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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Whole Genome Sequence of the Treponema pallidum subsp. endemicum Strain Bosnia A: The Genome Is Related to Yaws Treponemes but Contains Few Loci Similar to Syphilis Treponemes.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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T. pallidum subsp. endemicum (TEN) is the causative agent of bejel (also known as endemic syphilis). Clinical symptoms of syphilis and bejel are overlapping and the epidemiological context is important for correct diagnosis of both diseases. In contrast to syphilis, caused by T. pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA), TEN infections are usually spread by direct contact or contaminated utensils rather than by sexual contact. Bejel is most often seen in western Africa and in the Middle East. The strain Bosnia A was isolated in 1950 in Bosnia, southern Europe.
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High-Resolution Genetic Mapping in the Diversity Outbred Mouse Population Identifies Apobec1 as a Candidate Gene for Atherosclerosis.
G3 (Bethesda)
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2014
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Inbred mice exhibit strain-specific variation in susceptibility to atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia which renders them useful in dissecting the genetic architecture of these complex diseases. Traditional quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping studies using inbred strains often identify large genomic regions, containing many genes, due to limited recombination and/or sample size. This hampers candidate gene identification and translation of these results into possible risk factors and therapeutic targets. An alternative approach is the use of multi-parental outbred lines for genetic mapping, such as the Diversity Outbred (DO) mouse panel, which can be more informative than traditional two-parent crosses and can aid in the identification of causal genes and variants associated with QTL. We fed 292 female DO mice either a high-fat, cholesterol-containing (HFCA) diet, to induce atherosclerosis, or a low-fat, high-protein diet for 18 weeks and measured plasma lipid levels before and after diet treatment. We measured markers of atherosclerosis in the mice fed the HFCA diet. The mice were genotyped on a medium density SNP array and founder haplotypes were reconstructed using a hidden Markov model. The reconstructed haplotypes were then used to perform linkage mapping of atherosclerotic lesion size as well as plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and glucose. Among our highly significant QTL we detected a ~100 kb QTL interval for atherosclerosis on Chromosome 6, as well as a 1.4 Mb QTL interval on Chromosome 9 for triglyceride levels at baseline and a coincident 22.2 Mb QTL interval on Chromosome 9 for total cholesterol after dietary treatment. One candidate gene within the Chromosome 6 peak region associated with atherosclerosis is Apobec1, the apolipoprotein B (ApoB) mRNA editing enzyme, which plays a role in the regulation of ApoB, a critical component of LDL, by editing ApoB mRNA. This study demonstrates the value of the DO population to improve mapping resolution and to aid in the identification of potential therapeutic targets for cardiovascular disease. Using a DO mouse population fed a HFCA diet we were able to identify an A/J-specific isoform of Apobec1 that contributes to atherosclerosis.
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Phenotypic and Genotypic Analysis of Clostridium difficile Isolates: a Single-Center Study.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are a growing concern in North America, because of their increasing incidence and severity. Using integrated approaches, we correlated pathogen genotypes and host clinical characteristics for 46 C. difficile infections in a tertiary care medical center during a 6-month interval from January to June 2010. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) demonstrated 21 known and 2 novel sequence types (STs), suggesting that the institution's C. difficile strains are genetically diverse. ST-1 (which corresponds to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis strain type NAP1/ribotype 027) was the most prevalent (32.6%); 43.5% of the isolates were binary toxin gene positive, of which 75% were ST-1. All strains were ciprofloxacin resistant and metronidazole susceptible, and 8.3% and 13.0% of the isolates were resistant to clindamycin and tetracycline, respectively. The corresponding resistance loci, including potential novel mutations, were identified from the whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of the resistant strains. Core genome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) determining the phylogenetic relatedness of the 46 strains recapitulated MLST types and provided greater interstrain differentiation. The disease severity was greatest in patients infected with ST-1 and/or binary gene-positive strains, but genome-wide SNP analysis failed to provide additional associations with CDI severity within the same STs. We conclude that MLST and core genome SNP typing result in the same phylogenetic grouping of the 46 C. difficile strains collected in a single hospital. WGS also has the capacity to differentiate those strains within STs and allows the comparison of strains at the individual gene level and at the whole-genome level.
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A Dominant Mutation in Hexokinase 1 (HK1) Causes Retinitis Pigmentosa.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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To identify the cause of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in UTAD003, a large, six-generation Louisiana family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP).
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Genomic epidemiology of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis based on population structure of prevalent lineages.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis is one of the most commonly reported causes of human salmonellosis. Its low genetic diversity, measured by fingerprinting methods, has made subtyping a challenge. We used whole-genome sequencing to characterize 125 S. enterica Enteritidis and 3 S. enterica serotype Nitra strains. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were filtered to identify 4,887 reliable loci that distinguished all isolates from each other. Our whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism typing approach was robust for S. enterica Enteritidis subtyping with combined data for different strains from 2 different sequencing platforms. Five major genetic lineages were recognized, which revealed possible patterns of geographic and epidemiologic distribution. Analyses on the population dynamics and evolutionary history estimated that major lineages emerged during the 17th-18th centuries and diversified during the 1920s and 1950s.
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Metagenomic analysis of double-stranded DNA viruses in healthy adults.
BMC Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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BackgroundThe Human Microbiome Project (HMP) was undertaken with the goal of defining microbial communities in and on the bodies of healthy individuals using high-throughput, metagenomic sequencing analysis. The viruses present in these microbial communities, the `human virome¿, are an important aspect of the human microbiome that is particularly understudied in the absence of overt disease. We analyzed eukaryotic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses, together with dsDNA replicative intermediates of single-stranded DNA viruses, in metagenomic sequence data generated by the HMP. 706 samples from 102 subjects were studied, with each subject sampled at up to five major body habitats: nose, skin, mouth, vagina, and stool. Fifty-one individuals had samples taken at two or three time points 30 to 359 days apart from at least one of the body habitats.ResultsWe detected an average of 5.5 viral genera in each individual. At least 1 virus was detected in 92% of the individuals sampled. These viruses included herpesviruses, papillomaviruses, polyomaviruses, adenoviruses, anelloviruses, parvoviruses, and circoviruses. Each individual had a distinct viral profile, demonstrating the high interpersonal diversity of the virome. Some components of the virome were stable over time.ConclusionsThis study is the first to use high-throughput DNA sequencing to describe the diversity of eukaryotic dsDNA viruses in a large cohort of normal individuals who were sampled at multiple body sites. Our results show that the human virome is a complex component of the microbial flora. Some viruses establish long-term infections that may be associated with increased risk or possibly with protection from disease. A better understanding of the composition and dynamics of the virome may hold important keys to human health.
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Patterned progression of bacterial populations in the premature infant gut.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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In the weeks after birth, the gut acquires a nascent microbiome, and starts its transition to bacterial population equilibrium. This early-in-life microbial population quite likely influences later-in-life host biology. However, we know little about the governance of community development: does the gut serve as a passive incubator where the first organisms randomly encountered gain entry and predominate, or is there an orderly progression of members joining the community of bacteria? We used fine interval enumeration of microbes in stools from multiple subjects to answer this question. We demonstrate via 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing of 922 specimens from 58 subjects that the gut microbiota of premature infants residing in a tightly controlled microbial environment progresses through a choreographed succession of bacterial classes from Bacilli to Gammaproteobacteria to Clostridia, interrupted by abrupt population changes. As infants approach 33-36 wk postconceptional age (corresponding to the third to the twelfth weeks of life depending on gestational age at birth), the gut is well colonized by anaerobes. Antibiotics, vaginal vs. Caesarian birth, diet, and age of the infants when sampled influence the pace, but not the sequence, of progression. Our results suggest that in infants in a microbiologically constrained ecosphere of a neonatal intensive care unit, gut bacterial communities have an overall nonrandom assembly that is punctuated by microbial population abruptions. The possibility that the pace of this assembly depends more on host biology (chiefly gestational age at birth) than identifiable exogenous factors warrants further consideration.
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Genomic encyclopedia of bacteria and archaea: sequencing a myriad of type strains.
PLoS Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Microbes hold the key to life. They hold the secrets to our past (as the descendants of the earliest forms of life) and the prospects for our future (as we mine their genes for solutions to some of the planet's most pressing problems, from global warming to antibiotic resistance). However, the piecemeal approach that has defined efforts to study microbial genetic diversity for over 20 years and in over 30,000 genome projects risks squandering that promise. These efforts have covered less than 20% of the diversity of the cultured archaeal and bacterial species, which represent just 15% of the overall known prokaryotic diversity. Here we call for the funding of a systematic effort to produce a comprehensive genomic catalog of all cultured Bacteria and Archaea by sequencing, where available, the type strain of each species with a validly published name (currently?11,000). This effort will provide an unprecedented level of coverage of our planet's genetic diversity, allow for the large-scale discovery of novel genes and functions, and lead to an improved understanding of microbial evolution and function in the environment.
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Characterization of mutations in the PAS domain of the EvgS sensor kinase selected by laboratory evolution for acid resistance in Escherichia coli.
Mol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Laboratory-based evolution and whole-genome sequencing can link genotype and phenotype. We used evolution of acid resistance in exponential phase Escherichia coli to study resistance to a lethal stress. Iterative selection at pH 2.5 generated five populations that were resistant to low pH in early exponential phase. Genome sequencing revealed multiple mutations, but the only gene mutated in all strains was evgS, part of a two-component system that has already been implicated in acid resistance. All these mutations were in the cytoplasmic PAS domain of EvgS, and were shown to be solely responsible for the resistant phenotype, causing strong upregulation at neutral pH of genes normally induced by low pH. Resistance to pH 2.5 in these strains did not require the transporter GadC, or the sigma factor RpoS. We found that EvgS-dependent constitutive acid resistance to pH 2.5 was retained in the absence of the regulators GadE or YdeO, but was lost if the oxidoreductase YdeP was also absent. A deletion in the periplasmic domain of EvgS abolished the response to low pH, but not the activity of the constitutive mutants. On the basis of these results we propose a model for how EvgS may become activated by low pH.
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CcpA is important for growth and virulence of Enterococcus faecium.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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The collagen adhesin Acm was the first virulence determinant reported to be important for the pathogenesis of Enterococcus faecium in a rat infective endocarditis model. We had previously reported that there was a slight growth delay associated with acm allelic replacement (cat) mutant strain TX6051 used in that study. Recently, we generated a nonpolar markerless acm deletion mutant and did not observe a delay in growth. We therefore performed comparative genome sequence analysis of wild-type strain TX82 and TX6051 and found a single mutation, a nonsense mutation in the ccpA gene of TX6051. After correcting this mutation, the growth defect of TX6051 was abolished, implicating a role for CcpA in the growth of E. faecium. To confirm this, we created a ccpA deletion mutant of TX82, which also exhibited a slight delay in growth. Furthermore, the ccpA deletion mutant was attenuated (P = 0.0024) in a mixed-inoculum (TX82 plus TX82 ?ccpA) rat endocarditis model and also in an in vitro competitive growth assay; a ccpA-complemented strain showed neither reduced growth nor reduced virulence. We also found attenuation in the endocarditis model with the new acm deletion mutant although not as great as that previously observed with TX6051 carrying the ccpA mutation. Taken together, our data confirm the role of Acm in the pathogenesis of endocarditis. We also show that CcpA affects the growth of E. faecium, that an intact ccpA gene is important for full virulence, and that a ccpA mutation was partly responsible for the highly attenuated phenotype of TX6051.
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Whole-genome analyses of Enterococcus faecium isolates with diverse daptomycin MICs.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Daptomycin (DAP) is a lipopeptide antibiotic frequently used as a "last-resort" antibiotic against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE). However, an important limitation for DAP therapy against VRE is the emergence of resistance during therapy. Mutations in regulatory systems involved in cell envelope homeostasis are postulated to be important mediators of DAP resistance in E. faecium. Thus, in order to gain insights into the genetic bases of DAP resistance in E. faecium, we investigated the presence of changes in 43 predicted proteins previously associated with DAP resistance in enterococci and staphylococci using the genomes of 19 E. faecium with different DAP MICs (range, 3 to 48 ?g/ml). Bodipy-DAP (BDP-DAP) binding to the cell membrane assays and time-kill curves (DAP alone and with ampicillin) were performed. Genetic changes involving two major pathways were identified: (i) LiaFSR, a regulatory system associated with the cell envelope stress response, and (ii) YycFGHIJ, a system involved in the regulation of cell wall homeostasis. Thr120 ? Ala and Trp73 ? Cys substitutions in LiaS and LiaR, respectively, were the most common changes identified. DAP bactericidal activity was abolished in the presence of liaFSR or yycFGHIJ mutations regardless of the DAP MIC and was restored in the presence of ampicillin, but only in representatives of the LiaFSR pathway. Reduced binding of BDP-DAP to the cell surface was the predominant finding correlating with resistance in isolates with DAP MICs above the susceptibility breakpoint. Our findings suggest that genotypic information may be crucial to predict response to DAP plus ?-lactam combinations and continue to question the DAP breakpoint of 4 ?g/ml.
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Exploration of bacterial community classes in major human habitats.
Genome Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Determining bacterial abundance variation is the first step in understanding bacterial similarity between individuals. Categorization of bacterial communities into groups or community classes is the subsequent step in describing microbial distribution based on abundance patterns. Here, we present an analysis of the groupings of bacterial communities in stool, nasal, skin, vaginal and oral habitats in a healthy cohort of 236 subjects from the Human Microbiome Project.
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Transferable vancomycin resistance in a community-associated MRSA lineage.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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We report the case of a patient from Brazil with a bloodstream infection caused by a strain of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) that was susceptible to vancomycin (designated BR-VSSA) but that acquired the vanA gene cluster during antibiotic therapy and became resistant to vancomycin (designated BR-VRSA). Both strains belong to the sequence type (ST) 8 community-associated genetic lineage that carries the staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) type IVa and the S. aureus protein A gene (spa) type t292 and are phylogenetically related to MRSA lineage USA300. A conjugative plasmid of 55,706 bp (pBRZ01) carrying the vanA cluster was identified and readily transferred to other staphylococci. The pBRZ01 plasmid harbors DNA sequences that are typical of the plasmid-associated replication genes rep24 or rep21 described in community-associated MRSA strains from Australia (pWBG745). The presence and dissemination of community-associated MRSA containing vanA could become a serious public health concern.
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Application of next-generation sequencing to identify genes and mutations causing autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP).
Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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The goal of our research is to identify genes and mutations causing autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). For this purpose we established a cohort of more than 250 independently ascertained families with adRP in the Houston Laboratory for Molecular Diagnosis of Inherited Eye Diseases. Affected members of each family were screened for disease-causing mutations in genes and gene regions that are commonly associated with adRP. By this approach, we detected mutations in 65?% of the families, leaving 85 families that are likely to harbor mutations outside of the "common" regions or in novel genes. Of these, 32 families were tested by several types of next-generation sequencing (NGS), including (a) targeted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) NGS, (b) whole exome NGS, and (c) targeted retinal-capture NGS. We detected mutations in 11 of these families (31?%) bringing the total detected in the adRP cohort to 70?%. Several large families have also been tested for linkage using Afymetrix single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays.
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Phylogenomics and the dynamic genome evolution of the genus Streptococcus.
Genome Biol Evol
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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The genus Streptococcus comprises important pathogens that have a severe impact on human health and are responsible for substantial economic losses to agriculture. Here, we utilize 46 Streptococcus genome sequences (44 species), including eight species sequenced here, to provide the first genomic level insight into the evolutionary history and genetic basis underlying the functional diversity of all major groups of this genus. Gene gain/loss analysis revealed a dynamic pattern of genome evolution characterized by an initial period of gene gain followed by a period of loss, as the major groups within the genus diversified. This was followed by a period of genome expansion associated with the origins of the present extant species. The pattern is concordant with an emerging view that genomes evolve through a dynamic process of expansion and streamlining. A large proportion of the pan-genome has experienced lateral gene transfer (LGT) with causative factors, such as relatedness and shared environment, operating over different evolutionary scales. Multiple gene ontology terms were significantly enriched for each group, and mapping terms onto the phylogeny showed that those corresponding to genes born on branches leading to the major groups represented approximately one-fifth of those enriched. Furthermore, despite the extensive LGT, several biochemical characteristics have been retained since group formation, suggesting genomic cohesiveness through time, and that these characteristics may be fundamental to each group. For example, proteolysis: mitis group; urea metabolism: salivarius group; carbohydrate metabolism: pyogenic group; and transcription regulation: bovis group.
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Exome-based mapping and variant prioritization for inherited Mendelian disorders.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Exome sequencing in families affected by rare genetic disorders has the potential to rapidly identify new disease genes (genes in which mutations cause disease), but the identification of a single causal mutation among thousands of variants remains a significant challenge. We developed a scoring algorithm to prioritize potential causal variants within a family according to segregation with the phenotype, population frequency, predicted effect, and gene expression in the tissue(s) of interest. To narrow the search space in families with multiple affected individuals, we also developed two complementary approaches to exome-based mapping of autosomal-dominant disorders. One approach identifies segments of maximum identity by descent among affected individuals; the other nominates regions on the basis of shared rare variants and the absence of homozygous differences between affected individuals. We showcase our methods by using exome sequence data from families affected by autosomal-dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP), a rare disorder characterized by night blindness and progressive vision loss. We performed exome capture and sequencing on 91 samples representing 24 families affected by probable adRP but lacking common disease-causing mutations. Eight of 24 families (33%) were revealed to harbor high-scoring, most likely pathogenic (by clinical assessment) mutations affecting known RP genes. Analysis of the remaining 17 families identified candidate variants in a number of interesting genes, some of which have withstood further segregation testing in extended pedigrees. To empower the search for Mendelian-disease genes in family-based sequencing studies, we implemented them in a cross-platform-compatible software package, MendelScan, which is freely available to the research community.
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Whole-Genome Sequencing of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Cubana Strains Isolated from Agricultural Sources.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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We report the draft genomes of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Cubana strain CVM42234, isolated from chick feed in 2012, and S. Cubana strain 76814, isolated from swine in 2004. The genome sizes are 4,975,046 and 4,936,251 bp, respectively.
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The relationships between environmental bacterial exposure, airway bacterial colonization, and asthma.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Recent application of advanced culture-independent molecular techniques for the identification of microorganisms has contributed to our knowledge on the role of early-life microbial exposure and colonization in health and disease. The purpose of this review is to present the current perspectives regarding the role of microbial exposure and airway bacterial colonization on the development and the activity of asthma.
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TIGRA: a targeted iterative graph routing assembler for breakpoint assembly.
Genome Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Recent progress in next-generation sequencing has greatly facilitated our study of genomic structural variation. Unlike single nucleotide variants and small indels, many structural variants have not been completely characterized at nucleotide resolution. Deriving the complete sequences underlying such breakpoints is crucial for not only accurate discovery, but also for the functional characterization of altered alleles. However, our current ability to determine such breakpoint sequences is limited because of challenges in aligning and assembling short reads. To address this issue, we developed a targeted iterative graph routing assembler, TIGRA, which implements a set of novel data analysis routines to achieve effective breakpoint assembly from next-generation sequencing data. In our assessment using data from the 1000 Genomes Project, TIGRA was able to accurately assemble the majority of deletion and mobile element insertion breakpoints, with a substantively better success rate and accuracy than other algorithms. TIGRA has been applied in the 1000 Genomes Project and other projects and is freely available for academic use.
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High-resolution quantification of hepatitis C virus genome-wide mutation load and its correlation with the outcome of peginterferon-alpha2a and ribavirin combination therapy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a highly mutable RNA virus and circulates as a heterogeneous population in individual patients. The magnitude of such population heterogeneity has long been proposed to be linked with diverse clinical phenotypes, including antiviral therapy. Yet data accumulated thus far are fairly inconclusive. By the integration of long RT-PCR with 454 sequencing, we have built a pipeline optimized for the quantification of HCV genome-wide mutation load at 1% resolution of mutation frequency, followed by a retrospective study to examine the role of HCV mutation load in peginterferon-alpha2a and ribavirin combination antiviral therapy. Genome-wide HCV mutation load varied widely with a range from 92 to 1639 mutations and presented a Poisson distribution among 56 patients (Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic ?=?0.078, p?=?0.25). Patients achieving sustained virological response (n?=?26) had significantly lower mutation loads than that in null responders (n?=?30) (mean and standard derivation: 524±279 vs. 805±271, p?=?0.00035). All 36,818 mutations detected in 56 patients displayed a power-law distribution in terms of mutation frequency in viral population. The low-frequency mutation load, but not the high-frequency load, was proportional firmly to the total mutation load. In-depth analyses revealed that intra-patient HCV population structure was shaped by multiple factors, including immune pressure, strain difference and genetic drift. These findings explain previous conflicting reports using low-resolution methods and highlight a dominant role of natural selection in response to therapeutic intervention. By attaining its signatures from complex interaction between host and virus, the high-resolution quantification of HCV mutation load predicts outcomes from interferon-based antiviral therapy and could also be a potential biomarker in other clinical settings.
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Plant-associated symbiotic Burkholderia species lack hallmark strategies required in mammalian pathogenesis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Burkholderia is a diverse and dynamic genus, containing pathogenic species as well as species that form complex interactions with plants. Pathogenic strains, such as B. pseudomallei and B. mallei, can cause serious disease in mammals, while other Burkholderia strains are opportunistic pathogens, infecting humans or animals with a compromised immune system. Although some of the opportunistic Burkholderia pathogens are known to promote plant growth and even fix nitrogen, the risk of infection to infants, the elderly, and people who are immunocompromised has not only resulted in a restriction on their use, but has also limited the application of non-pathogenic, symbiotic species, several of which nodulate legume roots or have positive effects on plant growth. However, recent phylogenetic analyses have demonstrated that Burkholderia species separate into distinct lineages, suggesting the possibility for safe use of certain symbiotic species in agricultural contexts. A number of environmental strains that promote plant growth or degrade xenobiotics are also included in the symbiotic lineage. Many of these species have the potential to enhance agriculture in areas where fertilizers are not readily available and may serve in the future as inocula for crops growing in soils impacted by climate change. Here we address the pathogenic potential of several of the symbiotic Burkholderia strains using bioinformatics and functional tests. A series of infection experiments using Caenorhabditis elegans and HeLa cells, as well as genomic characterization of pathogenic loci, show that the risk of opportunistic infection by symbiotic strains such as B. tuberum is extremely low.
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Systems biology of the vervet monkey.
ILAR J
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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Nonhuman primates (NHP) provide crucial biomedical model systems intermediate between rodents and humans. The vervet monkey (also called the African green monkey) is a widely used NHP model that has unique value for genetic and genomic investigations of traits relevant to human diseases. This article describes the phylogeny and population history of the vervet monkey and summarizes the use of both captive and wild vervet monkeys in biomedical research. It also discusses the effort of an international collaboration to develop the vervet monkey as the most comprehensively phenotypically and genomically characterized NHP, a process that will enable the scientific community to employ this model for systems biology investigations.
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A Novel Intronic Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in the Myosin heavy polypeptide 4 Gene Is Responsible for the Mini-Muscle Phenotype Characterized by Major Reduction in Hind-Limb Muscle Mass in Mice.
Genetics
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Replicated artificial selection for high levels of voluntary wheel running in an outbred strain of mice favored an autosomal recessive allele whose primary phenotypic effect is a 50% reduction in hind-limb muscle mass. Within the High Runner (HR) lines of mice, the numerous pleiotropic effects (e.g., larger hearts, reduced total body mass and fat mass, longer hind-limb bones) of this hypothesized adaptive allele include functional characteristics that facilitate high levels of voluntary wheel running (e.g., doubling of mass-specific muscle aerobic capacity, increased fatigue resistance of isolated muscles, longer hind-limb bones). Previously, we created a backcross population suitable for mapping the responsible locus. We phenotypically characterized the population and mapped the Minimsc locus to a 2.6-Mb interval on MMU11, a region containing ?100 known or predicted genes. Here, we present a novel strategy to identify the genetic variant causing the mini-muscle phenotype. Using high-density genotyping and whole-genome sequencing of key backcross individuals and HR mice with and without the mini-muscle mutation, from both recent and historical generations of the HR lines, we show that a SNP representing a C-to-T transition located in a 709-bp intron between exons 11 and 12 of the Myosin heavy polypeptide 4 (Myh4) skeletal muscle gene (position 67,244,850 on MMU11; assembly, December 2011, GRCm38/mm10; ENSMUSG00000057003) is responsible for the mini-muscle phenotype, Myh4(Minimsc). Using next-generation sequencing, our approach can be extended to identify causative mutations arising in mouse inbred lines and thus offers a great avenue to overcome one of the most challenging steps in quantitative genetics.
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Precise dissection of an Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak by single nucleotide polymorphism analysis.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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The current pathogen-typing methods have suboptimal sensitivities and specificities. DNA sequencing offers an opportunity to type pathogens with greater degrees of discrimination using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) than with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and other methodologies. In a recent cluster of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections attributed to salad bar exposures and romaine lettuce, a subset of cases denied exposure to either source, although PFGE and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) suggested that all isolates had the same recent progenitor. Interrogation of a preselected set of 3,442,673 nucleotides in backbone open reading frames (ORFs) identified only 1 or 2 single nucleotide differences in 3 of 12 isolates from the cases who denied exposure. The backbone DNAs of 9 of 9 and 3 of 3 cases who reported or were unsure about exposure, respectively, were isogenic. Backbone ORF SNP set sequencing offers pathogen differentiation capabilities that exceed those of PFGE and MLVA.
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Daptomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis diverts the antibiotic molecule from the division septum and remodels cell membrane phospholipids.
MBio
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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Treatment of multidrug-resistant enterococci has become a challenging clinical problem in hospitals around the world due to the lack of reliable therapeutic options. Daptomycin (DAP), a cell membrane-targeting cationic antimicrobial lipopeptide, is the only antibiotic with in vitro bactericidal activity against vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). However, the clinical use of DAP against VRE is threatened by emergence of resistance during therapy, but the mechanisms leading to DAP resistance are not fully understood. The mechanism of action of DAP involves interactions with the cell membrane in a calcium-dependent manner, mainly at the level of the bacterial septum. Previously, we demonstrated that development of DAP resistance in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis is associated with mutations in genes encoding proteins with two main functions, (i) control of the cell envelope stress response to antibiotics and antimicrobial peptides (LiaFSR system) and (ii) cell membrane phospholipid metabolism (glycerophosphoryl diester phosphodiesterase and cardiolipin synthase). In this work, we show that these VRE can resist DAP-elicited cell membrane damage by diverting the antibiotic away from its principal target (division septum) to other distinct cell membrane regions. DAP septal diversion by DAP-resistant E. faecalis is mediated by initial redistribution of cell membrane cardiolipin-rich microdomains associated with a single amino acid deletion within the transmembrane protein LiaF (a member of a three-component regulatory system [LiaFSR] involved in cell envelope homeostasis). Full expression of DAP resistance requires additional mutations in enzymes (glycerophosphoryl diester phosphodiesterase and cardiolipin synthase) that alter cell membrane phospholipid content. Our findings describe a novel mechanism of bacterial resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides.
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Pan-genome and comparative genome analyses of propionibacterium acnes reveal its genomic diversity in the healthy and diseased human skin microbiome.
MBio
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Propionibacterium acnes constitutes a major part of the skin microbiome and contributes to human health. However, it has also been implicated as a pathogenic factor in several diseases, including acne, one of the most common skin diseases. Its pathogenic role, however, remains elusive. To better understand the genetic landscape and diversity of the organism and its role in human health and disease, we performed a comparative genome analysis of 82 P. acnes strains, 69 of which were sequenced by our group. This collection covers all known P. acnes lineages, including types IA, IB, II, and III. Our analysis demonstrated that although the P. acnes pan-genome is open, it is relatively small and expands slowly. The core regions, shared by all the sequenced genomes, accounted for 88% of the average genome. Comparative genome analysis showed that within each lineage, the strains isolated from the same individuals were more closely related than the ones isolated from different individuals, suggesting that clonal expansions occurred within each individual microbiome. We also identified the genetic elements specific to each lineage. Differences in harboring these elements may explain the phenotypic and functional differences of P. acnes in functioning as a commensal in healthy skin and as a pathogen in diseases. Our findings of the differences among P. acnes strains at the genome level underscore the importance of identifying the human microbiome variations at the strain level in understanding its association with diseases and provide insight into novel and personalized therapeutic approaches for P. acnes-related diseases.
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Sixty years of genome biology.
Genome Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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Sixty years after Watson and Crick published the double helix model of DNAs structure, thirteen members of Genome Biologys Editorial Board select key advances in the field of genome biology subsequent to that discovery.
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Leucoagaricus gongylophorus produces diverse enzymes for the degradation of recalcitrant plant polymers in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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Plants represent a large reservoir of organic carbon comprised primarily of recalcitrant polymers that most metazoans are unable to deconstruct. Many herbivores gain access to nutrients in this material indirectly by associating with microbial symbionts, and leaf-cutter ants are a paradigmatic example. These ants use fresh foliar biomass as manure to cultivate gardens composed primarily of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, a basidiomycetous fungus that produces specialized hyphal swellings that serve as a food source for the host ant colony. Although leaf-cutter ants are conspicuous herbivores that contribute substantially to carbon turnover in Neotropical ecosystems, the process through which plant biomass is degraded in their fungus gardens is not well understood. Here we present the first draft genome of L. gongylophorus, and, using genomic and metaproteomic tools, we investigate its role in lignocellulose degradation in the gardens of both Atta cephalotes and Acromyrmex echinatior leaf-cutter ants. We show that L. gongylophorus produces a diversity of lignocellulases in ant gardens and is likely the primary driver of plant biomass degradation in these ecosystems. We also show that this fungus produces distinct sets of lignocellulases throughout the different stages of biomass degradation, including numerous cellulases and laccases that likely play an important role in lignocellulose degradation. Our study provides a detailed analysis of plant biomass degradation in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens and insight into the enzymes underlying the symbiosis between these dominant herbivores and their obligate fungal cultivar.
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Whole genome sequence of the Treponema Fribourg-Blanc: unspecified simian isolate is highly similar to the yaws subspecies.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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Unclassified simian strain Treponema Fribourg-Blanc was isolated in 1966 from baboons (Papio cynocephalus) in West Africa. This strain was morphologically indistinguishable from T. pallidum ssp. pallidum or ssp. pertenue strains, and it was shown to cause human infections.
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Comparison of the respiratory microbiome in healthy nonsmokers and smokers.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2013
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Results from 16S rDNA-encoding gene sequence-based, culture-independent techniques have led to conflicting conclusions about the composition of the lower respiratory tract microbiome.
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Evolutionary Genomics of Salmonella enterica Subspecies.
MBio
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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ABSTRACT Six subspecies are currently recognized in Salmonella enterica. Subspecies I (subspecies enterica) is responsible for nearly all infections in humans and warm-blooded animals, while five other subspecies are isolated principally from cold-blooded animals. We sequenced 21 phylogenetically diverse strains, including two representatives from each of the previously unsequenced five subspecies and 11 diverse new strains from S. enterica subspecies enterica, to put this species into an evolutionary perspective. The phylogeny of the subspecies was partly obscured by abundant recombination events between lineages and a relatively short period of time within which subspeciation took place. Nevertheless, a variety of different tree-building methods gave congruent evolutionary tree topologies for subspeciation. A total of 285 gene families were identified that were recruited into subspecies enterica, and most of these are of unknown function. At least 2,807 gene families were identified in one or more of the other subspecies that are not found in subspecies I or Salmonella bongori. Among these gene families were 13 new candidate effectors and 7 new candidate fimbrial clusters. A third complete type III secretion system not present in subspecies enterica (I) isolates was found in both strains of subspecies salamae (II). Some gene families had complex taxonomies, such as the type VI secretion systems, which were recruited from four different lineages in five of six subspecies. Analysis of nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitution rates indicated that the more-recently acquired regions in S. enterica are undergoing faster fixation rates than the rest of the genome. Recently acquired AT-rich regions, which often encode virulence functions, are under ongoing selection to maintain their high AT content. IMPORTANCE We have sequenced 21 new genomes which encompass the phylogenetic diversity of Salmonella, including strains of the previously unsequenced subspecies arizonae, diarizonae, houtenae, salamae, and indica as well as new diverse strains of subspecies enterica. We have deduced possible evolutionary paths traversed by this very important zoonotic pathogen and identified novel putative virulence factors that are not found in subspecies I. Gene families gained at the time of the evolution of subspecies enterica are of particular interest because they include mechanisms by which this subspecies adapted to warm-blooded hosts.
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Virome genomics: a tool for defining the human virome.
Curr. Opin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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High throughput, deep sequencing assays are powerful tools for gaining insights into virus-host interactions. Sequencing assays can discover novel viruses and describe the genomes of novel and known viruses. Genomic information can predict viral proteins that can be characterized, describe important genes in the host that control infections, and evaluate gene expression of viruses and hosts during infection. Sequencing can also describe variation and evolution of viruses during replication and transmission. This review recounts some of the major advances in the studies of virus-host interactions from the last two years, and discusses the uses of sequencing technologies relating to these studies.
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Widespread colonization of the lung by Tropheryma whipplei in HIV infection.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2013
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Lung infections caused by opportunistic or virulent pathogens are a principal cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV infection. It is unknown whether HIV infection leads to changes in basal lung microflora, which may contribute to chronic pulmonary complications that increasingly are being recognized in individuals infected with HIV.
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Propionibacterium acnes strain populations in the human skin microbiome associated with acne.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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The human skin microbiome has important roles in skin health and disease. However, bacterial population structure and diversity at the strain level is poorly understood. We compared the skin microbiome at the strain level and genome level of Propionibacterium acnes, a dominant skin commensal, between 49 acne patients and 52 healthy individuals by sampling the pilosebaceous units on their noses. Metagenomic analysis demonstrated that although the relative abundances of P. acnes were similar, the strain population structures were significantly different in the two cohorts. Certain strains were highly associated with acne, and other strains were enriched in healthy skin. By sequencing 66 previously unreported P. acnes strains and comparing 71 P. acnes genomes, we identified potential genetic determinants of various P. acnes strains in association with acne or health. Our analysis suggests that acquired DNA sequences and bacterial immune elements may have roles in determining virulence properties of P. acnes strains, and some could be future targets for therapeutic interventions. This study demonstrates a previously unreported paradigm of commensal strain populations that could explain the pathogenesis of human diseases. It underscores the importance of strain-level analysis of the human microbiome to define the role of commensals in health and disease.
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Biogeography of the ecosystems of the healthy human body.
Genome Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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BACKGROUND: Characterizing the biogeography of the microbiome of healthy humans is essential for understanding microbial associated diseases. Previous studies mainly focused on a single body habitat from a limited set of subjects. Here, we analyzed one of the largest microbiome datasets to date and generated a biogeographical map that annotates the biodiversity, spatial relationships, and temporal stability of 22 habitats from 279 healthy humans. RESULTS: We identified 929 genera from more than 24 million 16S rRNA gene sequences of 22 habitats, and we provide a baseline of inter-subject variation for healthy adults. The oral habitat has the most stable microbiota with the highest alpha diversity, while the skin and vaginal microbiota are less stable and show lower alpha diversity. The level of biodiversity in one habitat is independent of the biodiversity of other habitats in the same individual. The abundances of a given genus at a body site in which it dominates do not correlate with the abundances at body sites where it is not dominant. Additionally, we observed the human microbiota exhibit both cosmopolitan and endemic features. Finally, comparing datasets of different projects revealed a project-based clustering pattern, emphasizing the significance of standardization of metagenomic studies. CONCLUSIONS: The data presented here extend the definition of the human microbiome by providing a more complete and accurate picture of human microbiome biogeography, addressing questions best answered by a large dataset of subjects and body sites that are deeply sampled by sequencing.
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Pervasive genetic hitchhiking and clonal interference in forty evolving yeast populations.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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The dynamics of adaptation determine which mutations fix in a population, and hence how reproducible evolution will be. This is central to understanding the spectra of mutations recovered in the evolution of antibiotic resistance, the response of pathogens to immune selection, and the dynamics of cancer progression. In laboratory evolution experiments, demonstrably beneficial mutations are found repeatedly, but are often accompanied by other mutations with no obvious benefit. Here we use whole-genome whole-population sequencing to examine the dynamics of genome sequence evolution at high temporal resolution in 40?replicate Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations growing in rich medium for 1,000?generations. We find pervasive genetic hitchhiking: multiple mutations arise and move synchronously through the population as mutational cohorts. Multiple clonal cohorts are often present simultaneously, competing with each other in the same population. Our results show that patterns of sequence evolution are driven by a balance between these chance effects of hitchhiking and interference, which increase stochastic variation in evolutionary outcomes, and the deterministic action of selection on individual mutations, which favours parallel evolutionary solutions in replicate populations.
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Quantitation and composition of cutaneous microbiota in diabetic and nondiabetic men.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Diabetic foot infections are a leading cause of lower extremity amputations. Our study examines the microbiota of diabetic skin prior to ulcer development or infection.
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Resequencing of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum strains Nichols and SS14: correction of sequencing errors resulted in increased separation of syphilis treponeme subclusters.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum (TPA), the causative agent of syphilis, is a highly clonal bacterium showing minimal genetic variability in the genome sequence of individual strains. Nevertheless, genetically characterized syphilis strains can be clearly divided into two groups, Nichols-like strains and SS14-like strains. TPA Nichols and SS14 strains were completely sequenced in 1998 and 2008, respectively. Since publication of their complete genome sequences, a number of sequencing errors in each genome have been reported. Therefore, we have resequenced TPA Nichols and SS14 strains using next-generation sequencing techniques.
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Candidate genes that may be responsible for the unusual resistances exhibited by Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 spores.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The spores of several Bacillus species, including Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 and B. safensis FO-36b, which were isolated from the spacecraft assembly facility at NASAs Jet Propulsion Laboratory, are unusually resistant to UV radiation and hydrogen peroxide. In order to identify candidate genes that might be associated with these resistances, the whole genome of B. pumilus SAFR-032, and the draft genome of B. safensis FO-36b were compared in detail with the very closely related type strain B. pumilus ATCC7061(T). 170 genes are considered characteristic of SAFR-032, because they are absent from both FO-36b and ATCC7061(T). Forty of these SAFR-032 characteristic genes are entirely unique open reading frames. In addition, four genes are unique to the genomes of the resistant SAFR-032 and FO-36b. Fifty three genes involved in spore coat formation, regulation and germination, DNA repair, and peroxide resistance, are missing from all three genomes. The vast majority of these are cleanly deleted from their usual genomic context without any obvious replacement. Several DNA repair and peroxide resistance genes earlier reported to be unique to SAFR-032 are in fact shared with ATCC7061(T) and no longer considered to be promising candidates for association with the elevated resistances. Instead, several SAFR-032 characteristic genes were identified, which along with one or more of the unique SAFR-032 genes may be responsible for the elevated resistances. These new candidates include five genes associated with DNA repair, namely, BPUM_0608 a helicase, BPUM_0652 an ATP binding protein, BPUM_0653 an endonuclease, BPUM_0656 a DNA cytosine-5- methyltransferase, and BPUM_3674 a DNA helicase. Three of these candidate genes are in immediate proximity of two conserved hypothetical proteins, BPUM_0654 and BPUM_0655 that are also absent from both FO-36b and ATCC7061(T). This cluster of five genes is considered to be an especially promising target for future experimental work.
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Astrovirus MLB2 viremia in febrile child.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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Astroviruses cause diarrhea, but it is not known whether they circulate in human plasma. Astrovirus MLB2 was recently discovered in diarrhea samples from children. We detected MLB2 in the plasma of a febrile child, which suggests that MLB2 has broader tropism than expected and disease potential beyond the gastrointestinal tract.
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Graph accordance of next-generation sequence assemblies.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2011
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No individual assembly algorithm addresses all the known limitations of assembling short-length sequences. Overall reduced sequence contig length is the major problem that challenges the usage of these assemblies. We describe an algorithm to take advantages of different assembly algorithms or sequencing platforms to improve the quality of next-generation sequence (NGS) assemblies.
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Genetic diversity in Treponema pallidum: implications for pathogenesis, evolution and molecular diagnostics of syphilis and yaws.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2011
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Pathogenic uncultivable treponemes, similar to syphilis-causing Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, include T. pallidum ssp. pertenue, T. pallidum ssp. endemicum and Treponema carateum, which cause yaws, bejel and pinta, respectively. Genetic analyses of these pathogens revealed striking similarity among these bacteria and also a high degree of similarity to the rabbit pathogen, Treponema paraluiscuniculi, a treponeme not infectious to humans. Genome comparisons between pallidum and non-pallidum treponemes revealed genes with potential involvement in human infectivity, whereas comparisons between pallidum and pertenue treponemes identified genes possibly involved in the high invasivity of syphilis treponemes. Genetic variability within syphilis strains is considered as the basis of syphilis molecular epidemiology with potential to detect more virulent strains, whereas genetic variability within a single strain is related to its ability to elude the immune system of the host. Genome analyses also shed light on treponemal evolution and on chromosomal targets for molecular diagnostics of treponemal infections.
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Phosphate transporters in marine phytoplankton and their viruses: cross-domain commonalities in viral-host gene exchanges.
Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2011
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Phosphate (PO(4)) is an important limiting nutrient in marine environments. Marine cyanobacteria scavenge PO(4) using the high-affinity periplasmic phosphate binding protein PstS. The pstS gene has recently been identified in genomes of cyanobacterial viruses as well. Here, we analyse genes encoding transporters in genomes from viruses that infect eukaryotic phytoplankton. We identified inorganic PO(4) transporter-encoding genes from the PHO4 superfamily in several virus genomes, along with other transporter-encoding genes. Homologues of the viral pho4 genes were also identified in genome sequences from the genera that these viruses infect. Genome sequences were available from host genera of all the phytoplankton viruses analysed except the host genus Bathycoccus. Pho4 was recovered from Bathycoccus by sequencing a targeted metagenome from an uncultured Atlantic Ocean population. Phylogenetic reconstruction showed that pho4 genes from pelagophytes, haptophytes and infecting viruses were more closely related to homologues in prasinophytes than to those in what, at the species level, are considered to be closer relatives (e.g. diatoms). We also identified PHO4 superfamily members in ocean metagenomes, including new metagenomes from the Pacific Ocean. The environmental sequences grouped with pelagophytes, haptophytes, prasinophytes and viruses as well as bacteria. The analyses suggest that multiple independent pho4 gene transfer events have occurred between marine viruses and both eukaryotic and bacterial hosts. Additionally, pho4 genes were identified in available genomes from viruses that infect marine eukaryotes but not those that infect terrestrial hosts. Commonalities in marine host-virus gene exchanges indicate that manipulation of host-PO(4) uptake is an important adaptation for viral proliferation in marine systems. Our findings suggest that PO(4) -availability may not serve as a simple bottom-up control of marine phytoplankton.
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Genetic basis for in vivo daptomycin resistance in enterococci.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2011
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Daptomycin is a lipopeptide with bactericidal activity that acts on the cell membrane of enterococci and is often used off-label to treat patients infected with vancomycin-resistant enterococci. However, the emergence of resistance to daptomycin during therapy threatens its usefulness.
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A dominant mutation in RPE65 identified by whole-exome sequencing causes retinitis pigmentosa with choroidal involvement.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2011
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Linkage testing using Affymetrix 6.0 SNP Arrays mapped the disease locus in TCD-G, an Irish family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP), to an 8.8 Mb region on 1p31. Of 50 known genes in the region, 11 candidates, including RPE65 and PDE4B, were sequenced using di-deoxy capillary electrophoresis. Simultaneously, a subset of family members was analyzed using Agilent SureSelect All Exome capture, followed by sequencing on an Illumina GAIIx platform. Candidate gene and exome sequencing resulted in the identification of an Asp477Gly mutation in exon 13 of the RPE65 gene tracking with the disease in TCD-G. All coding exons of genes not sequenced to sufficient depth by next generation sequencing were sequenced by di-deoxy sequencing. No other potential disease-causing variants were found to segregate with disease in TCD-G. The Asp477Gly mutation was not present in Irish controls, but was found in a second Irish family provisionally diagnosed with choroideremia, bringing the combined maximum two-point LOD score to 5.3. Mutations in RPE65 are a known cause of recessive Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) and recessive RP, but no dominant mutations have been reported. Protein modeling suggests that the Asp477Gly mutation may destabilize protein folding, and mutant RPE65 protein migrates marginally faster on SDS-PAGE, compared with wild type. Gene therapy for LCA patients with RPE65 mutations has shown great promise, raising the possibility of related therapies for dominant-acting mutations in this gene.
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The volatile microbiome.
Genome Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2011
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The first detailed temporal study of the human microbiome shows that individual body habitats exhibit surprising variation over time yet maintain distinguishable community structures.
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Genome sequence of an Australian kangaroo, Macropus eugenii, provides insight into the evolution of mammalian reproduction and development.
Marilyn B Renfree, Anthony T Papenfuss, Janine E Deakin, James Lindsay, Thomas Heider, Katherine Belov, Willem Rens, Paul D Waters, Elizabeth A Pharo, Geoff Shaw, Emily S W Wong, Christophe M Lefèvre, Kevin R Nicholas, Yoko Kuroki, Matthew J Wakefield, Kyall R Zenger, Chenwei Wang, Malcolm Ferguson-Smith, Frank W Nicholas, Danielle Hickford, Hongshi Yu, Kirsty R Short, Hannah V Siddle, Stephen R Frankenberg, Keng Yih Chew, Brandon R Menzies, Jessica M Stringer, Shunsuke Suzuki, Timothy A Hore, Margaret L Delbridge, Hardip R Patel, Amir Mohammadi, Nanette Y Schneider, Yanqiu Hu, William O'Hara, Shafagh Al Nadaf, Chen Wu, Zhi-Ping Feng, Benjamin G Cocks, Jianghui Wang, Paul Flicek, Stephen M J Searle, Susan Fairley, Kathryn Beal, Javier Herrero, Dawn M Carone, Yutaka Suzuki, Sumio Sugano, Atsushi Toyoda, Yoshiyuki Sakaki, Shinji Kondo, Yuichiro Nishida, Shoji Tatsumoto, Ion Mandiou, Arthur Hsu, Kaighin A McColl, Benjamin Lansdell, George Weinstock, Elizabeth Kuczek, Annette McGrath, Peter Wilson, Artem Men, Mehlika Hazar-Rethinam, Allison Hall, John Davis, David Wood, Sarah Williams, Yogi Sundaravadanam, Donna M Muzny, Shalini N Jhangiani, Lora R Lewis, Margaret B Morgan, Geoffrey O Okwuonu, San Juana Ruiz, Jireh Santibanez, Lynne Nazareth, Andrew Cree, Gerald Fowler, Christie L Kovar, Huyen H Dinh, Vandita Joshi, Chyn Jing, Fremiet Lara, Rebecca Thornton, Lei Chen, Jixin Deng, Yue Liu, Joshua Y Shen, Xing-Zhi Song, Janette Edson, Carmen Troon, Daniel Thomas, Amber Stephens, Lankesha Yapa, Tanya Levchenko, Richard A Gibbs, Desmond W Cooper, Terence P Speed, Asao Fujiyama, Jennifer A M Graves, Rachel J O'Neill, Andrew J Pask, Susan M Forrest, Kim C Worley.
Genome Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2011
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We present the genome sequence of the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, which is a member of the kangaroo family and the first representative of the iconic hopping mammals that symbolize Australia to be sequenced. The tammar has many unusual biological characteristics, including the longest period of embryonic diapause of any mammal, extremely synchronized seasonal breeding and prolonged and sophisticated lactation within a well-defined pouch. Like other marsupials, it gives birth to highly altricial young, and has a small number of very large chromosomes, making it a valuable model for genomics, reproduction and development.
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Minimum information about a marker gene sequence (MIMARKS) and minimum information about any (x) sequence (MIxS) specifications.
Pelin Yilmaz, Renzo Kottmann, Dawn Field, Rob Knight, James R Cole, Linda Amaral-Zettler, Jack A Gilbert, Ilene Karsch-Mizrachi, Anjanette Johnston, Guy Cochrane, Robert Vaughan, Christopher Hunter, Joonhong Park, Norman Morrison, Philippe Rocca-Serra, Peter Sterk, Manimozhiyan Arumugam, Mark Bailey, Laura Baumgartner, Bruce W Birren, Martin J Blaser, Vivien Bonazzi, Tim Booth, Peer Bork, Frederic D Bushman, Pier Luigi Buttigieg, Patrick S G Chain, Emily Charlson, Elizabeth K Costello, Heather Huot-Creasy, Peter Dawyndt, Todd DeSantis, Noah Fierer, Jed A Fuhrman, Rachel E Gallery, Dirk Gevers, Richard A Gibbs, Inigo San Gil, Antonio Gonzalez, Jeffrey I Gordon, Robert Guralnick, Wolfgang Hankeln, Sarah Highlander, Philip Hugenholtz, Janet Jansson, Andrew L Kau, Scott T Kelley, Jerry Kennedy, Dan Knights, Omry Koren, Justin Kuczynski, Nikos Kyrpides, Robert Larsen, Christian L Lauber, Teresa Legg, Ruth E Ley, Catherine A Lozupone, Wolfgang Ludwig, Donna Lyons, Eamonn Maguire, Barbara A Methé, Folker Meyer, Brian Muegge, Sara Nakielny, Karen E Nelson, Diana Nemergut, Josh D Neufeld, Lindsay K Newbold, Anna E Oliver, Norman R Pace, Giriprakash Palanisamy, Jörg Peplies, Joseph Petrosino, Lita Proctor, Elmar Pruesse, Christian Quast, Jeroen Raes, Sujeevan Ratnasingham, Jacques Ravel, David A Relman, Susanna Assunta-Sansone, Patrick D Schloss, Lynn Schriml, Rohini Sinha, Michelle I Smith, Erica Sodergren, Aymé Spo, Jesse Stombaugh, James M Tiedje, Doyle V Ward, George M Weinstock, Doug Wendel, Owen White, Andrew Whiteley, Andreas Wilke, Jennifer R Wortman, Tanya Yatsunenko, Frank Oliver Glöckner.
Nat. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2011
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Here we present a standard developed by the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) for reporting marker gene sequences--the minimum information about a marker gene sequence (MIMARKS). We also introduce a system for describing the environment from which a biological sample originates. The environmental packages apply to any genome sequence of known origin and can be used in combination with MIMARKS and other GSC checklists. Finally, to establish a unified standard for describing sequence data and to provide a single point of entry for the scientific community to access and learn about GSC checklists, we present the minimum information about any (x) sequence (MIxS). Adoption of MIxS will enhance our ability to analyze natural genetic diversity documented by massive DNA sequencing efforts from myriad ecosystems in our ever-changing biosphere.
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Complete genome sequence of Treponema paraluiscuniculi, strain Cuniculi A: the loss of infectivity to humans is associated with genome decay.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2011
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Treponema paraluiscuniculi is the causative agent of rabbit venereal spirochetosis. It is not infectious to humans, although its genome structure is very closely related to other pathogenic Treponema species including Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, the etiological agent of syphilis. In this study, the genome sequence of Treponema paraluiscuniculi, strain Cuniculi A, was determined by a combination of several high-throughput sequencing strategies. Whereas the overall size (1,133,390 bp), arrangement, and gene content of the Cuniculi A genome closely resembled those of the T. pallidum genome, the T. paraluiscuniculi genome contained a markedly higher number of pseudogenes and gene fragments (51). In addition to pseudogenes, 33 divergent genes were also found in the T. paraluiscuniculi genome. A set of 32 (out of 84) affected genes encoded proteins of known or predicted function in the Nichols genome. These proteins included virulence factors, gene regulators and components of DNA repair and recombination. The majority (52 or 61.9%) of the Cuniculi A pseudogenes and divergent genes were of unknown function. Our results indicate that T. paraluiscuniculi has evolved from a T. pallidum-like ancestor and adapted to a specialized host-associated niche (rabbits) during loss of infectivity to humans. The genes that are inactivated or altered in T. paraluiscuniculi are candidates for virulence factors important in the infectivity and pathogenesis of T. pallidum subspecies.
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Conservation of Ebp-type pilus genes among Enterococci and demonstration of their role in adherence of Enterococcus faecalis to human platelets.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2011
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Ebp are endocarditis- and biofilm-associated pili of Enterococcus faecalis that are also important in experimental urinary tract infections (UTIs). Our analyses, using available genomes, found that the ebp locus is unique to enterococci. In E. faecalis, the ebp locus is very highly conserved and only 1/473 E. faecalis isolates tested lacked ebpABC, while only 1.2% had the bee pilus locus. No other pilus-encoding operon was identified in 55 available genomes, indicating that the vast majority of E. faecalis strains (unlike Enterococcus faecium and streptococci) have a single pilus locus. Surface expression studies showed that Ebp pili were produced in vitro by 91/91 brain heart infusion (BHI) plus serum-grown E. faecalis isolates and that strain OG1RF expressed pili at even higher levels in rat endocarditis vegetations. However, Ebp expression was restricted to 30 to 72% of E. faecalis cells, consistent with a bistability mode of expression. We also evaluated E. faecalis interactions with human platelets and found that growth of E. faecalis in BHI plus serum significantly enhanced adherence to human platelets and that sortase deletion mutants (the ?srtA, ?bps, and ?bps?srtA mutants) were markedly defective. Further studies identified that Ebp pili, but not the microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs) Ace and Fss2, mediate adherence of E. faecalis to platelets. Taken together, our data show that the immunogenic (in human endocarditis patients) and commonly expressed Ebp pili, which are known to be important for experimental endocarditis, are highly conserved and mediate adherence to platelets, suggesting that Ebp pili may be a reasonable immunotherapeutic target for prevention or possibly treatment of endocarditis caused by this species.
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A vertebrate case study of the quality of assemblies derived from next-generation sequences.
Genome Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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The unparalleled efficiency of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has prompted widespread adoption, but significant problems remain in the use of NGS data for whole genome assembly. We explore the advantages and disadvantages of chicken genome assemblies generated using a variety of sequencing and assembly methodologies. NGS assemblies are equivalent in some ways to a Sanger-based assembly yet deficient in others. Nonetheless, these assemblies are sufficient for the identification of the majority of genes and can reveal novel sequences when compared to existing assembly references.
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The genome sequence of the leaf-cutter ant Atta cephalotes reveals insights into its obligate symbiotic lifestyle.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2011
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Leaf-cutter ants are one of the most important herbivorous insects in the Neotropics, harvesting vast quantities of fresh leaf material. The ants use leaves to cultivate a fungus that serves as the colonys primary food source. This obligate ant-fungus mutualism is one of the few occurrences of farming by non-humans and likely facilitated the formation of their massive colonies. Mature leaf-cutter ant colonies contain millions of workers ranging in size from small garden tenders to large soldiers, resulting in one of the most complex polymorphic caste systems within ants. To begin uncovering the genomic underpinnings of this system, we sequenced the genome of Atta cephalotes using 454 pyrosequencing. One prediction from this ants lifestyle is that it has undergone genetic modifications that reflect its obligate dependence on the fungus for nutrients. Analysis of this genome sequence is consistent with this hypothesis, as we find evidence for reductions in genes related to nutrient acquisition. These include extensive reductions in serine proteases (which are likely unnecessary because proteolysis is not a primary mechanism used to process nutrients obtained from the fungus), a loss of genes involved in arginine biosynthesis (suggesting that this amino acid is obtained from the fungus), and the absence of a hexamerin (which sequesters amino acids during larval development in other insects). Following recent reports of genome sequences from other insects that engage in symbioses with beneficial microbes, the A. cephalotes genome provides new insights into the symbiotic lifestyle of this ant and advances our understanding of host-microbe symbioses.
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Comparative and demographic analysis of orang-utan genomes.
Devin P Locke, LaDeana W Hillier, Wesley C Warren, Kim C Worley, Lynne V Nazareth, Donna M Muzny, Shiaw-Pyng Yang, Zhengyuan Wang, Asif T Chinwalla, Pat Minx, Makedonka Mitreva, Lisa Cook, Kim D Delehaunty, Catrina Fronick, Heather Schmidt, Lucinda A Fulton, Robert S Fulton, Joanne O Nelson, Vincent Magrini, Craig Pohl, Tina A Graves, Chris Markovic, Andy Cree, Huyen H Dinh, Jennifer Hume, Christie L Kovar, Gerald R Fowler, Gerton Lunter, Stephen Meader, Andreas Heger, Chris P Ponting, Tomas Marques-Bonet, Can Alkan, Lin Chen, Ze Cheng, Jeffrey M Kidd, Evan E Eichler, Simon White, Stephen Searle, Albert J Vilella, Yuan Chen, Paul Flicek, Jian Ma, Brian Raney, Bernard Suh, Richard Burhans, Javier Herrero, David Haussler, Rui Faria, Olga Fernando, Fleur Darré, Domènec Farré, Elodie Gazave, Meritxell Oliva, Arcadi Navarro, Roberta Roberto, Oronzo Capozzi, Nicoletta Archidiacono, Giuliano Della Valle, Stefania Purgato, Mariano Rocchi, Miriam K Konkel, Jerilyn A Walker, Brygg Ullmer, Mark A Batzer, Arian F A Smit, Robert Hubley, Claudio Casola, Daniel R Schrider, Matthew W Hahn, Víctor Quesada, Xose S Puente, Gonzalo R Ordoñez, Carlos Lopez-Otin, Tomás Vinar, Brona Brejova, Aakrosh Ratan, Robert S Harris, Webb Miller, Carolin Kosiol, Heather A Lawson, Vikas Taliwal, André L Martins, Adam Siepel, Arindam RoyChoudhury, Xin Ma, Jeremiah Degenhardt, Carlos D Bustamante, Ryan N Gutenkunst, Thomas Mailund, Julien Y Dutheil, Asger Hobolth, Mikkel H Schierup, Oliver A Ryder, Yuko Yoshinaga, Pieter J de Jong, George M Weinstock, Jeffrey Rogers, Elaine R Mardis, Richard A Gibbs, Richard K Wilson.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2011
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Orang-utan is derived from a Malay term meaning man of the forest and aptly describes the southeast Asian great apes native to Sumatra and Borneo. The orang-utan species, Pongo abelii (Sumatran) and Pongo pygmaeus (Bornean), are the most phylogenetically distant great apes from humans, thereby providing an informative perspective on hominid evolution. Here we present a Sumatran orang-utan draft genome assembly and short read sequence data from five Sumatran and five Bornean orang-utan genomes. Our analyses reveal that, compared to other primates, the orang-utan genome has many unique features. Structural evolution of the orang-utan genome has proceeded much more slowly than other great apes, evidenced by fewer rearrangements, less segmental duplication, a lower rate of gene family turnover and surprisingly quiescent Alu repeats, which have played a major role in restructuring other primate genomes. We also describe a primate polymorphic neocentromere, found in both Pongo species, emphasizing the gradual evolution of orang-utan genome structure. Orang-utans have extremely low energy usage for a eutherian mammal, far lower than their hominid relatives. Adding their genome to the repertoire of sequenced primates illuminates new signals of positive selection in several pathways including glycolipid metabolism. From the population perspective, both Pongo species are deeply diverse; however, Sumatran individuals possess greater diversity than their Bornean counterparts, and more species-specific variation. Our estimate of Bornean/Sumatran speciation time, 400,000?years ago, is more recent than most previous studies and underscores the complexity of the orang-utan speciation process. Despite a smaller modern census population size, the Sumatran effective population size (N(e)) expanded exponentially relative to the ancestral N(e) after the split, while Bornean N(e) declined over the same period. Overall, the resources and analyses presented here offer new opportunities in evolutionary genomics, insights into hominid biology, and an extensive database of variation for conservation efforts.
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A high-resolution map of human evolutionary constraint using 29 mammals.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2011
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The comparison of related genomes has emerged as a powerful lens for genome interpretation. Here we report the sequencing and comparative analysis of 29 eutherian genomes. We confirm that at least 5.5% of the human genome has undergone purifying selection, and locate constrained elements covering ?4.2% of the genome. We use evolutionary signatures and comparisons with experimental data sets to suggest candidate functions for ?60% of constrained bases. These elements reveal a small number of new coding exons, candidate stop codon readthrough events and over 10,000 regions of overlapping synonymous constraint within protein-coding exons. We find 220 candidate RNA structural families, and nearly a million elements overlapping potential promoter, enhancer and insulator regions. We report specific amino acid residues that have undergone positive selection, 280,000 non-coding elements exapted from mobile elements and more than 1,000 primate- and human-accelerated elements. Overlap with disease-associated variants indicates that our findings will be relevant for studies of human biology, health and disease.
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Identification of disease-causing mutations in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) using next-generation DNA sequencing.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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To determine whether massively parallel next-generation DNA sequencing offers rapid and efficient detection of disease-causing mutations in patients with monogenic inherited diseases. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a challenging application for this technology because it is a monogenic disease in individuals and families but is highly heterogeneous in patient populations. RP has multiple patterns of inheritance, with mutations in many genes for each inheritance pattern and numerous, distinct, disease-causing mutations at each locus; further, many RP genes have not been identified yet.
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Genome analysis of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum and subsp. pertenue strains: most of the genetic differences are localized in six regions.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2010
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The genomes of eight treponemes including T. p. pallidum strains (Nichols, SS14, DAL-1 and Mexico A), T. p. pertenue strains (Samoa D, CDC-2 and Gauthier), and the Fribourg-Blanc isolate, were amplified in 133 overlapping amplicons, and the restriction patterns of these fragments were compared. The approximate sizes of the genomes investigated based on this whole genome fingerprinting (WGF) analysis ranged from 1139.3-1140.4 kb, with the estimated genome sequence identity of 99.57-99.98% in the homologous genome regions. Restriction target site analysis, detecting the presence of 1773 individual restriction sites found in the reference Nichols genome, revealed a high genome structure similarity of all strains. The unclassified simian Fribourg-Blanc isolate was more closely related to T. p. pertenue than to T. p. pallidum strains. Most of the genetic differences between T. p. pallidum and T. p. pertenue strains were accumulated in six genomic regions. These genome differences likely contribute to the observed differences in pathogenicity between T. p. pallidum and T. p. pertenue strains. These regions of sequence divergence could be used for the molecular detection and discrimination of syphilis and yaws strains.
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Characteristic male urine microbiomes associate with asymptomatic sexually transmitted infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2010
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The microbiome of the male urogenital tract is poorly described but it has been suggested that bacterial colonization of the male urethra might impact risk of sexually transmitted infection (STI). Previous cultivation-dependent studies showed that a variety of non-pathogenic bacteria colonize the urethra but did not thoroughly characterize these microbiomes or establish links between the compositions of urethral microbiomes and STI.
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Genome sequencing reveals widespread virulence gene exchange among human Neisseria species.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2010
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Commensal bacteria comprise a large part of the microbial world, playing important roles in human development, health and disease. However, little is known about the genomic content of commensals or how related they are to their pathogenic counterparts. The genus Neisseria, containing both commensal and pathogenic species, provides an excellent opportunity to study these issues. We undertook a comprehensive sequencing and analysis of human commensal and pathogenic Neisseria genomes. Commensals have an extensive repertoire of virulence alleles, a large fraction of which has been exchanged among Neisseria species. Commensals also have the genetic capacity to donate DNA to, and take up DNA from, other Neisseria. Our findings strongly suggest that commensal Neisseria serve as reservoirs of virulence alleles, and that they engage extensively in genetic exchange.
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A catalog of reference genomes from the human microbiome.
Science
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2010
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The human microbiome refers to the community of microorganisms, including prokaryotes, viruses, and microbial eukaryotes, that populate the human body. The National Institutes of Health launched an initiative that focuses on describing the diversity of microbial species that are associated with health and disease. The first phase of this initiative includes the sequencing of hundreds of microbial reference genomes, coupled to metagenomic sequencing from multiple body sites. Here we present results from an initial reference genome sequencing of 178 microbial genomes. From 547,968 predicted polypeptides that correspond to the gene complement of these strains, previously unidentified ("novel") polypeptides that had both unmasked sequence length greater than 100 amino acids and no BLASTP match to any nonreference entry in the nonredundant subset were defined. This analysis resulted in a set of 30,867 polypeptides, of which 29,987 (approximately 97%) were unique. In addition, this set of microbial genomes allows for approximately 40% of random sequences from the microbiome of the gastrointestinal tract to be associated with organisms based on the match criteria used. Insights into pan-genome analysis suggest that we are still far from saturating microbial species genetic data sets. In addition, the associated metrics and standards used by our group for quality assurance are presented.
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Targeted high-throughput DNA sequencing for gene discovery in retinitis pigmentosa.
Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2010
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The causes of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) are highly heterogeneous, with mutations in more than 60 genes known to cause syndromic and non-syndromic forms of disease. The prevalence of detectable mutations in known genes ranges from 25 to 85%, depending on mode of inheritance. For example, the likelihood of detecting a disease-causing mutation in known genes in patients with autosomal dominant RP (adRP) is 60% in Americans and less in other populations. Thus many RP genes are still unknown or mutations lie outside of commonly tested regions. Furthermore, current screening strategies can be costly and time-consuming.We are developing targeted high-throughput DNA sequencing to address these problems. In this approach, a microarray with oligonucleotides targeted to hundreds of genes is used to capture sheared human DNA, and the sequence of the eluted DNA is determined by ultra-high-throughput sequencing using next-generation DNA sequencing technology. The first capture array we have designed contains 62 full-length retinal disease genes, including introns and promoter regions, and an additional 531 genes limited to exons and flanking sequences. The full-length genes include all genes known to cause at least 1% of RP or other inherited retinal diseases. All of the genes listed in the RetNet database are included on the capture array as well as many additional retinal-expressed genes. After validation studies, the first DNAs tested will be from 89 unrelated adRP families in which the prevalent RP genes have been excluded. This approach should identify new RP genes and will substantially reduce the cost per patient.
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Genome remodelling in a basal-like breast cancer metastasis and xenograft.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2010
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Massively parallel DNA sequencing technologies provide an unprecedented ability to screen entire genomes for genetic changes associated with tumour progression. Here we describe the genomic analyses of four DNA samples from an African-American patient with basal-like breast cancer: peripheral blood, the primary tumour, a brain metastasis and a xenograft derived from the primary tumour. The metastasis contained two de novo mutations and a large deletion not present in the primary tumour, and was significantly enriched for 20 shared mutations. The xenograft retained all primary tumour mutations and displayed a mutation enrichment pattern that resembled the metastasis. Two overlapping large deletions, encompassing CTNNA1, were present in all three tumour samples. The differential mutation frequencies and structural variation patterns in metastasis and xenograft compared with the primary tumour indicate that secondary tumours may arise from a minority of cells within the primary tumour.
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Simple sequence repeats in Helicobacter canadensis and their role in phase variable expression and C-terminal sequence switching.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2010
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Helicobacter canadensis is an emerging human pathogen and zoonotic agent. The genome of H. canadensis was sequenced previously and determined to contain 29 annotated coding regions associated with homopolymeric tracts.
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A SNP discovery method to assess variant allele probability from next-generation resequencing data.
Genome Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2009
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Accurate identification of genetic variants from next-generation sequencing (NGS) data is essential for immediate large-scale genomic endeavors such as the 1000 Genomes Project, and is crucial for further genetic analysis based on the discoveries. The key challenge in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery is to distinguish true individual variants (occurring at a low frequency) from sequencing errors (often occurring at frequencies orders of magnitude higher). Therefore, knowledge of the error probabilities of base calls is essential. We have developed Atlas-SNP2, a computational tool that detects and accounts for systematic sequencing errors caused by context-related variables in a logistic regression model learned from training data sets. Subsequently, it estimates the posterior error probability for each substitution through a Bayesian formula that integrates prior knowledge of the overall sequencing error probability and the estimated SNP rate with the results from the logistic regression model for the given substitutions. The estimated posterior SNP probability can be used to distinguish true SNPs from sequencing errors. Validation results show that Atlas-SNP2 achieves a false-positive rate of lower than 10%, with an approximately 5% or lower false-negative rate.
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Prepublication data sharing.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2009
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Rapid release of prepublication data has served the field of genomics well. Attendees at a workshop in Toronto recommend extending the practice to other biological data sets.
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A collagen-binding adhesin, Acb, and ten other putative MSCRAMM and pilus family proteins of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (Streptococcus bovis Group, biotype I).
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2009
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Members of the Streptococcus bovis group are important causes of endocarditis. However, factors associated with their pathogenicity, such as adhesins, remain uncharacterized. We recently demonstrated that endocarditis-derived Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus isolates frequently adhere to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Here, we generated a draft genome sequence of an ECM protein-adherent S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus strain and found, by genome-wide analyses, 11 predicted LPXTG-type cell wall-anchored proteins with characteristics of MSCRAMMs, including a modular architecture of domains predicted to adopt immunoglobulin (Ig)-like folding. A recombinant segment of one of these, Acb, showed high-affinity binding to immobilized collagen, and cell surface expression of Acb correlated with the presence of acb and collagen adherence of isolates. Three of the 11 proteins have similarities to major pilus subunits and are organized in separate clusters, each including a second Ig-fold-containing MSCRAMM and a class C sortase, suggesting that the sequenced strain encodes three distinct types of pili. Reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated that all three genes of one cluster, acb-sbs7-srtC1, are cotranscribed, consistent with pilus operons of other gram-positive bacteria. Further analysis detected expression of all 11 genes in cells grown to mid to late exponential growth phases. Wide distribution of 9 of the 11 genes was observed among S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus isolates with fewer genes present in other S. bovis group species/subspecies. The high prevalence of genes encoding putative MSCRAMMs and pili, including a collagen-binding MSCRAMM, among S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus isolates may play an important role in the predominance of this subspecies in S. bovis endocarditis.
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Enteric defensins are essential regulators of intestinal microbial ecology.
Nat. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2009
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Antimicrobial peptides are important effectors of innate immunity throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. In the mammalian small intestine, Paneth cell alpha-defensins are antimicrobial peptides that contribute to host defense against enteric pathogens. To determine if alpha-defensins also govern intestinal microbial ecology, we analyzed the intestinal microbiota of mice expressing a human alpha-defensin gene (DEFA5) and in mice lacking an enzyme required for the processing of mouse alpha-defensins. In these complementary models, we detected significant alpha-defensin-dependent changes in microbiota composition, but not in total bacterial numbers. Furthermore, DEFA5-expressing mice had striking losses of segmented filamentous bacteria and fewer interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing lamina propria T cells. Our data ascribe a new homeostatic role to alpha-defensins in regulating the makeup of the commensal microbiota.
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VarScan: variant detection in massively parallel sequencing of individual and pooled samples.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2009
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Massively parallel sequencing technologies hold incredible promise for the study of DNA sequence variation, particularly the identification of variants affecting human disease. The unprecedented throughput and relatively short read lengths of Roche/454, Illumina/Solexa, and other platforms have spurred development of a new generation of sequence alignment algorithms. Yet detection of sequence variants based on short read alignments remains challenging, and most currently available tools are limited to a single platform or aligner type. We present VarScan, an open source tool for variant detection that is compatible with several short read aligners. We demonstrate VarScans ability to detect SNPs and indels with high sensitivity and specificity, in both Roche/454 sequencing of individuals and deep Illumina/Solexa sequencing of pooled samples.
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Macrolide treatment failure in a case of secondary syphilis: a novel A2059G mutation in the 23S rRNA gene of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum.
J. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2009
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We report an occurrence of treatment failure after oral spiramycin therapy in a man with secondary syphilis and a reported penicillin and tetracycline allergy. Molecular detection revealed treponemal DNA in the blood of the patient and sequencing of the 23S rDNA identified an A to G transition at the gene position corresponding to position 2059 in the Escherichia coli 23S rRNA gene. The occurrence of this novel 23S rDNA mutation was examined among 7 rabbit-propagated syphilitic strains of Treponema pallidum and among 22 syphilis patient isolates from the Czech Republic. The prevalence of A2058G and A2059G mutations among clinical specimens was 18.2 and 18.2 %, respectively.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.