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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Efficient cycloaddition of epoxides and carbon dioxide over novel organic-inorganic hybrid zeolite catalysts.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Organic-inorganic hybrid zeolites with the MFI-type lamellar structure serve as efficient solid Lewis base catalysts for solvent-free synthesis of a variety of cyclic carbonates from corresponding epoxides and carbon dioxide. The ion-exchange with iodide, in particular, renders these materials an excellent catalytic activity and good recyclability.
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Spherical operator classification for coronary artery extraction.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is a major noninvasive technology for imaging coronary artery disease, and effective and accurate vessel tracking method can help radiologists diagnose the disease more accurately. In this paper, a novel 3D vessel tracking method based on CTA data is presented. The method is comprised of preprocessing, a novel spherical operator, and hierarchical clustering, where the spherical operator consists of rays that are casted different directions in a spherical coordinate system. The vascular boundary is extracted by the spherical operator, and the tracking direction is also obtained by the hierarchical clustering. The method is evaluated with the Rotterdam Coronary Artery Algorithm Evaluation Framework. Results indicate that our method outperforms current state-of-the-art methods in terms of the overlap ratio on the vessel tracking of coronary arteries in CTA data.
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MicroRNA-135a and -200b, potential Biomarkers for Alzheimer?s disease, regulate ? secretase and amyloid precursor protein.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Amyloid precursor protein (APP) and ?-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme (BACE-1) play important roles in the generation of Alzheimer?s disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. In the present study, microRNA (miR) microarray was used to analyze the miR expression profiles in the hippocampi from APP/PS1 transgenic and wild type mice. The miRs with significant alteration and putative targets on APP or BACE-1 were retrieved (miR-135a, -200b and -429). The deregulations of these miRs were confirmed in mice and further verified in AD patient samples by qPCR. Primary mouse hippocampal neurons, SH-SY5Y and HEK293 cells were used to study the function of miRs on APP and BACE-1. We found that miR-135a, which was downregulated significantly in hippocampi from APP/PS1 transgenic mice compared with the wild type control, directly interacted with the 3'-UTR of BACE-1 and repressed its expression and activity. On the other hand, miR-200b and -429, which were downregulated significantly in hippocampi from APP/PS1 transgenic mice compared with the wild type control, targeted the 3'-UTR of APP and repressed its expression. Furthermore, A?42 could downregulate miR-200b expression which may generate a vicious cycle resulted in accumulating A?42. The levels of miR-135a and -200b in the serum of DAT group were significantly lower than that of control groups (P<0.05). The serum miR-200b level of MCI group was higher than that of DAT group (P<0.05) and lower than that of control group (P<0.05). We also found decreased miR-135a and -200b levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of DAT group compared with the control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, these findings showed that miR-135a, -200b and -429 may take part in the progress of AD; miR-200b was of great potential as noninvasive and easily detected blood-based biomarkers of MCI and DAT patients.
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Mechanisms for U2AF to define 3' splice sites and regulate alternative splicing in the human genome.
Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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The U2AF heterodimer has been well studied for its role in defining functional 3' splice sites in pre-mRNA splicing, but many fundamental questions still remain unaddressed regarding the function of U2AF in mammalian genomes. Through genome-wide analysis of U2AF-RNA interactions, we report that U2AF has the capacity to directly define ~88% of functional 3' splice sites in the human genome, but numerous U2AF binding events also occur in intronic locations. Mechanistic dissection reveals that upstream intronic binding events interfere with the immediate downstream 3' splice site associated either with the alternative exon, to cause exon skipping, or with the competing constitutive exon, to induce exon inclusion. We further demonstrate partial functional impairment with leukemia-associated mutations in U2AF35, but not U2AF65, in regulated splicing. These findings reveal the genomic function and regulatory mechanism of U2AF in both normal and disease states.
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MicroRNA-193b is a regulator of amyloid precursor protein in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid derived exosomal microRNA-193b is a biomarker of Alzheimer's disease.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Amyloid precursor protein (APP) has an important function in the generation of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In our previous study, miR?193b was found to be downregulated in the hippocampi of 9?month?old APP/PS1 double?transgenic mice using microRNA (miR) array. In the present study, bioinformatic analyses showed that miR?193b was a miR that was predicted to potentially target the 3'?untranslated region (UTR) of APP. Subsequently, the function of miR?193b on APP was studied. The levels of miR?193b, exosomal miR?193b, A?, tau, p?tau, HCY and APOE in samples from APP/PS1 double?transgenic mice, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia of Alzheimer?type (DAT) patients, were measured. The results indicated that overexpression of miR?193b could repress the mRNA and protein expression of APP. The miR?193b inhibitor oligonucleotide induced upregulation of APP. Binding sites of miR?193b in the 3'?UTR of APP were identified by luciferase assay. MCI and DAT patients had lower exosomal miR?193b, but not total miR?193b, in the blood as compared with the controls. DAT patients had lower exosomal miR?193b levels in blood as compared with the MCI group. A decreased exosomal miR?193b expression level was additionally observed in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) of DAT patients. Negative correlations were found between exosomal miR?193b and A?42 in the CSF of DAT patients. In conclusion, these findings showed that miR?193b may function in the development of AD and exosomal miR?193b has potential as a novel, non-invasive, blood?based biomarker of MCI and DAT patients.
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Interactions that influence the binding of synthetic heparan sulfate based disaccharides to fibroblast growth factor-2.
ACS Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Heparan sulfate (HS) is a linear sulfated polysaccharide that mediates protein activities at the cell-extracellular interface. Its interactions with proteins depend on the complex patterns of sulfonations and sugar residues. Previously, we synthesized all 48 potential disaccharides found in HS and used them for affinity screening and X-ray structural analysis with fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF1). Herein, we evaluated the affinities of the same sugars against FGF2 and determined the crystal structures of FGF2 in complex with three disaccharides carrying N-sulfonated glucosamine and 2-O-sulfonated iduronic acid as basic backbones. The crystal structures show that water molecules mediate different interactions between the 3-O-sulfonate group and Lys125. Moreover, the 6-O-sulfonate group forms intermolecular interactions with another FGF2 unit apart from the main binding site. These findings suggest that the water-mediated interactions and the intermolecular interactions influence the binding affinity of different disaccharides with FGF2, correlating with their respective dissociation constants in solution.
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Cusp catastrophe model: a nonlinear model for health outcomes in nursing research.
Nurs Res
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Although health outcomes may have fundamentally nonlinear relationships with relevant behavioral, psychological, cognitively, or biological predictors, most analytical models assume a linear relationship. Furthermore, some health outcomes may have multimodal distributions, but most statistical models in common use assume a unimodal, normal distribution. Suitable nonlinear models should be developed to explain health outcomes.
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Four Measures of Intraocular Pressure Fluctuation: Which Correlates Most Optimally With Actual Office-hour Readings?
J. Glaucoma
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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To compare the power of the 4 intraocular pressure (IOP) measures, that is, peak, mean, range, and SD, over a 24-hour period in predicting IOP variations in order to determine which measure of IOP fluctuation correlates best with actual office-hour readings in glaucoma patients and healthy subjects.
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Mechanism of cellular uptake, localization and cytotoxicity of organic nanoparticles.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Water-dispersed organic nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared from a conjugated molecule 2,5,2',5'-tetra(4'-N,N-diphenylaminostyryl)biphenyl (DPA-TSB). As a potential material for photodynamic therapy, we investigated cellular toxicity by using fluorescence confocal microscopy and Western blotting. Our results demonstrated that the cells treated with DPA-TSB NPs showed an increase in apoptosis accompanied by the increased expression of Bax protein, decreased expression of Bcl-2 protein and caspase-3 protein, the decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and the release of ROS. Using inhibitors of endocytosis can block nanoparticles uptake, indicating that DPA-TSB NPs entered the cells via an energy-dependent manner, mostly through clathrin-mediated and caveolae-mediated processes.
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Evaluation of objective and perceived mental fatigability in older adults with vascular risk.
J Psychosom Res
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Mental fatigability refers to the failure to sustain participation in tasks requiring mental effort. Older adults with vascular risk are at particular risk for experiencing mental fatigability. The present study (1) tested a new way of measuring objective mental fatigability by examining its association with perceived mental fatigability; and (2) identified associated psychological, physiological, and situational predictors.
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Ketanserin, a serotonin 2A receptor antagonist, alleviates ischemia-related biliary fibrosis following donation after cardiac death liver transplantation in rats.
Liver Transpl.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
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Biliary fibrosis is a major complication after donation after cardiac death (DCD) liver transplantation. In this process, the roles of serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] and the 5-HT2A receptor subtype are still unknown. In this study, we analyzed markers of portal fibroblast (PF)/myofibroblast (MF) transdifferentiation such as transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1), phosphorylated smad2/3, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), collagen I, and collagen III in a primary culture system of PFs after the administration of 5-HT or 5-HT plus ketanserin (a selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist). A rat DCD transplant model was established with 30 minutes of warm ischemia and 4 hours of cold ischemia during organ procurement. Recipients were intraperitoneally injected with ketanserin (1 mg·kg(-1) ·day(-1) ) or normal saline. Grafts without in situ warm ischemia instead of minimal cold storage (30 minutes) served as controls. The serum biochemistry, the liver contents of 5-HT and hydroxyproline (HYP), and the expression of fibrosis-related genes (including TGF-?1, matrix metalloproteinase 2, procollagen ?1, and ?-SMA messenger RNA) were determined. The extent of biliary fibrosis was also assessed histopathologically. The results indicated that ketanserin inhibited 5-HT-activated TGF-?1-smad2/3 signaling in vitro and thereby depressed the MF conversion of PFs. Rats receiving DCD livers showed increased liver contents of 5-HT and HYP, impaired biliary function, up-regulation of fibrosis-related genes, and aggravated biliary fibrosis. However, these phenomena were alleviated by treatment with ketanserin. We concluded that the profibrotic activity of 5-HT occurred through the activation of TGF-?1 signaling and the 5-HT2A receptor. Thus, these data suggest that the 5-HT2A receptor may be a potential therapeutic target for ischemia-related biliary fibrosis after DCD liver transplantation. Liver Transpl 20:1317-1326, 2014. © 2014 AASLD.
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Traditional Chinese medicine versus western medicine as used in China in the management of rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized, single-blind, 24-week study.
Rheumatol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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This study is designed to compare the efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with western medicine (WM) in the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This is a 24-week, randomized, multicenter, single-blind study comparing TCM with WM (as used in China) carried out between June 2002 and December 2004 in nine research centers in China, involving 489 patients. Patients were randomized to receive TCM (n = 247), MTX and SSZ (n = 242). MTX was started at a dose of 5 mg to a final dose of 7.5-15 mg weekly. The maintenance dose was 2.5-7.5 mg weekly. The starting dose of SSZ was 0.25 g bid, increasing by 0.25 g a day once a week to a final dose of 0.5-1 g qid. The maintenance dose was 0.5 g tid to qid. Primary end point was the proportion of patients with response according to the American College of Rheumatology 20 % improvement criteria (ACR20) at weeks 24. At 24 weeks, ACR20 responses were 53.0 % in TCM group and 66.5 % in WM group, (P < 0.001) at 24 weeks. ACR 50 responses were 31.6 % of TCM group and 42.6 % in WM group, (P = 0.01). ACR70 responses were 12.6 % in TCM group and 17.4 % in WM group, (P = 0.14). Side effects were observed more frequently in WM group. In this study, ACR20, ACR50 responses at 24 weeks were significantly better in the WM treated group, by intention to treat (ITT) and per protocol analysis. The ACR 70 response showed no significant difference between the two groups. TCM, while effective in treating RA, appears to be less effective than WM in controlling symptoms, but TCM is associated with fewer side effects.
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Linking cognition and frailty in middle and old age: metabolic syndrome matters.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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This study examined whether metabolic syndrome (MetS) would moderate the association of cognition with frailty in middle and old age.
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MicroRNA-384 regulates both amyloid precursor protein and ?-secretase expression and is a potential biomarker for Alzheimer's disease.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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Amyloid precursor protein (APP) and ?-site APP cleaving enzyme (BACE-1) play important roles in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, using bioinformatics analysis, we demonstrate that miR-384 is a microRNA (miRNA or miR) predicted to potentially target the 3' untranslated regions (3'-UTRs) of both APP and BACE-1. SH-SY5Y cells were transfected with miR-384 mimic oligonucleotide, miR-384 inhibitor oligonucleotide, or a non-specific control siRNA. We found that the overexpression of miR-384 suppressed the mRNA and protein expression of both APP and BACE-1. The miR-384 inhibitor oligonucleotide induced the upregulation of APP and BACE-1. The activity of BACE-1 was altered following the change in its protein expression. The binding sites of miR-384 on the 3'-UTRs of APP and BACE-1 were identified by luciferase assay. Furthermore, cells were treasted with amyloid-? (A?)42. A?42 downregulated miR-384 expression, leading to the continuous reduction in miR-384 expression. In addition, using a mouse model of AD, as well as patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia of Alzheimer's type (DAT), we examined the levels of miR-384 in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and serum. Patients with MCI and DAT had lower blood miR-384 levels compared with the controls. In addition, patients with DAT had lower blood miR-384 levels in blood compared with the MCI group. We also found decreased miR-384 expression in the several cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) of the patients with DAT. Negative correlations were observed between miR-384 and A?42 in the serum and CSF from patients with AD. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that miR-384 may plays a role in the development of AD and may be a potential non-invasive biomarker for the diagnosis of AD.
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Longitudinal effects of metabolic syndrome on Alzheimer and vascular related brain pathology.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Dis Extra
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study examines the longitudinal effect of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on brain-aging indices among cognitively normal (CN) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) groups [single-domain aMCI (saMCI) and multiple-domain aMCI (maMCI)].
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Delayed fracture healing and increased callus adiposity in a C57BL/6J murine model of obesity-associated type 2 diabetes mellitus.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Impaired healing and non-union of skeletal fractures is a major public health problem, with morbidity exacerbated in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). DM is prevalent worldwide and affects approximately 25.8 million US adults, with >90% having obesity-related type 2 DM (T2DM). While fracture healing in type 1 DM (T1DM) has been studied using animal models, an investigation into delayed healing in an animal model of T2DM has not yet been performed.
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A computational framework to infer human disease-associated long noncoding RNAs.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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As a major class of noncoding RNAs, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in various critical biological processes. Accumulating researches have linked dysregulations and mutations of lncRNAs to a variety of human disorders and diseases. However, to date, only a few human lncRNAs have been associated with diseases. Therefore, it is very important to develop a computational method to globally predict potential associated diseases for human lncRNAs. In this paper, we developed a computational framework to accomplish this by combining human lncRNA expression profiles, gene expression profiles, and human disease-associated gene data. Applying this framework to available human long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) expression data, we showed that the framework has reliable accuracy. As a result, for non-tissue-specific lincRNAs, the AUC of our algorithm is 0.7645, and the prediction accuracy is about 89%. This study will be helpful for identifying novel lncRNAs for human diseases, which will help in understanding the roles of lncRNAs in human diseases and facilitate treatment. The corresponding codes for our method and the predicted results are all available at http://asdcd.amss.ac.cn/MingXiLiu/lncRNA-disease.html.
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Depressive symptoms and proinflammatory cytokines across the perinatal period in African American women.
J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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Abstract Background: Comparatively few studies have examined the biological mechanisms that may underlie the reported racial disparities in antenatal and postpartum depression. Objective: To examine the associations among race, depressive symptoms and the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? across the perinatal period in a diverse sample of healthy pregnant women at elevated psychosocial risk. Methods: 171 subjects were enrolled. Women were interviewed and blood samples drawn at 18 and 32 weeks gestation and 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-? were assayed using high sensitivity enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Results: Compared with non-African American (AA) women, AA women had significantly higher levels of IL-6 (est. diff?=?0.521, p?=?0.02, confidence interval (CI): 0.088-0.954) but not TNF-? across all time points (est. diff?=?-0.060, p?=?0.80, CI: -0.517 to 0.397). IL-6 was not associated with depressive symptoms but differences in IL-6 were accounted for by greater Body Mass Index in AA women. Conclusions: Compared with non-AA women, AA women entered pregnancy with elevated inflammatory cytokine levels that persisted across the perinatal period. This group difference in inflammation did not suggest increased risk for depression, but suggests other implications for long-term health.
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Prognostic and predictive value of a microRNA signature in stage II colon cancer: a microRNA expression analysis.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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Current staging methods do not accurately predict the risk of disease recurrence and benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients who have had surgery for stage II colon cancer. We postulated that expression patterns of multiple microRNAs (miRNAs) could, if combined into a single model, improve postoperative risk stratification and prediction of chemotherapy benefit for these patients.
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Inpatients knowledge about primary liver cancer and hepatitis.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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To assess the level of an inpatient populations awareness about hepatitis and primary liver cancer (PLC), the most common type of which is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and then to initiate education of this group.
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Primary leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava: a case report.
Ann. Biol. Clin. (Paris)
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Primary leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava (IVC) is a rare malignant tumor originating from the vein smooth muscle. We present one case of primary leiomyosarcoma of the IVC. The patient benefited of surgical exploration at seventh day after admission. Tumor located in the junction of the anterior wall of the IVC and the left and right renal vein. We carried out the tumor resection, vena cava artificial vascular patch prosthetics. The patient did not take anticoagulant drugs after surgery and was discharged at 12 days after surgery. Currently, the patient had survived for nearly six months, repeated abdominal computed tomography examinations showed no clear recurrence.
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Human growth hormone may be detrimental when used to accelerate recovery from acute tendon-bone interface injuries.
J Bone Joint Surg Am
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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There have been few scientific studies that have examined usage of human growth hormone to accelerate recovery from injury. The hypothesis of this study was that human growth hormone would accelerate tendon-to-bone healing compared with control animals treated with placebo in a rat model of acute rotator cuff injury repair.
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Contrast-enhanced sonography of juxtapleural pulmonary tuberculoma.
J Ultrasound Med
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2013
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The purpose of this study was to describe the findings of juxtapleural pulmonary tuberculoma on contrast-enhanced sonography and investigate their correlation with histologic findings.
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Approximating the baseline hazard function by taylor series for interval-censored time-to-event data.
J Biopharm Stat
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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In many oncology clinical trials, time-to-event data are generated from scanning for cancer within a specific interval, resulting in interval censoring along with complete-time and right-left-censored time-to-event data. A common practice in analyzing data from this type of trial is to impute the interval-censored event time using the midpoint or right endpoint (i.e., the first observed time) of the interval so that well-known statistical methods developed for right-censored time-to-event data, such as Cox regression, may be used for the requisite analyses. This may introduce bias and lead to erroneous conclusions. In this paper, a Taylor series is proposed to approximate the log baseline hazard function in Cox proportional hazards regression to mitigate the bias arising from analyzing the imputed time-to-event data. With this formulation, the likelihood ratio test can be used to select an appropriate order for this Taylor series approximation and maximum likelihood techniques used to estimate model parameters and provide statistical inference, for example, on treatment effect. The application of this novel method is demonstrated by a simulation study and application to data from a breast cancer clinical trial.
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Double common bile duct with choledochal cyst and cholelithiasis: report of a case.
Surg. Today
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Double common bile duct (DCBD) is a rare congenital anomaly of the biliary system, often associated with biliary lithiasis, choledochal cyst, pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM), and upper gastrointestinal tract malignancies. We report a case of type I DCBD with choledochal cyst and cholelithiasis in a 52-year-old Chinese man. We also reviewed 24 cases of DCBD reported in the Chinese literature between 1965 and 2012. Most (58.3 %) of these cases were classified as type I DCBD, with accompanying choledocholithiasis in 79.2 %, cholecystolithiasis in 37.5 %, choledochal cyst in 33.3 %, and PBM in 8.3 %. There was no case of concomitant cancer. The type and coexistence of PBM with DCBD are clinically important because of its close implications with concomitant pathology. Most Chinese people with DCBD have type I. Moreover, the high incidences of choledochal cyst and biliary lithiasis and the extremely low incidences of PBM and biliary cancer are the major clinical characteristics of DCBD in China.
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Spatial-temporal variations of Schistosoma japonicum distribution after an integrated national control strategy: a cohort in a marshland area of China.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Schistosomiasis transmission is typically focal. Understanding spatial variations of Schistosoma infections and their associated factors is important to help to invent site-specific intervention strategies.
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Comprehensively identifying and characterizing the missing gene sequences in human reference genome with integrated analytic approaches.
Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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The human reference genome is still incomplete and a number of gene sequences are missing from it. The approaches to uncover them, the reasons causing their absence and their functions are less explored. Here, we comprehensively identified and characterized the missing genes of human reference genome with RNA-Seq data from 16 different human tissues. By using a combined approach of genome-guided transcriptome reconstruction coupled with genome-wide comparison, we uncovered 3.78 and 2.37 Mb transcribed regions in the human genome assemblies of Celera and HuRef either missed from their homologous chromosomes of NCBI human reference genome build 37.2 or partially or entirely absent from the reference. We further identified a significant number of novel transcript contigs in each tissue from de novo transcriptome assembly that are unalignable to NCBI build 37.2 but can be aligned to at least one of the genomes from Celera, HuRef, chimpanzee, macaca or mouse. Our analyses indicate that the missing genes could result from genome misassembly, transposition, copy number variation, translocation and other structural variations. Moreover, our results further suggest that a large portion of these missing genes are conserved between human and other mammals, implying their important biological functions. Totally, 1,233 functional protein domains were detected in these missing genes. Collectively, our study not only provides approaches for uncovering the missing genes of a genome, but also proposes the potential reasons causing genes missed from the genome and highlights the importance of uncovering the missing genes of incomplete genomes.
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Frequency of Mentally Stimulating Activities Modifies the Relationship Between Cardiovascular Reactivity and Executive Function in Old Age.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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Recent evidence suggests that younger and middle-age adults who show greater cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) to acute mental stress demonstrate better reasoning and memory skills. The purpose of this study was to examine whether older adults would exhibit a similar positive association between CVR and executive function and whether regular engagement in mentally stimulating activities (MSA) would moderate this association.
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Disordered eating behaviors in young adult Mexican American women: prevalence and associations with health risks.
Eat Behav
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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Recent research has shown that disordered eating behaviors are as prevalent in heterogenous samples of Latinas living in the U.S. as in non-Hispanic white women, yet less is known about the prevalence in women of Mexican origin. The primary purpose of this study is to report the prevalence and associations among DE behaviors and health risk of alcohol, tobacco use and obesity in a sample of N = 472 young adult college enrolled Mexican American (MA) women living in the United States. This report focuses on baseline data from a 12-month repeated measures longitudinal study. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) was used to capture the prevalence of disordered eating and health risk behaviors in the context of everyday activities. Disordered eating behaviors including purging, binge eating, fasting and exercise were reported by approximately 15% of the sample. Food/calorie restricting, was the most prevalent behavior reported by 48% of the sample and along with binge eating was a positive predictor of BMI. Fasting was the only disordered eating behavior associated with tobacco use. These findings suggest that subclinical levels of DE behaviors are prevalent in a community sample of women of Mexican origin and are associated with health risks of tobacco use and higher BMI. Early identification of DE behaviors and community-based interventions targeting MA women may help reduce disparities associated with overweight and obesity in this population.
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Role of integrin ?v?6 in the pathogenesis of ischemia-related biliary fibrosis after liver transplantation.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Biliary fibrosis has been referred to as the "final common pathway" of acute and chronic bile duct injury after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). We studied the role of integrin ?v?6 in the pathogenesis of ischemia-related biliary fibrosis after OLT.
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Incorporating the human gene annotations in different databases significantly improved transcriptomic and genetic analyses.
RNA
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Human gene annotation is crucial for conducting transcriptomic and genetic studies; however, the impacts of human gene annotations in diverse databases on related studies have been less evaluated. To enable full use of various human annotation resources and better understand the human transcriptome, here we systematically compare the human annotations present in RefSeq, Ensembl (GENCODE), and AceView on diverse transcriptomic and genetic analyses. We found that the human gene annotations in the three databases are far from complete. Although Ensembl and AceView annotated more genes than RefSeq, more than 15,800 genes from Ensembl (or AceView) are within the intergenic and intronic regions of AceView (or Ensembl) annotation. The human transcriptome annotations in RefSeq, Ensembl, and AceView had distinct effects on short-read mapping, gene and isoform expression profiling, and differential expression calling. Furthermore, our findings indicate that the integrated annotation of these databases can obtain a more complete gene set and significantly enhance those transcriptomic analyses. We also observed that many more known SNPs were located within genes annotated in Ensembl and AceView than in RefSeq. In particular, 1033 of 3041 trait/disease-associated SNPs involved in about 200 human traits/diseases that were previously reported to be in RefSeq intergenic regions could be relocated within Ensembl and AceView genes. Our findings illustrate that a more complete transcriptome generated by incorporating human gene annotations in diverse databases can strikingly improve the overall results of transcriptomic and genetic studies.
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Autologous bone marrow stem cell transplantation attenuates hepatocyte apoptosis in a rat model of ex vivo liver resection and liver autotransplantation.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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To investigate the efficacy of autologous bone marrow stem cell (BMSC) transplantation in the treatment of hepatic injury in ex vivo liver resection and liver autotransplantation (ELRLA).
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Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Distinct Patterns of Long Noncoding RNAs in Heart and Plasma of Mice with Heart Failure.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To assess the global changes in and characteristics of the transcriptome of long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) in heart tissue, whole blood and plasma during heart failure (HF) and association with expression of paired coding genes.
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Pancreaticoduodenectomy combined with vascular resection and reconstruction for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer: a multicenter, retrospective analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The aim of this study was to present the therapeutic outcome of patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer treated with pancreatoduodenectomy combined with vascular resection and reconstruction in addition to highlighting the mortality/morbidity and main prognostic factors associated with this treatment.
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Dissecting the Characteristics and Dynamics of Human Protein Complexes at Transcriptome Cascade Using RNA-Seq Data.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Human protein complexes play crucial roles in various biological processes as the functional module. However, the expression features of human protein complexes at the transcriptome cascade are poorly understood. Here, we used the RNA-Seq data from 16 disparate tissues and four types of human cancers to explore the characteristics and dynamics of human protein complexes. We observed that many individual components of human protein complexes can be generated by multiple distinct transcripts. Similar with yeast, the human protein complex constituents are inclined to co-express in diverse tissues. The dominant isoform of the genes involved in protein complexes tend to encode the complex constituents in each tissue. Our results indicate that the protein complex dynamics not only correlate with the presence or absence of complexes, but may also be related to the major isoform switching for complex subunits. Between any two cancers of breast, colon, lung and prostate, we found that only a few of the differentially expressed transcripts associated with complexes were identical, but 5-10 times more protein complexes involved in differentially expressed transcripts were common. Collectively, our study reveals novel properties and dynamics of human protein complexes at the transcriptome cascade in diverse normal tissues and different cancers.
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Weighted least-squares method for right-censored data in accelerated failure time model.
Biometrics
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The classical accelerated failure time (AFT) model has been extensively investigated due to its direct interpretation of the covariate effects on the mean survival time in survival analysis. However, this classical AFT model and its associated methodologies are built on the fundamental assumption of data homoscedasticity. Consequently, when the homoscedasticity assumption is violated as often seen in the real applications, the estimators lose efficiency and the associated inference is not reliable. Furthermore, none of the existing methods can estimate the intercept consistently. To overcome these drawbacks, we propose a semiparametric approach in this article for both homoscedastic and heteroscedastic data. This approach utilizes a weighted least-squares equation with synthetic observations weighted by square root of their variances where the variances are estimated via the local polynomial regression. We establish the limiting distributions of the resulting coefficient estimators and prove that both slope parameters and the intercept can be consistently estimated. We evaluate the finite sample performance of the proposed approach through simulation studies and demonstrate its superiority through real example on its efficiency and reliability over the existing methods when the data is heteroscedastic.
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[Investigation on prevalent trends and analysis of control period among floating population in schistosomiasis endemic areas of Guichi District].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
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To understand the characteristics of the floating population infected with Schistosoma japonicum, so as to provide the evidence for constituting and optimizing control strategy.
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De novo transcriptome assembly of RNA-Seq reads with different strategies.
Sci China Life Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2011
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De novo transcriptome assembly is an important approach in RNA-Seq data analysis and it can help us to reconstruct the transcriptome and investigate gene expression profiles without reference genome sequences. We carried out transcriptome assemblies with two RNA-Seq datasets generated from human brain and cell line, respectively. We then determined an efficient way to yield an optimal overall assembly using three different strategies. We first assembled brain and cell line transcriptome using a single k-mer length. Next we tested a range of values of k-mer length and coverage cutoff in assembling. Lastly, we combined the assembled contigs from a range of k values to generate a final assembly. By comparing these assembly results, we found that using only one k-mer value for assembly is not enough to generate good assembly results, but combining the contigs from different k-mer values could yield longer contigs and greatly improve the overall assembly.
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Overview of available methods for diverse RNA-Seq data analyses.
Sci China Life Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2011
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RNA-Seq technology is becoming widely used in various transcriptomics studies; however, analyzing and interpreting the RNA-Seq data face serious challenges. With the development of high-throughput sequencing technologies, the sequencing cost is dropping dramatically with the sequencing output increasing sharply. However, the sequencing reads are still short in length and contain various sequencing errors. Moreover, the intricate transcriptome is always more complicated than we expect. These challenges proffer the urgent need of efficient bioinformatics algorithms to effectively handle the large amount of transcriptome sequencing data and carry out diverse related studies. This review summarizes a number of frequently-used applications of transcriptome sequencing and their related analyzing strategies, including short read mapping, exon-exon splice junction detection, gene or isoform expression quantification, differential expression analysis and transcriptome reconstruction.
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Revealing the missing expressed genes beyond the human reference genome by RNA-Seq.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2011
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The complete and accurate human reference genome is important for functional genomics researches. Therefore, the incomplete reference genome and individual specific sequences have significant effects on various studies.
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Comparative analysis of human protein-coding and noncoding RNAs between brain and 10 mixed cell lines by RNA-Seq.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2011
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In their expression process, different genes can generate diverse functional products, including various protein-coding or noncoding RNAs. Here, we investigated the protein-coding capacities and the expression levels of their isoforms for human known genes, the conservation and disease association of long noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) with two transcriptome sequencing datasets from human brain tissues and 10 mixed cell lines. Comparative analysis revealed that about two-thirds of the genes expressed between brain and cell lines are the same, but less than one-third of their isoforms are identical. Besides those genes specially expressed in brain and cell lines, about 66% of genes expressed in common encoded different isoforms. Moreover, most genes dominantly expressed one isoform and some genes only generated protein-coding (or noncoding) RNAs in one sample but not in another. We found 282 human genes could encode both protein-coding and noncoding RNAs through alternative splicing in the two samples. We also identified more than 1,000 long ncRNAs, and most of those long ncRNAs contain conserved elements across either 46 vertebrates or 33 placental mammals or 10 primates. Further analysis showed that some long ncRNAs differentially expressed in human breast cancer or lung cancer, several of those differentially expressed long ncRNAs were validated by RT-PCR. In addition, those validated differentially expressed long ncRNAs were found significantly correlated with certain breast cancer or lung cancer related genes, indicating the important biological relevance between long ncRNAs and human cancers. Our findings reveal that the differences of gene expression profile between samples mainly result from the expressed gene isoforms, and highlight the importance of studying genes at the isoform level for completely illustrating the intricate transcriptome.
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Systematic comparison of cervical and extra-cervical surgical approaches for endoscopic thyroidectomy.
Surg. Today
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
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To evaluate the clinical application of different surgical approaches for endoscopic thyroidectomy and provide more rational treatment criteria.
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An integrated strategy for transmission control of Schistosoma japonicum in a marshland area of China: findings from a five-year longitudinal survey and mathematical modeling.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2011
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In 2004 an aggressive plan was instituted aiming to achieve nationwide transmission control of schistosomiasis by 2015. Here, we report a longitudinal study on the control of schistosomiasis in Anhui province, China. Using a mathematical model, we compared the effects of different control strategies implemented in the study area. During the 5-year study period, a 60.8% reduction in human prevalence was observed from 2005 (7.95%) to 2009 (3.1%), and snail infection decreased from 0.063% in 2005 to zero in 2009. Results of the model agree well with the first 3-year field observations and suggest continuous decrease in human infections in the last 2 years, whereas the last 2-year field observations indicated that human infections appeared to be stable even with continuous control. Our findings showed that the integrated control strategy was effective, and we speculated that other factors besides bovines might contribute to the local transmission of the disease.
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Nanomechanical analysis of insulinoma cells after glucose and capsaicin stimulation using atomic force microscopy.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2011
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Glucose stimulates insulin secretion from pancreatic islet ? cells by altering ion channel activity and membrane potential in the ? cells. TRPV1 channel is expressed in the ? cells and capsaicin induces insulin secretion similarly to glucose. This study aims to investigate the biophysical properties of the ? cells upon stimulation of membrane channels using an atomic force microscopic (AFM) nanoindentation system.
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Caudatin induces cell cycle arrest and caspase-dependent apoptosis in HepG2 cell.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2011
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In the present study, we investigate the anti-cancer activity and mechanism of caudatin, the C-21 steroidal glycosides, on human hepatoma cell line HepG2. The MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to evaluate HepG2 cell proliferation and cell cycle. Annexin-V/PI and DAPI staining were used to investigate cell apoptosis. Western blotting analysis was used to evaluate the expression levels of proteins. It is found that caudatin inhibits HepG2 cell growth and induces of G0/G1 phase arrest in a dose dependent manner, which is associated with a decreased in the expression of cyclinD1 and increased the levels of p21 and p53. HepG2 cells dealing with caudatin showed typical characteristics of apoptosis. Western blotting analysis indicated that the levels of Bcl-2 were down-regulated after caudatin treatment, whereas the expression of Bax was up-regulated. Furthermore, caudatin-induced apoptosis was accompanied by activation of caspase-3, -9, and poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase (PARP). Treatment with caudatin also induced phosphorylation of extracellular-signal regulating kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). These results demonstrate that caudatin inhibits cell proliferation via DNA synthesis reduction and induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in HepG2 cell. Activation of ERK and JNK may be involved in caudatin-induced hepatoma cell apoptosis.
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Stable water-dispersed organic nanoparticles: preparation, optical properties, and cell imaging application.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2011
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Water-dispersed organic nanoparticles (NPs) constructed by the conjugated molecule 2,5,2,5-tetra(4-N,N-diphenylaminostyryl)biphenyl (DPA-TSB) with a high luminescence and large two-photon absorption (TPA) section were fabricated via the reprecipitation method. The average size of the NPs can be controlled from 40 nm to 80 nm by adjusting the reprecipitation conditions. The NPs in water dispersions showed high aggregative and optical stability, which were due to contributions from the special cruciform configuration and amorphous nature of DPA-TSB molecules. The cellular uptake behavior of DPA-TSB NPs was investigated to show their cell staining capabilities as nanoprobes using a confocal microscopy test in vitro. The results demonstrated that DPA-TSB NPs were readily internalized into cytoplasm with no apparent toxicity for up to 24 h, implying excellent imaging capabilities.
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A centrifuge simulated push-pull manoeuvre with subsequent reduced +Gz tolerance.
Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2011
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The push-pull effect (PPE) has been recognized as a deleterious contributor to fatal flight accidents. The purpose of the study was to establish a push-pull manoeuvre (PPM) simulation with a tri-axes centrifuge, studying the effect of this PPM on the +Gz tolerance, and to make this simulation suitable for pilot centrifuge training. The PPM was realized through pre-programmed acceleration profiles consisting of -1 Gz for 5 s followed by a +Gz plateau for 10 s. Relaxed +Gz tolerance recordings were obtained from 20 healthy male fighter aircraft pilots and 6 healthy male volunteers through exposure to pre-programmed profiles with and without previous -1 Gz exposure. A statistically significant decrease in +Gz tolerance was seen in all subjects after -1 Gz for 5 s exposure, 0.87 ± 0.13 G in the volunteer group and 0.95 ± 0.25 G in the pilot group. The ear opacity pulse as a +Gz tolerance endpoint criterion was sometimes found to be unreliable during the PPM experiments. The simulated PPM in this study elicited a PPE, which was obvious from the significant reduction in +Gz tolerance. The PPM profile appears useful to be included in centrifuge training.
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Assessing matched normal and tumor pairs in next-generation sequencing studies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2011
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Next generation sequencing technology has revolutionized the study of cancers. Through matched normal-tumor pairs, it is now possible to identify genome-wide germline and somatic mutations. The generation and analysis of the data requires rigorous quality checks and filtering, and the current analytical pipeline is constantly undergoing improvements. We noted however that in analyzing matched pairs, there is an implicit assumption that the sequenced data are matched, without any quality check such as those implemented in association studies. There are serious implications in this assumption as identification of germline and rare somatic variants depend on the normal sample being the matched pair. Using a genetics concept on measuring relatedness between individuals, we demonstrate that the matchedness of tumor pairs can be quantified and should be included as part of a quality protocol in analysis of sequenced data. Despite the mutation changes in cancer samples, matched tumor-normal pairs are still relatively similar in sequence compared to non-matched pairs. We demonstrate that the approach can be used to assess the mutation landscape between individuals.
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Pancreas-sparing duodenectomy with regional lymphadenectomy for pTis and pT1 ampullary carcinoma.
Surgery
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2011
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The role of pancreas-sparing duodenectomy (PSD) in the treatment of ampullary carcinoma (Amp Ca) with local lymph node metastasis remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility, safety, and long-term prognosis of PSD with regional lymphadenectomy in the treatment of early-stage (pTis/pT1) Amp Ca with or without regional lymph node metastasis.
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[The blood-aqueous barrier changes after laser peripheral iridotomy or surgery peripheral iridectomy].
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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To investigate the ocular blood-aqueous barrier (BAB) alteration after laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) or surgery peripheral iridectomy (SPI) in patients with primary chronic angle-closure glaucoma (PCACG).
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Exploring the inhibitory activity of short-chain phospholipids against amyloid fibrillogenesis of hen egg-white lysozyme.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2011
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Amyloid fibrillogenesis is an important pathological feature of a group of degenerative human diseases. The 129-residue enzyme hen egg-white lysozyme has been shown to form fibrils in vitro at pH 2.0 and 55°C. In this research, using various spectroscopic techniques, light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy, we first examined the influence of short-chain phospholipids on the amyloid fibrillogenesis and the structural changes derived from hen lysozyme in vitro. Both model short-chain phospholipids were observed to mitigate the fibrillogenesis of hen lysozyme. Also, urea-induced unfolding results suggested that the susceptibility of hen lysozyme to conformational changes elicited by the denaturant was observed to decrease upon addition of short-chain phospholipids. Moreover, our molecular dynamics simulations results demonstrated that the observed inhibitory action of short-chain phosoholipids against hen lysozyme fibrillogenesis might be attributable to the interference of ?-strand extension by the binding of phospholipids to lysozymes ?-sheet-rich region. We believe that the outcome from this study may contribute to a better understanding the molecular factors affecting amyloid fibrillogenesis and the molecular mechanism(s) of the interactions between phospholipids/lipids and amyloid-forming proteins.
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Genetic interaction of centrosomin and bazooka in apical domain regulation in Drosophila photoreceptor.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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Cell polarity genes including Crumbs (Crb) and Par complexes are essential for controlling photoreceptor morphogenesis. Among the Crb and Par complexes, Bazooka (Baz, Par-3 homolog) acts as a nodal component for other cell polarity proteins. Therefore, finding other genes interacting with Baz will help us to understand the cell polarity genes role in photoreceptor morphogenesis.
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[Construction of recombinant adenovirus containing TK gene and its effect against human liver cancer cells].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2010
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To construct a replication-defective adenovirus containing TK gene and investigate the killing effects of TK gene against human liver cancer cells SMMC-7721.
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The 25(OH)D/PTH threshold in black women.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2010
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Black women have lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and higher PTH than white women. Recent evidence implicates PTH in adverse cardiovascular outcomes.
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Serum vitamin D metabolites and intestinal calcium absorption efficiency in women.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2010
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Vitamin D sufficiency may be determined by the serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] that results in maximal intestinal calcium absorption efficiency. However, some investigators questioned whether 25(OH)D concentrations above the concentrations associated with rickets or osteomalacia influence calcium absorption.
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Role of cholangiocyte bile Acid transporters in large bile duct injury after rat liver transplantation.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2010
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The pathogenesis of nonanastomotic strictures with a patent hepatic artery remains to be investigated. This study focuses on the role of cholangiocyte bile acid transporters in bile duct injury after liver transplantation.
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[Test-retest reliability of Mandarin monosyllable lists: a multi-center study in Chinese dialectal regions].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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To develop 22 Chinese Mandarin monosyllable lists with good psychometrical equivalence. This study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of these lists when it was used in speech recognition test in normal hearing dialectal speakers.
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[Experimental study of epithelial-mesenchymal transition induced by HBx protein in liver cancer cell].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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To explore whether or not HBx protein can induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in liver cancer cell SMMC-7721.
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Immunogenic yeast-based fermentate for cold/flu-like symptoms in nonvaccinated individuals.
J Altern Complement Med
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2010
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The common cold has a profound impact on employee attendance and productivity. Seasonal influenza is responsible for approximately 200,000 hospitalizations and 36,000 deaths per year in the United States alone. Over-the-counter medication efficacy has been questioned, and seasonal vaccination compliance issues abound. Our previously reported randomized trial of an oral fermentation product found an adjuvant benefit for vaccinated individuals in terms of a significantly reduced incidence and duration of cold and flu-like symptoms.
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Experimental demonstration of photonic entanglement collapse and revival.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2010
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We demonstrate the collapse and revival features of the entanglement dynamics of different polarization-entangled photon states in a non-Markovian environment. Using an all-optical experimental setup, we show that entanglement can be revived even after it suffers from sudden death. A maximally revived state is shown to violate a Bells inequality with 4.1 standard deviations which verifies its quantum nature. The revival phenomenon observed in this experiment provides an intriguing perspective on entanglement dynamics.
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Perifosine induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines by blockade of Akt phosphorylation.
Cytotechnology
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2010
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common solid cancers, representing the third cause of cancer-related death among cirrhotic patients. Treatment of advanced HCC has become a very active area of research. Perifosine, a new synthetic alkylphospholipid Akt inhibitor, has shown anti-tumor activity by inhibition of Akt phosphorylation. In this study, the effect of perifosine on the cell proliferation and apoptosis in hepatoma cells has been investigated. Cell growth inhibition was detected by MTT assay, cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry, AnnexinV-FITC apoptosis detection kit was used to detect cell apoptosis, and protein expression was examined by Western blotting analysis. Our present studies showed that Akt phosphorylation was inhibited by perifosine in HepG2 and Bel-7402 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Perifosine inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells and Bel-7402 cells in a dose-dependent manner, and arrested cell cycle progression at the G(2) phase. Apoptosis induction became more effective with increasing perifosine concentration. The caspase cascade and its downstream effectors, Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), were also activated simultaneously upon perifosine treatment. The proapoptotic effect of perifosine was in part depending on regulation of the phosphorylation level of ERK and JNK. Perifosine cotreatment substantially increased cytotoxic effects of cisplatin in HepG2 cells. Down-regulating the expression of Bcl-2 and up-regulating the level of Bax may be the potential mechanism for this synergistic effect. Our findings suggest that the small molecule Akt inhibitor perifosine shows substantial anti-tumor activity in human hepatoma cancer cell lines, and is a good candidate for treatment combinations with classical cytostatic compounds in hepatocellular carcinoma.
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Rapamycin inhibits cholangiocyte regeneration by blocking interleukin-6-induced activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 after liver transplantation.
Liver Transpl.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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Cholangiocyte proliferation is necessary for biliary recovery from cold ischemia and reperfusion injury (CIRI), but there are few studies on its intracellular mechanism. In this process, the role of rapamycin, a new immunosuppressant used in liver transplantation, is still unknown. In order to determine whether rapamycin can depress cholangiocyte regeneration by inhibiting signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation, rapamycin (0.05 mg/kg) was administered to rats for 3 days before orthotopic liver transplantation. The results indicated that cholangiocytes responded to extended cold preservation (12 hours) with severe bile duct injures, marked activation of the interleukin-6 (IL-6)/STAT3 signal pathway, and increased expression of cyclin D1 until 7 days after transplantation, and this was followed by compensatory cholangiocyte regeneration. However, rapamycin treatment inhibited STAT3 activation and resulted in decreased cholangiocyte proliferation and delayed biliary recovery after liver transplantation. On the other hand, rapamycin showed no effect on the expression of IL-6. We conclude that the IL-6/STAT3 signal pathway is involved in initiating cholangiocytes to regenerate and repair CIRI. Rapamycin represses cholangiocyte regeneration by inhibiting STAT3 activation, which might have a negative effect on the healing and recovery of bile ducts in grafts with extended cold preservation. Insights gained from this study will be helpful in designing therapy using rapamycin in clinical patients after liver transplantation.
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Role of spastin in apical domain control along the rhabdomere elongation in Drosophila photoreceptor.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2010
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Mutations in spastin are the most common cause of hereditary spastin paraplegia, a neurodegenerative disease. In this study, the role of spastin was examined in Drosophila photoreceptor development.
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[Study of the "weekend effect" of O3, NOx and other pollutants in summer of Beijing].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2009
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The data of O3, NOx (NO and NO2), CO and SO2 observed at Beijing 325m meteorological tower from June 25 to July 7, 2000 and from July 26 to August 22, 2000 are used to analyze the difference of pollutant concentrations on weekends and weekdays, and its causes. Results show that except SO2, the correlations of O3, NOx, NO, NO2 and CO concentrations between weekends and weekdays are very significant,since they all pass the t-test significance level at alpha = 0.05. The correlation coefficients (R) are 0.99, 0.61, 0.56, 0.80 and 0.61 for O3, NOx, NO, NO2 and CO3, respectively. Weekend NO, and CO concentrations are lower than weekday concentrations in rush hours (06:00-08:00), and the mean deviations for NOx and CO concentrations are -28% and -9%, respectively. The regression coefficient of O3 concentrations between weekends and weekdays is 1.25 +/- 0.02. Furthermore, the maximum 1-h average O3 concentration and maximum 8-h average O3 concentration on weekends are 23% and 26% higher than those on weekdays, respectively, indicating an obvious O3 "weekend effect".
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[Comparison of cost between two ways of skin grafting in the treatment of patients with extensive deep burn].
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2009
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To evaluate the economic significance of Meek skin grafting and automicrografting combined with large piece of allogenous skin (micrografting in brief) in the treatment of patients with extensive deep burn.
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Membrane domain modulation by Spectrins in Drosophila photoreceptor morphogenesis.
Genesis
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2009
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Spectrins are major proteins in the cytoskeletal network of most cells. In Drosophila, beta(Heavy)-Spectrin encoded by the karst gene functions together with Crb during photoreceptor morphogenesis. However, the roles of two other Spectrins (alpha- and beta-Spectrins) in developing photoreceptor cells have not been studied. Here, we analyzed the effects of spectrin mutations on developing eyes to determine their roles in photoreceptor morphogenesis. We found that the Spectrins are dispensable for retinal differentiation in eye imaginal discs during larval stage. However, photoreceptors deficient in alpha- or beta-Spectrin display dramatic apical membrane expansions including Crb and show morphogenesis defects during pupal eye development, suggesting that alpha- and beta-Spectrins are specifically required for photoreceptor polarity during pupal eye development. Karst localizes apically, whereas beta-Spectrin is preferentially distributed in the basolateral region. We show that overexpression of beta-Spectrin causes a strong shrinkage of apical membrane domains, and loss of beta-Spectrin causes an expansion of apical domains, implying an antagonistic relationship between beta-Spectrin and Karst. These results indicate that Spectrins are required for controlling photoreceptor morphogenesis through the modulations of cell membrane domains.
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Nursing home procedures on transitions of care.
J Am Med Dir Assoc
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2009
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To identify nursing home standards through a nationwide survey of directors of nursing regarding transitions of care for residents transferred from acute care hospitals to skilled nursing facilities (SNFs).
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Cbf genes of the Fr-A2 allele are differentially regulated between long-term cold acclimated crown tissue of freeze-resistant and - susceptible, winter wheat mutant lines.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2009
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In order to identify genes that might confer and maintain freeze resistance of winter wheat, a comparative transcriptome analysis was performed between control and 4 wk cold-acclimated crown tissue of two winter wheat lines that differ in field freeze survival. The lines, generated by azide mutagenesis of the winter wheat cultivar Winoka were designated FR (75% survival) and FS (30% survival). Using two winter lines for this comparative analysis removed the influence of differential expression of the vernalization genes and allowed our study to focus on Cbf genes located within the Fr-A2 allele independent of the effect of the closely mapped Vrn allele.
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Recombinant murine cytomegalovirus vector activates human monocyte-derived dendritic cells in a NF-kappaB dependent pathway.
Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2009
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To evaluate the potential use of recombinant murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) as an antigen delivery vector, we examined the cytokine and CD80 and CD86 expression profiles of MCMV encoding either enhanced green fluorescent protein gene (MCMV-EGFP) or human immunodeficiency virus-1 glycoprotein gp120 gene (MCMV-gp120) infected monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DC) and investigated the role of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) in Mo-DC activation. Results showed that MCMV triggered the induction of inflammatory cytokines and/or CD80 and CD86 up-regulation in Mo-DC. UV-inactivated MCMV exhibited a reduced production of inflammatory cytokines and a lowered expression of CD80 and CD86 compared with live MCMV infection. Treatment of cells with a NF-kappaB peptide inhibitor prior to MCMV infection reduced the induction of cytokines and CD80 and CD86 up-regulation. Overall, the results suggest that recombinant MCMV vectors activate human Mo-DC in a NF-kappaB dependent pathway. The abortive infection or de novo gene expression greatly enhances the activation of Mo-DC by MCMV vectors.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.