JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Effects of weight gain induced by controlled overfeeding on physical activity.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It is unclear if physical activity changes following long-term overfeeding and in response to different dietary protein intakes. Twenty-five (16M, 9F) healthy adults (18-35y) with a BMI from 19-30 kg/m(2) enrolled in this inpatient study. In a parallel group design, participants were fed 140% of energy needs with 5%, 15%, or 25% of energy from protein for 56 days. Participants wore an RT3 accelerometer for at least 59 days throughout baseline and during overfeeding and completed 24-hour whole room metabolic chamber assessments at baseline and on days 1, 14, and 56 of overfeeding; and day 57, when the baseline energy intake was consumed, to measure percent of time active and spontaneous physical activity (SPA; kcal/day). Changes in activity were also assessed by doubly labeled water (DLW). From accelerometry, vector magnitude (VM), a weight independent measure of activity, and activity energy expenditure (AEE) increased with weight gain during overfeeding. AEE remained increased after adjusting for changes in body composition. Activity related energy expenditure (AREE) from DLW and percent activity and SPA in the metabolic chamber increased with overfeeding, but SPA was no longer significant after adjusting for change in body composition. Change in VM and AEE were positively correlated with weight gain, however, change in activity was not affected by protein intake. Overfeeding produces an increase in physical activity and in energy expended in physical activity after adjusting for changes in body composition suggesting increased activity in response to weight gain might be one mechanism to support adaptive thermogenesis.
Related JoVE Video
Factors Affecting the Decline in Incidence of Diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcome Study (DPPOS).
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
During the first 7 years of the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPPOS), diabetes incidence rates when compared to DPP decreased in the placebo (PLB) (-42%) and metformin (MET) (-25%) groups compared to the rates in the intensive lifestyle (ILS) (+31%) group. Participants in PLB and MET groups were offered group ILS prior to starting DPPOS. Two hypotheses were explored to explain rate differences: 'effective intervention' (changes in weight and other factors due to ILS) and 'exhaustion of susceptibles' (changes in mean genetic and diabetes risk scores).No combination of behavioral risk factors (weight, physical activity, diet, smoking, antidepressant or statin use) explained the lower DPPOS rates of diabetes progression in PLB and MET whereas weight gain was the factor associated with higher rates in ILS. Different patterns in the average genetic risk score over time were consistent with 'exhaustion of susceptibles'.Results were consistent with 'exhaustion of susceptibles' for the change in incidence rates, but not the availability of ILS to all persons before the beginning of DPPOS. Thus, 'effective intervention' did not explain the lower diabetes rates in DPPOS among PLB and MET groups compared with DPP. ClinicalTrials.Gov: DPP - NCT00004992; DPPOS - NCT00038727.
Related JoVE Video
American association of clinical endocrinologists and american college of endocrinology consensus conference on obesity: building an evidence base for comprehensive action.
Endocr Pract
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/American College of Endocrinology "Consensus conference on obesity: building an evidence base for comprehensive action" convened March 23-25, 2014, in Washington, D.C. The premise of the conference was that by bringing together stakeholders in U.S. obesity care, representing the biomedical and public health models, new information would emerge to formulate actionable recommendations.
Related JoVE Video
FGF21 is an endocrine signal of protein restriction.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Enhanced fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) production and circulation has been linked to the metabolic adaptation to starvation. Here, we demonstrated that hepatic FGF21 expression is induced by dietary protein restriction, but not energy restriction. Circulating FGF21 was increased 10-fold in mice and rats fed a low-protein (LP) diet. In these animals, liver Fgf21 expression was increased within 24 hours of reduced protein intake. In humans, circulating FGF21 levels increased dramatically following 28 days on a LP diet. LP-induced increases in FGF21 were associated with increased phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2? (eIF2?) in the liver, and both baseline and LP-induced serum FGF21 levels were reduced in mice lacking the eIF2? kinase general control nonderepressible 2 (GCN2). Finally, while protein restriction altered food intake, energy expenditure, and body weight gain in WT mice, FGF21-deficient animals did not exhibit these changes in response to a LP diet. These and other data demonstrate that reduced protein intake underlies the increase in circulating FGF21 in response to starvation and a ketogenic diet and that FGF21 is required for behavioral and metabolic responses to protein restriction. FGF21 therefore represents an endocrine signal of protein restriction, which acts to coordinate metabolism and growth during periods of reduced protein intake.
Related JoVE Video
Medical treatment of obesity: the past, the present and the future.
Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Medications for the treatment of obesity began to appear in the late 19th and early 20th century. Amphetamine-addiction led to the search for similar drugs without addictive properties. Four sympathomimetic drugs currently approved in the US arose from this search, but may not be approved elsewhere. When noradrenergic drugs were combined with serotonergic drugs, additional weight loss was induced. At present there are three drugs (orlistat, phentermine/topiramate and lorcaserin) approved for long-term use and four sympathomimetic drugs approved by the US FDA for short-term treatment of obesity. Leptin produced in fat cells and glucagon-like peptide-1, a gastrointestinal hormone, provide a new molecular basis for treatment of obesity. New classes of agents acting on the melanocortin system in the brain or mimicking GLP-1 have been tried with variable success. Combination therapy can substantially increase weight loss; a promising approach for the future.
Related JoVE Video
An objective estimate of energy intake during weight gain using the intake-balance method.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Estimates of energy intake (EI) in humans have limited validity.
Related JoVE Video
The Look AHEAD Trial: bone loss at 4-year follow-up in type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine whether an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) designed to sustain weight loss and improve physical fitness in overweight or obese persons with type 2 diabetes was associated with bone loss after 4 years of follow-up.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of weight loss, weight cycling, and weight loss maintenance on diabetes incidence and change in cardiometabolic traits in the Diabetes Prevention Program.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study examined specific measures of weight loss in relation to incident diabetes and improvement in cardiometabolic risk factors.
Related JoVE Video
Aging and Physical Function in Type 2 Diabetes: 8 Years of an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Compared with adults without type 2 diabetes mellitus, those with the disease experience more limitations in their physical functioning (PF). Look AHEAD is a large multicenter trial that examined the effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss on cardiovascular outcomes compared with diabetes support and education (DSE). Although the current study compared treatment differences between ILI and DSE on PF, the primary goal was to examine whether this effect was moderated by age and history of cardiovascular disease at enrollment.
Related JoVE Video
Obesity favors apolipoprotein E- and C-III-containing high density lipoprotein subfractions associated with risk of heart disease.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human HDLs have highly heterogeneous composition. Plasma concentrations of HDL with apoC-III and of apoE in HDL predict higher incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD). The concentrations of HDL-apoA-I containing apoE, apoC-III, or both and their distribution across HDL sizes are unknown. We studied 20 normal weight and 20 obese subjects matched by age, gender, and race. Plasma HDL was separated by sequential immunoaffinity chromatography (anti-apoA-I, anti-apoC-III, anti-apoE), followed by nondenaturing-gel electrophoresis. Mean HDL-cholesterol concentrations in normal weight and obese subjects were 65 and 50 mg/dl (P = 0.009), and total apoA-I concentrations were 119 and 118 mg/dl, respectively. HDL without apoE or apoC-III was the most prevalent HDL type representing 89% of apoA-I concentration in normal weight and 77% in obese (P = 0.01) individuals; HDL with apoE-only was 5% versus 8% (P = 0.1); HDL with apoC-III-only was 4% versus 10% (P = 0.009); and HDL with apoE and apoC-III was 1.5% versus 4.6% (P = 0.004). Concentrations of apoE and apoC-III in HDL were 1.5-2× higher in obese subjects (P ? 0.004). HDL with apoE or apoC-III occurred in all sizes among groups. Obese subjects had higher prevalence of HDL containing apoE or apoC-III, subfractions associated with CHD, whereas normal weight subjects had higher prevalence of HDL without apoE or apoC-III, subfractions with protective association against CHD.
Related JoVE Video
Baseline adiponectin levels do not influence the response to pioglitazone in ACT NOW.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Plasma adiponectin levels are reduced in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and other insulin-resistant states. We examined whether plasma adiponectin levels at baseline and after pioglitazone treatment in impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) subjects were associated with improved insulin sensitivity (SI) and glucose tolerance status.
Related JoVE Video
Dietary sugar and body weight: have we reached a crisis in the epidemic of obesity and diabetes?: health be damned! Pour on the sugar.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sugar-sweetened drinks have been associated with several health problems. In the point narrative as presented below, we provide our opinion and review of the data to date that we need to reconsider consumption of dietary sugar based on the growing concern of obesity and type 2 diabetes. In the counterpoint narrative following our contribution, Drs. Kahn and Sievenpiper provide a defense and suggest that dietary sugar is not the culprit. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and U.S. Department of Agriculture dietary surveys along with commercial Homescan data on household purchases were used to understand changes in sugar and fructose consumption. Meta-analyses and randomized clinical trials were used to evaluate outcomes of beverage and fructose intake. About 75% of all foods and beverages contain added sugar in a large array of forms. Consumption of soft drinks has increased fivefold since 1950. Meta-analyses suggest that consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is related to the risk of diabetes, the metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Drinking two 16-ounce SSBs per day for 6 months induced features of the metabolic syndrome and fatty liver. Randomized controlled trials in children and adults lasting 6 months to 2 years have shown that lowering the intake of soft drinks reduced weight gain. Recent studies suggest a gene-SSB potential relationship. Consumption of calorie-sweetened beverages has continued to increase and plays a role in the epidemic of obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver disease. Reducing intake of soft drinks is associated with less weight gain.
Related JoVE Video
Interaction between dietary fat and exercise on excess postexercise oxygen consumption.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increased physical activity on subsequent sleeping energy expenditure (SEE) measured in a whole room calorimeter under differing levels of dietary fat. We hypothesized that increased physical activity would increase SEE. Six healthy young men participated in a randomized, single-blind, crossover study. Subjects repeated an 8-day protocol under four conditions separated by at least 7 days. During each condition, subjects consumed an isoenergetic diet consisting of 37% fat, 15% protein, and 48% carbohydrate for the first 4 days, and for the following 4 days SEE and energy balance were measured in a respiration chamber. The first chamber day served as a baseline measurement, and for the remaining 3 days diet and activity were randomly assigned as high-fat/exercise, high-fat/sedentary, low-fat/exercise, or low-fat/sedentary. Energy balance was not different between conditions. When the dietary fat was increased to 50%, SEE increased by 7.4% during exercise (P < 0.05) relative to being sedentary (baseline day), but SEE did not increase with exercise when fat was lowered to 20%. SEE did not change when dietary fat was manipulated under sedentary conditions. Physical activity causes an increase in SEE when dietary fat is high (50%) but not when dietary fat is low (20%). Dietary fat content influences the impact of postexercise-induced increases in SEE. This finding may help explain the conflicting data regarding the effect of exercise on energy expenditure.
Related JoVE Video
Update on obesity pharmacotherapy.
Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There are two groups of approved drugs that can be used to manage weight in patients with obesity: medications approved for obesity per se and medications that affect body weight for obese patients who have complications from their obesity and are receiving these medications for chronic disease management. For obesity per se, treatment is with one of the three drugs currently approved for long-term treatment of obesity or one of a few others that can be used for short-term treatment. Among these, orlistat partially blocks intestinal digestion of fat and produces weight loss of 5-8 kg but major limitations are associated gastrointestinal symptoms; lorcaserin, a serotonin-2C agonist with few side effects, produces a mean weight loss of 4-7 kg; and the combination of phentermine and topiramate (extended release) produces a mean weight loss of 8-10 kg, but should only be used after verifying a woman is not pregnant. Failure to lose more than 3% of body weight within 3 months with any of these agents should lead to reevaluation of therapy. The short-term drugs for treating obesity per se are sympathomimetics, with phentermine being most widely used. The second group of drugs is for weight-centric prescribing for patients with a chronic disease such as diabetes, depression, or psychiatric disorders. For each disorder, some drugs produce weight gain, others are weight neutral, but the best choice for these patients is the combination of drugs that treat the underlying condition and also produce weight loss.
Related JoVE Video
FTO genotype, dietary protein, and change in appetite: the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies trial.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A common obesity-risk variant rs9939609 in the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene was recently shown to affect appetite, and the gene is sensitive to the regulation of amino acids.
Related JoVE Video
Long-term impact of behavioral weight loss intervention on cognitive function.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It is unknown whether intentional weight loss provides long-term benefits for cognitive function.
Related JoVE Video
Hyperphagia: current concepts and future directions proceedings of the 2nd international conference on hyperphagia.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hyperphagia is a central feature of inherited disorders (e.g., Prader-Willi Syndrome) in which obesity is a primary phenotypic component. Hyperphagia may also contribute to obesity as observed in the general population, thus raising the potential importance of common underlying mechanisms and treatments. Substantial gaps in understanding the molecular basis of inherited hyperphagia syndromes are present as are a lack of mechanistic of mechanistic targets that can serve as a basis for pharmacologic and behavioral treatments.
Related JoVE Video
JCL roundtable: Clinical management of individuals with obesity.
J Clin Lipidol
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Our topic is the evaluation and treatment of obesity in the practice of medicine. I am joined by Dr. Harold Bays who has carried out many studies of dietary and medical interventions in patients with obesity. I am also honored to have Dr. George Bray who is known for his many years of research into causes of obesity and its therapy. Our goal is bring this clinical and research experience to bear on the office practice of medicine.
Related JoVE Video
Determinants of sedentary 24-h energy expenditure: equations for energy prescription and adjustment in a respiratory chamber.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Achieving energy balance is critical for the interpretation of results obtained in respiratory chambers. However, 24-h energy expenditure (24EE) predictions based on estimated resting metabolic rate and physical activity level are often inaccurate and imprecise.
Related JoVE Video
Variants in glucose- and circadian rhythm-related genes affect the response of energy expenditure to weight-loss diets: the POUNDS LOST Trial.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Circadian rhythm has been shown to be related to glucose metabolism and risk of diabetes, probably through effects on energy balance. Recent genome-wide association studies identified variants in circadian rhythm-related genes (CRY2 and MTNR1B) associated with glucose homeostasis.
Related JoVE Video
Treatment of the obese patient in primary care: targeting and meeting goals and expectations.
Postgrad Med
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Obesity is a serious disease associated with increased patient risk of several comorbidities, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, hypertension, some cancers, and greater mortality. Furthermore, obesity has a deleterious impact on quality of life and increases health care costs. Moderate weight loss of 5% to 10% has been shown to significantly improve several patient cardiometabolic risk factors and physical functioning, however, it is often difficult to begin the weight-loss conversation with patients. Primary care providers play a critical role in discussing the health effects of excess weight with patients, managing obesity-related comorbidities, and recommending appropriate weight-loss strategies. Open communication, realistic goal setting, and consistent monitoring are key factors in implementing an effective weight-loss program in the primary care setting. Although diet and lifestyle modifications are the first lines of approach and the foundation of any weight-loss strategy, in many cases, additional interventions may be necessary, including medical or surgical management. Herein, we discuss the approaches that primary care providers should consider when recommending appropriate weight-loss strategies for overweight/obese patients to achieve clinically meaningful weight loss, including pharmacotherapies approved for chronic management of patients with obesity, to be used as adjuncts to diet and lifestyle modifications, and surgical options.
Related JoVE Video
Prediction of diabetes based on baseline metabolic characteristics in individuals at high risk.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We examined which characteristics at baseline predicted the development of T2DM versus maintenance of IGT or conversion to normal glucose tolerance.
Related JoVE Video
IRS1 genotype modulates metabolic syndrome reversion in response to 2-year weight-loss diet intervention: the POUNDS LOST trial.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Genetic variants near IRS1 are associated with features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). We examined whether genetic variants near IRS1 might modulate the effects of diets varying in fat content on the MetS status in a 2-year weight-loss trial.
Related JoVE Video
Prevention of diabetes with pioglitazone in ACT NOW: physiologic correlates.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We examined the metabolic characteristics that attend the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in 441 impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) subjects who participated in the ACT NOW Study and had complete end-of-study metabolic measurements. Subjects were randomized to receive pioglitazone (PGZ; 45 mg/day) or placebo and were observed for a median of 2.4 years. Indices of insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index [MI]), insulin secretion (IS)/insulin resistance (IR; ?I0-120/?G0-120, ?IS rate [ISR]0-120/?G0-120), and ?-cell function (?I/?G × MI and ?ISR/?G × MI) were calculated from plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations during oral glucose tolerance tests at baseline and study end. Diabetes developed in 45 placebo-treated vs. 15 PGZ-treated subjects (odds ratio [OR] 0.28 [95% CI 0.15-0.49]; P < 0.0001); 48% of PGZ-treated subjects reverted to normal glucose tolerance (NGT) versus 28% of placebo-treated subjects (P < 0.005). Higher final glucose tolerance status (NGT > IGT > T2DM) was associated with improvements in insulin sensitivity (OR 0.61 [95% CI 0.54-0.80]), IS (OR 0.61 [95% CI 0.50-0.75]), and ?-cell function (ln IS/IR index and ln ISR/IR index) (OR 0.26 [95% CI 0.19-0.37]; all P < 0.0001). Of the factors measured, improved ?-cell function was most closely associated with final glucose tolerance status.
Related JoVE Video
Day-to-day variation in food intake and energy expenditure in healthy women: the Dietitian II Study.
J Acad Nutr Diet
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Because day-to-day food intake varies, we tested the hypothesis that ad libitum food intake and energy expenditure show corrective responses over periods of 1 to 10 days in healthy young women. Food intake and accelerometry measurements were collected daily for 17 days in 15 young women. Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) using doubly labeled water was also measured. The daily deviations in macronutrient and energy intake and energy expenditure from the average values were compared with the deviations observed over succeeding intervals to estimate the corrective responses. The intraindividual coefficients of variation for energy intake averaged ±25%, ranging from 16% to 34%. TDEE had a coefficient of variation of 8.3%, and accelerometry had a coefficient of variation of 8.4% (range=4.6% to 16.4%). Energy expenditure by accelerometry (2,087±191 kcal/day) was not significantly different from TDEE (2,128±177 kcal/day), but reported daily energy intake was 20.4% lower (1,693±276 kcal/day). There were significant corrective responses in energy from fat and total energy intake. This occurred from Days 3 to 6, with a peak at Day 5 that disappeared when data were randomized within each subject. Human beings show corrective responses to deviations from average energy and macronutrient intakes with a lag time of 3 to 6 days, but not 1 to 2 days. These corrective responses are likely to play a role in bringing about weight stability.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Anthropometric markers of obesity and mortality in white and African American adults: the pennington center longitudinal study.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine the association between anthropometric measures of obesity and all-cause mortality in white and African American men and women.
Related JoVE Video
Adipose tissue expression of Adipose (WDTC1) gene is associated with lower fat mass and enhanced insulin sensitivity in humans.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The overexpression of the adipose gene (adp/WDTC1) in mice inhibits lipid accumulation and improves the metabolic profile. OBJECTIVE: Subcutaneous fat adp expression in humans and its relation to metabolic parameters was evaluated. DESIGN, SETTING, AND METHODS: Abdominal subcutaneous fat adp expression, insulin sensitivity (clamp), and respiratory quotient (RQ; indirect calorimetry) were assessed in: 36 obese and 56 BMI-, race-, and sex-matched type 2 diabetic volunteers (Look AHEAD Adipose Ancillary Study); 37 nondiabetic Pima Indians including obese (n = 18) and nonobese (n = 19) subjects and; 62 nonobese nondiabetic subjects at the Pennington Center in the ADAPT study. RESULTS: In the Look AHEAD Study, adp expression normalized for cyclophilin B was higher in males versus females (1.27 ± 0.06 vs. 1.11 ± 0.04; P < 0.01) but not after controlling for body fat. Adp expression was not influenced by the presence of diabetes but was related to body fat (r = -0.23; P = 0.03), insulin sensitivity (r = 0.23; P = 0.03) and fasting/insulin-stimulated RQ (r = 0.31 and 0.33; P < 0.01). In Pima Indians, adp expression was also higher in males versus females (1.00 ± 0.05 vs. 0.77 ± 0.05; P = 0.02) and higher in nonobese versus obese (1.02 ± 0.05 vs. 0.80 ± 0.06; P = 0.03). In the ADAPT study, there was no difference in adp expression between males and females. CONCLUSION: Consistent with animal studies, our results suggest that high adp expression in human adipose tissue is associated with lower adiposity and enhanced glucose utilization.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of dietary composition of weight loss diets on high-sensitivity c-reactive protein: the Randomized POUNDS LOST trial.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Overweight and obesity are associated with increased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels. The purpose of this study was to determine if weight loss diets differing in fat, protein, or carbohydrate composition differentially reduce hsCRP.
Related JoVE Video
Dietary management of the metabolic syndrome - one size fits all?
Proc Nutr Soc
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diagnosis of metabolic syndrome includes a set of laboratory and physical findings, including central adiposity, elevated TAG, reduced HDL-cholesterol, hypertension and elevated fasting glucose or insulin resistance. While definitions have varied slightly, from a practical point of view, identifying dietary and lifestyle factors, including low levels of physical activity, are important in designing a diet and exercise programme that can help individuals with the metabolic syndrome to reduce the associated detrimental health consequences. Specific features of the metabolic syndrome require intervention, whether dietary or otherwise, to move towards normal ranges. It is important to remember that no one size or treatment fits all. While central obesity is perceived as the hallmark of the metabolic syndrome, other features need to be treated independently if they do not respond to lifestyle change. The future may hold treatments for the metabolic syndrome that involve modulation of inflammation.
Related JoVE Video
Intensive weight loss intervention in older individuals: results from the Action for Health in Diabetes Type 2 diabetes mellitus trial.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare the effects of 4 years of intensive lifestyle intervention on weight, fitness, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in older and younger individuals.
Related JoVE Video
Pharmacologic treatment options for obesity: what is old is new again.
Curr. Hypertens. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
After a long period of failure in development, two new medications (phentermine/topiramate ER - Qsymia™ and lorcaserin - Belviq®) have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for long-term weight management in persons with obesity (BMI ? 30 kg/m(2)) or in overweight persons (BMI ? 27 kg/m(2)) with comorbidities. Another medication, bupropion/naltrexone, is undertaking a cardiovascular outcomes trial and an analysis in 2014 will determine its approval and release. The most widely prescribed drug for obesity, phentermine, used since 1959 for short-term weight management, has been released in a new formulation. This paper reviews these new medications, and other important events in the landscape for management of obesity, with an eye to the interests of physicians who manage hypertension. All the new drugs under discussion are re-fittings of old agents or fresh approaches to old targets; thus, what is old is new again in the pharmacotherapy of obesity.
Related JoVE Video
Energy and fructose from beverages sweetened with sugar or high-fructose corn syrup pose a health risk for some people.
Adv Nutr
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sugar intake in the United States has increased by >40 fold since the American Revolution. The health concerns that have been raised about the amounts of sugar that are in the current diet, primarily as beverages, are the subject of this review. Just less than 50% of the added sugars (sugar and high-fructose corn syrup) are found in soft drinks and fruit drinks. The intake of soft drinks has increased 5-fold between 1950 and 2000. Most meta-analyses have shown that the risk of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome are related to consumption of beverages sweetened with sugar or high-fructose corn syrup. Calorically sweetened beverage intake has also been related to the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and, in men, gout. Calorically sweetened beverages contribute to obesity through their caloric load, and the intake of beverages does not produce a corresponding reduction in the intake of other food, suggesting that beverage calories are "add-on" calories. The increase in plasma triglyceride concentrations by sugar-sweetened beverages can be attributed to fructose rather than glucose in sugar. Several randomized trials of sugar-containing soft drinks versus low-calorie or calorie-free beverages show that either sugar, 50% of which is fructose, or fructose alone increases triglycerides, body weight, visceral adipose tissue, muscle fat, and liver fat. Fructose is metabolized primarily in the liver. When it is taken up by the liver, ATP decreases rapidly as the phosphate is transferred to fructose in a form that makes it easy to convert to lipid precursors. Fructose intake enhances lipogenesis and the production of uric acid. By worsening blood lipids, contributing to obesity, diabetes, fatty liver, and gout, fructose in the amounts currently consumed is hazardous to the health of some people.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic determinant for amino acid metabolites and changes in body weight and insulin resistance in response to weight-loss diets: the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST) trial.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Circulating branched-chain amino acids and aromatic amino acids were recently related to insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus in prospective cohorts. We tested the effects of a genetic determinant of branched-chain amino acid/aromatic amino acid ratio on changes in body weight and insulin resistance in a 2-year diet intervention trial.
Related JoVE Video
Short-term overeating results in incomplete energy intake compensation regardless of energy density or macronutrient composition.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the effects of overeating (140% of energy requirements) a high-fat low-energy density diet (HF/LED, 1.05 kcal/g), high-fat high-energy density diet (HF/HED, 1.60 kcal/g), and high-carbohydrate (HC) LED (1.05 kcal/g) for 2-days on subsequent 4-day energy intake (EI), activity levels, appetite, and mood.
Related JoVE Video
High-resolution identification of human adiponectin oligomers and regulation by pioglitazone in type 2 diabetic patients.
Anal. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Adiponectin is an adipokine with insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatory, and cardiac protective actions. It homo-oligomerizes into trimers, hexamers, and higher molecular weight (HMW) species, which are not fully characterized. We describe high-resolution separation of adiponectin oligomers under native conditions in polyacrylamide gel coupled with methods for producing standards to provide facile and accurate identification of the oligomers. Using these procedures, adiponectin trimers in human and rodent plasma were found to migrate as two distinct populations. Distributions of these two populations are linearly proportional in plasma from type 2 diabetic patients before (R(2)=0.903, P<0.001) and after (R(2)=0.960, P<0.0001) 12weeks of treatment with pioglitazone as well as from control subjects (R(2)=0.891, P<0.0001). In addition, HMW adiponectin could be separated into three distinct oligomers: nonamer (9mer), dodecamer (12mer), and the previously characterized octadecamer (18mer). Plasma concentrations of all oligomers increased on pioglitazone treatment, with the largest fold increase being observed in 9mers and 12mers compared with baseline. Increasing concentrations of adiponectin during oligomerization in vitro led to a disproportionate increase in 18mers. The difference between in vivo and in vitro observations suggests that higher total adiponectin protein concentration contributes to pioglitazones ability to enhance HMW adiponectin levels, but additional factors likely affect oligomer assembly or turnover independently.
Related JoVE Video
Why do we need drugs to treat the patient with obesity?
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Obesity is a public health problem, which increases the risk of chronic diseases and mortality. Weight loss can reduce mortality and improve most of the detrimental health consequences of obesity.
Related JoVE Video
Validity of the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM) for estimating energy and nutrient intake in near real-time.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Two studies are reported; a pilot study to demonstrate feasibility followed by a larger validity study. Study 1s objective was to test the effect of two ecological momentary assessment (EMA) approaches that varied in intensity on the validity/accuracy of estimating energy intake (EI) with the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM) over 6 days in free-living conditions. When using the RFPM, Smartphones are used to capture images of food selection and plate waste and to send the images to a server for food intake estimation. Consistent with EMA, prompts are sent to the Smartphones reminding participants to capture food images. During Study 1, EI estimated with the RFPM and the gold standard, doubly labeled water (DLW), were compared. Participants were assigned to receive Standard EMA Prompts (n = 24) or Customized Prompts (n = 16) (the latter received more reminders delivered at personalized meal times). The RFPM differed significantly from DLW at estimating EI when Standard (mean ± s.d. = -895 ± 770 kcal/day, P < 0.0001), but not Customized Prompts (-270 ± 748 kcal/day, P = 0.22) were used. Error (EI from the RFPM minus that from DLW) was significantly smaller with Customized vs. Standard Prompts. The objectives of Study 2 included testing the RFPMs ability to accurately estimate EI in free-living adults (N = 50) over 6 days, and energy and nutrient intake in laboratory-based meals. The RFPM did not differ significantly from DLW at estimating free-living EI (-152 ± 694 kcal/day, P = 0.16). During laboratory-based meals, estimating energy and macronutrient intake with the RFPM did not differ significantly compared to directly weighed intake.
Related JoVE Video
Drug treatment of obesity.
Psychiatr. Clin. North Am.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Both diet and medications are useful in the treatment of the obese patient. Weight loss of about 10% below baseline can be achieved with both, and there is no evidence that the composition of the diet, by itself, has any influence on weight loss. Presently only 1 drug is approved for long-term treatment of overweight patients, and its effectiveness is limited to palliation of the chronic disease of obesity. Combinations of medications and antidiabetic drugs that produce weight loss are being evaluated.
Related JoVE Video
Medications for weight reduction.
Med. Clin. North Am.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Comparatively few drugs are available for the treatment of overweight patients, and their effectiveness is limited to palliation of the chronic disease of obesity. Nevertheless, drug development that is now underway is more rapid than in the past, and we anticipate the discovery of safe and effective pharmacologic strategies for the management of obesity and its serious complications.
Related JoVE Video
Parental longevity and diabetes risk in the Diabetes Prevention Program.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Longevity clusters in families, and parental longevity may be associated with lower risk of chronic diseases in their children. It is unknown if diabetes risk is associated with parental longevity.
Related JoVE Video
Insulin receptor substrate 1 gene variation modifies insulin resistance response to weight-loss diets in a 2-year randomized trial: the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST) trial.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Common genetic variants in the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) gene have been recently associated with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. We examined whether the best-associated variant modifies the long-term changes in insulin resistance and body weight in response to weight-loss diets in Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST) trial.
Related JoVE Video
Trunk versus extremity adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors in white and African American adults.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine contributions of trunk and extremity adiposity to cardiometabolic risk factors (blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides) among white and African American adults.
Related JoVE Video
Pioglitazone for diabetes prevention in impaired glucose tolerance.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Impaired glucose tolerance is associated with increased rates of cardiovascular disease and conversion to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Interventions that may prevent or delay such occurrences are of great clinical importance.
Related JoVE Video
Ethnic-specific BMI and waist circumference thresholds.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
BMI and waist circumference (WC) are used to identify individuals with elevated obesity-related health risks. The current thresholds were derived largely in populations of European origin. This study determined optimal BMI and WC thresholds for the identification of cardiometabolic risk among white and African-American (AA) adults. The sample included 2096 white women, 1789 AA women, 1948 white men, and 643 AA men aged 18-64 years. Elevated cardiometabolic risk was defined as ?2 risk factors (blood pressure ? 130/85 mm Hg; glucose ?100 mg/dl; triglycerides ?150 mg/dl; high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol <40 mg/dl (men) or <50 mg/dl (women)). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify optimal BMI and WC thresholds in each sex-by-ethnicity group. The optimal BMI thresholds were 30 kg/m2 in white women, 32.9 kg/m2 in AA women, 29.1 kg/m2 white men, and 30.4 kg/m2 in AA men, whereas optimal WC thresholds were 91.9 cm in white women, 96.8 cm in AA women, 99.4 in white men, and 99.1 cm in AA men. The sensitivities at the optimal thresholds ranged from 63.5 to 68.5% for BMI and 68.4 to 71.0% for WC and the specificities ranged from 64.2 to 68.8% for BMI and from 68.5 to 71.0% for WC, respectively. In general, the optimal BMI and WC thresholds approximated currently used thresholds in men and in white women. There are no apparent ethnic differences in men; however, in AA women the optimal BMI and WC values are ~3 kg/m2 and 5 cm higher than in white women.
Related JoVE Video
Consistency of fat mass--fat-free mass relationship across ethnicity and sex groups.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The model developed by Forbes (1987) of how body fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) change during periods of weight loss or gain (? body weight (BW)) assumed that they change in relationship to a constant C = 10·4, where ?FFM/?BW = 10·4/(10·4+FM). Forbes derived C based on aggregated, cross-sectional data from a small sample of women. The objective of the present study was to reanalyse the relationship described by Forbes and to explore whether this relationship is consistent across ethnicity and sex groups using cross-sectional data from a large sample of white and African-American men and women. Baseline data from white and African-American men and women aged 18-60 years, who participated in a clinical study at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center since 2001 and who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans, were available for analysis. To overcome differences in BMI distributions among the ethnicity-by-sex groups, a stratified random sample of participants was selected within each group such that numbers in each BMI category ( < 25, 25-29·9, 30-34·9, 35-39·9, 40+ kg/m2) were proportional to those within the group with the smallest sample size, yielding a sample of 1953 individuals. Linear regression models assessed the FM-FFM relationship across the four ethnicity-by-sex groups. The FM-FFM relationship varied little by ethnicity (P = 0·57) or by sex (P = 0·26). The constant describing the FM-FFM relationship was estimated to be 9·7 (95 % CI 9·0, 10·3). In conclusion, results from our large, biethnic sample of men and women found a FM-FFM relationship very close to that originally described by Forbes, absent of significant variability by ethnicity or sex.
Related JoVE Video
Body image changes associated with participation in an intensive lifestyle weight loss intervention.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The primary aim of this study was to test for changes in body image in men and women enrolled in the Look AHEAD trial. Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) is a multicenter, randomized controlled trial designed to test whether intentional weight loss reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in overweight individuals with type 2 diabetes. Participants included 157 adults at one site (Pennington Biomedical Research Center (PBRC), Baton Rouge, LA) of the Look AHEAD study. At baseline, the mean BMI of the female participants was 36.4, and the mean BMI for males was 33.5. Following baseline assessment, participants were randomly assigned to the intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI, n = 81) or diabetes support and education (DSE, n = 76). The body morph assessment version 2.0 (BMA 2.0) was used to assess estimates of perceived current body size, ideal body size, acceptable body size, and body image dissatisfaction at baseline and 1 year. Over the 1 year, participants in the ILI group had significantly greater reductions in weight (10.1% for men and 8.9% for women) than those in the DSE group (+ 0.8% for men and -0.2%, for women). Perceived current body size was reduced significantly more in both men and women in the ILI group, relative to DSE. There were also significantly greater reductions in body image dissatisfaction in the ILI group, relative to the DSE group for men and women. The results of this study indicate that body image dissatisfaction improved following participation in an intensive behavioral weight loss program.
Related JoVE Video
Modulation of the BP response to diet by genes in the renin-angiotensin system and the adrenergic nervous system.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Essential hypertension results from the interaction of several genetic and environmental factors. Identification of genetic factors that modulate blood pressure (BP) response to interventions can lead to improved strategies for prevention and control. The purpose of this study was to identify genes that modulate BP response to dietary interventions.
Related JoVE Video
Medical therapy for obesity.
Mt. Sinai J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Obesity results from a prolonged small positive energy imbalance, and treatment needs to reverse this imbalance. Many different diets have been tried to treat obesity, and weight loss occurs with all of them. There is currently no evidence that supports the superiority of one macronutrient composition for diets over any other. The principal effect seems to be the degree of adherence to the prescribed calorie reduction. Obesity drugs have been developed that tap brain mechanisms for controlling feeding and the gastrointestinal tract and its peptides. Orlistat blocks intestinal lipase and produces modest weight loss. Sibutramine is a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor that has a warning on its label from the US Food and Drug Administration because of cardiovascular risk. Its marketing has been suspended in Europe. Several drug combinations are on the horizon for treatment of obesity.
Related JoVE Video
The relationship of waist circumference and BMI to visceral, subcutaneous, and total body fat: sex and race differences.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine sex and race differences in the relationship between anthropometric measurements and adiposity in white and African-American (AA) adults. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) areas were measured with computed tomography (CT). Fat mass (FM) was measured with dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationship of waist circumference (WC) and BMI to VAT, SAT, and FM within sex-by-race groups. General linear models were used to compare relationships between WC or BMI, and adiposity across sex and race, within age groups (18-39 and 40-64 years). The sample included 1,667 adults (men: 489 white; 120 AA; women: 666 white, 392 AA). WC and BMI correlations were highest for FM and SAT compared to VAT. Women had higher FM levels than men regardless of WC, but the sex difference in FM was attenuated in younger AA adults with a high BMI. For a given level of WC or BMI, women had higher levels of SAT than men; however, significant interactions indicated that the relationship was not consistent across all levels of BMI and WC. Sex and race differences in VAT varied significantly with WC and BMI. In general, white adults had higher levels of VAT than AA adults at higher levels of BMI and WC. Sex differences, and in some instances race differences, in the relationships between anthropometry and fat-specific depots demonstrate that these characteristics need to be considered when predicting adiposity from WC or BMI.
Related JoVE Video
Olfactory bulbectomy impairs the feeding response to 2-deoxy-D-glucose in rats.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An early study reported that, unlike sham-operated rats, rats made anosmic by olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) failed to compensate for the dilution of their diet with nonnutritive bulk by increasing their food intake. In the present study, the effects of a glucoprivic challenge, intraperitoneal-administered 350 mg/kg 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), on food intake were measured in OBX and sham-operated female rats. Sham-operated rats significantly increased their food intake, but in two separate experiments OBX rats displayed no increase in food intake during the first 2 h following administration. Blood glucose levels were nearly identical in both groups. Body weights and daily food intakes of OBX rats did not differ from the sham-operated controls throughout the studies. Bulbectomized rats also displayed a normal drinking response after an intraperitoneal injection of 1M hypertonic saline. Hypothalamic nuclei and the neural pathways mediating taste have been implicated in the feeding response to 2-DG. The present results suggest that olfactory input and olfactory neural pathways also mediate, at least in part, the feeding response to a glucoprivic challenge induced by intraperitoneal injection of 2-DG.
Related JoVE Video
Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), which include soft drinks, fruit drinks, iced tea, and energy and vitamin water drinks has risen across the globe. Regular consumption of SSBs has been associated with weight gain and risk of overweight and obesity, but the role of SSBs in the development of related chronic metabolic diseases, such as metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, has not been quantitatively reviewed.
Related JoVE Video
Fructose: pure, white, and deadly? Fructose, by any other name, is a health hazard.
J Diabetes Sci Technol
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The worldwide consumption of sucrose, and thus fructose, has risen logarithmically since 1800. Many concerns about the health hazards of calorie-sweetened beverages, including soft drinks and fruit drinks and the fructose they provide, have been voiced over the past 10 years. These concerns are related to higher energy intake, risk of obesity, risk of diabetes, risk of cardiovascular disease, risk of gout in men, and risk of metabolic syndrome. Fructose appears to be responsible for most of the metabolic risks, including high production of lipids, increased thermogenesis, and higher blood pressure associated with sugar or high fructose corn syrup. Some claim that sugar is natural, but natural does not assure safety.
Related JoVE Video
Bromocriptine increased operant responding for high fat food but decreased chow intake in both obesity-prone and resistant rats.
Behav. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dopamine (DA) and DA D? receptors (D2R) have been implicated in obesity and are thought to be involved in the rewarding properties of food. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are susceptible to diet induced obesity (DIO) while S5B/P (S5B) rats are resistant when given a high-fat diet. Here we hypothesized that the two strains would differ in high-fat food self-administration (FSA) and that the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differently affect their behavior. Ad-libitum fed OM and S5B/P rats were tested in a FSA operant chamber and were trained to lever press for high-fat food pellets under a fixed-ratio (FR1) and a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. After sixteen days of PR sessions, rats were treated with three different doses of BC (1, 10 and 20 mg/kg). No significant differences were found between the two strains in the number of active lever presses. BC treatment (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) increased the number of active lever presses (10 mg/kg having the strongest effect) whereas it decreased rat chow intake in the home cage with equivalent effects in both strains. These effects were not observed on the day of BC administration but on the day following its administration. Our results suggest that these two strains have similar motivation for procuring high fat food using this paradigm. BC increased operant responding for high-fat pellets but decreased chow intake in both strains, suggesting that D2R stimulation may have enhanced the motivational drive to procure the fatty food while correspondingly decreasing the intake of regular food. These findings suggest that susceptibility to dietary obesity (prior to the onset of obesity) may not affect operant motivation for a palatable high fat food and that differential susceptibility to obesity may be related to differential sensitivity to D2R stimulation.
Related JoVE Video
Obesity-resistant S5B rats showed greater cocaine conditioned place preference than the obesity-prone OM rats.
Physiol. Behav.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dopamine (DA) and the DA D2 receptor (D2R) are involved in the rewarding and conditioned responses to food and drug rewards. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are genetically prone and S5B/P rats are genetically resistant to obesity when fed a high-fat diet. We hypothesized that the differential sensitivity of these two rat strains to natural rewards may also be reflected in sensitivity to drugs of abuse. Therefore, we tested whether OM and S5B/P rats showed a differential preference to cocaine using conditioned place preference (CPP). To also evaluate whether there is specific involvement of the D2R in this differential conditioning sensitivity, we then tested whether the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differentially affect the effects of cocaine in the two strains.
Related JoVE Video
Reversal of small, dense LDL subclass phenotype by weight loss is associated with impaired fat oxidation.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Adiposity is more prevalent among individuals with a predominance of small, dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (pattern B) particles than among those with larger LDL (pattern A). We tested for differences in resting energy expenditure (REE) and respiratory quotient (RQ) in overweight men with pattern A (n = 36) or pattern B (n = 60). Men consumed a standardized isoenergetic diet for 3 weeks after which a ~9 kg weight loss was induced by caloric deficit for 9 weeks, followed by 4 weeks of weight stabilization. REE and RQ were measured by indirect calorimetry before and after weight loss. Results were analyzed separately in pattern B men who converted to pattern A (B?A; n = 35) and those who did not (B?B; n = 25). At baseline, B?B men had higher trunk fat, triacylglycerol (TG) and insulin concentrations, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)), and smaller LDL particles compared to B?A men and baseline pattern A men who remained pattern A (A?A; n = 35). REE normalized to fat-free mass did not change after weight loss. RQ decreased in A?A men, increased in B?A men, and did not change significantly in B?B men after weight loss. Calculated fat oxidation rates paralleled the RQ results. Baseline plasma TG concentrations were positively correlated with RQ and inversely correlated with the magnitude of weight loss achieved for a given prescribed energy reduction in the entire study population. Pattern B men who converted to pattern A with weight loss may have an underlying impairment in fat oxidation that predisposes to both dyslipidemia and an impaired ability to achieve weight loss by energy restriction.
Related JoVE Video
Combination drugs for treating obesity.
Curr. Diab. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although obesity is a chronic disease like hypertension and diabetes, obesity is not treated with drug combinations as are other chronic diseases. This is because orlistat and sibutramine, the two drugs approved for long-term treatment of obesity, do not result in additive weight loss when combined. This article discusses the history of combination drug therapy for treating obesity, the lessons learned from that experience, and describes the drug combinations now in development. One combination of two standardized dietary herbal supplements that result in clinically significant weight loss is also described. Obesity is poised to enter the era of combination drug therapy, as is now the routine in the treatment of other chronic diseases like hypertension and diabetes. The advent of combination drug therapy for obesity treatment offers hope for increasing the efficacy of obesity pharmacotherapy.
Related JoVE Video
Early behavioral adherence predicts short and long-term weight loss in the POUNDS LOST study.
J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The primary aim of this study was to test the association of early (first 6 months) adherence related to diet, self-monitoring, and attendance with changes in adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors. This study used data from the 24-month POUNDS LOST trial that tested the efficacy of four dietary macronutrient compositions for short-and long-term weight loss. A computer tracking system was used to record data on eight indicator variables related to adherence. Using canonical correlations at the 6 and 24 month measurement periods, early behavioral adherence was associated with changes in percent weight loss and waist circumference at 6 months (R = 0.52) and 24 months (R = 0.37), but was not associated with cardiovascular disease risk factor levels. Early dietary adherence was associated with changes in insulin at 6 months (R = 0.19), but not at 24 months (R = 0.08, ns). Early dietary adherence was not associated with changes in adiposity.
Related JoVE Video
Nonsurgical weight loss for extreme obesity in primary care settings: results of the Louisiana Obese Subjects Study.
Arch. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Effective primary care practice (PCP) treatments are needed for extreme obesity. The Louisiana Obese Subjects Study (LOSS) tested whether, with brief training, PCPs could effectively implement weight loss for individuals with a body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) of 40 to 60.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of pioglitazone on energy intake and ghrelin in diabetic patients.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To measure ghrelin and energy intake in the laboratory after pioglitazone treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Preference for a high fat diet, but not hyperphagia following activation of mu opioid receptors is blocked in AgRP knockout mice.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Activation of mu opioid receptors (MOR) makes animals hyperphagic and selectively increases their preference for a high fat diet independent of their dietary preference. The orexigenic peptide Agouti Related Peptide (AgRP) also produces hyperphagia and increased the preference for a high fat diet. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that the effect of MOR on feeding behavior will be attenuated in the absence of the orexigenic peptide AgRP. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that MOR are co-localized on AgRP neurons located in the arcuate nucleus. This finding is consistent with a role of MOR in mediating the release of AgRP. Our data also demonstrated that the wild-type (FVB) animals preferred a diet high in fat whereas the AgRP knockout (AgRP KO) mice did not. mRNA expression of MOR in the hypothalamus was not significantly different between AgRP KO mice and their wild-type control. In a dose-response experiment, the low dose (0.025 microg) of a MOR agonist, DAMGO, increased cumulative food intake in wild-type and AgRP KO mice. The low and middle (0.25 microg) dose of DAMGO significantly increased the amount of high fat diet eaten by the wild-type animals, but did not significantly change the amount of high fat diet eaten by the AgRP KO mice. The highest dose of DAMGO (2.5 microg) reduced food intake in the control and AgRP KO mice, probably due to somnolence. These data demonstrate that the increased preference for a high fat diet after stimulation of MOR is attenuated in the absence of AgRP, but the increase in food intake (i.e. hyperphagia) is not.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of adopting a vegan diet or an olestra supplementation on plasma organochlorine concentrations: results from two pilot studies.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of these studies was to evaluate the potential of some nutritional approaches to prevent or reduce the body load of organochlorines (OC) in humans. Study 1 compared plasma OC concentrations between vegans and omnivores while study 2 verified if the dietary fat substitute olestra could prevent the increase in OC concentrations that is generally observed in response to a weight-reducing programme. In study 1, nine vegans and fifteen omnivores were recruited and the concentrations of twenty-six OC (beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), p, p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p, p-DDE), p, p-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p, p-DDT), hexachlorobenzene, mirex, aldrin, alpha-chlordane, gamma-chlordane, oxychlordane, cis-nonachlor, trans-nonachlor, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) nos. 28, 52, 99, 101, 105, 118, 128, 138, 153, 156, 170, 180, 183 and 187, and aroclor 1260) were determined. In study 2, the concentrations of these twenty-six OC were measured before and after weight loss over 3 months in thirty-seven obese men assigned to one of the following treatments: standard group (33 % fat diet; n 13), fat-reduced group (25 % fat diet; n 14) or fat-substituted group (1/3 of dietary lipids substituted by olestra; n 10). In study 1, plasma concentrations of five OC compounds (aroclor 1260 and PCB 99, PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 180) were significantly lower in vegans compared with omnivores. In study 2, beta-HCH was the only OC which decreased in the fat-substituted group while increasing in the other two groups (P = 0.045). In conclusion, there was a trend toward lesser contamination in vegans than in omnivores, and olestra had a favourable influence on beta-HCH but did not prevent plasma hyperconcentration of the other OC during ongoing weight loss.
Related JoVE Video
Adipose tissue collagen VI in obesity.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Basic science studies show that the extracellular matrix of adipose tissue, mainly represented by collagen VI, is dysfunctional in obesity and contributes to the development of the metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized in humans that increased collagen VI alpha3-subunit (COL6A3) mRNA is associated with adipose tissue macrophage chemotaxis and inflammation and that weight gain is accompanied by changes in the expression of COL6A3.
Related JoVE Video
Racial differences in abdominal depot-specific adiposity in white and African American adults.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There is increasing interest in understanding racial differences in adiposity in specific body depots as a way to explain differential health risks associated with obesity.
Related JoVE Video
Overweight and obesity: the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic risk.
Clin Cornerstone
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Obesity, particularly abdominal adiposity, is increasingly recognized as a cause of elevated cardiometabolic risk--the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The predominate mechanisms appear to involve the promotion of insulin resistance, driven largely by excess free fatty acids secreted by an expanded adipose tissue mass, and the development of an inflammatory milieu due to increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines and adipokines from adipose tissue. Key proinflammatory cytokines secreted by adipocytes include tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, leptin, resistin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. All have been variously associated with hyperinsulemia, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, diabetes, and endothelial dysfunction, as well as plaque development, progression, and rupture. Adiponectin, another important adipocyte, has protective cardiometabolic actions; however, adiponectin levels decline with increasing obesity. Understanding the role of obesity in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic risk is crucial for the development of treatment strategies that will provide maximum benefit for patients with, or at risk for, type 2 DM and CVD.
Related JoVE Video
Medications for obesity: mechanisms and applications.
Clin. Chest Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Medications can significantly increase weight loss compared with placebo in most trials. In general, patients can expect a weight loss of 8% to 10% from baseline provided they adhere to the weight-loss program and take medications regularly. All medications have side effects that need to be considered before initiating treatment, however. For sibutramine, there is an increase in blood pressure and heart rate that may require discontinuation of the drug in a small percentage of patients. For orlistat, the principal side effect is gastrointestinal in origin resulting from the increased activity of the lower bowel. Cannabinoid receptor antagonists, once a promising target, are no longer under study. Other medications are in clinical trials and on their way.
Related JoVE Video
Alcohol consumption and diabetes risk in the Diabetes Prevention Program.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes in the general population, but little is known about the effects in individuals at high risk of diabetes.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.