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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Influences on adherence to diet and physical activity recommendations in women and children: insights from six European studies.
Ann. Nutr. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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Across Europe, poor health behaviours are associated with increased risks of non-communicable diseases. There is particular concern about young women, children and families, not least as health behaviours operating before and during pregnancy and in early postnatal life may have profound long-term consequences for children's health. Using findings drawn from 7 European countries, we aimed to identify barriers to the implementation and uptake of dietary and physical activity recommendations, and to consider how best to achieve changes in mothers' behaviours and thereby improve the adoption of health recommendations. Six studies across the 7 countries were used for this narrative synthesis of findings. Key Messages: A woman's education has a strong influence on her own and her children's health behaviours. Women's diets vary across ethnic groups and according to number of children, but psychological factors, such as self-efficacy and sense of control, which may be amenable to modification, are powerful, too, particularly in women with lower educational attainment. Maternal influences on children's behaviours are strong. Differences exist in infant feeding across countries, and there are apparent urban/rural differences in children's diets and physical activity.
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Family sociodemographic characteristics as correlates of children's breakfast habits and weight status in eight European countries. The ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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The purpose of the present study was to investigate the associations of family sociodemographic characteristics with children's weight status and whether these potential associations are mediated by children's breakfast habits.
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Micronutrient intakes among children and adults in Greece: the role of age, sex and socio-economic status.
Nutrients
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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The aim of the present study was to report the usual nutrient intakes of sixteen micronutrients by schoolchildren, adults and the elderly in Greece and to further explore the role of age, sex and socio-economic status (SES) on meeting the recommended nutrient intakes. Dietary intake, demographic and SES data from three existing studies conducted in Greece (in 9-13-year-old children; 40-60-year-old adults; and 50-75-year-old women) were collected. The prevalence of study participants with inadequate micronutrient intakes were assessed using the estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-point method. Regarding sex and age differences, the highest prevalences of inadequate nutrient intakes occurred in post-menopausal women. In both sexes and all age groups, the prevalence of vitamin D intake below EAR reached 100%. Furthermore, nutrient intakes of 75% or more below EAR were found for vitamin E in all age groups, folate in women and for calcium and magnesium in post-menopausal women (p < 0.05). Regarding SES differences, the prevalences of inadequate calcium and vitamin C intakes were higher for children and postmenopausal women of lower SES compared to their higher SES counterparts (p < 0.05). The current study reported the highest prevalences of inadequate intakes for both sexes and all age and SES groups for calcium, folate and vitamins D and E. These findings could provide guidance to public health policy makers in terms of updating current dietary guidelines and fortifying foods to meet the needs of all population subgroups.
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Fortification of vitamin A in a phytosterol enriched milk maintains plasma beta-carotene levels.
J Food Sci Technol
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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The aim of the current study was to investigate if the supplementation of vitamin A via a phytosterol enriched low-fat milk could prevent the reduction of plasma beta-carotene concentrations than often occurs after plant sterols' or stanols' intake. A sample of 108 hypercholesterolaemic adults (40-60 years old) was randomized to an enriched milk group that contained among other nutrients phytosterols (0.5 g/100 ml) and vitamin A (111 ?g/100 ml) (EMG: n?=?40), a placebo plain milk group (PMG: n?=?37), and a control group (CG: n?=?31) following their usual diet; the EMG and the PMG consumed 500 ml milk per day and in order to ensure compliance with the intervention scheme, attended health and nutrition counselling sessions biweekly over a 3-month period. Dietary intake of vitamin A significantly increased in the EMG compared to the PMG and the CG (P?
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Dietary patterns and breakfast consumption in relation to insulin resistance in children. The Healthy Growth Study.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Insulin resistance is a significant cross-point for the manifestation of several chronic diseases in children and adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible relationship of certain dietary patterns and breakfast consumption habits with insulin resistance in children.
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Dietary fat quality impacts genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in a cross-sectional study of Greek preadolescents.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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The type and the amount of dietary fat have a significant influence on the metabolic pathways involved in the development of obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes type 2 and cardiovascular diseases. However, it is unknown to what extent this modulation is achieved through DNA methylation. We assessed the effects of cholesterol intake, the proportion of energy intake derived from fat, the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to saturated fatty acids (SFA), the ratio of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) to SFA, and the ratio of MUFA+PUFA to SFA on genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in normal-weight and obese children. We determined the genome-wide methylation profile in the blood of 69 Greek preadolescents (?10 years old) as well as their dietary intake for two consecutive weekdays and one weekend day. The methylation levels of one CpG island shore and four sites were significantly correlated with total fat intake. The methylation levels of 2 islands, 11 island shores and 16 sites were significantly correlated with PUFA/SFA; of 9 islands, 26 island shores and 158 sites with MUFA/SFA; and of 10 islands, 40 island shores and 130 sites with (MUFA+PUFA)/SFA. We found significant gene enrichment in 34 pathways for PUFA/SFA, including the leptin pathway, and a significant enrichment in 5 pathways for (MUFA+PUFA)/SFA. Our results suggest that specific changes in DNA methylation may have an important role in the mechanisms involved in the physiological responses to different types of dietary fat.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 30 July 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.139.
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CDKAL1-related single nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with insulin resistance in a cross-sectional cohort of Greek children.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Five novel loci recently found to be associated with body mass in two GWAS of East Asian populations were evaluated in two cohorts of Swedish and Greek children and adolescents. These loci are located within, or in the proximity of: CDKAL1, PCSK1, GP2, PAX6 and KLF9. No association with body mass has previously been reported for these loci in GWAS performed on European populations. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with the strongest association at each loci in the East Asian GWAS were genotyped in two cohorts, one obesity case control cohort of Swedish children and adolescents consisting of 496 cases and 520 controls and one cross-sectional cohort of 2293 nine-to-thirteen year old Greek children and adolescents. SNPs were surveyed for association with body mass and other phenotypic traits commonly associated with obesity, including adipose tissue distribution, insulin resistance and daily caloric intake. No association with body mass was found in either cohort. However, among the Greek children, association with insulin resistance could be observed for the two CDKAL1-related SNPs: rs9356744 (??=?0.018, p?=?0.014) and rs2206734 (??=?0.024, p?=?0.001). CDKAL1-related variants have previously been associated with type 2 diabetes and insulin response. This study reports association of CDKAL1-related SNPs with insulin resistance, a clinical marker related to type 2 diabetes in a cross-sectional cohort of Greek children and adolescents of European descent.
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Breastfeeding and wheeze prevalence in pre-schoolers and pre-adolescents: the Genesis and Healthy Growth studies.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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To date, extensive research has been undertaken on a potential link of breastfeeding (BF) to wheezing illnesses. Nevertheless, an association remains to be established, partly due to age-dependent discrepancies and different definitions of exposures/outcomes across studies. We thus investigated the relation of diverse infantile feeding patterns with wheeze/asthma prevalence in two cohorts of children of different ages (preschool and preadolescent).
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The influence of early feeding practices on fruit and vegetable intake among preschool children in 4 European birth cohorts.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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Fruit and vegetable intake in children remains below recommendations in many countries. The long-term effects of early parental feeding practices on fruit and vegetable intake are not clearly established.
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Estimation of abdominal fat mass: validity of abdominal bioelectrical impedance analysis and a new model based on anthropometry compared with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.
Menopause
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Since abdominal adiposity has been associated with increased risk for chronic diseases, valid and low cost methods to estimate it are needed for clinical and research purposes. The aim of the current study was to develop and validate, using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method, a model that estimates abdominal fat mass percentage (AFM%) in white postmenopausal women based on simple and easy-to-apply anthropometric measurements. An additional aim was to validate an abdominal bioelectrical impedance analyzer (ViScan) for estimating waist circumference (WC) and AFM% in this group.
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Identification of lifestyle patterns associated with obesity and fat mass in children: the Healthy Growth Study.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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OBJECTIVE: To investigate possible associations of lifestyle patterns with obesity and fat mass in children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional epidemiological study. Principal component analysis was used to identify lifestyle patterns. SETTING: Primary schools from four regions in Greece. SUBJECTS: A total of 2073 schoolchildren (aged 9-13 years). RESULTS: Children in the fourth quartile of the lifestyle pattern combining higher dairy foods with more adequate breakfast consumption were 39·4 %, 45·2 % and 32·2 % less likely to be overweight/obese and in the highest quartile of sum of skinfold thicknesses and fat mass, respectively, than children in the first quartile of this pattern. Similarly, children in the fourth quartile of a lifestyle pattern comprising consumption of high-fibre foods, such as fruits, vegetables and wholegrain products, were 27·4 % less likely to be in the highest quartile of sum of skinfold thicknesses than children in the first lifestyle pattern quartile. Finally, children in the fourth quartile of a lifestyle pattern characterized by more time spent on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and more frequent meals were 38·0 %, 26·3 % and 29·5 % less likely to be overweight, centrally obese and in the highest quartile of fat mass, respectively, than their peers in the first quartile of this lifestyle pattern (all P < 0·05). CONCLUSIONS: The current study identified three lifestyle patterns (i.e. one pattern comprising higher dairy consumption with a more adequate breakfast; a second pattern characterized by increased consumption of high-fibre foods; and a third pattern combining higher physical activity levels with more frequent meals), which were all related with lower odds of obesity and/or increased fat mass levels. From a public health perspective, promotion of these patterns among children and their families should be considered as one of the components of any childhood obesity preventive initiative.
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Female sex, small size at birth and low family income increase the likelihood of insulin resistance in late childhood: the Healthy Growth Study.
Pediatr Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2013
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To identify among a wide range of perinatal indices, as well as certain family sociodemographic and parental characteristics, those independently associated with insulin resistance (IR) in late childhood.
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Childhood Obesity Risk Evaluation based on perinatal factors and family sociodemographic characteristics: CORE index.
Eur. J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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The aim of this study was to develop an index that estimates late childhood obesity risk based on certain perinatal and family sociodemographic characteristics. The study was cross-sectional with retrospectively collected data from a representative sample of 2,294 primary schoolchildren, aged 9-13 years, in four counties from north, west, central, and south Greece. Mothers prepregnancy weight status, maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal educational level, and infant weight gain in the first 6 months of life were combined with childrens gender for the development of the Childhood Obesity Risk Evaluation (CORE) index. The score of the CORE index ranged from 0 to 11 units and each unit was associated with an obesity risk probability (range, 4-40 %). Cutoff point analysis revealed that a score ? 5 units best discriminated obese from non-obese children. On the basis of this cutoff point, the sensitivity of the CORE index was 54 % and the corresponding specificity 65 %.
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The STK33-linked SNP rs4929949 is associated with obesity and BMI in two independent cohorts of Swedish and Greek children.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Recent genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a locus on chromosome 11p15.5, closely associated with serine/threonine kinase 33 (STK33), to be associated with body mass. STK33, a relatively understudied protein, has been linked to KRAS mutation-driven cancers and explored as a potential antineoplastic drug target. The strongest association with body mass observed at this loci in GWAS was rs4929949, a single nucleotide polymorphism located within intron 1 of the gene encoding STK33. The functional implications of rs4929949 or related variants have not been explored as of yet. We have genotyped rs4929949 in two cohorts, an obesity case-control cohort of 991 Swedish children, and a cross-sectional cohort of 2308 Greek school children. We found that the minor allele of rs4929949 was associated with obesity in the cohort of Swedish children and adolescents (OR?=?1.199 (95%CI: 1.002-1.434), p?=?0.047), and with body mass in the cross-sectional cohort of Greek children (??=?0.08147 (95% CI: 0.1345-0.1618), p?=?0.021). We observe the effects of rs4929949 on body mass to be detectable already at adolescence. Subsequent analysis did not detect any association of rs4929949 to phenotypic measurements describing body adiposity or to metabolic factors such as insulin levels, triglycerides and insulin resistance (HOMA).
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Association of total body and visceral fat mass with iron deficiency in preadolescents: the Healthy Growth Study.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2011
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The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of obesity, percentage body fat and visceral fat mass with body Fe status in a representative sample of 1493 schoolchildren aged 9-13 years. Anthropometric, body composition, biochemical, clinical (Tanner stage, age of menarche) and dietary intake data were collected. Fe deficiency (ID) was defined as transferrin saturation (TS) < 16 %; and Fe-deficiency anaemia (IDA) as ID with Hb < 120 g/l. Obese boys and girls and those in the highest quartiles of percentage body fat mass had significantly higher levels of serum ferritin (P ? 0.05) compared to their normal-weight peers and those in the corresponding lowest quartiles. Similarly, obese boys and girls and those in the highest quartiles of percentage body fat and visceral fat mass had significantly lower levels of TS (P ? 0.05) compared to normal-weight children and those in the corresponding lowest quartiles. The prevalence of ID and IDA was significantly higher in boys and girls in the highest quartiles of percentage body fat than in peers in the lowest quartile. Higher quartiles of percentage body fat and visceral fat mass were the main significant predictors of ID in boys, after controlling for other important confounders, with OR of 2.48 (95 % CI, 1.26, 4.88) and 2.12 (95 % CI, 1.07, 4.19), respectively. Similar significant associations were observed for girls. In conclusion, percentage body fat and visceral fat mass were positively associated with ID in both sexes of preadolescents. These associations might be attributed to the chronic inflammation induced by excess adiposity.
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Association of TMEM18 variants with BMI and waist circumference in children and correlation of mRNA expression in the PFC with body weight in rats.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2011
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Genome-wide association studies have shown a strong association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the near vicinity of the TMEM18 gene. The effects of the TMEM18-associated variants are more readily observed in children. TMEM18 encodes a 3TM protein, which locates to the nuclear membrane. The functional context of TMEM18 and the effects of its associated variants are as of yet undetermined. To further explore the effects of near-TMEM18 variants, we have genotyped two TMEM18-associated SNPs, rs6548238 and rs4854344, in a cohort of 2352 Greek children (Healthy Growth Study). Included in this study are data on anthropomorphic traits body weight, BMI z-score and waist circumference. Also included are dietary energy and macronutrient intake as measured via 24-h recall interviews. Major alleles of rs6548238 and rs4854344 were significantly associated with an increased risk of obesity (odds ratio = 1.489 (1.161-1.910) and 1.494 (1.165-1.917), respectively), and positively correlated to body weight (P = 0.017, P = 0.010) and waist circumference (P = 0.003, P = 0.003). An association to energy and macronutrient intake was not observed in this cohort. We also correlated food intake and body weight in a food choice model in rats to Tmem18 expression in central regions involved in feeding behavior. We observed a strong positive correlation between TMEM18 expression and body weight in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) (r = 0.5694, P = 0.0003) indicating a potential role for TMEM18 in higher functions related to feeding involving the PFC.
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Body size at birth modifies the effect of fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) rs9939609 polymorphism on adiposity in adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2011
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The present study was intended to examine whether ponderal index (PI) at birth modifies the effect of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) rs9939609 polymorphism on adiposity in European adolescents. A total of 628 adolescents aged 14·4 (se 1·3) years (56·8 % female) were recruited. PI was calculated from parental reports of birth weight and length (kg/m³), and the BMI (kg/m²), body fat percentage and fat mass index (FMI, kg/m²) were calculated. The rs9939609 polymorphism was genotyped and physical activity assessed by accelerometry. Sex, duration of pregnancy, pubertal status, centre and physical activity were used as confounders in all the analyses. The minor A allele of the FTO rs9939609 was significantly associated with higher BMI, body fat percentage and FMI (all P < 0·05) but not with PI. Significant interactions between PI and the rs9939609 polymorphism in terms of body fat percentage (P = 0·002) and FMI (P = 0·017) were detected. However, this polymorphism was only significantly associated with higher BMI, body fat percentage and FMI (all P < 0·05) in adolescents in the lower PI tertile. Indeed, both body fat percentage and FMI were higher in those adolescents in the lower PI tertile carrying the A allele of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism than in those with the TT genotype (25·0 (se 0·8) v. 22·1 (se 1·0) %, adjusted P = 0·030 and 5·6 (se 0·3) v. 4·6 (se 0·4) kg/m2, P = 0·031, respectively). Our findings suggest that those adolescents born with lower PI could be more vulnerable to the influence of the A risk allele of the FTO polymorphism on total adiposity content.
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Accuracy and correlates of visual and verbal instruments assessing maternal perceptions of childrens weight status: the Healthy Growth Study.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2011
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To examine the accuracy of maternal ability to classify their childrens weight status correctly using a verbal and a visual classification instrument and to detect significant correlates of maternal misperceptions.
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Plasma proteomic analysis in obese and overweight prepubertal children.
Eur. J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2011
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Childhood obesity represents one of the most challenging health problems of our century and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in adult life. Proteomics is a large-scale analysis of proteins, which provides, information on protein expression levels, post-translational modifications, subcellular localization and interactions.
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The effect of ponderal index at birth on the relationships between common LEP and LEPR polymorphisms and adiposity in adolescents.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2011
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This study examined the effect of ponderal index (PI) at birth on the relationships between eight common polymorphisms of the leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes and adiposity in adolescents. A total of 823 European adolescents (45.4% girls) aged 14.8 ± 1.4 years were genotyped for the LEP (rs2167270, rs12706832, rs10244329, rs2071045, and rs3828942) and LEPR (rs1137100, rs1137101, and rs8179183) polymorphisms. The PI was calculated from parental reports of birth weight and length. Fat mass index (FMI) was calculated. Analyses were adjusted for relevant confounders. An "adiposity-risk-allele score" based on genotypes at the three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with adolescents FMI in adolescents within the lower tertile of PI was calculated. The LEP rs10244329 and rs3828942 polymorphisms were associated with higher FMI only in adolescents within the lower PI tertile (+0.55 kg/m(2) per minor T allele, P = 0.040, and +0.58 kg/m(2) per major G allele, P = 0.028, respectively). The LEPR rs8179183 polymorphism was significantly associated with higher FMI in adolescents within the lower PI tertile (+0.87 kg/m(2) per minor C allele, P = 0.006). After correction for multiple comparisons, only the association between the LEPR rs8179183 and FMI persisted. However, each additional risk allele conferred 0.53 kg/m(2) greater FMI in adolescents within the lower tertile of PI (P = 0.008). In conclusion, our results suggest that those adolescents born with lower PI could be more vulnerable to the influence of the LEP rs10244329 and rs3828942 polymorphisms and LEPR rs8179183 polymorphism on total adiposity content. Due to the relatively small sample size, these findings should be replicated in further larger population samples.
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Possible site-specific effect of an intervention combining nutrition and lifestyle counselling with consumption of fortified dairy products on bone mass: the Postmenopausal Health Study II.
J. Bone Miner. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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The aim of the present study was to examine whether a holistic approach combining nutrition and lifestyle counselling with the consumption of milk and yoghurt enriched with calcium, vitamin D(3) and phylloquinone (vitamin K(1)) or menaquinone (vitamin K(2)) would have any additional benefit on bone mineral density (BMD) indices measured at various skeletal sites using two different techniques, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and quantitative ultrasonography (QUS). A sample of 115 postmenopausal women were randomized to three intervention groups, receiving daily via fortified milk and yoghurt and for 12 months, 800 mg calcium and 10 ?g vitamin D(3) (CaD group, n = 26); 800 mg calcium, 10 ?g vitamin D(3) and 100 ?g vitamin K(1) (CaDK1 group, n = 26); 800 mg calcium, 10 ?g vitamin D(3) and 100 ?g vitamin K(2) (CaDK2 group, n = 24); and a control group (CO group, n = 39) following their usual diet. All three intervention groups attended biweekly nutrition and lifestyle counselling sessions. Total BMD significantly increased in all three intervention groups and these changes were significantly higher compared to the CO (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the significant increases observed for L2-L4 BMD in the CaDK1 and CaDK2 groups were found to be significantly higher compared to the decrease observed in the CO (P = 0.001). No significant differences were observed for QUS parameters. The combined approach used in the current study led to favourable changes for all three intervention groups in total body BMD, while an additional benefit was observed for L2-L4 BMD in CaDK1 and CaDK2 groups. No significant differences were observed among groups in any of the QUS parameters.
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Polymorphisms in the CD36/FAT gene are associated with plasma vitamin E concentrations in humans.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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Blood vitamin E concentrations are modulated by dietary, metabolic, and genetic factors. CD36 (cluster of differentiation 36), a class B scavenger receptor, might be involved in tissue vitamin E uptake and thus would influence blood vitamin E concentrations.
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FTO genotype and adiposity in children: physical activity levels influence the effect of the risk genotype in adolescent males.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2010
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Studies of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene provide compelling evidence of genetic variation in the general population that influences fat levels and obesity risk. Studies of the interaction between genetic and environmental factors such as physical activity (PA) will promote the understanding of how lifestyle can modulate genetic contributions to obesity. In this study, we investigated the effect of FTO genotype, and interactions with PA or energy intake, in young children and adolescents. In all, 1-5-year-old children from the Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS) study (N=1980) and 11-18-year-old Greek adolescents (N=949) were measured for adiposity-related phenotypes and genotyped at the FTO single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker, rs17817449. Adolescents were classified as physically active or inactive based on self-reported levels of PA. In adolescents, FTO genotype influenced weight (P=0.001) and BMI (P=0.007). There was also a significant SNP(*)PA(*)gender interaction (P=0.028) on BMI, which reflected the association between FTO genotype and BMI in males (P=0.016), but not females (P=0.15), and significant SNP(*)PA interaction in males (P=0.007), but not females (P=0.74). The FTO genotype effect was more pronounced in inactive than active males. Inactive males homozygous for the G allele had a mean BMI 3?kg/m(2) higher than T carriers (P=0.008). In the GENESIS study, no significant association between FTO genotype and adiposity was found. The present findings highlight PA as an important factor modifying the effect of FTO genotype.
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Calcium and vitamin D supplementation through fortified dairy products counterbalances seasonal variations of bone metabolism indices: the Postmenopausal Health Study.
Eur J Nutr
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2010
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To assess the effectiveness of a dietary intervention combined with fortified dairy products on bone metabolism and bone mass indices in postmenopausal women.
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Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the FADS gene cluster are associated with delta-5 and delta-6 desaturase activities estimated by serum fatty acid ratios.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2010
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Genetic variability in the FADS1-FADS2 gene cluster [encoding delta-5 (D5D) and delta-6 (D6D) desaturases] has been associated with plasma long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) and lipid levels in adults. To better understand these relationships, we further characterized the association between FADS1-FADS2 genetic variability and D5D and D6D activities in adolescents. Thirteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 1,144 European adolescents (mean +/- SD age: 14.7 +/- 1.4 y). Serum phospholipid fatty acid levels were analyzed using gas chromatography. D5D and D6D activities were estimated from the C20:4n-6/C20:3n-6 and C20:3n-6/C18:2n-6 ratios, respectively. Minor alleles of nine SNPs were associated with higher 18:2n-6 levels (1.9E-18
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Development of a diet-lifestyle quality index for young children and its relation to obesity: the Preschoolers Diet-Lifestyle Index.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2010
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To develop an index that assesses the degree of adherence to existing diet-lifestyle recommendations for preschoolers (Preschoolers Diet-Lifestyle Index (PDL-Index)) and to investigate its association with obesity.
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Determinants of childhood obesity and association with maternal perceptions of their childrens weight status: the "GENESIS" study.
J Am Diet Assoc
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2010
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Prevention of early childhood obesity requires a clear understanding of its determinants. This study examined perinatal, parental, and lifestyle determinants of childhood obesity and how these factors are associated with maternal misperceptions of their childrens weight status. The current work presents a cross-sectional analysis of 2,374 children, age 1 to 5 years, living in Greece (April 2003 to July 2004). The 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts were used to classify children as overweight (?85th and <95th body mass index [BMI]-for-age percentile for children older than 24 months) and obese (?95th weight-for-length percentile for children younger than 24 months and ?95th BMI-for-age percentile for children older than 24 months). Maternal perceptions about their childrens weight status were assessed via interviews with the mothers. Early infancy growth data were obtained from pediatric medical records. The present study showed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 16.2% and 17.5%, respectively. Each unit increase of maternal and paternal BMI significantly increased the likelihood of childhood obesity by a factor of 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01 to 1.07) and 1.15 (95% CI: 1.10 to 1.20), respectively. Furthermore, children with a rapid weight gain in infancy were 1.9 (95% CI: 1.3 to 2.7) times more likely to be overweight and 1.5 (95% CI: 1.2 to 1.9) times more likely to have their weight status underestimated by their mother. In conclusion, rapid infancy weight gain and higher parental BMI were the main determinants of obesity in preschool years. Maternal underestimation of childrens weight status was more likely for children with rapid weight gain in infancy.
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The effects of a 30-month dietary intervention on bone mineral density: the Postmenopausal Health Study.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2010
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Low dietary Ca intake and vitamin D insufficiency have been implicated as part of the aetiology leading to osteoporosis. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a 30-month dietary intervention that combined supplementation of dairy products fortified with Ca and vitamin D3 and lifestyle and nutrition counselling sessions on bone mineral density (BMD) of postmenopausal women. Sixty-six postmenopausal women (aged 55-65 years) were randomised into a dietary group (DG; n 35), receiving daily and for the first 12 months 1200 mg Ca and 7.5 microg vitamin D3, while for the next 18 months of intervention 1200 mg Ca and 22.5 microg vitamin D3 through fortified dairy products, and a control group (CG; n 31) receiving neither counselling nor dairy products. The DG was found to have more favourable changes in arms (P < 0.001), total spine (P = 0.001) and total body BMD (P < 0.001) compared with the CG. Furthermore, a significant increase was observed for the DG in lumbar spine BMD (0.056; 95 % CI 0.009, 0.103), which was not found to differentiate significantly compared with the change observed in the CG (P = 0.075). In conclusion, the present study showed that intakes of vitamin D of about 22.5 microg/d and of Ca close to the recommended level of 1200 mg from fortified dairy foods for 30 months, with compliance ensured by lifestyle and nutrition counselling sessions, can induce favourable changes in arms, total spine and total body BMD of postmenopausal women.
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Development and validation of two equations estimating body composition for overweight and obese postmenopausal women.
Maturitas
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2009
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The aim of this study was to develop and validate two equations that best predict body composition of overweight and obese postmenopausal women.
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Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and body composition in postmenopausal women: the postmenopausal Health Study.
Menopause
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2009
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The present study examined the association between body composition measurements, using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and anthropometry, with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in nonosteoporotic, postmenopausal women.
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Changes in body composition following a dietary and lifestyle intervention trial: the postmenopausal health study.
Maturitas
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2009
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To examine whether dietary changes and the consumption of dairy products fortified with calcium and vitamin D3 versus the use of a calcium supplement alone could have any effect on anthropometric and body composition indices of postmenopausal women over a 12-month period.
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Additional benefit in CVD risk indices derived from the consumption of fortified milk when combined with a lifestyle intervention.
Public Health Nutr
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OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of fortified milk combined with a lifestyle and counselling programme on several CVD risk factors after a 3-month dietary intervention. DESIGN: Hypercholesterolaemic adults were randomized to a group supplemented with low-fat milk that was enriched with phytosterols, ?-linolenic and linoleic fatty acids, vitamins and antioxidants (enriched milk group, EMG: n 40), a placebo milk group (PMG: n 36) or a control group (CG: n 25). The EMG and PMG consumed respectively 500 ml of enriched milk or placebo milk daily and attended biweekly counselling sessions over a 3-month period. SETTING: Harokopio University, Athens, Greece. SUBJECTS: A sample of 101 hypercholesterolemic adults aged 40-60 years. RESULTS: Regarding lifestyle changes, total and saturated fat intakes decreased significantly in both intervention groups compared with the CG (P < 0·005). Furthermore, total steps were increased (P = 0·029) and BMI was decreased (P = 0·017) significantly in both intervention groups compared with the CG. Regarding biochemical indices, EPA content in erythrocyte membranes increased (P < 0·001) while serum C-reactive protein decreased (P = 0·003) significantly in both intervention groups compared with the CG. Finally, significant increases in plasma folic acid and vitamin B12 levels and a significant decrease in homocysteine levels were observed in the EMG compared with the PMG and CG (all P < 0·001). A favourable change in LDL cholesterol:HDL cholesterol was also observed in the EMG and tended to be significant compared with the PMG and CG (P = 0·066). CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that consumption of fortified milk accompanied with lifestyle counselling induces extra benefits in terms of LDL cholesterol:HDL cholesterol and serum homocysteine levels.
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The MAP2K5-linked SNP rs2241423 is associated with BMI and obesity in two cohorts of Swedish and Greek children.
BMC Med. Genet.
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Recent genome-wide association studies have identified a single nucleotide polymorphism within the last intron of MAP2K5 associated with a higher body mass index (BMI) in adults. MAP2K5 is a component of the MAPK-family intracellular signaling pathways, responding to extracellular growth factors such as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF). In this study, we examined the association of this variant in two cohorts of children from Sweden and Greece.
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Changes in parameters of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women following a 12-month intervention period using dairy products enriched with calcium, vitamin D, and phylloquinone (vitamin K(1)) or menaquinone-7 (vitamin K (2)): the Postmenopausal Health S
Calcif. Tissue Int.
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The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of dairy products enriched with calcium, vitamin D(3), and phylloquinone (vitamin K(1)) or menaquinone-7 (vitamin K(2)) on parameters of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women following a 12-month intervention. Postmenopausal women were divided into three intervention groups and a control group (CG). All three intervention groups attended biweekly sessions and received fortified dairy products providing daily 800 mg of calcium and 10 ?g of vitamin D(3) (CaD). Furthermore, in two of the three intervention groups the dairy products were also enriched with vitamin K, providing daily 100 ?g of either phylloquinone (CaDK1) or menaquinone-7 (CaDK2). The increase observed for serum 25(OH)D levels in all intervention groups and the increase observed for serum IGF-I levels in the CaDK2 group differed significantly compared to the changes observed in CG (P = 0.010 and P = 0.028, respectively). Furthermore, both the CaDK1 and CaDK2 groups had a significantly lower mean serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin to osteocalcin ratio and urine deoxypyridinoline levels at follow-up compared to the CaD and CG groups (P = 0.001 and P = 0.047, respectively). Significant increases in total-body BMD were observed in all intervention groups compared to CG (P < 0.05), while significant increases in lumbar spine BMD were observed only for CaDK1 and CaDK2 compared to CG (P < 0.05) after controlling for changes in serum 25(OH)D levels and dietary calcium intake. In conclusion, the present study revealed more favorable changes in bone metabolism and bone mass indices for the two vitamin K-supplemented groups, mainly reflected in the suppression of serum levels of bone remodeling indices and in the more positive changes in lumbar spine BMD for these two study groups.
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Genome wide analysis reveals association of a FTO gene variant with epigenetic changes.
Genomics
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Variants of the FTO gene show strong association with obesity, but the mechanisms behind this association remain unclear. We determined the genome wide DNA methylation profile in blood from 47 female preadolescents. We identified sites associated with the genes KARS, TERF2IP, DEXI, MSI1, STON1 and BCAS3 that had a significant differential methylation level in the carriers of the FTO risk allele (rs9939609). In addition, we identified 20 differentially methylated sites associated with obesity. Our findings suggest that the effect of the FTO obesity risk allele may be mediated through epigenetic changes. Further, these sites might prove to be valuable biomarkers for the understanding of obesity and its comorbidites.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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