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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A digitally assisted, signal folding neural recording amplifier.
IEEE Trans Biomed Circuits Syst
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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A novel signal folding and reconstruction scheme for neural recording applications that exploits the 1/f(n) characteristics of neural signals is described in this paper. The amplified output is 'folded' into a predefined range of voltages by using comparison and reset circuits along with the core amplifier. After this output signal is digitized and transmitted, a reconstruction algorithm can be applied in the digital domain to recover the amplified signal from the folded waveform. This scheme enables the use of an analog-to-digital convertor with less number of bits for the same effective dynamic range. It also reduces the transmission data rate of the recording chip. Both of these features allow power and area savings at the system level. Other advantages of the proposed topology are increased reliability due to the removal of pseudo-resistors, lower harmonic distortion and low-voltage operation. An analysis of the reconstruction error introduced by this scheme is presented along with a behavioral model to provide a quick estimate of the post reconstruction dynamic range. Measurement results from two different core amplifier designs in 65 nm and 180 nm CMOS processes are presented to prove the generality of the proposed scheme in the neural recording applications. Operating from a 1 V power supply, the amplifier in 180 nm CMOS has a gain of 54.2 dB, bandwidth of 5.7 kHz, input referred noise of 3.8 ?Vrms and power dissipation of 2.52 ?W leading to a NEF of 3.1 in spike band. It exhibits a dynamic range of 66 dB and maximum SNDR of 43 dB in LFP band. It also reduces system level power (by reducing the number of bits in the ADC by 2) as well as data rate to 80% of a conventional design. In vivo measurements validate the ability of this amplifier to simultaneously record spike and LFP signals.
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Higher antioxidant and lower cadmium concentrations and lower incidence of pesticide residues in organically grown crops: a systematic literature review and meta-analyses.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Demand for organic foods is partially driven by consumers' perceptions that they are more nutritious. However, scientific opinion is divided on whether there are significant nutritional differences between organic and non-organic foods, and two recent reviews have concluded that there are no differences. In the present study, we carried out meta-analyses based on 343 peer-reviewed publications that indicate statistically significant and meaningful differences in composition between organic and non-organic crops/crop-based foods. Most importantly, the concentrations of a range of antioxidants such as polyphenolics were found to be substantially higher in organic crops/crop-based foods, with those of phenolic acids, flavanones, stilbenes, flavones, flavonols and anthocyanins being an estimated 19 (95 % CI 5, 33) %, 69 (95 % CI 13, 125) %, 28 (95 % CI 12, 44) %, 26 (95 % CI 3, 48) %, 50 (95 % CI 28, 72) % and 51 (95 % CI 17, 86) % higher, respectively. Many of these compounds have previously been linked to a reduced risk of chronic diseases, including CVD and neurodegenerative diseases and certain cancers, in dietary intervention and epidemiological studies. Additionally, the frequency of occurrence of pesticide residues was found to be four times higher in conventional crops, which also contained significantly higher concentrations of the toxic metal Cd. Significant differences were also detected for some other (e.g. minerals and vitamins) compounds. There is evidence that higher antioxidant concentrations and lower Cd concentrations are linked to specific agronomic practices (e.g. non-use of mineral N and P fertilisers, respectively) prescribed in organic farming systems. In conclusion, organic crops, on average, have higher concentrations of antioxidants, lower concentrations of Cd and a lower incidence of pesticide residues than the non-organic comparators across regions and production seasons.
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Understanding service demand for mental health among Australians aged 16 to 64 years according to their possible need for treatment.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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To inform decisions about mental health resource allocation, planners require reliable estimates of people who report service demand (i.e. people who use or want mental health services) according to their level of possible need.
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A checklist designed to aid consistency and reproducibility of GRADE assessments: development and pilot validation.
Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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The grading of recommendation, assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) approach is widely implemented in health technology assessment and guideline development organisations throughout the world. GRADE provides a transparent approach to reaching judgements about the quality of evidence on the effects of a health care intervention, but is complex and therefore challenging to apply in a consistent manner.
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A role for sorting nexin 27 in AMPA receptor trafficking.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Sorting nexin 27 (SNX27), a PDZ domain-containing endosomal protein, was recently shown to modulate glutamate receptor recycling in Down's syndrome. However, the precise molecular role of SNX27 in GluA1 trafficking is unclear. Here we report that SNX27 is enriched in dendrites and spines, along with recycling endosomes. Significantly, the mobilization of SNX27 along with recycling endosomes into spines was observed. Mechanistically, SNX27 interacts with K-ras GTPase via the RA domain; and following chemical LTP stimuli, K-ras is recruited to SNX27-enriched endosomes through a Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent mechanism, which in turn drives the synaptic delivery of homomeric GluA1 receptors. Impairment of SNX27 prevents LTP and associated trafficking of AMPARs. These results demonstrate a role for SNX27 in neuronal plasticity, provide a molecular explanation for the K-ras signal during LTP and identify SNX27 as the PDZ-containing molecular linker that couples the plasticity stimuli to the delivery of postsynaptic cargo.
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NogoR1 and PirB signaling stimulates neural stem cell survival and proliferation.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Neural stem cells (NSCs) and neural progenitors (NPs) in the mammalian neocortex give rise to the main cell types of the nervous system. The biological behavior of these NSCs and NPs is regulated by extracellular niche derived autocrine-paracrine signaling factors on a developmental timeline. Our previous reports [Plos One 2010;5:e15341; J Neurochem 2011;117:565-578] have shown that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan and ApolipoproteinE are autocrine-paracrine survival factors for NSCs. NogoA, a myelin related protein, is expressed in the cortical ventricular zones where NSCs reside. However, the functional role of Nogo signaling proteins in NSC behavior is not completely understood. In this study, we show that NogoA receptors, NogoR1 and PirB, are expressed in the ventricular zone where NSCs reside between E10.5 and 14.5 but not at E15.5. Nogo ligands stimulate NSC survival and proliferation in a dosage-dependent manner in vitro. NogoR1 and PirB are low and high affinity Nogo receptors, respectively and are responsible for the effects of Nogo ligands on NSC behavior. Inhibition of autocrine-paracrine Nogo signaling blocks NSC survival and proliferation. In NSCs, NogoR1 functions through Rho whereas PirB uses Shp1/2 signaling pathways to control NSC behavior. Taken together, this work suggests that Nogo signaling is an important pathway for survival of NSCs.
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Assessing the impact of human trampling on vegetation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental evidence.
PeerJ
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Vegetation trampling resulting from recreation can adversely impact natural habitats, leading to the loss of vegetation and the degradation of plant communities. A considerable primary literature exists on this topic, therefore it is important to assess whether this accumulated evidence can be used to reach general conclusions concerning vegetation vulnerability to inform conservation management decisions. Experimental trampling studies on a global scale were retrieved using a systematic review methodology and synthesised using random effects meta-analysis. The relationships between vegetation recovery and each of initial vegetation resistance, trampling intensity, time for recovery, Raunkiaer life-form (perennating bud position), and habitat were tested using random effects multiple meta-regressions and subgroup analyses. The systematic search yielded 304 studies; of these, nine reported relevant randomized controlled experiments, providing 188 vegetation recovery effect sizes for analysis. The synthesis indicated there was significant heterogeneity in the impact of trampling on vegetation recovery. This was related to resistance and recovery time, and the interactions of these variables with Raunkiaer life-form, but was not strongly dependent on the intensity of the trampling experienced. The available evidence suggests that vegetation dominated by hemicryptophytes and geophytes recovers from trampling to a greater extent than vegetation dominated by other life-forms. Variation in effect within the chamaephyte, hemicryptophyte and geophyte life-form sub-groups was also explained by the initial resistance of vegetation to trampling, but not by trampling intensity. Intrinsic properties of plant communities appear to be the most important factors determining the response of vegetation to trampling disturbance. Specifically, the dominant Raunkiaer life-form of a plant community accounts for more variation in the resilience of communities to trampling than the intensity of the trampling experienced, suggesting that simple assessments based on this trait could guide decisions concerning sustainable access to natural areas. Methodological and reporting limitations must be overcome before more disparate types of evidence can be synthesised; this would enable more reliable extrapolation to non-study situations, and a more comprehensive understanding of how assessments of intrinsic plant traits can be used to underpin conservation management decisions concerning access.
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Selective lesioning of nucleus incertus with corticotropin releasing factor-saporin conjugate.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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The nucleus incertus (NI), a brainstem nucleus found in the pontine periventricular grey, is the primary source of the neuropeptide relaxin-3 in the mammalian brain. The NI neurons have also been previously reported to express several receptors and neurotransmitters, including corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRF1) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The NI projects widely to putative neural correlates of stress, anxiety, depression, feeding behaviour, arousal and cognition leading to speculation that it might be involved in several neuropsychiatric conditions. On the premise that relaxin-3 expressing neurons in the NI predominantly co-express CRF1 receptors, a novel method for selective ablation of the rat brain NI neurons using corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)-saporin conjugate is described. In addition to a behavioural deficit in the fear conditioning paradigm, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blotting (WB) and immunofluorescence labelling (IF) techniques were used to confirm the NI lesion. We observed a selective and significant loss of CRF1 expressing cells, together with a consistent decrease in relaxin-3 and GAD65 expression. The significant ablation of relaxin-3 positive neurons of the NI achieved by this lesioning approach is a promising model to explore the neuropsychopharmacological implications of NI/relaxin-3 in behavioural neuroscience.
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Corticotropin-releasing factor infusion into nucleus incertus suppresses medial prefrontal cortical activity and hippocampo-medial prefrontal cortical long-term potentiation.
Eur. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the rat has been implicated in a variety of cognitive processes, including working memory and expression of fear memory. We investigated the inputs from a brain stem nucleus, the nucleus incertus (NI), to the prelimbic area of the mPFC. This nucleus strongly expresses corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 (CRF1 ) receptors and responds to stress. A retrograde tracer was used to verify connections from the NI to the mPFC. Retrogradely labelled cells in the NI expressed CRF receptors. Electrophysiological manipulation of the NI revealed that stimulation of the NI inhibited spontaneous neuronal firing in the mPFC. Similarly, CRF infusion into the NI, in order to mimic a stressful condition, inhibited neuronal firing and burst firing in the mPFC. The effect of concurrent high-frequency stimulation of the NI on plasticity in the hippocampo-prelimbic medial prefrontal cortical (HP-mPFC) pathway was studied. It was found that electrical stimulation of the NI impaired long-term potentiation in the HP-mPFC pathway. Furthermore, CRF infusion into the NI produced similar results. These findings might account for some of the extra-pituitary functions of CRF and indicate that the NI may play a role in stress-driven modulation of working memory and possibly other cognitive processes subserved by the mPFC.
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Nicotine and clozapine cross-prime the locus coeruleus noradrenergic system to induce long-lasting potentiation in the rat hippocampus.
Hippocampus
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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A priming-challenge schedule of nicotine treatment causes long-lasting potentiation (LLP), a form of synaptic plasticity closely associated with the norepinephrine (NE) neurotransmitter system, at the medial perforant path (MPP)-dentate gyrus (DG) synapse in the rat hippocampus. Previous reports revealed that nicotine activates the locus coeruleus (LC) noradrenergic (NAergic) system and this mechanism may underlie its beta-adrenoceptor sensitive LLP effects. Clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic, is also known to activate the LC. Interactions between nicotine and clozapine are of interest because of the prevalence of smoking in patients with schizophrenia and increasing interest in the use of nicotinic receptor ligands as cognitive enhancers. Rats were subchronically primed with nicotine, clozapine or saline. Twenty-one to twenty-eight days later, the effects of the nicotine, clozapine or saline challenge on the evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP) at the MPP-DG monosynaptic pathway were recorded as a measure of LLP. We confirmed the hypothesis that a challenge dose of either nicotine or clozapine induces LLP exclusively in nicotine- and clozapine-primed rats, and not in saline-primed rats, thus indicating a cross-priming effect. Moreover, unilateral suppression of LC using lidocaine abolished the LLP induced by nicotine in clozapine-primed rats. Furthermore, systemic treatment with clonidine (an ?2 adrenoceptor agonist that reduces NAergic activity via autoreceptors) prior to the challenge doses blocked the nicotine/clozapine-induced LLP in nicotine- and clozapine-primed rats. These findings may add to understanding of the cognitive enhancing effects of nicotine.
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Acute antipsychotic treatments induce distinct c-Fos expression patterns in appetite-related neuronal structures of the rat brain.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2013
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A number of atypical antipsychotic drugs are known to perturb appetite regulation causing greater hyperphagia in humans and rodents than earlier generation typical agents. However, the neuronal structures that underlie hyperphagic effects are poorly understood. Arcuate nucleus (ArcN), paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVA) and nucleus incertus (NI) have been implicated in appetite regulation. The NI is the principal source of the relaxin-3 (RLN3) peptide, which is reported to have orexigenic effects. Moreover, ArcN, PVN, and PVA receive RLN3 immunoreactive fibers from the NI and express relaxin family peptide type 3 (RXFP3) receptor. The present study was designed to evaluate the acute effects of clozapine (atypical), chlorpromazine (typical) and fluphenazine (typical) on c-Fos expression (a marker of neuronal response) in these appetite-related centers of the rat brain. The numbers of c-Fos expressing neurons in these structures were counted in immunofluorescence stained brain sections. Acute treatment with clozapine, chlorpromazine and fluphenazine differentially influenced c-Fos expression in these brain structures. This study is also the first demonstration that antipsychotics influence the NI. The patterns of the effects of these antipsychotics are related to their reported hyperphagic properties.
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Therapeutic effect of hydrogen sulfide-releasing L-Dopa derivative ACS84 on 6-OHDA-induced Parkinsons disease rat model.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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Parkinsons disease (PD), characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, is a neurodegenerative disorder of central nervous system. The present study was designed to investigate the therapeutic effect of ACS84, a hydrogen sulfide-releasing-L-Dopa derivative compound, in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced PD model. ACS84 protected the SH-SY5Y cells against 6-OHDA-induced cell injury and oxidative stress. The protective effect resulted from stimulation of Nrf-2 nuclear translocation and promotion of anti-oxidant enzymes expression. In the 6-OHDA-induced PD rat model, intragastric administration of ACS84 relieved the movement dysfunction of the model animals. Immunofluorescence staining and High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that ACS84 alleviated the loss of tyrosine-hydroxylase positive neurons in the substantia nigra and the declined dopamine concentration in the injured striatums of the 6-OHDA-induced PD model. Moreover, ACS84 reversed the elevated malondialdehyde level and the decreased glutathione level in vivo. In conclusion, ACS84 may prevent neurodegeneration via the anti-oxidative mechanism and has potential therapeutic values for Parkinsons disease.
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A class of 5-nitro-2-furancarboxylamides with potent trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma brucei in vitro.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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Recently, the World Health Organization approved the nifurtimox-eflornithine combination therapy for the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis, renewing interest in nitroheterocycle therapies for this and associated diseases. In this study, we have synthesized a series of novel 5-nitro-2-furancarboxylamides that show potent trypanocidal activity, ?1000-fold more potent than nifurtimox against in vitro Trypanosoma brucei with very low cytotoxicity against human HeLa cells. More importantly, the most potent analogue showed very limited cross-resistance to nifurtimox-resistant cells and vice versa. This implies that our novel, relatively easy to synthesize and therefore cheap, 5-nitro-2-furancarboxylamides are targeting a different, but still essential, biochemical process to those targeted by nifurtimox or its metabolites in the parasites. The significant increase in potency (smaller dose probably required) has the potential for greatly reducing unwanted side effects and also reducing the likelihood of drug resistance. Collectively, these findings have important implications for the future therapeutic treatment of African sleeping sickness.
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Specific inhibition of p25/Cdk5 activity by the Cdk5 inhibitory peptide reduces neurodegeneration in vivo.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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The aberrant hyperactivation of Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), by the production of its truncated activator p25, results in the formation of hyperphosphorylated tau, neuroinflammation, amyloid deposition, and neuronal death in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, this occurs as a result of a neurotoxic insult that invokes the intracellular elevation of calcium to activate calpain, which cleaves the Cdk5 activator p35 into p25. It has been shown previously that the p25 transgenic mouse as a model to investigate the mechanistic implications of p25 production in the brain, which recapitulates deregulated Cdk5-mediated neuropathological changes, such as hyperphosphorylated tau and neuronal death. To date, strategies to inhibit Cdk5 activity have not been successful in targeting selectively aberrant activity without affecting normal Cdk5 activity. Here we show that the selective inhibition of p25/Cdk5 hyperactivation in vivo, through overexpression of the Cdk5 inhibitory peptide (CIP), rescues against the neurodegenerative pathologies caused by p25/Cdk5 hyperactivation without affecting normal neurodevelopment afforded by normal p35/Cdk5 activity. Tau and amyloid pathologies as well as neuroinflammation are significantly reduced in the CIP-p25 tetra transgenic mice, whereas brain atrophy and subsequent cognitive decline are reversed in these mice. The findings reported here represent an important breakthrough in elucidating approaches to selectively inhibit the p25/Cdk5 hyperactivation as a potential therapeutic target to reduce neurodegeneration.
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Estimating the prevalence of DSM-IV mental illness in the Australian general population using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2011
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The aim of this study was to present scoring rules for predicting DSM-IV mental illness in the previous 12 months using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale in the Australian population.
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The emerging physiological roles of the SLC14A family of urea transporters.
Br. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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In mammals, urea is the main nitrogenous breakdown product of protein catabolism and is produced in the liver. In certain tissues, the movement of urea across cell membranes is specifically mediated by a group of proteins known as the SLC14A family of facilitative urea transporters. These proteins are derived from two distinct genes, UT-A (SLC14A2) and UT-B (SLC14A1). Facilitative urea transporters play an important role in two major physiological processes - urinary concentration and urea nitrogen salvaging. Although UT-A and UT-B transporters both have a similar basic structure and mediate the transport of urea in a facilitative manner, there are a number of significant differences between them. UT-A transporters are mainly found in the kidney, are highly specific for urea, have relatively lower transport rates and are highly regulated at both gene expression and cellular localization levels. In contrast, UT-B transporters are more widespread in their tissue location, transport both urea and water, have a relatively high transport rate, are inhibited by mercurial compounds and currently appear to be less acutely regulated. This review details the fundamental research that has so far been performed to investigate the function and physiological significance of these two types of urea transporters.
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UT-B1 mediates transepithelial urea flux in the rat gastrointestinal tract.
J. Membr. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2010
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The process of urea nitrogen salvaging plays a vital role in the symbiotic relationship between mammals and their intestinal bacteria. The first step in this process requires the movement of urea from the mammalian bloodstream into the gastrointestinal tract lumen via specialized proteins known as facilitative urea transporters. In this study, we examined both transepithelial urea fluxes and urea transporter protein abundance along the length of the rat gastrointestinal tract. Urea flux experiments that used rat gastrointestinal tissues showed significantly higher transepithelial urea transport was present in caecum and proximal colon (P < 0.01, n = 8, analysis of variance [ANOVA]). This large urea flux was significantly inhibited by 1,3,dimethylurea (P < 0.001, n = 8, ANOVA) and thiourea (P < 0.05, n = 6, unpaired t-test), both known blockers of facilitative urea transporters. Immunoblotting analysis failed to detect any UT-A protein within rat gastrointestinal tissue protein samples. In contrast, a 30-kDa UT-B1 protein was strongly detected in both caecum and proximal colon samples at significantly higher levels compared to the rest of the gastrointestinal tract (P < 0.01, n = 4, ANOVA). We therefore concluded that UT-B1 mediates the transepithelial movement of urea that occurs in specific distal regions of the rat gastrointestinal tract.
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Effectiveness of predator removal for enhancing bird populations.
Conserv. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2010
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Predation pressure on vulnerable bird species has made predator control an important issue for international nature conservation. Predator removal by culling or translocation is controversial, expensive, and time-consuming, and results are often temporary. Thus, it is important to assess its effectiveness from all available evidence. We used explicit systematic review methodology to determine the impact of predator removal on four measurable responses in birds: breeding performance (hatching success and fledging success) and population size (breeding and postbreeding). We used meta-analysis to summarize results from 83 predator removal studies from six continents. We also investigated whether characteristics of the prey, predator species, location, and study methodology explained heterogeneity in effect sizes. Removing predators increased hatching success, fledging success, and breeding populations. Removing all predator species achieved a significantly larger increase in breeding population than removing only a subset. Postbreeding population size was not improved on islands, or overall, but did increase on mainlands. Heterogeneity in effect sizes for the four population parameters was not explained by whether predators were native or introduced; prey were declining, migratory, or game species; or by the study methodology. Effect sizes for fledging success were smaller for ground-nesting birds than those that nest elsewhere, but the difference was not significant. We conclude that current evidence indicates that predator removal is an effective strategy for the conservation of vulnerable bird populations. Nevertheless, the ethical and practical problems associated with predator removal may lead managers to favor alternative, nonlethal solutions. Research is needed to provide and synthesize data to determine whether these are effective management practices for future policies on bird conservation.
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A brief measure of vocational activity and community participation: development and reliability of the Activity and Participation Questionnaire.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2010
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Social and economic marginalization are significant problems for many people living with mental illness. Clinicians and policy-makers have increased their focus on these aspects of recovery. Current outcome measures, however, do not support this focus, and detailed functional measures are not suitable for routine clinical use. This report describes the development and test-retest reliability of the Activity and Participation Questionnaire (APQ6); a self-report measure of vocational activity and social participation for routine use in community mental health services.
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Meta-analysis in applied ecology.
Biol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2009
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This overview examines research synthesis in applied ecology and conservation. Vote counting and pooling unweighted averages are widespread despite the superiority of syntheses based on weighted combination of effects. Such analyses allow exploration of methodological uncertainty in addition to consistency of effects across species, space and time, but exploring heterogeneity remains controversial. Meta-analyses are required to generalize in ecology, and to inform evidence-based decision-making, but the more sophisticated statistical techniques and registers of research used in other disciplines must be employed in ecology to fully realize their benefits.
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Effectiveness of engineered in-stream structure mitigation measures to increase salmonid abundance: a systematic review.
Ecol Appl
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2009
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Engineered in-stream structures are often installed to increase salmonid abundance, either for commercial gain in fisheries or for conservation purposes in degraded habitats. Having been in widespread use for the last 80 years, at an estimated cost of hundreds of millions of U.S. dollars each year, the effectiveness of these structures is still widely debated in the literature. Many studies of varying quality have been undertaken that attempt to address this issue, but it has proved difficult for practitioners to develop a consensus regarding the utility of these structures, despite their continued use. Systematic review methodology was used to formally synthesize empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of engineered in-stream structures as a management tool to increase salmonid abundance. Meta-analysis shows that evidence regarding the effectiveness of in-stream devices is equivocal. Heterogeneity is significant both for population size and local habitat preference. This heterogeneity is related to stream width, with in-stream devices being less effective in larger streams. Consequently, widespread use of in-stream structures for restoration, particularly in larger streams, is not supported by the current scientific evidence base.
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A mild and efficient one-pot synthesis of 2-aminated benzoxazoles and benzothiazoles.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2009
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Previous syntheses of the biologically active 2-aminated benzoxazoles have relied on forcing thermal conditions to generate the products directly from the corresponding thiols. The resulting yields have ranged from moderate to poor. A mild and high-yielding alternative one-pot chlorination-amination procedure is described. Compounds with a variety of substitution patterns are reported and the methodology has been successfully extended to benzothiazoles. Palladium catalysis on suitably activated examples has been employed to generate the desired compounds of interest.
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Enantioselective synthesis of ?-aryloxycarboxylic esters via asymmetric hydrogenation of ?-aryloxy-?,?-unsaturated esters.
Org. Lett.
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A novel synthesis of ?-aryloxycarboxylic esters via asymmetric hydrogenation of the corresponding ?-aryloxy-?,?-unsaturated esters has been demonstrated. Bis(norbornadiene)rhodium(I) tetrafluoroborate (1 mol %) and Walphos W008-1 were used to generate the saturated products with high enantioselectivity and in high yield. The tolerability of the reaction to a diverse range of substituents on the aromatic ring was also explored.
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Statistical analysis of individual participant data meta-analyses: a comparison of methods and recommendations for practice.
PLoS ONE
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Individual participant data (IPD) meta-analyses that obtain "raw" data from studies rather than summary data typically adopt a "two-stage" approach to analysis whereby IPD within trials generate summary measures, which are combined using standard meta-analytical methods. Recently, a range of "one-stage" approaches which combine all individual participant data in a single meta-analysis have been suggested as providing a more powerful and flexible approach. However, they are more complex to implement and require statistical support. This study uses a dataset to compare "two-stage" and "one-stage" models of varying complexity, to ascertain whether results obtained from the approaches differ in a clinically meaningful way.
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Mental health of Indigenous Australians: a review of findings from community surveys.
Med. J. Aust.
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To assemble what is known about the mental health of Indigenous Australians from community surveys.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.