JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Identification of genes in toxicity pathways of trinucleotide-repeat RNA in C. elegans.
Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Myotonic dystrophy disorders are caused by expanded CUG repeats in noncoding regions. Here we used Caenorhabditis elegans expressing CUG repeats to identify genes that modulate the toxicity of such repeats. We identified 15 conserved genes that function as suppressors or enhancers of CUG repeat-induced toxicity and that modulate formation of nuclear foci by CUG-repeat RNA. These genes regulate CUG repeat-induced toxicity through distinct mechanisms including RNA export and clearance, thus suggesting that CUG-repeat toxicity is mediated by multiple pathways. A subset of the genes are also involved in other degenerative disorders. The nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway has a conserved role in regulating CUG-repeat-RNA transcript levels and toxicity, and NMD recognition of toxic RNAs depends on 3'-untranslated-region GC-nucleotide content. Our studies suggest a broader surveillance role for NMD in which variations in this pathway influence multiple degenerative diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Caenorhabditis elegans pathways that surveil and defend mitochondria.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mitochondrial function is challenged by toxic by-products of metabolism as well as by pathogen attack. Caenorhabditis elegans normally responds to mitochondrial dysfunction with activation of mitochondrial-repair, drug-detoxification and pathogen-response pathways. Here, from a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen, we identified 45 C. elegans genes that are required to upregulate detoxification, pathogen-response and mitochondrial-repair pathways after inhibition of mitochondrial function by drug-induced or genetic disruption. Animals defective in ceramide biosynthesis are deficient in mitochondrial surveillance, and addition of particular ceramides can rescue the surveillance defects. Ceramide can also rescue the mitochondrial surveillance defects of other gene inactivations, mapping these gene activities upstream of ceramide. Inhibition of the mevalonate pathway, either by RNAi or statin drugs, also disrupts mitochondrial surveillance. Growth of C. elegans with a significant fraction of bacterial species from their natural habitat causes mitochondrial dysfunction. Other bacterial species inhibit C. elegans defence responses to a mitochondrial toxin, revealing bacterial countermeasures to animal defence.
Related JoVE Video
MUT-14 and SMUT-1 DEAD box RNA helicases have overlapping roles in germline RNAi and endogenous siRNA formation.
Curr. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
More than 2,000 C. elegans genes are targeted for RNA silencing by the mutator complex, a specialized small interfering RNA (siRNA) amplification module which is nucleated by the Q/N-rich protein MUT-16. The mutator complex localizes to Mutator foci adjacent to P granules at the nuclear periphery in germ cells. Here, we show that the DEAD box RNA helicase smut-1 functions redundantly in the mutator pathway with its paralog mut-14 during RNAi. Mutations in both smut-1 and mut-14 also cause widespread loss of endogenous siRNAs. The targets of mut-14 and smut-1 largely overlap with the targets of other mutator class genes; however, the mut-14 smut-1 double mutant and the mut-16 mutant display the most dramatic depletion of siRNAs, suggesting that they act at a similarly early step in siRNA formation. mut-14 and smut-1 are predominantly expressed in the germline and, unlike other mutator class genes, are specifically required for RNAi targeting germline genes. A catalytically inactive, dominant-negative missense mutant of MUT-14 is RNAi defective in vivo; however, mutator complexes containing the mutant protein retain the ability to synthesize siRNAs in vitro. The results point to a role for mut-14 and smut-1 in initiating siRNA amplification in germ cell Mutator foci, possibly through the recruitment or retention of target mRNAs.
Related JoVE Video
Multiple small RNA pathways regulate the silencing of repeated and foreign genes in C. elegans.
Genes Dev.
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gene segments from other organisms, such as viruses, are detected as foreign and targeted for silencing by RNAi pathways. A deep-sequencing map of the small RNA response to repeated transgenes introduced to Caenorhabditis elegans revealed that specific segments are targeted by siRNAs. Silencing of the foreign gene segments depends on an antiviral response that involves changes in active and silent chromatin modifications and altered levels of antisense siRNAs. Distinct Argonaute proteins target foreign genes for silencing or protection against silencing. We used a repeated transgene in a genome-wide screen to identify gene disruptions that enhance silencing of foreign genetic elements and identified 69 genes. These genes cluster in four groups based on overlapping sets of coexpressed genes, including a group of germline-expressed genes that are likely coregulated by the E2F transcription factor. Many of the gene inactivations enhance exogenous RNAi. About half of the 69 genes have roles in endogenous RNAi pathways that regulate diverse processes, including silencing of duplicated genes and transposons and chromosome segregation. Of these newly identified genes, several are required for siRNA biogenesis or stability in the oocyte-specific ERGO-1 pathway, including eri-12, encoding an interactor of the RNAi-defective protein RDE-10, and ntl-9/CNOT9, one of several CCR4/NOT complex genes that we identified. The conserved ARF-like small GTPase ARL-8 is required specifically for primary siRNA biogenesis or stability in the sperm-specific ALG-3/4 endogenous RNAi pathway.
Related JoVE Video
High-resolution mapping reveals a conserved, widespread, dynamic mRNA methylation program in yeast meiosis.
Cell
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is the most ubiquitous mRNA base modification, but little is known about its precise location, temporal dynamics, and regulation. Here, we generated genomic maps of m(6)A sites in meiotic yeast transcripts at nearly single-nucleotide resolution, identifying 1,308 putatively methylated sites within 1,183 transcripts. We validated eight out of eight methylation sites in different genes with direct genetic analysis, demonstrated that methylated sites are significantly conserved in a related species, and built a model that predicts methylated sites directly from sequence. Sites vary in their methylation profiles along a dense meiotic time course and are regulated both locally, via predictable methylatability of each site, and globally, through the core meiotic circuitry. The methyltransferase complex components localize to the yeast nucleolus, and this localization is essential for mRNA methylation. Our data illuminate a conserved, dynamically regulated methylation program in yeast meiosis and provide an important resource for studying the function of this epitranscriptomic modification.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic regulation of Caenorhabditis elegans lysosome related organelle function.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles that contain acid hydrolases that degrade cellular proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and oligosaccharides, and are important for cellular maintenance and protection against age-related decline. Lysosome related organelles (LROs) are specialized lysosomes found in organisms from humans to worms, and share many of the features of classic lysosomes. Defective LROs are associated with human immune disorders and neurological disease. Caenorhabditis elegans LROs are the site of concentration of vital dyes such as Nile red as well as age-associated autofluorescence. Even though certain short-lived mutants have high LRO Nile red and high autofluorescence, and other long-lived mutants have low LRO Nile red and low autofluorescence, these two biologies are distinct. We identified a genetic pathway that modulates aging-related LRO phenotypes via serotonin signaling and the gene kat-1, which encodes a mitochondrial ketothiolase. Regulation of LRO phenotypes by serotonin and kat-1 in turn depend on the proton-coupled, transmembrane transporter SKAT-1. skat-1 loss of function mutations strongly suppress the high LRO Nile red accumulation phenotype of kat-1 mutation. Using a systems approach, we further analyzed the role of 571 genes in LRO biology. These results highlight a gene network that modulates LRO biology in a manner dependent upon the conserved protein kinase TOR complex 2. The results implicate new genetic pathways involved in LRO biology, aging related physiology, and potentially human diseases of the LRO.
Related JoVE Video
Human disease locus discovery and mapping to molecular pathways through phylogenetic profiling.
Mol. Syst. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Genes with common profiles of the presence and absence in disparate genomes tend to function in the same pathway. By mapping all human genes into about 1000 clusters of genes with similar patterns of conservation across eukaryotic phylogeny, we determined that sets of genes associated with particular diseases have similar phylogenetic profiles. By focusing on those human phylogenetic gene clusters that significantly overlap some of the thousands of human gene sets defined by their coexpression or annotation to pathways or other molecular attributes, we reveal the evolutionary map that connects molecular pathways and human diseases. The other genes in the phylogenetic clusters enriched for particular known disease genes or molecular pathways identify candidate genes for roles in those same disorders and pathways. Focusing on proteins coevolved with the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), we identified the Notch pathway suppressor of hairless (RBP-Jk/SuH) transcription factor, and showed that RBP-Jk functions as an MITF cofactor.
Related JoVE Video
Radiation resistance of sequencing chips for in situ life detection.
Astrobiology
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Life beyond Earth may be based on RNA or DNA if such life is related to life on Earth through shared ancestry due to meteoritic exchange, such as may be the case for Mars, or if delivery of similar building blocks to habitable environments has biased the evolution of life toward utilizing nucleic acids. In this case, in situ sequencing is a powerful approach to identify and characterize such life without the limitations or expense of returning samples to Earth, and can monitor forward contamination. A new semiconductor sequencing technology based on sensing hydrogen ions released during nucleotide incorporation can enable massively parallel sequencing in a small, robust, optics-free CMOS chip format. We demonstrate that these sequencing chips survive several analogues of space radiation at doses consistent with a 2-year Mars mission, including protons with solar particle event-distributed energy levels and 1 GeV oxygen and iron ions. We find no measurable impact of irradiation at 1 and 5 Gy doses on sequencing quality nor on low-level hardware characteristics. Further testing is required to study the impacts of soft errors as well as to characterize performance under neutron and gamma irradiation and at higher doses, which would be expected during operation in environments with significant trapped energetic particles such as during a mission to Europa. Our results support future efforts to use in situ sequencing to test theories of panspermia and/or whether life has a common chemical basis.
Related JoVE Video
MicroRNAs visit the ER.
Cell
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Little is known about where microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate their targets within the cell. In this issue, Li et al. identify a new player in the plant miRNA pathway that implicates the endoplasmic reticulum in miRNA-mediated gene silencing.
Related JoVE Video
MXL-3 and HLH-30 transcriptionally link lipolysis and autophagy to nutrient availability.
Nat. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fat is stored or mobilized according to food availability. Malfunction of the mechanisms that ensure this coordination underlie metabolic diseases in humans. In mammals, lysosomal and autophagic function is required for normal fat storage and mobilization in the presence or absence of food. Autophagy is tightly linked to nutrients. However, if and how lysosomal lipolysis is coupled to nutritional status remains to be determined. Here we identify MXL-3 and HLH-30 as transcriptional switches coupling lysosomal lipolysis and autophagy to nutrient availability and controlling fat storage and ageing in Caenorhabditis elegans. Transcriptional coupling of lysosomal lipolysis and autophagy to nutrients is also observed in mammals. Thus, MXL-3 and HLH-30 orchestrate an adaptive and conserved cellular response to nutritional status and regulate lifespan.
Related JoVE Video
DAF-16 employs the chromatin remodeller SWI/SNF to promote stress resistance and longevity.
Nat. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Organisms are constantly challenged by stresses and privations and require adaptive responses for their survival. The forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factor DAF-16 (hereafter referred to as DAF-16/FOXO) is a central nexus in these responses, but despite its importance little is known about how it regulates its target genes. Proteomic identification of DAF-16/FOXO-binding partners in Caenorhabditis elegans and their subsequent functional evaluation by RNA interference revealed several candidate DAF-16/FOXO cofactors, most notably the chromatin remodeller SWI/SNF. DAF-16/FOXO and SWI/SNF form a complex and globally co-localize at DAF-16/FOXO target promoters. We show that specifically for gene activation, DAF-16/FOXO depends on SWI/SNF, facilitating SWI/SNF recruitment to target promoters, to activate transcription by presumed remodelling of local chromatin. For the animal, this translates into an essential role for SWI/SNF in DAF-16/FOXO-mediated processes, in particular dauer formation, stress resistance and the promotion of longevity. Thus, we give insight into the mechanisms of DAF-16/FOXO-mediated transcriptional regulation and establish a critical link between ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling and lifespan regulation.
Related JoVE Video
?-6 Polyunsaturated fatty acids extend life span through the activation of autophagy.
Genes Dev.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Adaptation to nutrient scarcity depends on the activation of metabolic programs to efficiently use internal reserves of energy. Activation of these programs in abundant food regimens can extend life span. However, the common molecular and metabolic changes that promote adaptation to nutritional stress and extend life span are mostly unknown. Here we present a response to fasting, enrichment of ?-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which promotes starvation resistance and extends Caenorhabditis elegans life span. Upon fasting, C. elegans induces the expression of a lipase, which in turn leads to an enrichment of ?-6 PUFAs. Supplementing C. elegans culture media with these ?-6 PUFAs increases their resistance to starvation and extends their life span in conditions of food abundance. Supplementation of C. elegans or human epithelial cells with these ?-6 PUFAs activates autophagy, a cell recycling mechanism that promotes starvation survival and slows aging. Inactivation of C. elegans autophagy components reverses the increase in life span conferred by supplementing the C. elegans diet with these fasting-enriched ?-6 PUFAs. We propose that the salubrious effects of dietary supplementation with ?-3/6 PUFAs (fish oils) that have emerged from epidemiological studies in humans may be due to a similar activation of autophagic programs.
Related JoVE Video
Pseudomonas aeruginosa disrupts Caenorhabditis elegans iron homeostasis, causing a hypoxic response and death.
Cell Host Microbe
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes serious human infections, but effective treatments and the mechanisms mediating pathogenesis remain elusive. Caenorhabditis elegans shares innate immune pathways with humans, making it invaluable to investigate infection. To determine how P. aeruginosa disrupts host biology, we studied how P. aeruginosa kills C. elegans in a liquid-based pathogenesis model. We found that P. aeruginosa-mediated killing does not require quorum-sensing pathways or host colonization. A chemical genetic screen revealed that iron chelators alleviate P. aeruginosa-mediated killing. Consistent with a role for iron in P. aeruginosa pathogenesis, the bacterial siderophore pyoverdin was required for virulence and was sufficient to induce a hypoxic response and death in the absence of bacteria. Loss of the C. elegans hypoxia-inducing factor HIF-1, which regulates iron homeostasis, exacerbated P. aeruginosa pathogenesis, further linking hypoxia and killing. As pyoverdin is indispensable for virulence in mice, pyoverdin-mediated hypoxia is likely to be relevant in human pathogenesis.
Related JoVE Video
High-throughput sequencing reveals extraordinary fluidity of miRNA, piRNA, and siRNA pathways in nematodes.
Genome Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans contains each of the broad classes of eukaryotic small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs), endogenous small-interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs), and piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). To better understand the evolution of these regulatory RNAs, we deep-sequenced small RNAs from C. elegans and three closely related nematodes: C. briggsae, C. remanei, and C. brenneri. The results reveal a fluid landscape of small RNA pathways with essentially no conservation of individual sequences aside from a subset of miRNAs. We identified 54 miRNA families that are conserved in each of the four species, as well as numerous miRNAs that are species-specific or shared between only two or three species. Despite a lack of conservation of individual piRNAs and siRNAs, many of the features of each pathway are conserved between the different species. We show that the genomic distribution of 26G siRNAs and the tendency for piRNAs to cluster is conserved between C. briggsae and C. elegans. We also show that, in each species, 26G siRNAs trigger stage-specific secondary siRNA formation. piRNAs in each species also trigger secondary siRNA formation from targets containing up to three mismatches. Finally, we show that the production of male- and female-specific piRNAs is conserved in all four species, suggesting distinct roles for piRNAs in male and female germlines.
Related JoVE Video
Radiation resistance of biological reagents for in situ life detection.
Astrobiology
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Life on Mars, if it exists, may share a common ancestry with life on Earth derived from meteoritic transfer of microbes between the planets. One means to test this hypothesis is to isolate, detect, and sequence nucleic acids in situ on Mars, then search for similarities to known common features of life on Earth. Such an instrument would require biological and chemical components, such as polymerase and fluorescent dye molecules. We show that reagents necessary for detection and sequencing of DNA survive several analogues of the radiation expected during a 2-year mission to Mars, including proton (H-1), heavy ion (Fe-56, O-18), and neutron bombardment. Some reagents have reduced performance or fail at higher doses. Overall, our findings suggest it is feasible to utilize space instruments with biological components, particularly for mission durations of up to several years in environments without large accumulations of charged particles, such as the surface of Mars, and have implications for the meteoritic transfer of microbes between planets.
Related JoVE Video
A cytoprotective perspective on longevity regulation.
Trends Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There are many mechanisms of lifespan extension, including the disruption of insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling, metabolism, translation, and feeding. Despite the disparate functions of these pathways, inhibition of each induces responses that buffer stress and damage. Here, emphasizing data from genetic analyses in Caenorhabditis elegans, we explore the effectors and upstream regulatory components of numerous cytoprotective mechanisms activated as major elements of longevity programs, including detoxification, innate immunity, proteostasis, and oxidative stress response. We show that their induction underpins longevity extension across functionally diverse triggers and across species. Intertwined with the evolution of longevity, cytoprotective pathways are coupled to the surveillance of core cellular components, with important implications in normal and aberrant responses to drugs, chemicals, and pathogens.
Related JoVE Video
Dual regulation of the lin-14 target mRNA by the lin-4 miRNA.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
microRNAs (miRNAs) are ?22 nt regulatory RNAs that in animals typically bind with partial complementarity to sequences in the 3 untranslated (UTR) regions of target mRNAs, to induce a decrease in the production of the encoded protein. The relative contributions of translational inhibition of intact mRNAs and degradation of mRNAs caused by binding of the miRNA vary; for many genetically validated miRNA targets, translational repression has been implicated, whereas some analyses of other miRNA targets have revealed only modest translational repression and more significant mRNA destabilization. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the lin-4 miRNA accumulates during early larval development, binds to target elements in the lin-14 mRNA, and causes a sharp decrease in the abundance of LIN-14 protein. Here, we monitor the dynamics of lin-14 mRNA and protein as well as lin-4 miRNA levels in finely staged animals during early larval development. We find complex regulation of lin-14, with the abundance of lin-14 mRNA initially modestly declining followed by fluctuation but little further decline of lin-14 mRNA levels accompanied by continuing and more dramatic decline in LIN-14 protein abundance. We show that the translational inhibition of lin-14 is dependent on binding of the lin-4 miRNA to multiple lin-4 complementary sites in the lin-14 3UTR. Our results point to the importance of translational inhibition in silencing of lin-14 by the lin-4 miRNA.
Related JoVE Video
The Caenorhabditis elegans SOMI-1 zinc finger protein and SWI/SNF promote regulation of development by the mir-84 microRNA.
Genes Dev.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hundreds of microRNAs (miRNAs) have been discovered in metazoans and plants, and understanding of their biogenesis has advanced dramatically; however, relatively little is known about the cofactors necessary for miRNA regulation of target gene expression. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the conserved miRNA let-7 and its paralogs, including mir-84, control the timing of stage-specific developmental events. To identify factors required for the activity of mir-84 and possibly other miRNAs, we screened for mutations that suppress the developmental defects caused by overexpression of mir-84. Mutations in the somi-1 gene prevent these defects without affecting the expression level of mir-84. Loss of somi-1 also causes phenotypes similar to deletion of mir-84, showing that somi-1 is necessary for the normal function of this miRNA. somi-1 encodes a zinc finger protein that localizes to nuclear foci and binds the promoters of let-60/RAS, lin-14, and lin-28, genes that may be targeted by mir-84 and similar miRNAs. Genetic evidence shows that somi-1 inhibits lin-14 and induction of the vulval precursors by the let-60/RAS pathway. Proteomic and genetic screens identified conserved chromatin-remodeling and homeodomain transcription factor complexes that work with somi-1 to regulate differentiation. Our results suggest that somi-1 coordinates a nuclear response that complements the activity of mir-84.
Related JoVE Video
The ERI-6/7 helicase acts at the first stage of an siRNA amplification pathway that targets recent gene duplications.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Endogenous small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are a class of naturally occuring regulatory RNAs found in fungi, plants, and animals. Some endogenous siRNAs are required to silence transposons or function in chromosome segregation; however, the specific roles of most endogenous siRNAs are unclear. The helicase gene eri-6/7 was identified in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans by the enhanced response to exogenous double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) of the null mutant. eri-6/7 encodes a helicase homologous to small RNA factors Armitage in Drosophila, SDE3 in Arabidopsis, and Mov10 in humans. Here we show that eri-6/7 mutations cause the loss of 26-nucleotide (nt) endogenous siRNAs derived from genes and pseudogenes in oocytes and embryos, as well as deficiencies in somatic 22-nucleotide secondary siRNAs corresponding to the same loci. About 80 genes are eri-6/7 targets that generate the embryonic endogenous siRNAs that silence the corresponding mRNAs. These 80 genes share extensive nucleotide sequence homology and are poorly conserved, suggesting a role for these endogenous siRNAs in silencing of and thereby directing the fate of recently acquired, duplicated genes. Unlike most endogenous siRNAs in C. elegans, eri-6/7-dependent siRNAs require Dicer. We identify that the eri-6/7-dependent siRNAs have a passenger strand that is ?19 nt and is inset by ?3-4 nts from both ends of the 26 nt guide siRNA, suggesting non-canonical Dicer processing. Mutations in the Argonaute ERGO-1, which associates with eri-6/7-dependent 26 nt siRNAs, cause passenger strand stabilization, indicating that ERGO-1 is required to separate the siRNA duplex, presumably through endonucleolytic cleavage of the passenger strand. Thus, like several other siRNA-associated Argonautes with a conserved RNaseH motif, ERGO-1 appears to be required for siRNA maturation.
Related JoVE Video
Regulation of the C. elegans molt by pqn-47.
Dev. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
C. elegans molts at the end of each of its four larval stages but this cycle ceases at the reproductive adult stage. We have identified a regulator of molting, pqn-47. Null mutations in pqn-47 cause a developmental arrest at the first larval molt, showing that this gene activity is required to transit the molt. Mutants with weak alleles of pqn-47 complete the larval molts but fail to exit the molting cycle at the adult stage. These phenotypes suggest that pqn-47 executes key aspects of the molting program including the cessation of molting cycles. The pqn-47 gene encodes a protein that is highly conserved in animal phylogeny but probably misannotated in genome sequences due to much less significant homology to a yeast transcription factor. A PQN-47::GFP fusion gene is expressed in many neurons, vulval precursor cells, the distal tip cell (DTC), intestine, and the lateral hypodermal seam cells but not in the main body hypodermal syncytium (hyp7) that underlies, synthesizes, and releases most of the collagenous cuticle. A functional PQN-47::GFP fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm rather than the nucleus at all developmental stages, including the periods preceding and during ecdysis when genetic analysis suggests that pqn-47 functions. The cytoplasmic localization of PQN-47::GFP partially overlaps with the endoplasmic reticulum, suggesting that PQN-47 is involved in the extensive secretion of cuticle components or hormones that occurs during molts. The mammalian and insect homologues of pqn-47 may serve similar roles in regulated secretion.
Related JoVE Video
mut-16 and other mutator class genes modulate 22G and 26G siRNA pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Argonaute-associated siRNAs and Piwi-associated piRNAs have overlapping roles in silencing mobile genetic elements in animals. In Caenorhabditis elegans, mutator (mut) class genes mediate siRNA-guided repression of transposons as well as exogenous RNAi, but their roles in endogenous RNA silencing pathways are not well-understood. To characterize the endogenous small RNAs dependent on mut class genes, small RNA populations from a null allele of mut-16 as well as a regulatory mut-16(mg461) allele that disables only somatic RNAi were subjected to deep sequencing. Additionally, each of the mut class genes was tested for a requirement in 26G siRNA pathways. The results indicate that mut-16 is an essential factor in multiple endogenous germline and somatic siRNA pathways involving several distinct Argonautes and RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. The results also reveal essential roles for mut-2 and mut-7 in the ERGO-1 class 26G siRNA pathway and less critical roles for mut-8, mut-14, and mut-15. We show that transposons are hypersusceptible to mut-16-dependent silencing and identify a requirement for the siRNA machinery in piRNA biogenesis from Tc1 transposons. We also show that the soma-specific mut-16(mg461) mutant allele is present in multiple C. elegans laboratory strains.
Related JoVE Video
RNAi screening for fat regulatory genes with SRS microscopy.
Nat. Methods
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Identification of genes regulating fat accumulation is important for basic and medical research; genetic screening for those genes in Caenorhabditis elegans, a widely used model organism, requires in vivo quantification of lipids. We demonstrated RNA interference screening based on quantitative imaging of lipids with label-free stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy, which overcomes major limitations of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy. Our screening yielded eight new genetic regulators of fat storage.
Related JoVE Video
MLT-10 defines a family of DUF644 and proline-rich repeat proteins involved in the molting cycle of Caenorhabditis elegans.
Mol. Biol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The molting cycle of nematodes involves the periodic synthesis and removal of a collagen-rich exoskeleton, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we describe the mlt-10 gene of Caenorhabditis elegans, which emerged from a genetic screen for molting-defective mutants sensitized by low cholesterol. MLT-10 defines a large family of nematode-specific proteins comprised of DUF644 and tandem P-X(2)-L-(S/T)-P repeats. Conserved nuclear hormone receptors promote expression of the mlt-10 gene in the hypodermis whenever the exoskeleton is remade. Further, a MLT-10::mCherry fusion protein is released from the hypodermis to the surrounding matrices and fluids during molting. The fusion protein is also detected in strands near the surface of animals. Both loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutations of mlt-10 impede the removal of old cuticles. However, the substitution mutation mlt-10(mg364), which disrupts the proline-rich repeats, causes the most severe phenotype. Mutations of mlt-10 are also associated with abnormalities in the exoskeleton and improper development of the epidermis. Thus, mlt-10 encodes a secreted protein involved in three distinct but interconnected aspects of the molting cycle. We propose that the molting cycle of C. elegans involves the dynamic assembly and disassembly of MLT-10 and possibly the paralogs of MLT-10.
Related JoVE Video
C. elegans major fats are stored in vesicles distinct from lysosome-related organelles.
Cell Metab.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Genetic conservation allows ancient features of fat storage endocrine pathways to be explored in C. elegans. Multiple studies have used Nile red or BODIPY-labeled fatty acids to identify regulators of fat mass. When mixed with their food, E. coli bacteria, Nile red, and BODIPY-labeled fatty acids stain multiple spherical cellular structures in the C. elegans major fat storage organ, the intestine. However, here we demonstrate that, in the conditions previously reported, the lysosome-related organelles stained by Nile red and BODIPY-labeled fatty acids are not the C. elegans major fat storage compartment. We show that the major fat stores are contained in a distinct cellular compartment that is not stained by Nile red. Using biochemical assays, we validate oil red O staining as a method to assess major fat stores in C. elegans, allowing for efficient and accurate genetic and functional genomic screens for genes that control fat accumulation at the organismal level.
Related JoVE Video
RNA editing genes associated with extreme old age in humans and with lifespan in C. elegans.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The strong familiality of living to extreme ages suggests that human longevity is genetically regulated. The majority of genes found thus far to be associated with longevity primarily function in lipoprotein metabolism and insulin/IGF-1 signaling. There are likely many more genetic modifiers of human longevity that remain to be discovered.
Related JoVE Video
A soma-to-germline transformation in long-lived Caenorhabditis elegans mutants.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Unlike the soma, which ages during the lifespan of multicellular organisms, the germ line traces an essentially immortal lineage. Genomic instability in somatic cells increases with age, and this decline in somatic maintenance might be regulated to facilitate resource reallocation towards reproduction at the expense of cellular senescence. Here we show that Caenorhabditis elegans mutants with increased longevity exhibit a soma-to-germline transformation of gene expression programs normally limited to the germ line. Decreased insulin-like signalling causes the somatic misexpression of the germline-limited pie-1 and pgl family of genes in intestinal and ectodermal tissues. The forkhead boxO1A (FOXO) transcription factor DAF-16, the major transcriptional effector of insulin-like signalling, regulates pie-1 expression by directly binding to the pie-1 promoter. The somatic tissues of insulin-like mutants are more germline-like and protected from genotoxic stress. Gene inactivation of components of the cytosolic chaperonin complex that induce increased longevity also causes somatic misexpression of PGL-1. These results indicate that the acquisition of germline characteristics by the somatic cells of C. elegans mutants with increased longevity contributes to their increased health and survival.
Related JoVE Video
Rictor/TORC2 regulates fat metabolism, feeding, growth, and life span in Caenorhabditis elegans.
Genes Dev.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rictor is a component of the target of rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2). While TORC2 has been implicated in insulin and other growth factor signaling pathways, the key inputs and outputs of this kinase complex remain unknown. We identified mutations in the Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of rictor in a forward genetic screen for increased body fat. Despite high body fat, rictor mutants are developmentally delayed, small in body size, lay an attenuated brood, and are short-lived, indicating that Rictor plays a critical role in appropriately partitioning calories between long-term energy stores and vital organismal processes. Rictor is also necessary to maintain normal feeding on nutrient-rich food sources. In contrast to wild-type animals, which grow more rapidly on nutrient-rich bacterial strains, rictor mutants display even slower growth, a further reduced body size, decreased energy expenditure, and a dramatically extended life span, apparently through inappropriate, decreased consumption of nutrient-rich food. Rictor acts directly in the intestine to regulate fat mass and whole-animal growth. Further, the high-fat phenotype of rictor mutants is genetically dependent on akt-1, akt-2, and serum and glucocorticoid-induced kinase-1 (sgk-1). Alternatively, the life span, growth, and reproductive phenotypes of rictor mutants are mediated predominantly by sgk-1. These data indicate that Rictor/TORC2 is a nutrient-sensitive complex with outputs to AKT and SGK to modulate the assessment of food quality and signal to fat metabolism, growth, feeding behavior, reproduction, and life span.
Related JoVE Video
Biosynthesis of the Caenorhabditis elegans dauer pheromone.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To sense its population density and to trigger entry into the stress-resistant dauer larval stage, Caenorhabditis elegans uses the dauer pheromone, which consists of ascaroside derivatives with short, fatty acid-like side chains. Although the dauer pheromone has been studied for 25 years, its biosynthesis is completely uncharacterized. The daf-22 mutant is the only known mutant defective in dauer pheromone production. Here, we show that daf-22 encodes a homolog of human sterol carrier protein SCPx, which catalyzes the final step in peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation. We also show that dhs-28, which encodes a homolog of the human d-bifunctional protein that acts just upstream of SCPx, is also required for pheromone production. Long-term daf-22 and dhs-28 cultures develop dauer-inducing activity by accumulating less active, long-chain fatty acid ascaroside derivatives. Thus, daf-22 and dhs-28 are required for the biosynthesis of the short-chain fatty acid-derived side chains of the dauer pheromone and link dauer pheromone production to metabolic state.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of small RNA pathway genes using patterns of phylogenetic conservation and divergence.
Nature
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Genetic and biochemical analyses of RNA interference (RNAi) and microRNA (miRNA) pathways have revealed proteins such as Argonaute and Dicer as essential cofactors that process and present small RNAs to their targets. Well-validated small RNA pathway cofactors such as these show distinctive patterns of conservation or divergence in particular animal, plant, fungal and protist species. We compared 86 divergent eukaryotic genome sequences to discern sets of proteins that show similar phylogenetic profiles with known small RNA cofactors. A large set of additional candidate small RNA cofactors have emerged from functional genomic screens for defects in miRNA- or short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated repression in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, and from proteomic analyses of proteins co-purifying with validated small RNA pathway proteins. The phylogenetic profiles of many of these candidate small RNA pathway proteins are similar to those of known small RNA cofactor proteins. We used a Bayesian approach to integrate the phylogenetic profile analysis with predictions from diverse transcriptional coregulation and proteome interaction data sets to assign a probability for each protein for a role in a small RNA pathway. Testing high-confidence candidates from this analysis for defects in RNAi silencing, we found that about one-half of the predicted small RNA cofactors are required for RNAi silencing. Many of the newly identified small RNA pathway proteins are orthologues of proteins implicated in RNA splicing. In support of a deep connection between the mechanism of RNA splicing and small-RNA-mediated gene silencing, the presence of the Argonaute proteins and other small RNA components in the many species analysed strongly correlates with the number of introns in those species.
Related JoVE Video
Prediction of C. elegans longevity genes by human and worm longevity networks.
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Intricate and interconnected pathways modulate longevity, but screens to identify the components of these pathways have not been saturating. Because biological processes are often executed by protein complexes and fine-tuned by regulatory factors, the first-order protein-protein interactors of known longevity genes are likely to participate in the regulation of longevity. Data-rich maps of protein interactions have been established for many cardinal organisms such as yeast, worms, and humans. We propose that these interaction maps could be mined for the identification of new putative regulators of longevity. For this purpose, we have constructed longevity networks in both humans and worms. We reasoned that the essential first-order interactors of known longevity-associated genes in these networks are more likely to have longevity phenotypes than randomly chosen genes. We have used C. elegans to determine whether post-developmental inactivation of these essential genes modulates lifespan. Our results suggest that the worm and human longevity networks are functionally relevant and possess a high predictive power for identifying new longevity regulators.
Related JoVE Video
New insights into siRNA amplification and RNAi.
RNA Biol
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), gene inactivation by RNA interference can achieve remarkable potency due to the amplification of initial silencing triggers by RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs). RdRPs catalyze the biogenesis of an abundant species of secondary small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) using the target mRNA as template. The interaction between primary siRNAs derived from the exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) trigger and the target mRNA is required for the recruitment of RdRPs. Other genetic requirements for RdRP activities have not been characterized. Recent studies have identified the RDE-10/RDE-11 complex which interacts with the primary siRNA bound target mRNA and acts upstream of the RdRPs. rde-10 and rde-11 mutants show an RNAi defective phenotype because the biogenesis of secondary siRNAs is completely abolished. In addition, the RDE-10/RDE-11 complex plays a similar role in the endogenous RNAi pathway for the biogenesis of a subset of siRNAs targeting recently acquired, duplicated genes.
Related JoVE Video
Induction of cytoprotective pathways is central to the extension of lifespan conferred by multiple longevity pathways.
PLoS Genet.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Many genetic and physiological treatments that extend lifespan also confer resistance to a variety of stressors, suggesting that cytoprotective mechanisms underpin the regulation of longevity. It has not been established, however, whether the induction of cytoprotective pathways is essential for lifespan extension or merely correlated. Using a panel of GFP-fused stress response genes, we identified the suites of cytoprotective pathways upregulated by 160 gene inactivations known to increase Caenorhabditis elegans longevity, including the mitochondrial UPR (hsp-6, hsp-60), the ER UPR (hsp-4), ROS response (sod-3, gst-4), and xenobiotic detoxification (gst-4). We then screened for other gene inactivations that disrupt the induction of these responses by xenobiotic or genetic triggers, identifying 29 gene inactivations required for cytoprotective gene expression. If cytoprotective responses contribute directly to lifespan extension, inactivation of these genes would be expected to compromise the extension of lifespan conferred by decreased insulin/IGF-1 signaling, caloric restriction, or the inhibition of mitochondrial function. We find that inactivation of 25 of 29 cytoprotection-regulatory genes shortens the extension of longevity normally induced by decreased insulin/IGF-1 signaling, disruption of mitochondrial function, or caloric restriction, without disrupting normal longevity nearly as dramatically. These data demonstrate that induction of cytoprotective pathways is central to longevity extension and identify a large set of new genetic components of the pathways that detect cellular damage and couple that detection to downstream cytoprotective effectors.
Related JoVE Video
MUT-16 promotes formation of perinuclear mutator foci required for RNA silencing in the C. elegans germline.
Genes Dev.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
RNA silencing can be initiated by endogenous or exogenously delivered siRNAs. In Caenorhabditis elegans, RNA silencing guided by primary siRNAs is inefficient and therefore requires an siRNA amplification step involving RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs). Many factors involved in RNA silencing localize to protein- and RNA-rich nuclear pore-associated P granules in the germline, where they are thought to surveil mRNAs as they exit the nucleus. Mutator class genes are required for siRNA-mediated RNA silencing in both germline and somatic cells, but their specific roles and relationship to other siRNA factors are unclear. Here we show that each of the six mutator proteins localizes to punctate foci at the periphery of germline nuclei. The Mutator foci are adjacent to P granules but are not dependent on core P-granule components or other RNAi pathway factors for their formation or stability. The glutamine/asparagine (Q/N)-rich protein MUT-16 is specifically required for the formation of a protein complex containing the mutator proteins, and in its absence, Mutator foci fail to form at the nuclear periphery. The RdRP RRF-1 colocalizes with MUT-16 at Mutator foci, suggesting a role for Mutator foci in siRNA amplification. Furthermore, we demonstrate that genes that yield high levels of siRNAs, indicative of multiple rounds of siRNA amplification, are disproportionally affected in mut-16 mutants compared with genes that yield low levels of siRNAs. We propose that the mutator proteins and RRF-1 constitute an RNA processing compartment required for siRNA amplification and RNA silencing.
Related JoVE Video
The Caenorhabditis elegans RDE-10/RDE-11 complex regulates RNAi by promoting secondary siRNA amplification.
Curr. Biol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In nematodes, plants, and fungi, RNAi is remarkably potent and persistent due to the amplification of initial silencing signals by RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs). In Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), the interaction between the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) loaded with primary small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and the target messenger RNA (mRNA) leads to the recruitment of RdRPs and synthesis of secondary siRNAs using the target mRNA as the template. The mechanism and genetic requirements for secondary siRNA accumulation are not well understood.
Related JoVE Video
PIWI associated siRNAs and piRNAs specifically require the Caenorhabditis elegans HEN1 ortholog henn-1.
PLoS Genet.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Small RNAs--including piRNAs, miRNAs, and endogenous siRNAs--bind Argonaute proteins to form RNA silencing complexes that target coding genes, transposons, and aberrant RNAs. To assess the requirements for endogenous siRNA formation and activity in Caenorhabditis elegans, we developed a GFP-based sensor for the endogenous siRNA 22G siR-1, one of a set of abundant siRNAs processed from a precursor RNA mapping to the X chromosome, the X-cluster. Silencing of the sensor is also dependent on the partially complementary, unlinked 26G siR-O7 siRNA. We show that 26G siR-O7 acts in trans to initiate 22G siRNA formation from the X-cluster. The presence of several mispairs between 26G siR-O7 and the X-cluster mRNA, as well as mutagenesis of the siRNA sensor, indicates that siRNA target recognition is permissive to a degree of mispairing. From a candidate reverse genetic screen, we identified several factors required for 22G siR-1 activity, including the chromatin factors mes-4 and gfl-1, the Argonaute ergo-1, and the 3 methyltransferase henn-1. Quantitative RT-PCR of small RNAs in a henn-1 mutant and deep sequencing of methylated small RNAs indicate that siRNAs and piRNAs that associate with PIWI clade Argonautes are methylated by HENN-1, while siRNAs and miRNAs that associate with non-PIWI clade Argonautes are not. Thus, PIWI-class Argonaute proteins are specifically adapted to associate with methylated small RNAs in C. elegans.
Related JoVE Video
An image analysis toolbox for high-throughput C. elegans assays.
Nat. Methods
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We present a toolbox for high-throughput screening of image-based Caenorhabditis elegans phenotypes. The image analysis algorithms measure morphological phenotypes in individual worms and are effective for a variety of assays and imaging systems. This WormToolbox is available through the open-source CellProfiler project and enables objective scoring of whole-worm high-throughput image-based assays of C. elegans for the study of diverse biological pathways that are relevant to human disease.
Related JoVE Video
Inactivation of conserved C. elegans genes engages pathogen- and xenobiotic-associated defenses.
Cell
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The nematode C. elegans is attracted to nutritious bacteria and is repelled by pathogens and toxins. Here we show that RNAi and toxin-mediated disruption of core cellular activities, including translation, respiration, and protein turnover, stimulate behavioral avoidance of normally attractive bacteria. RNAi of these and other essential processes induces expression of detoxification and innate immune effectors, even in the absence of toxins or pathogens. Disruption of core processes in non-neuronal tissues was sufficient to stimulate aversion behavior, revealing a neuroendocrine axis of control that additionally required serotonergic and Jnk kinase signaling pathways. We propose that surveillance pathways overseeing core cellular activities allow animals to detect invading pathogens that deploy toxins and virulence factors to undermine vital host functions. Variation in cellular surveillance and endocrine pathways controlling behavior, detoxification, and immunity selected by past toxin or microbial interactions could underlie aberrant responses to foods, medicines, and microbes.
Related JoVE Video
Repression of germline RNAi pathways in somatic cells by retinoblastoma pathway chromatin complexes.
PLoS Genet.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor acts with a number of chromatin cofactors in a wide range of species to suppress cell proliferation. The Caenorhabditis elegans retinoblastoma gene and many of these cofactors, called synMuv B genes, were identified in genetic screens for cell lineage defects caused by growth factor misexpression. Mutations in many synMuv B genes, including lin-35/Rb, also cause somatic misexpression of the germline RNA processing P granules and enhanced RNAi. We show here that multiple small RNA components, including a set of germline-specific Argonaute genes, are misexpressed in the soma of many synMuv B mutant animals, revealing one node for enhanced RNAi. Distinct classes of synMuv B mutants differ in the subcellular architecture of their misexpressed P granules, their profile of misexpressed small RNA and P granule genes, as well as their enhancement of RNAi and the related silencing of transgenes. These differences define three classes of synMuv B genes, representing three chromatin complexes: a LIN-35/Rb-containing DRM core complex, a SUMO-recruited Mec complex, and a synMuv B heterochromatin complex, suggesting that intersecting chromatin pathways regulate the repression of small RNA and P granule genes in the soma and the potency of RNAi. Consistent with this, the DRM complex and the synMuv B heterochromatin complex were genetically additive and displayed distinct antagonistic interactions with the MES-4 histone methyltransferase and the MRG-1 chromodomain protein, two germline chromatin regulators required for the synMuv phenotype and the somatic misexpression of P granule components. Thus intersecting synMuv B chromatin pathways conspire with synMuv B suppressor chromatin factors to regulate the expression of small RNA pathway genes, which enables heightened RNAi response. Regulation of small RNA pathway genes by human retinoblastoma may also underlie its role as a tumor suppressor gene.
Related JoVE Video
The mevalonate pathway regulates microRNA activity in Caenorhabditis elegans.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The mevalonate pathway is highly conserved and mediates the production of isoprenoids, which feed into biosynthetic pathways for sterols, dolichol, ubiquinone, heme, isopentenyl adenine, and prenylated proteins. We found that in Caenorhabditis elegans, the nonsterol biosynthetic outputs of the mevalonate pathway are required for the activity of microRNAs (miRNAs) in silencing their target mRNAs. Inactivation of genes that mediate multiple steps of the mevalonate pathway causes derepression of several miRNA target genes, with no disruption of the miRNA levels, suggesting a role in miRNA-induced silencing complex activity. Dolichol phosphate, synthesized from the mevalonate pathway, functions as a lipid carrier of the oligosaccharide moiety destined for protein N-linked glycosylation. Inhibition of the dolichol pathway of protein N-glycosylation also causes derepression of miRNA target mRNAs. The proteins that mediate miRNA repression are therefore likely to be regulated by N-glycosylation. Conversely, drugs such as statins, which inhibit the mevalonate pathway, may compromise miRNA repression as well as the more commonly considered cholesterol biosynthesis.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.