism.
Related JoVE Video
Dedifferentiated adipocyte-derived progeny cells (DFAT cells): Potential stem cells of adipose tissue.
Adipocyte
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Analyses of mature adipocytes have shown that they possess a reprogramming ability in vitro, which is associated with dedifferentiation. The subsequent dedifferentiated fat cells (DFAT cells) are multipotent and can differentiate into adipocytes and other cell types as well. Mature adipocytes can be easily obtained by biopsy, and the cloned progeny cells are homogeneous in vitro. Therefore, DFAT cells (a new type of stem cell) may provide an excellent source of cells for tissue regeneration, engineering and disease treatment. The dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes, the multipotent capacity of DFAT cells and comparisons and contrasts with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) are discussed in this review.
Related JoVE Video
MicroRNA regulation in mammalian adipogenesis.
Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Adipogenesis, the complex development from preadipocytes or mesenchymal stem cells to mature adipocytes, is essential for fat formation and metabolism of adipose tissues in mammals. It has been reported to be regulated by hormones and various adipogenic transcription factors which are expressed as a transcriptional cascade promoting adipocyte differentiation, leading to the mature adipocyte phenotype. Recent findings indicate that microRNAs (miRNAs), a family of small RNA molecules of approximately 22 nucleotides in length, are involved in the regulatory network of many biological processes, including cell differentiation, through post-transcriptional regulation of transcription factors and/or other genes. In this review, we focus on the recent understanding of the roles of miRNAs in adipogenesis, including the most recent and relevant findings that support the role of several miRNAs as pro- or antiadipogenic factors regulating adipogenesis in mice, human and cattle to propose the future role of miRNA in adipogenesis of farm animal models.
Related JoVE Video
Potential impact of mature adipocyte dedifferentiation in terms of cell numbers.
Int J Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mature adipocytes possess the capability to dedifferentiate and form proliferative-competent progeny cells. Little is currently known about the daughter cells, or the impact of such in vitro physiology in an in vivo situation, and the daughter cells may actually represent cells with stem-like cell potential. The present paper introduces implications of and impact of this physiology in terms of animal adiposity and composition.
Related JoVE Video
Lipid metabolism, adipocyte depot physiology and utilization of meat animals as experimental models for metabolic research.
Int. J. Biol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Meat animals are unique as experimental models for both lipid metabolism and adipocyte studies because of their direct economic value for animal production. This paper discusses the principles that regulate adipogenesis in major meat animals (beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs), the definition of adipose depot-specific regulation of lipid metabolism or adipogenesis, and introduces the potential value of these animals as models for metabolic research including mammary biology and the ontogeny of fatty livers.
Related JoVE Video
Cell line models for differentiation: preadipocytes and adipocytes.
Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In vitro models have been invaluable in determining the mechanisms involved in adipocyte proliferation, differentiation, adipokine secretion and gene/protein expression. The cells presently available for research purposes all have unique advantages and disadvantages that one should be aware of when selecting cells. Established cell lines, such as 3T3-L1 cells, are easier and less costly to use than freshly isolated cells, even though freshly isolated cells allow for various comparisons such as the in vitro evaluation of different in vivo conditions that may not be possible using cell lines. Moreover, stem cells, transdifferentiated cells or dedifferentiated cells are relatively new cell models being evaluated for the study of adipocyte regulation and physiology. The focus of this brief review is to highlight similarities and differences in adipocyte models to aid in appropriate model selection and data interpretation for successful advancement of our understanding of adipocyte biology.
Related JoVE Video
Skeletal muscle stem cells from animals I. Basic cell biology.
Int. J. Biol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Skeletal muscle stem cells from food-producing animals are of interest to agricultural life scientists seeking to develop a better understanding of the molecular regulation of lean tissue (skeletal muscle protein hypertrophy) and intramuscular fat (marbling) development. Enhanced understanding of muscle stem cell biology and function is essential for developing technologies and strategies to augment the metabolic efficiency and muscle hypertrophy of growing animals potentially leading to greater efficiency and reduced environmental impacts of animal production, while concomitantly improving product uniformity and consumer acceptance and enjoyment of muscle foods.
Related JoVE Video
Allied industry approaches to alter intramuscular fat content and composition in beef animals.
J. Food Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Biochemical and biophysical research tools are used to define the developmental dynamics of numerous cell lineages from a variety of tissues relevant to meat quality. With respect to the adipose cell lineage, much of our present understanding of adipogenesis and lipid metabolism was initially determined through the use of these methods, even though the in vitro or molecular environments are far removed from the tissues of meat animals. This concise review focuses on recent cellular and molecular biology-related research with adipocytes, and how the research might be extended to the endpoint of altering red meat quality. Moreover, economic and policy impacts of such in animal production regimens is discussed. These issues are important, not only with respect to palatability, but also to offer enhanced health benefits to the consumer by altering content of bioactive components in adipocytes.
Related JoVE Video
Gene expression in hypothalamus, liver, and adipose tissues and food intake response to melanocortin-4 receptor agonist in pigs expressing melanocortin-4 receptor mutations.
Physiol. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Transcriptional profiling was used to identify genes and pathways that responded to intracerebroventricular injection of melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) agonist [Nle(4), d-Phe(7)]-?-melanocyte stimulating hormone (NDP-MSH) in pigs homozygous for the missense mutation in the MC4R, D298 allele (n = 12), N298 allele (n = 12), or heterozygous (n = 12). Food intake (FI) was measured at 12 and 24 h after treatment. All pigs were killed at 24 h after treatment, and hypothalamus, liver, and back-fat tissue was collected. NDP-MSH suppressed (P < 0.004) FI at 12 and 24 h in all animals after treatment. In response to NDP-MSH, 278 genes in hypothalamus (q ? 0.07, P ? 0.001), 249 genes in liver (q ? 0.07, P ? 0.001), and 5,066 genes in fat (q ? 0.07, P ? 0.015) were differentially expressed. Pathway analysis of NDP-MSH-induced differentially expressed genes indicated that genes involved in cell communication, nucleotide metabolism, and signal transduction were prominently downregulated in the hypothalamus. In both liver and adipose tissue, energy-intensive biosynthetic and catabolic processes were downregulated in response to NDP-MSH. This included genes encoding for biosynthetic pathways such as steroid and lipid biosynthesis, fatty acid synthesis, and amino acid synthesis. Genes involved in direct energy-generating processes, such as oxidative phosphorylation, electron transport, and ATP synthesis, were upregulated, whereas TCA-associated genes were prominently downregulated in NDP-MSH-treated pigs. Our data also indicate a metabolic switch toward energy conservation since genes involved in energy-intensive biosynthetic and catabolic processes were downregulated in NDP-MSH-treated pigs.
Related JoVE Video
The development and endocrine functions of adipose tissue.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
White adipose tissue is a mesenchymal tissue that begins developing in the fetus. Classically known for storing the bodys fuel reserves, adipose tissue is now recognized as an endocrine organ. As such, the secretions from adipose tissue are known to affect several systems such as the vascular and immune systems and play major roles in metabolism. Numerous studies have shown nutrient or hormonal manipulations can greatly influence adipose tissue development. In addition, the associations between various disease states, such as insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease, and disregulation of adipose tissue seen in epidemiological and intervention studies are great. Evaluation of known adipokines suggests these factors secreted from adipose tissue play roles in several pathologies. As the identification of more adipokines and determination of their role in biological systems, and the interactions between adipocytes and other cells types continues, there is little doubt that we will gain a greater appreciation for a tissue once thought to simply store excess energy.
Related JoVE Video
Gene expression profiling of the short-term adaptive response to acute caloric restriction in liver and adipose tissues of pigs differing in feed efficiency.
Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency, in which low RFI denotes improved feed efficiency. Caloric restriction (CR) is associated with feed efficiency in livestock species and to human health benefits, such as longevity and cancer prevention. We have developed pig lines that differ in RFI, and we are interested in identifying the genes and pathways that underlie feed efficiency. Prepubertal Yorkshire gilts with low RFI (n = 10) or high RFI (n = 10) were fed ad libitum or fed at restricted intake of 80% of maintenance energy requirements for 8 days. We measured serum metabolites and hormones and generated transcriptional profiles of liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue on these animals. Overall, 6,114 genes in fat and 305 genes in liver were differentially expressed (DE) in response to CR, and 311 genes in fat and 147 genes in liver were DE due to RFI differences. Pathway analyses of CR-induced DE genes indicated a dramatic switch to a conservation mode of energy usage by down-regulating lipogenesis and steroidogenesis in both liver and fat. Interestingly, CR altered expression of genes in immune and cell cycle/apoptotic pathways in fat, which may explain part of the CR-driven lifespan enhancement. In silico analysis of transcription factors revealed ESR1 as a putative regulator of the adaptive response to CR, as several targets of ESR1 in our DE fat genes were annotated as cell cycle/apoptosis genes. The lipid metabolic pathway was overrepresented by down-regulated genes due to both CR and low RFI. We propose a common energy conservation mechanism, which may be controlled by PPARA, PPARG, and/or CREB in both CR and feed-efficient pigs.
Related JoVE Video
Microarray gene expression profiles of fasting induced changes in liver and adipose tissues of pigs expressing the melanocortin-4 receptor D298N variant.
Physiol. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Transcriptional profiling coupled with blood metabolite analyses were used to identify porcine genes and pathways that respond to a fasting treatment or to a D298N missense mutation in the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene. Gilts (12 homozygous for D298 and 12 homozygous for N298) were either fed ad libitum or fasted for 3 days. Fasting decreased body weight, backfat, and serum urea concentration and increased serum nonesterified fatty acid. In response to fasting, 7,029 genes in fat and 1,831 genes in liver were differentially expressed (DE). MC4R genotype did not significantly affect gene expression, body weight, backfat depth, or any measured serum metabolite concentration. Pathway analyses of fasting-induced DE genes indicated that lipid and steroid synthesis was downregulated in both liver and fat. Fasting increased expression of genes involved in glucose sparing pathways, such as oxidation of amino acids and fatty acids in liver, and in extracellular matrix pathways, such as cell adhesion and adherens junction in fat. Additionally, we identified DE transcription factors (TF) that regulate many DE genes. This confirms the involvement of TF, such as PPARG, SREBF1, and CEBPA, which are known to regulate the fasting response, and implicates additional TF, such as ESR1. Interestingly, ESR1 controls several fasting induced genes in fat that are involved in cell matrix morphogenesis. Our findings indicate a transcriptional response to fasting in two key metabolic tissues of pigs, which was corroborated by changes in blood metabolites, and the involvement of novel putative transcriptional regulators in the immediate adaptive response to fasting.
Related JoVE Video
Like pigs, and unlike other breeds of cattle examined, mature Angus-derived adipocytes may extrude lipid prior to proliferation in vitro.
Adipocyte
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A large number of studies have shown that mature adipocytes are able to dedifferentiate in vitro into progeny cells, which possess proliferative capacity and mutilineage potential. Our present study confirms that mature adipocytes derived from Angus cattle also dedifferentiate into proliferative-competent progeny cells. However, this report is unlike any published for all other breeds of cattle we have worked with or that we have seen in published reports, in which mature adipocytes retain and distribute lipids into daughter cells symmetrically or asymmetrically. In the present work, we noted that Angus-derived mature adipocytes extruded a majority of their cellular lipid droplets prior to cell division. In this manner, these cells are processing lipid in a manner observed in mature adipocytes isolated from swine tissue. These results suggest that regulation of the mechanism(s) underlying lipid processing might be different between and within animal breeds. Lipid processing in beef-derived adipocytes during dedifferentiation may serve as a unique animal model for studying lipid metabolism during reverse adipogenesis.
Related JoVE Video
Leptin and reproductive function.
Biochimie
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Adipose tissue plays a dynamic role in whole-body energy homeostasis by acting as an endocrine organ. Collective evidence indicates a strong link between neural influences and adipocyte expression and secretion of leptin. Developmental changes in these relationships are considered important for pubertal transition in reproductive function. Leptin augments secretion of gonadotropin hormones, which are essential for initiation and maintenance of normal reproductive function, by acting centrally at the hypothalamus to regulate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal activity and secretion. The effects of leptin on GnRH are mediated through interneuronal pathways involving neuropeptide-Y, proopiomelanocortin and kisspeptin. Increased infertility associated with diet induced obesity or central leptin resistance are likely mediated through the kisspeptin-GnRH pathway. Furthermore, Leptin regulates reproductive function by altering the sensitivity of the pituitary gland to GnRH and acting at the ovary to regulate follicular and luteal steroidogenesis. Thus leptin serves as a putative signal that links metabolic status with the reproductive axis. The intent of this review is to examine the biological role of leptin with energy metabolism, and reproduction.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.