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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
miR-142 regulates the tumorigenicity of human breast cancer stem cells through the canonical WNT signaling pathway.
Elife
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of stem and progenitor cell functions. We previously reported that miR-142 and miR-150 are upregulated in human breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) as compared to the non-tumorigenic breast cancer cells. In this study, we report that miR-142 efficiently recruits the APC mRNA to an RNA-induced silencing complex, activates the canonical WNT signaling pathway in an APC-suppression dependent manner, and activates the expression of miR-150. Enforced expression of miR-142 or miR-150 in normal mouse mammary stem cells resulted in the regeneration of hyperproliferative mammary glands in vivo. Knockdown of endogenous miR-142 effectively suppressed organoid formation by BCSCs and slowed tumor growth initiated by human BCSCs in vivo. These results suggest that in some tumors, miR-142 regulates the properties of BCSCs at least in part by activating the WNT signaling pathway and miR-150 expression.
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Distribution profiling of circulating microRNAs in serum.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are potential biomarkers useful in cancer diagnosis. They have been found to be bound to various carriers like proteins, lipoprotein particles, and exosomes. It is likely that only miRNAs in particular carriers, but not the overall quantity, are directly related to cancer development. Herein, we developed a method for rapid separation of different miRNA carriers in serum using asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation (AF4). Sera from two healthy individuals (control) or from two cancer patients (case) were fractionated. Six fractions enriching different types of miRNA carriers, such as the lipoprotein particles and exosomes, were collected. The quantities of eight selected miRNAs in each fraction were obtained by RT-qPCR to yield their distribution profiles among the carriers. Larger changes in miRNA quantity between the control and the case were detected in the fractionated results compared to the sum values. Statistical analysis on the distribution profiles also proved that, the quantities of 4 miRNAs within particular fractions showed significant difference between the controls and the cases. On the contrary, if the overall quantity of the miRNA was subject to the same statistical analysis, only 2 miRNAs exhibited significant difference. Moreover, principle component analysis revealed good separation between the controls and the cases with the fractionated miRNA amounts. All in all, we have demonstrated that, our method enables comprehensive screening of the distribution of circulating miRNAs in the carriers. The obtained distribution profile enlarges the miRNA expression difference between healthy individuals and cancer patients, facilitating the discovery of specific miRNA biomarkers for cancer diagnosis.
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The role of transplant in multiple myeloma.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Over the past decades significant therapeutic advances have been made in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). A population-based study of 45,595 patients showed substantial incremental increases in myeloma-specific survival in patients younger than 80 years treated between 1973 and 2009. Depth of response to therapy has long been associated with improved long-term outcomes. Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) was previously the only modality capable of inducing a very good partial response (VGPR) or complete response in a substantial proportion of patients. The introduction of 2 classes of novel agents, immunomodulatory drugs and proteasome inhibitors, resulted in induction regimens that achieve VGPR rates exceeding 60% even before transplant, thus challenging the role of ASCT. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) has also been tested in patients with MM; however, its current role remains undefined given the high rates of transplant-related mortality and chronic graft-versus-host disease. Posttransplant consolidation and maintenance strategies have further improved progression-free and overall survivals. This article discusses the current roles of ASCT, allo-SCT, and consolidation and maintenance therapies in the management of MM.
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TGF? Induces "BRCAness" and Sensitivity to PARP Inhibition in Breast Cancer by Regulating DNA-Repair Genes.
Mol. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Transforming growth factor beta (TGF?) proteins are multitasking cytokines, in which high levels at tumor sites generally correlate with poor prognosis in human patients with cancer. Previously, it was reported that TGF? downregulates the expression of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and mutS homolog 2 (MSH2) in breast cancer cells through an miRNA-mediated mechanism. In this study, expression of a panel of DNA-repair genes was examined, identifying breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) as a target downregulated by TGF? through the miR181 family. Correlations between the expression levels of TGF?1 and the miR181/BRCA1 axis were observed in primary breast tumor specimens. By downregulating BRCA1, ATM, and MSH2, TGF? orchestrates DNA damage response in certain breast cancer cells to induce a "BRCAness" phenotype, including impaired DNA-repair efficiency and synthetic lethality to the inhibition of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Xenograft tumors with active TGF? signaling exhibited resistance to the DNA-damaging agent doxorubicin but increased sensitivity to the PARP inhibitor ABT-888. Combination of doxorubicin with ABT-888 significantly improved the treatment efficacy in TGF?-active tumors. Thus, TGF? can induce "BRCAness" in certain breast cancers carrying wild-type BRCA genes and enhance the responsiveness to PARP inhibition, and the molecular mechanism behind this is characterized.
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Impact of the Addition of Carboplatin and/or Bevacizumab to Neoadjuvant Once-per-Week Paclitaxel Followed by Dose-Dense Doxorubicin and Cyclophosphamide on Pathologic Complete Response Rates in Stage II to III Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: CALGB 40603 (Alliance).
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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One third of patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) achieve pathologic complete response (pCR) with standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). CALGB 40603 (Alliance), a 2 × 2 factorial, open-label, randomized phase II trial, evaluated the impact of adding carboplatin and/or bevacizumab.
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A cell-intrinsic role for TLR2-MYD88 in intestinal and breast epithelia and oncogenesis.
Nat. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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It has been postulated that there is a link between inflammation and cancer. Here we describe a role for cell-intrinsic toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2; which is involved in inflammatory response) signalling in normal intestinal and mammary epithelial cells and oncogenesis. The downstream effectors of TLR2 are expressed by normal intestinal and mammary epithelia, including the stem/progenitor cells. Deletion of MYD88 or TLR2 in the intestinal epithelium markedly reduces DSS-induced colitis regeneration and spontaneous tumour development in mice. Limiting dilution transplantations of breast epithelial cells devoid of TLR2 or MYD88 revealed a significant decrease in mammary repopulating unit frequency compared with the control. Inhibition of TLR2, its co-receptor CD14, or its downstream targets MYD88 and IRAK1 inhibits growth of human breast cancers in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that inhibitors of the TLR2 pathway merit investigation as possible therapeutic and chemoprevention agents.
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Breast cancer version 3.2014.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in the United States and is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer death. The overall management of breast cancer includes the treatment of local disease with surgery, radiation therapy, or both, and the treatment of systemic disease with cytotoxic chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, biologic therapy, or combinations of these. The NCCN Guidelines specific to management of large clinical stage II and III tumors are discussed in this article. These guidelines are the work of the members of the NCCN Breast Cancer Panel. Expert medical clinical judgment is required to apply these guidelines in the context of an individual patient to provide optimal care. Although not stated at every decision point of the guidelines, patient participation in prospective clinical trials is the preferred option of treatment for all stages of breast cancer.
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Cancer-secreted miR-105 destroys vascular endothelial barriers to promote metastasis.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Cancer-secreted microRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging mediators of cancer-host crosstalk. Here we show that miR-105, which is characteristically expressed and secreted by metastatic breast cancer cells, is a potent regulator of migration through targeting the tight junction protein ZO-1. In endothelial monolayers, exosome-mediated transfer of cancer-secreted miR-105 efficiently destroys tight junctions and the integrity of these natural barriers against metastasis. Overexpression of miR-105 in nonmetastatic cancer cells induces metastasis and vascular permeability in distant organs, whereas inhibition of miR-105 in highly metastatic tumors alleviates these effects. miR-105 can be detected in the circulation at the premetastatic stage, and its levels in the blood and tumor are associated with ZO-1 expression and metastatic progression in early-stage breast cancer.
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Human epidermal growth factor receptor family-targeted therapies in the treatment of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Breast cancer characterized by overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) has been associated with more aggressive disease progression and a poorer prognosis. Although an improved understanding of breast cancer pathogenesis and the role of HER2 signaling has resulted in significant survival improvements in the past 20 years, resistance to HER2-targeted therapy remains a concern. A number of strategies to prevent or overcome resistance to HER2-targeted therapy in breast cancer are being evaluated. This article provides a comprehensive review of (a) the role of HER2 signaling in breast cancer pathogenesis, (b) potential receptor and downstream therapeutic targets in breast cancer to overcome resistance to HER2-targeted therapy, and (c) clinical trials evaluating agents targeting one or more members of the HER family and/or downstream pathways for the treatment of breast cancer, with a focus on metastatic disease.
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Barriers to treatment in patients with locally advanced breast cancer.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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Delays between presentation and treatment could have a significant effect on breast cancer mortality. The authors hypothesized that patient, physician, and system barriers are all responsible for treatment delays. Therefore, a study was conducted to define prevalent barriers to treatment from the patients perspective. A modified 43-item Likert-scale questionnaire was administered to patients with clinical stage III locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) who had experienced a delay in treatment of 3 months or more. Between October 2008 and January 2010, 153 patients presented with LABC; 43 patients (28.1%) met eligibility, and 40 completed the questionnaire. Among the patient barriers reported, 38% of patients delayed care for fear of losing their breast and 47% awaited previously scheduled routine appointments instead of seeking care. Among the physician barriers reported, 20% of physicians of initial contact did not believe the breast lump/symptom was related to cancer and 15% did not believe it needed a biopsy. Among the system barriers reported, the most prevalent were delays in performing diagnostic tests and obtaining insurance authorization for tests, treatment, or physician visits. Substantial delays were seen in 28.1% of patients from presentation to when they sought therapy at City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center. The high prevalence of patient barriers versus physician/system barriers suggests that increased educational efforts for patients and health care professionals are needed.
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A phase II study of docetaxel and vinorelbine plus filgrastim for HER-2 negative, stage IV breast cancer: SWOG S0102.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2013
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Docetaxel and vinorelbine have demonstrated Single-agent activity in breast cancer. Preclinical studies suggest potential synergy between these antitubulin chemotherapy agents. This study evaluates these drugs in combination in metastatic breast cancer. Taxane-naive patients with HER-2 negative, stage IV breast cancer without prior chemotherapy for metastatic disease, were eligible. Docetaxel (60 mg/m(2)) was given intravenously on Day 1, vinorelbine (27.5 mg/m(2)) intravenously on Days 8 and 15, and filgrastim on Days 2-21 of a 21-day cycle. The primary study outcome was one-year overall survival (OS), with secondary outcomes of progression-free survival (PFS), response rate (RR), and toxicity. Of 95 patients registered, 92 were eligible and received treatment. One-year OS was 74 % (95 % CI 64-82 %) with a median OS of 22.3 months (95 % CI 18.8-31.4 months). One-year PFS was 34 % (95 % CI 24-43 %) with median of 7.2 months (95 % CI 6.4-10.3). OS at 2 and 3 years were 49 % (95 % CI 38-59 %) and 30 % (95 % CI 21-40 %), respectively. OS was poorer for women with estrogen-receptor negative disease (n = 32) compared to estrogen-receptor positive (n = 60) (log-rank p = 0.031), but PFS was not significantly different (p = 0.11). RR was 59 % among the 74 patients with measurable disease. Grade 3 and 4 adverse events were 48 and 16 %, respectively. Grade 4 neutropenia was 12 % and grade 3/4 febrile neutropenia was 3 %. Common grade 3/4 nonhematologic toxicities were fatigue (14 %), pneumonitis (10 %), and dyspnea (9 %). The combination of docetaxel and vinorelbine is an active first-line chemotherapy in HER-2 nonoverexpressing, metastatic breast cancer. This combination is associated with significant hematologic and nonhematologic toxicity. The safety profile and expense of the filgrastim limit recommendations for routine use.
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Analysis of circulating tumor cells in breast cancer.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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Over the past few decades, substantial progress has been made in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Early identification of relapsed and metastatic disease has been a primary focus of ongoing research. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are implicated as harbingers of metastases. With advances in detection technologies, CTCs offer the option for real-time liquid biopsies. Methods to identify CTCs in the bloodstream by physical or biochemical properties, although feasible, still require improvements to promote widespread, reproducible use. Sufficient data support enumeration and assessment of changes in the number of CTCs as prognostic indicators, but controversy around their predictive utility for selecting treatments remains. As the technology to detect CTCs and characterize their heterogeneous molecular profile evolves, additional information will likely be obtained to guide targeted and individualized therapies.
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Breast cancer, version 3.2013: featured updates to the NCCN guidelines.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2013
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These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight the important updates specific to the management of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer in the 2013 version of the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Breast Cancer. These include new first-line and subsequent therapy options for patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer.
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The Effect of Aromatase Inhibition on the Cognitive Function of Older Patients With Breast Cancer.
Clin. Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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This study evaluated the association between aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy and cognitive function (over a 6-month period) in a cohort of patients aged ? 60 years compared with an age-matched healthy control group, and it evaluated changes in regional cerebral metabolism as measured by positron emission tomography (PET) scans of the brain done in a subset of the patient cohort.
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Phase I/II Trial of Vinorelbine and Sorafenib in Metastatic Breast Cancer.
Clin. Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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We investigated the efficacy and toxicity of sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, in combination with vinorelbine therapy in a phase I/II trial in patients with metastatic breast cancer.
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Molecular subtyping of early-stage breast cancer identifies a group of patients who do not benefit from neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and long-term outcome (distant metastases-free survival [DMFS]) in patients with early-stage breast cancer using BluePrint and MammaPrint molecular subtyping versus clinical subtyping using immunohistochemistry/fluorescence in situ hybridization (IHC/FISH) for the determination of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2). Data were analyzed from 437 patients in four neoadjuvant chemotherapy trials. BluePrint and MammaPrint outcomes were determined from 44K Agilent arrays, the I-SPY 1 data portal, or Affymetrix U133A arrays. The pCR rate differed substantially among BluePrint molecular subgroups: 6 % in Luminal A-type, 10 % in Luminal B-type, 47 % in HER2-type, and 37 % in Basal-type patients. In the Luminal A-type group (n = 90; including seven HER2-positive patients and eight triple-negative patients by IHC/FISH), the 5-year DMFS rate was 93 %. The pCR rate provided no prognostic information, suggesting these patients may not benefit from chemotherapy. Forty-three of 107 (40 %) HER2-positive patients were classified as Luminal-type by BluePrint and may have lower response rates to targeted therapy. Molecular subtyping identified 90 of 435 (21 %) patients as Luminal A-type (BluePrint Luminal-type/MammaPrint Low Risk) with excellent survival. The pCR rate provided no prognostic information. Molecular subtyping can improve the stratification of patients in the neoadjuvant setting: Luminal A-type (MammaPrint Low Risk) patients have a good prognosis with excellent survival and do not seem to benefit from chemotherapy. We observed marked benefit in response and DMFS to neoadjuvant treatment in patients subtyped as HER2-type and Basal-type. BluePrint with MammaPrint molecular subtyping helps to improve prognostic estimation and the choice of therapy versus IHC/FISH.
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Dasatinib : a novel therapy for breast cancer?
Expert Opin Investig Drugs
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Dasatinib is a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor with activity against the Src family kinases. The Src pathway is active in breast cancer and has been shown to promote cell proliferation, invasiveness, and metastases. Preclinical data support the use of dasatinib to inhibit breast cancer cell growth, modulate hormone and EGFR signaling, and alter cell migration.
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Dasatinib plus capecitabine for advanced breast cancer: safety and efficacy in phase I study CA180004.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Dasatinib is an Src family kinase inhibitor with modest activity in advanced breast cancer. We aimed to assess toxicity and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for dasatinib plus capecitabine, estimate efficacy, and explore effects on angiogenesis.
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A phase 2 multicentre study of siltuximab, an anti-interleukin-6 monoclonal antibody, in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Interleukin-6 (IL6) plays a central role in multiple myeloma pathogenesis and confers resistance to corticosteroid-induced apoptosis. We therefore evaluated the efficacy and safety of siltuximab, an anti-IL6 monoclonal antibody, alone and in combination with dexamethasone, for patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who had ? 2 prior lines of therapy, one of which had to be bortezomib-based. Fourteen initial patients received siltuximab alone, 10 of whom had dexamethasone added for suboptimal response; 39 subsequent patients were treated with concurrent siltuximab and dexamethasone. Patients received a median of four prior lines of therapy, 83% were relapsed and refractory, and 70% refractory to their last dexamethasone-containing regimen. Suppression of serum C-reactive protein levels, a surrogate marker of IL6 inhibition, was demonstrated. There were no responses to siltuximab but combination therapy yielded a partial (17%) + minimal (6%) response rate of 23%, with responses seen in dexamethasone-refractory disease. The median time to progression, progression-free survival and overall survival for combination therapy was 4.4, 3.7 and 20.4 months respectively. Haematological toxicity was common but manageable. Infections occurred in 57% of combination-treated patients, including ? grade 3 infections in 18%. Further study of siltuximab in modern corticosteroid-containing myeloma regimens is warranted, with special attention to infection-related toxicity.
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Multiple myeloma, version 1.2013.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
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These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight the important updates/changes specific to the management of relapsed or progressive disease in the 2013 version of the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Multiple Myeloma. These changes include the addition of new regimens as options for salvage therapy and strategies to mitigate the adverse effects and risks associated with newer regimens for the treatment of multiple myeloma.
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Enrollment onto breast cancer therapeutic clinical trials: a tertiary cancer center experience.
Appl Nurs Res
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Advances in breast cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment are in part the result of patient involvement in clinical trials. Despite increases in new clinical research initiatives and trials open to accrual, only 2-3% of women with breast cancer enroll. There is a need to identify the barriers interfering patient accrual.
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Role of SMC1 in overcoming drug resistance in triple negative breast cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is one of the hardest subtypes of breast cancer to treat due to the heterogeneity of the disease and absence of well-defined molecular targets. Emerging evidence has shown the role of cohesin in the formation and progression of various cancers including colon and lung cancer but the role of cohesin in breast cancer remains elusive. Our data showed that structural maintenance of chromosome 1 (SMC1), a subunit of the cohesin protein complex, is differentially overexpressed both at RNA and protein level in a panel of TNBC cell lines as compared to normal epithelial or luminal breast cancer cells, suggesting that the amplified product of this normal gene may play role in tumorigenesis in TNBC. In addition, our results show that induced overexpression of SMC1 through transient transfection enhanced cell migration and anchorage independent growth while its suppression with targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced the migration ability of TNBC cells. Increased expression of SMC1 also lead to increase in the mesenchymal marker vimentin and decrease in the normal epithelial marker, E-cadherin. Immunocytochemical studies along with flow cytometry and cell fractionation showed the localization of SMC1 in the nucleus, cytoplasm and also in the plasma membrane. The knockdown of SMC1 by siRNA sensitized the TNBC cells towards a PARP inhibitor (ABT-888) and IC?? was approximately three fold less than ABT-888 alone. The cytotoxic effect of combination of SMC1 suppression and ABT-888 was also confirmed by the colony propagation assay. Taken together, these studies report for the first time that SMC1 is overexpressed in TNBC cells where it plays a role in cell migration and drug sensitivity, and thus provides a potential therapeutic target for this highly invasive breast cancer subtype.
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Autologous haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation followed by allogeneic or autologous haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation in patients with multiple myeloma (BMT CTN 0102): a phase 3 biological assignment trial.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2011
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Autologous haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) improves survival in patients with multiple myeloma, but disease progression remains an issue. Allogeneic HSCT might reduce disease progression, but can be associated with high treatment-related mortality. Thus, we aimed to assess effectiveness of allogeneic HSCT with non-myeloablative conditioning after autologous HSCT compared with tandem autologous HSCT.
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Sequential bortezomib, dexamethasone, and thalidomide maintenance therapy after single autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation in patients with multiple myeloma.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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We report feasibility and response results of a phase II study investigating prolonged weekly bortezomib and dexamethasone followed by thalidomide and dexamethasone as maintenance therapy after single autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in patients with multiple myeloma. Within 4 to 8 weeks of ASCT, patients received weekly bortezomib and dexamethasone for six cycles, followed by thalidomide and dexamethasone for six more cycles. Thalidomide alone was continued until disease progression. Forty-five patients underwent ASCT. Forty patients started maintenance therapy; of these, 36 patients received four cycles, and 32 completed six cycles of maintenance bortezomib. Of these 40 patients, nine (22%) were in complete response (CR) before ASCT, 13 (32%) achieved CR after ASCT but before bortezomib maintenance therapy, and 21 (53%) achieved CR after bortezomib maintenance therapy. Nine patients not previously in CR (33%) upgraded their response to CR with bortezomib maintenance. At 1 year post-ASCT, 20 patients achieved CR, and two achieved very good partial response. Twenty-seven patients experienced peripheral neuropathy during bortezomib therapy, all grade 1 or 2. Our findings indicate that prolonged sequential weekly bortezomib, dexamethasone, and thalidomide maintenance therapy after single ASCT is feasible and well tolerated. Bortezomib maintenance treatment upgraded post-ASCT CR responses with no severe grade 3/4 peripheral neuropathy.
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Combining emerging agents in advanced breast cancer.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
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Newer treatments have improved survival for patients with metastatic breast cancer over the last two decades, and a battery of new cytotoxic and targeted therapies is continuing to enhance this trend. This review outlines recent data and ongoing research in this area, by highlighting new developments (regarding approved but relatively new classes of cytotoxic and targeted agents) and also new classes of targeted therapy that are undergoing clinical evaluation. Mechanisms for synergy between agents are discussed where data are available, as is information on the rationale behind the development of agents that inhibit angiogenesis, DNA repair, histone deacetylases, heat shock proteins, or various signaling pathways in tumor proliferation. The abundance of clinical research surrounding anticancer agents, together with ongoing cancer biology research, is expected to further increase the available pool of therapeutic options for metastatic breast cancer. Concomitantly, in the absence of an effective targeted monotherapy, a better understanding of the interplay between biologic and cytotoxic anticancer agents will improve our ability to rationally design combination regimens with better efficacy and tolerability.
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Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with calf muscle localization.
Case Rep Hematol
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2011
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Although diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) usually occurs in the lymph nodes, approximately 30-40% of the time it can have an extranodal site of involvement and it can arise in nearly every body site such as intestine, bone, breast, liver, skin, lung, and central nervous system. Muscle involvement of DLBCL is especially uncommon, comprising 0.5% of extranodal NHL. We report a case of a 72-year-old man with extranodal DLBCL of a unique manifestation in the calf muscle, involving predominantly the gastrocnemius muscle. The patient achieved complete response and remained free of local recurrence or metastasis following diagnosis.
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Alkaline phosphatase variation during carfilzomib treatment is associated with best response in multiple myeloma patients.
Eur. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2011
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The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway regulates bone formation through osteoblast differentiation. We analyzed variation alkaline phosphatase (ALP) during carfilzomib treatment. Data from 38 patients enrolled in the PX-171-003 and 29 patients in PX-171-004 studies, for patients with relapsed/refractory myeloma, were analyzed. All patients received 20 mg/m(2) of carfilzomib on Days 1, 2, 8, 9, 15, and 16 of a 28-day cycle. Sixty-seven patients from ALP data were evaluable. In PX-171-003, the ORR (>PR) was 18% and the clinical benefit response (CBR; >MR) was 26%, while in PX-171-004, the ORR was 35.5% overall and 57% in bortezomib-naive patients. ALP increment from baseline was statistically different in patients who achieved ? VGPR compared with all others on Days 1 (P = 0.0049) and 8 (P = 0.006) of Cycle 2. In patients achieving a VGPR or better, ALP increased more than 15 units per liter at Cycle 2 Day 1 over baseline. An ALP increase over the same period of time was seen in 26%, 13% and 11% of patients achieving PR, MR, and SD, respectively. This retrospective analysis of patients with relapsed or refractory myeloma treated with single-agent carfilzomib indicates that early elevation in ALP is associated with subsequent myeloma response.
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Multiple biomarker expression on circulating tumor cells in comparison to tumor tissues from primary and metastatic sites in patients with locally advanced/inflammatory, and stage IV breast cancer, using a novel detection technology.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2011
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Patients with locally advanced/inflammatory breast cancer (LABC/IBC) face a high likelyhood of recurrence and prognosis for relapsed, or de novo stage IV metastatic breast cancer (MBC) remains poor. Estrogen (ER) and HER2 receptor expression on primary or MBC allow targeted therapies, but an estimated 10-18% of tumors do not exhibit these biomarkers and survival in these cases is even poorer. Variations in discordance rates for the expression of ER and HER2 receptors have been observed between primary and metastatic tumors and such discordances may lead to suboptimal treatment. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are considered the seeds of residual disease and distant metastases and their characterization could help guide treatment selection. To explore this possibility, we used multiple biomarker assessment of CTCs in comparison to primary and metastatic tumor sites. Thirty-six patients with LABC/IBC, or stage IV MBC were evaluated. Blood samples were procured prior to initiating or changing therapy. CTCs were identified based on presence of cytokeratin and nucleus staining, and the absence of CD45. A multimarker assay was developed to simultaneously quantify expression of HER2, ER, and ERCC1, a DNA excision repair protein. Novel fiber-optic array scanning technology (FAST) was used for sensitive location of CTCs. CTCs were detected in 82% of MBC and 62% LABC/IBC cases. Multiplex marker expression was successfully carried out in samples from18 patients with MBC and in 8 patients with LABC/IBC that contained CTCs. In MBC, we detected actionable discordance rates of 40 and 23%, respectively for ER and HER2 where a biomarker was negative in the primary or metastatic tumor and positive in the CTCs. In LABC/IBC, actionable discordances were 60 and 20% for ER and HER2, respectively. Pilot trials evaluating the effectiveness of treatment selections based on actionable discordances between biomarker expression patterns on CTCs and primary or metastatic tumor sites may allow for a prospective assessment of CTC-based individualized targeted therapies.
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Total marrow irradiation: a new ablative regimen as part of tandem autologous stem cell transplantation for patients with multiple myeloma.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2010
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To establish feasibility, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), and potential efficacy of ablative dose total marrow irradiation (TMI) delivered by helical tomotherapy in patients with multiple myeloma (MM).
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Cancer stem cells from human breast tumors are involved in spontaneous metastases in orthotopic mouse models.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2010
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To examine the role of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) in metastasis, we generated human-in-mouse breast cancer orthotopic models using patient tumor specimens, labeled with optical reporter fusion genes. These models recapitulate human cancer features not captured with previous models, including spontaneous metastasis in particular, and provide a useful platform for studies of breast tumor initiation and progression. With noninvasive imaging approaches, as few as 10 cells of stably labeled BCSCs could be tracked in vivo, enabling studies of early tumor growth and spontaneous metastasis. These advances in BCSC imaging revealed that CD44(+) cells from both primary tumors and lung metastases are highly enriched for tumor-initiating cells. Our metastatic cancer models, combined with noninvasive imaging techniques, constitute an integrated approach that could be applied to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying the dissemination of metastatic CSCs (MCSCs) and to explore therapeutic strategies targeting MCSCs in general or to evaluate individual patient tumor cells and predict response to therapy.
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STAT3-induced S1PR1 expression is crucial for persistent STAT3 activation in tumors.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2010
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Interleukin-6 (IL-6)-Janus kinase (JAK) signaling is viewed as crucial for persistent signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) activation in cancer. However, IL-6-induced STAT3 activation is normally transient. Here we identify a key mechanism for persistent STAT3 activation in tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment. We show that expression of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1PR1), a G protein-coupled receptor for the lysophospholipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), is elevated in STAT3-positive tumors. STAT3 is a transcription factor for the S1pr1 gene. Reciprocally, enhanced S1pr1 expression activates STAT3 and upregulates Il6 gene expression, thereby accelerating tumor growth and metastasis in a STAT3-dependent manner. Silencing S1pr1 in tumor cells or immune cells inhibits tumor STAT3 activity, tumor growth and metastasis. S1P-S1PR1-induced STAT3 activation is persistent, in contrast to transient STAT3 activation by IL-6. S1PR1 activates STAT3 in part by upregulating JAK2 tyrosine kinase activity. We show that STAT3-induced S1PR1 expression, as well as the S1P-S1PR1 pathway reciprocal regulation of STAT3 activity, is a major positive feedback loop for persistent STAT3 activation in cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment and for malignant progression.
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Novel targeted therapies in the treatment of soft-tissue sarcomas.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2010
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Systemic therapy options for sarcomas historically have been limited once these tumors become resistant to traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy. Ongoing preclinical research into their biology and clinical trials based on rational biologic targeting have identified novel therapies. For example, the success of imatinib in gastrointestinal stromal tumor has led to the use of other tyrosine kinase inhibitors in other sarcoma subtypes. Other novel therapies include targeting of the mTOR pathway, and IGF-1 receptor. The heterogeneity of these tumors demands intelligently designed protocols in recognizing efficacy that may be restricted to certain histologic subtypes. This article will cover recent trials of new biologic agents in sarcomas that have exhibited promising activity.
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A pretherapy biodistribution and dosimetry study of indium-111-radiolabeled trastuzumab in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-overexpressing breast cancer.
Cancer Biother. Radiopharm.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2010
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The purposes of this study were to evaluate the organ biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity, and tumor uptake of (111)Indium ((111)In)-MxDTPA-trastuzumab in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-overexpressing breast cancers and to determine whether (90)Y-MxDTPA-trastuzumab should be evaluated in subsequent clinical therapy trials.
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Diagnostic and therapeutic delays among a multiethnic sample of breast and cervical cancer survivors.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2010
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Several publications reporting on health disparities document that ethnic minorities disproportionately experience delays in healthcare access, delivery, and treatment. However, few studies examine factors underlying access and receipt of healthcare among cancer survivors from the patient perspective. This study explores diagnostic and therapeutic care delays among a multiethnic sample of breast and cervical cancer survivors and examines contextual factors influencing diagnostic and therapeutic care delays.
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Phase II clinical trial of imatinib mesylate in therapy of KIT and/or PDGFRalpha-expressing Ewing sarcoma family of tumors and desmoplastic small round cell tumors.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2010
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We have previously shown that the receptor tyrosine kinases, KIT and PDGFRalpha, are expressed on ESFT cell lines, and that imatinib induces dose-dependent apoptosis (1). We conducted a Phase II trial to evaluate the effectiveness of imatinib for patients with recurrent ESFT or DSRCT expressing KIT and/or PDGFRalpha.
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Papillary carcinoma of the breast: an overview.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2010
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Papillary carcinoma of the breast represents approximately 0.5% of all newly diagnosed cases of breast cancer. The prevalence of both invasive and in situ papillary carcinoma seems to be greater in older postmenopausal women and, in relative terms, in males. Histologic features of the tumor include cellular proliferations surrounding fibrovascular cores, with or without invasion. In this review, characteristics of both in situ and invasive disease are outlined. Immunohistochemical analyses of papillary carcinoma suggest the utility of markers such as smooth muscle myosin heavy chain, calponin, p63, and high molecular weight keratins, which can characterize the myoepithelial cell layer. With respect to radiographic evaluation of papillary carcinoma, ultrasonography is the most extensively studied imaging modality, though magnetic resonance mammography has potential utility. Available data suggest improved outcome for papillary carcinoma as compared to invasive ductal carcinoma. Treatment-related information for patients with papillary carcinoma is limited, and patterns noted in available series suggest a variable approach to this disease. The scarcity of information underscores the need for further treatment- and outcome-related studies in papillary carcinoma of the breast.
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Phase I trial of fixed-dose rate gemcitabine in combination with bortezomib in advanced solid tumors.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2010
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Bortezomib demonstrates synergism with gemcitabine via a fixed-dose rate (FDR). The aim of this phase I trial in solid tumors was to establish the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and safety data for this combination.
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Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid pharmacokinetics of topotecan in a phase I trial of topotecan, tamoxifen, and carboplatin, in the treatment of recurrent or refractory brain or spinal cord tumors.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2010
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This study was designed to ascertain the dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) and maximally tolerated doses of the combination of fixed-dose tamoxifen and carboplatin, with escalating doses of topotecan, and to determine the pharmacokinetics of topotecan in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid.
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Protein kinase A activation confers resistance to trastuzumab in human breast cancer cell lines.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2009
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Trastuzumab is a monoclonal antibody targeted to the Her2 receptor and approved for treatment of Her2-positive breast cancer. Among patients who initially respond to trastuzumab therapy, resistance typically arises within 1 year. BT/Her(R) cells are trastuzumab-resistant variants of Her2-positive BT474 breast cancer cells. The salient feature of BT/Her(R) cells is failure to downregulate phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling on trastuzumab binding. The current work addresses the mechanism of sustained signaling in BT/Her(R) cells, focusing on the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway.
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An association between invasive breast cancer and familial idiopathic hyperparathyroidism: a case series and review of the literature.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2009
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The possibility of an association between primary hyperparathyroidism and breast cancer has been postulated. We report here a sibship with three premenopausal breast cancers and hyperparathyroidism, and no detectable BRCA or MEN1 gene mutations. We explore genetic and molecular rationales for an association between these metabolic and neoplastic processes.
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Perspectives and attitudes on the use of adjuvant chemotherapy and trastuzumab in older adults with HER-2+ breast cancer: a survey of oncologists.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2009
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Substantial evidence supports the use of adjuvant trastuzumab with chemotherapy for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2(+) breast cancer; however, a lesser amount of data is available to guide use of this therapy in older patients and in those with significant medical comorbidities. The goal of the current study was to understand how patient age and health status impact oncologists decisions to recommend adjuvant therapy in older women with HER-2(+) breast cancer.
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Tandem high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous transplantation in patients with locally advanced or metastatic sarcoma.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2009
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Patients with locally advanced or metastatic/recurrent soft tissue and Ewings sarcoma (EWS) have few treatment options. The purpose of our phase II study was to assess the feasibility, safety and efficacy of tandem high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in such patients.
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Human papillomavirus infection as a prognostic factor in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas treated in a prospective phase II clinical trial.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2009
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The aim of this study was to determine the presence of high-risk HPV-16 in patients with HNSCC, assess the impact of HPV status on treatment response and survival in this select cohort treated with combined modality therapy and to identify the differences in HIF-1alpha and VEGF expression in HPV-positive and -negative tumors.
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Downregulation of miRNA-200c links breast cancer stem cells with normal stem cells.
Cell
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2009
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Human breast tumors contain a breast cancer stem cell (BCSC) population with properties reminiscent of normal stem cells. We found 37 microRNAs that were differentially expressed between human BCSCs and nontumorigenic cancer cells. Three clusters, miR-200c-141, miR-200b-200a-429, and miR-183-96-182 were downregulated in human BCSCs, normal human and murine mammary stem/progenitor cells, and embryonal carcinoma cells. Expression of BMI1, a known regulator of stem cell self-renewal, was modulated by miR-200c. miR-200c inhibited the clonal expansion of breast cancer cells and suppressed the growth of embryonal carcinoma cells in vitro. Most importantly, miR-200c strongly suppressed the ability of normal mammary stem cells to form mammary ducts and tumor formation driven by human BCSCs in vivo. The coordinated downregulation of three microRNA clusters and the similar functional regulation of clonal expansion by miR-200c provide a molecular link that connects BCSCs with normal stem cells.
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Analysis of cancer mutation signatures in blood by a novel ultra-sensitive assay: monitoring of therapy or recurrence in non-metastatic breast cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2009
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Tumor DNA has been shown to be present both in circulating tumor cells in blood and as fragments in the plasma of metastatic cancer patients. The identification of ultra-rare tumor-specific mutations in blood would be the ultimate marker to measure efficacy of cancer therapy and/or early recurrence. Herein we present a method for detecting microinsertions/deletions/indels (MIDIs) at ultra-high analytical selectivity. MIDIs comprise about 15% of mutations.
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Association of reactive oxygen species levels and radioresistance in cancer stem cells.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2009
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The metabolism of oxygen, although central to life, produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) that have been implicated in processes as diverse as cancer, cardiovascular disease and ageing. It has recently been shown that central nervous system stem cells and haematopoietic stem cells and early progenitors contain lower levels of ROS than their more mature progeny, and that these differences are critical for maintaining stem cell function. We proposed that epithelial tissue stem cells and their cancer stem cell (CSC) counterparts may also share this property. Here we show that normal mammary epithelial stem cells contain lower concentrations of ROS than their more mature progeny cells. Notably, subsets of CSCs in some human and murine breast tumours contain lower ROS levels than corresponding non-tumorigenic cells (NTCs). Consistent with ROS being critical mediators of ionizing-radiation-induced cell killing, CSCs in these tumours develop less DNA damage and are preferentially spared after irradiation compared to NTCs. Lower ROS levels in CSCs are associated with increased expression of free radical scavenging systems. Pharmacological depletion of ROS scavengers in CSCs markedly decreases their clonogenicity and results in radiosensitization. These results indicate that, similar to normal tissue stem cells, subsets of CSCs in some tumours contain lower ROS levels and enhanced ROS defences compared to their non-tumorigenic progeny, which may contribute to tumour radioresistance.
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Bortezomib therapeutic effect is associated with expression of FGFR3 in multiple myeloma cells.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2009
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The ectopically expressed and deregulated fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) has been observed in approximately 20% of multiple myeloma (MM) patients. In this study, we investigated whether the therapeutic effect of bortezomib is associated with FGFR3 expression.
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Phase II studies of gemcitabine and cisplatin in heavily and minimally pretreated metastatic breast cancer.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2009
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Cisplatin and gemcitabine have single-agent activity in metastatic breast cancer, and preclinical data support synergy of the combination. Two parallel, phase II trials were conducted to evaluate the response rate, response duration, and toxicities of the combination. Genetic polymorphisms were analyzed for correlation with outcomes.
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Phase I trial of GTI-2040, oxaliplatin, and capecitabine in the treatment of advanced metastatic solid tumors: a California Cancer Consortium Study.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2009
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GTI-2040 is a 20-mer antisense oligonucleotide targeting the mRNA of ribonucleotide reductase M2. It was combined with oxaliplatin and capecitabine in a phase I trial in patients with advance solid tumors based on previous studies demonstrating potentiation of chemotherapy with ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors.
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Image-guided total-marrow irradiation using helical tomotherapy in patients with multiple myeloma and acute leukemia undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2009
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Total-body irradiation (TBI) has an important role in patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but is associated with significant toxicities. Targeted TBI using helical tomotherapy results in reduced doses to normal organs, which predicts for reduced toxicities compared with standard TBI.
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Late relapses following reduced intensity allogeneic transplantation in patients with multiple myeloma: a long-term follow-up study.
Br. J. Haematol.
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We analysed the long-term outcomes of 60 multiple myeloma patients who underwent reduced intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantation between August 2000 and March 2008. Regimens included fludarabine and melphalan conditioning (flu-mel regimen) for allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) or a planned tandem regimen consisting of high-dose melphalan conditioning for autograft followed by low-dose total body irradiation conditioning for allogeneic HCT (auto-allo regimen). Donors included human-leucocyte-antigen-matched siblings (n = 55) or matched unrelated donors (n = 5). With a median follow-up of 9·8 years, 7-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 60% and 31%, respectively. By multivariate Cox regression analysis, disease status of complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) at transplant and the presence of chronic graft-versus-host disease were significantly associated with improved OS. Only disease status was significantly associated with improved PFS. We noted a surprising number of very late relapses, with six patients (10%) relapsing between 6 and 12 years post-transplant. Among the six late relapse patients, all were transplanted within 14 months of diagnosis, five had normal karyotypes, and five were in CR/PR. Our data provide additional evidence that, while survival may be extended by reduced intensity allogeneic transplant, ultimately, it may not offer a cure.
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Second primary malignancies after autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for multiple myeloma.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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Recent studies demonstrate an increased risk of second primary malignancies (SPMs) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) receiving maintenance lenalidomide after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). We explored the possibility of other risk factors driving post-ASCT SPMs in patients with MM through analysis of our large transplantation database in conjunction with our Long-Term Follow-Up Program. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 841 consecutive patients with MM who underwent ASCT at City of Hope between 1989 and 2009, as well as a nested case-control analysis evaluating the role of all therapeutic exposures before, during, and after ASCT. Median duration of follow-up for the entire cohort was 3.4 years (range, 0.3-19.9 years). Sixty cases with a total of 70 SPMs were identified. The overall cumulative incidence of SPMs was 7.4% at 5 years and 15.9% at 10 years when nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) were included and 5.3% at 5 years and 11.2% at 10 years when NMSCs were excluded. Multivariate analysis of the entire cohort revealed associations of both older age (?55 years; relative risk, 2.3; P < .004) and race (non-Hispanic white; relative risk, 2.4; P = .01) with an increased risk of SPM. Furthermore, thalidomide exposure demonstrated a trend toward increased risk (odds ratio, 3.5; P = .15); however, an insufficient number of patients were treated with lenalidomide to allow us to accurately assess the risk of this agent. Exclusion of NMSCs retained the association with these variables but was accompanied by loss of statistical significance. This large single-institution analysis identified associations between race and older age and increased risk of developing SPM. The trend toward increased risk with thalidomide exposure suggests a class effect from immunomodulatory drugs that might not be restricted to lenalidomide.
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Waldenströms macroglobulinemia/lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, version 2.2013.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw
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These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight the important updates/changes specific to the management of Waldenströms Macroglobulinemia/Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma. These include the addition of regimens containing novel agents as primary and salvage therapy options, inclusion of the updated summary of response categories and criteria from the sixth international workshop on Waldenströms Macroglobulinemia, and a section on management of peripheral neuropathy in the accompanying discussion.
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An open-label single-arm pilot phase II study (PX-171-003-A0) of low-dose, single-agent carfilzomib in patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk
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An open-label single-arm multicenter pilot phase II study of the next-generation selective proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib was conducted in 46 patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (MM) after ? 2 previous therapies. The best overall response rate (ORR) was 16.7%, with a median duration of response of 7.2 months. This pilot study was the first phase II single-agent trial conducted with carfilzomib.
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A phase 2 study of single-agent carfilzomib (PX-171-003-A1) in patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma.
Blood
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Carfilzomib is a next-generation, selective proteasome inhibitor being evaluated for the treatment of relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma. In this open-label, single-arm phase 2 study (PX-171-003-A1), patients received single-agent carfilzomib 20 mg/m(2) intravenously twice weekly for 3 of 4 weeks in cycle 1, then 27 mg/m(2) for ? 12 cycles. The primary endpoint was overall response rate (? partial response). Secondary endpoints included clinical benefit response rate (? minimal response), duration of response, progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety. A total of 266 patients were evaluable for safety, 257 for efficacy; 95% were refractory to their last therapy; 80% were refractory or intolerant to both bortezomib and lenalidomide. Patients had median of 5 prior lines of therapy, including bortezomib, lenalidomide, and thalidomide. Overall response rate was 23.7% with median duration of response of 7.8 months. Median overall survival was 15.6 months. Adverse events (AEs) were manageable without cumulative toxicities. Common AEs were fatigue (49%), anemia (46%), nausea (45%), and thrombocytopenia (39%). Thirty-three patients (12.4%) experienced peripheral neuropathy, primarily grades 1 or 2. Thirty-three patients (12.4%) withdrew because of an AE. Durable responses and an acceptable tolerability profile in this heavily pretreated population demonstrate the potential of carfilzomib to offer meaningful clinical benefit. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00511238.
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Metastatic breast cancer, version 1.2012: featured updates to the NCCN guidelines.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw
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These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight the important updates/changes specific to the management of metastatic breast cancer in the 2012 version of the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Breast Cancer. These changes/updates include the issue of retesting of biomarkers (estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) on recurrent disease, new information regarding first-line combination endocrine therapy for metastatic disease, a new section on monitoring of patients with metastatic disease, and new information on endocrine therapy combined with an mTOR inhibitor as a subsequent therapeutic option.
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Dose escalation of total marrow irradiation with concurrent chemotherapy in patients with advanced acute leukemia undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
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We have demonstrated that toxicities are acceptable with total marrow irradiation (TMI) at 16 Gy without chemotherapy or TMI at 12 Gy and the reduced intensity regimen of fludarabine/melphalan in patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). This article reports results of a study of TMI combined with higher intensity chemotherapy regimens in 2 phase I trials in patients with advanced acute myelogenous leukemia or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (AML/ALL) who would do poorly on standard intent-to-cure HCT regimens.
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CCL2 mediates cross-talk between cancer cells and stromal fibroblasts that regulates breast cancer stem cells.
Cancer Res.
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Cancer stem cells (CSC) play critical roles in cancer initiation, progression, and therapeutic refractoriness. Although many studies have focused on the genes and pathways involved in stemness, characterization of the factors in the tumor microenvironment that regulate CSCs is lacking. In this study, we investigated the effects of stromal fibroblasts on breast cancer stem cells. We found that compared with normal fibroblasts, primary cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) and fibroblasts activated by cocultured breast cancer cells produce higher levels of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), which stimulates the stem cell-specific, sphere-forming phenotype in breast cancer cells and CSC self-renewal. Increased CCL2 expression in activated fibroblasts required STAT3 activation by diverse breast cancer-secreted cytokines, and in turn, induced NOTCH1 expression and the CSC features in breast cancer cells, constituting a cancer-stroma-cancer signaling circuit. In a xenograft model of paired fibroblasts and breast cancer tumor cells, loss of CCL2 significantly inhibited tumorigenesis and NOTCH1 expression. In addition, upregulation of both NOTCH1 and CCL2 was associated with poor differentiation in primary breast cancers, further supporting the observation that NOTCH1 is regulated by CCL2. Our findings therefore suggest that CCL2 represents a potential therapeutic target that can block the cancer-host communication that prompts CSC-mediated disease progression.
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De novo sequencing of circulating miRNAs identifies novel markers predicting clinical outcome of locally advanced breast cancer.
J Transl Med
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been recently detected in the circulation of cancer patients, where they are associated with clinical parameters. Discovery profiling of circulating small RNAs has not been reported in breast cancer (BC), and was carried out in this study to identify blood-based small RNA markers of BC clinical outcome.
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Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in Asian women with breast cancer receiving anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy.
J Support Oncol
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Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) remain among the most frequently reported distressing side effects associated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy despite significant advances in antiemetic management. The main risk factor for severity of CINV is the emetogenic potential of the chemotherapeutic agents. However, patient-related risk factors have been identified, including genetic makeup. Although studies have noted that ethnicity influences nausea and vomiting in other contexts, there is a paucity of research regarding the impact of ethnicity on CINV. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether Asian women receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapy experience more CINV than non-Asians.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.