The goal of this study was to compare the effects of before school physical activity (PA) and sedentary classroom-based (SC) interventions on the symptoms, behavior, moodiness, and peer functioning of young children (M age?=?6.83) at risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD-risk; n?=?94) and typically developing children (TD; n?=?108). Children were randomly assigned to either PA or SC and participated in the assigned intervention 31 min per day, each school day, over the course of 12 weeks. Parent and teacher ratings of ADHD symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity), oppositional behavior, moodiness, behavior toward peers, and reputation with peers, were used as dependent variables. Primary analyses indicate that the PA intervention was more effective than the SC intervention at reducing inattention and moodiness in the home context. Less conservative follow-up analyses within ADHD status and intervention groups suggest that a PA intervention may reduce impairment associated with ADHD-risk in both home and school domains; interpretive caution is warranted, however, given the liberal approach to these analyses. Unexpectedly, these findings also indicate the potential utility of a before school SC intervention as a tool for managing ADHD symptoms. Inclusion of a no treatment control group in future studies will enable further understanding of PA as an alternative management strategy for ADHD symptoms.
Plant-derived polyphenols have been shown to influence bone turnover and bone properties in the estrogen-depleted state. We used a crossover design in ovariectomized rats (n = 16 rats for each diet) to investigate the effect of supplementation of two doses each of blueberry, plum, grape, grape seed extract, and resveratrol on bone. We tested the aglycon and glucoside forms of genistein to quantify differences in efficacy on bone calcium retention. Rats were given an intravenous dose of 45Ca to prelabel bone, and bone calcium retention was assessed by urinary excretion of 45Ca:Ca ratio during an intervention period compared with nonintervention. Genistein aglycon increased bone calcium retention significantly (p<0.05) more than the glucoside (22% vs 13%, respectively). Plum extract (0.45% w/w total dietary polyphenols) and resveratrol (0.2% w/w total dietary polyphenols) were also effective, increasing bone calcium retention by 20% (p=0.0153) and 14% (p=0.0012), respectively. Several polyphenolic-rich diets improved bone calcium retention.
Mexican Americans are an understudied ethnic group for determinants of bone health, although the risk of age-related osteoporosis is high in this rapidly growing sector of the U.S. population. Thus, the objective of the present study was to establish the dietary calcium requirements for bone health in Mexican-American adolescents by measuring calcium retention calculated from balance in response to a range of dietary calcium intakes and to determine predictors of skeletal calcium retention. Adolescents aged 12-15 y were studied twice on paired calcium intakes ranging from 600 to 2300 mg/d using randomized-order, crossover 3-wk balance studies. Skeletal calcium retention was calculated as dietary calcium intake minus calcium excreted in feces and urine over the last 2 wk of balance. A linear model was developed to explain the variation in calcium retention. Boys (n = 20) were taller and had higher lean mass, usual dietary calcium intake, bone mineral content, and serum alkaline phosphatase compared with girls, whereas girls (n = 20) had higher Tanner scores and greater fat mass. Calcium retention increased with calcium intake (P < 0.0001) and did not differ by sex (P = 0.66). In boys and girls considered together, calcium intake explained 33% of the variation in calcium retention. Serum alkaline phosphatase explained an additional 11% of the variation in calcium retention. Other variables measured, including the urine N-telopeptide of type I collagen/creatinine ratio, Tanner score, serum parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D, weight, height, and body mass index, did not contribute to the variance in calcium retention. In adolescence, calcium retention in both Mexican-American boys and girls was higher than determined previously in adolescent nonHispanic white girls. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01277185.
Soluble maize fibre (SCF) has been found to significantly improve bone mineral density and strength in growing rats compared with several other novel prebiotic fibres. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of SCF on Ca absorption and retention in pubertal children by studying the potential absorption mechanisms of the intestinal microbiota. A total of twenty-four adolescent boys and girls (12-15 years) participated in two 3-week metabolic balance studies testing 0 g/d SCF (control (CON) treatment) and 12 g/d SCF (SCF treatment) in a random order by inclusion in a low-Ca diet (600 mg/d). Fractional Ca absorption was measured at the end of the two intervention periods using a dual-stable isotope method. Diet composites and faecal and urine samples were collected daily and analysed for Ca content. Ca retention was calculated as dietary Ca intake minus Ca excretion in faeces and urine over the last 2 weeks. Microbial community composition in the faecal samples collected at the beginning and end of each session was determined by 454 pyrosequencing of the PCR-amplified 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Fractional Ca absorption was 12 % higher (41 mg/d) after the SCF treatment compared with that after the CON treatment (0·664 (sd 0·129) and 0·595 (sd 0·142), respectively; P= 0·02), but Ca retention was unaffected. The average proportion of bacteria of the phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly greater in the participants after the SCF treatment than after the CON treatment. These results suggest that moderate daily intake of SCF, a well-tolerated prebiotic fibre, increases short-term Ca absorption in adolescents consuming less than the recommended amounts of Ca.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. Much data has linked the etiology of PD to a variety of environmental factors. The majority of cases are thought to arise from a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. Chronic exposures to dietary factors, including meat, have been identified as potential risk factors. Although heterocyclic amines that are produced during high-temperature meat cooking are known to be carcinogenic, their effect on the nervous system has yet to be studied in depth. In this study, we investigated neurotoxic effects of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a highly abundant heterocyclic amine in cooked meat, in vitro. We tested toxicity of PhIP and the two major phase I metabolites, N-OH-PhIP and 4'-OH-PhIP, using primary mesencephalic cultures from rat embryos. This culture system contains both dopaminergic and nondopaminergic neurons, which allows specificity of neurotoxicity to be readily examined. We find that exposure to PhIP or N-OH-PhIP is selectively toxic to dopaminergic neurons in primary cultures, resulting in a decreased percentage of dopaminergic neurons. Neurite length is decreased in surviving dopaminergic neurons. Exposure to 4'-OH-PhIP did not produce significant neurotoxicity. PhIP treatment also increased formation of oxidative damage markers, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and 3-nitrotyrosine in dopaminergic neurons. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine was protective. Finally, treatment with blueberry extract, a dietary factor with known antioxidant and other protective mechanisms, prevented PhIP-induced toxicity. Collectively, our study suggests, for the first time, that PhIP is selectively toxic to dopaminergic neurons likely through inducing oxidative stress.
Obesity has been associated with low diet quality and the suboptimal intake of food groups and nutrients. Two composite diet quality measurement tools are appropriate for Americans 2-18 years old: the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2005 and the Revised Childrens Diet Quality Index (RC-DQI). The five components included in both indexes are fruits, vegetables, total grains, whole grains, and milk/dairy. Component scores ranged from 0 to 5 or 0 to 10 points with lower scores indicating suboptimal intake. To allow direct comparisons, one component was rescaled by dividing it by 2; then, all components ranged from 0 to 5 points. The aim of this study was to directly compare the scoring results of these five components using dietary data from a nationally representative sample of children (NHANES 2003-2006, N = 5,936). Correlation coefficients within and between indexes showed less internal consistency in the HEI; age- and ethnic-group stratified analyses indicated higher sensitivity of the RC-DQI. HEI scoring was likely to dichotomize the population into two groups (those with 0 and those with 5 points), while RC-DQI scores resulted in a larger distribution of scores. The scoring scheme of diet quality indexes for children results in great variation of the outcomes, and researchers must be aware of those effects.
Dietary fiber (DF) intake in American children is suboptimal, increasing the risk of GI distress and contributing to poor diet quality. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of introducing two high-fiber snacks per day on gastrointestinal function as well as nutrient and food group intake in healthy children ages 7-11 years old.
The purpose of this repeated exposure, randomized, cross-over quasi-experimental study was to determine the individual and combined impact of (a) the timing of serving dessert and (b) portion size of main course in 2-5 year old children (n=23) on energy intake at lunch in a childcare setting. Children were served two study lunches (fish or pasta, each with dessert) twice a week for 12 weeks that differed in the timing of dessert (served with or after the main course) and portion size of the main course (reference portion or 50% larger portion). Analyses of variance revealed that serving dessert after the meal resulted in higher energy intakes from both the main course and from dessert, and therefore greater total intake at the meal. Portion size of the main course did not influence total energy intake at the meal. Results indicate that the timing of serving dessert affects childrens energy intake regardless of the portion size of the main course. Specifically, serving dessert with the meal reduces total energy intake regardless of the main course portion size. This suggests that offering dessert with the main course may be an effective strategy for decreasing total energy intake at meals in preschool-aged children.
Previously, we showed that black girls retained more calcium than white girls did and that salt loading negatively affected calcium retention. Racial differences likely exist in other bone minerals also, such as magnesium, in response to salt loading during growth.
Adolescence is a time for rapid growth that represents an opportunity to influence peak bone mass. Prebiotic agents, such as galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), increase Ca absorption in animal models and postmenopausal women. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the dose-response relationship of GOS supplementation on Ca absorption during growth and to assess changes in colonic microbiota to better understand the mechanism by which GOS is acting. A total of thirty-one healthy adolescent girls aged 10-13 years consumed smoothie drinks twice daily with 0, 2·5 or 5 g GOS for three 3-week periods in a random order. Fractional Ca absorption was determined from urinary Ca excretion over 48 h at the end of each 3-week period using a dual stable isotope method. Faecal microbiota and bifidobacteria were assessed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative PCR. Fractional Ca absorption after the 48 h treatment with control, 5 and 10 g GOS/d was 0·393 (SD 0·092), 0·444 (SD 0·086) and 0·419 (SD 0·099), respectively. Significant improvements in Ca absorption were seen with both low and high doses of GOS compared with the control (P,0·02), but itwas not a dose-response relationship. The increase in absorption was greatest in the urine collected after 24 h, which is consistent with lower gut absorption. Faecal bifidobacteria increased (control 10·89 (SD 13·86), 5 g GOS 22·80 (SD 15·74) and 10 g GOS 11·54 (SD 14·20)) with the GOS treatment (P,0·03). The results suggest that daily consumption of 5 g GOS increases Ca absorption, which may be mediated by the gut microbiota, specifically bifidobacteria.
Food insecurity is associated with decreased nutrient intake and poor health and possibly low bone mass in children. The purpose of this study was to formally investigate the relationship of diet, bone mass, and food insecurity among children aged 8-19 y (n = 5270). The data used in this cross-sectional study were drawn from children participating in the NHANES 2001-2004. Data were collected from homes and NHANES mobile examination centers across the United States. Food security status was classified using the US Childrens Food Security Scale and the US Household Food Security Scale. Dietary measures were quantified by 24-h dietary recall and bone mineral content (BMC) was determined with whole body DXA. Results indicated that males 8-11 y from households with food insecurity among children were 2.5 times [OR = 2.5 (95% CI = 1.1-5.8)] more likely to have fewer than the USDA Food Guide recommended servings of dairy foods, 2.3 times [OR = 2.3 (95% CI = 1.3-4.0)] more likely to have less than the estimated average requirement for calcium intake, and more likely to have a significantly lower estimated total body (P = 0.04), trunk (P = 0.05), lumbar spine (P = 0.02), pelvis (P = 0.05), and left arm (P = 0.05) BMC compared with males 8-11 y old from households with food security among children. Calcium-related dietary factors and BMC did not differ among females by food security status. These results are evidence that health disparities persist among 8- to 11-y-old, food-insecure boys. Successful interventions to improve diet and bone health and reduce food insecurity among children are a continuing need in the United States.
Beverage consumption has been implicated in weight gain, but questions remain about the veracity of the association, whether the relationship is causal and what property of beverages is responsible. It was hypothesized that food form is the most salient attribute. Thus, a randomized controlled trial of food form was conducted. Energy-matched beverage or solid forms of fruits and vegetables were provided to 34, lean or overweight/obese adults for two 8-week periods with a 3-week washout interspersed. Dietary compensation was incomplete (beverage 53%; solid 78%) and body weight increased after the beverage (1.95 ± 0.33 kg) (77% fat mass) and solid (1.36 ± 0.30 kg) (85% fat mass) treatments (both P < 0.0005). Differences between food forms were not significant. The lean group had the highest dietary compensation (119%) and no significant weight change (0.84 ± 0.53 kg) after consuming the solid fruits and vegetables whereas the overweight/obese group had lower compensation and significant weight gain during the solid arm (46%, 1.77 ± 0.32 kg, P < 0.0001). In contrast, incomplete dietary compensation and weight gain occurred in both the lean (43%, 1.61 ± 0.44 kg, P = 0.003) and overweight/obese (61%, 2.22 ± 0.47 kg, P < 0.0005) groups during the beverage arm. Secondary analyses revealed the obese group gained more weight than the lean and overweight groups during the beverage intervention (P = 0.024). These data demonstrate energy consumed as beverages may be especially problematic for weight gain. They also indicate that advice to increase fruit and vegetable consumption should emphasize total energy intake because the additional energy contributed may promote weight gain, especially among overweight and obese individuals.
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS), prebiotic nondigestible oligosaccharides derived from lactose, have the potential for improving mineral balance and bone properties. This study examined the dose-response effect of GOS supplementation on calcium and magnesium absorption, mineral retention, bone properties, and gut microbiota in growing rats. Seventy-five 4-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into one of five treatment groups (n = 15/group) and fed a diet containing 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8% GOS by weight for 8 weeks. Dietary GOS significantly decreased cecal pH and increased cecal wall weight and content weight in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.0001). Fingerprint patterns of the 16S rRNA gene PCR-DGGE from fecal DNA indicated the variance of bacterial community structure, which was primarily explained by GOS treatments (p = 0.0001). Quantitative PCR of the samples revealed an increase in the relative proportion of bifidobacteria with GOS (p = 0.0001). Net calcium absorption was increased in a dose-response manner (p < 0.01) with GOS supplementation. Dietary GOS also increased (p < 0.02) net magnesium absorption, femur ??Ca uptake, calcium and magnesium retention, and femur and tibia breaking strength. Distal femur total and trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and area and proximal tibia vBMD increased (p < 0.02) with GOS supplementation. Trabecular-rich bones, that is, those that rapidly turn over, were most benefited. Regression modeling showed that GOS benefited calcium and magnesium utilization and vBMD through decreased cecal pH, increased cecal wall and content weight, and increased proportion of bifidobacteria.
The acute and chronic host tissue response to synthetic and biologic mesh devices for abdominal hernia repair is thought to ultimately determine clinical outcomes such as adhesion formation, device shrinkage, cellular response, and neotissue formation. A meta-analysis of 38 publications was performed to assess these outcomes in six different treatment groups depending on mesh composition: polypropylene (PP), PP in combination with nonabsorbable polymers, PP in combination with absorbable polymers, non-PP polymers, non-PP in combination with absorbable polymers, and natural materials. Despite showing the least device shrinkage, meshes made entirely from PP generally showed the most adverse host tissue response. PP devices with an absorbable component elicited a more beneficial host response with respect to connective tissue adhesion and tissue inflammation than devices made from PP alone. These devices also provided a high level of mechanical stability resulting in a reduced level of adhesion formation and device shrinkage postapplication. However, the compositional heterogeneity within certain groups, that is, devices of non-PP polymers, non-PP in combination with absorbable polymers, and natural materials, did not allow for a more detailed evaluation or the identification of a single composition with superior host tissue response characteristics.
To evaluate the relationship between facultative skin pigmentation, which predicts circulating levels of plasma 25-hydroxymitamin D, and several measures of bone mass and structure in a cross sectional sample of adolescent females living in Hawaii.
In healthy adolescents, cross-sectional studies show either no or negative relationships between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and calcium (Ca) absorption. Using a 2-period metabolic balance study, the effect of vitamin D supplementation on Ca absorption and retention in adolescent girls was investigated. Eleven girls aged 12-14 y with a mean entry serum 25(OH)D of 35.1 nmol/L consumed a controlled intake (providing 5 ?g vitamin D and 1117 mg Ca/d) for two 3-wk metabolic balance periods separated by a 1-wk washout period. Sunlight exposure was minimized by sunscreen with a sun protection factor ? 15. After the first metabolic balance period, participants received 25 ?g/d cholecalciferol supplementation for 4 wk. Fractional Ca absorption was measured in each metabolic balance period using a stable Ca isotope method. All urine and fecal samples were collected and analyzed to measure net Ca absorption and Ca retention. Paired t tests and correlations were used to analyze the data. Daily supplementation with 25 ?g vitamin D resulted in a mean increase in serum 25(OH)D of 13.3 nmol/L (P < 0.01) but a decrease in fractional Ca absorption of 8.3% (P < 0.05) and no significant change in fasting serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, net Ca absorption, or Ca skeletal retention. In pubertal girls with vitamin D status considered insufficient in adults, vitamin D supplementation of 25 ?g/d for 4 wk did not improve fractional Ca absorption, net Ca absorption, or Ca retention.
In adults, maximal suppression of serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) has commonly been used to determine the sufficiency of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. In children and adolescents, the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and PTH is less clear and most studies reporting a relationship are derived from relatively small samples and homogeneous cohorts. Our objective was to determine the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and PTH in children and adolescents from a large and diverse U.S. cohort and to identify a point of inflection of serum 25(OH)D for maximal suppression of serum PTH. Data from 735 participants, ages 7-18 y, were pooled from 3 study sites located in Indiana, Texas, and Massachusetts. A two-phase linear spline was used to model the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and PTH. The value of serum 25(OH)D for maximal suppression of serum PTH was identified as the inflection point of the spline. Before adjustment for site, the inflection point of serum 25(OH)D for maximal suppression of serum PTH was 92.4 nmol/L (95% CI: 62.2, 130.7). After adjusting for site, the point of inflection was poorly defined and the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and PTH appeared to be linear. The lack of an inflection point of serum 25(OH)D for maximal suppression of PTH brings into question the value of using maximal suppression of serum PTH as a basis for determining optimal serum 25(OH)D for healthy children and adolescents.
The World Health Organization recommends serum ferritin concentrations as the best indicator of iron deficiency (ID). Unfortunately, ferritin increases with infections; hence, the prevalence of ID is underestimated.
Cataract-related loss of vision affects large numbers of people in todays aging populations and presents a healthcare burden to many nations. The role of dietary supplements within the lens is largely unknown, although benefits from dietary anti-oxidants are expected. In this study, the effects of genistein as its aglycone, a genistein-containing dietary supplement (Novasoy(®)200), and a genistein-containing food (soy protein isolate, PRO-FAM 932) on the development of lens opacity were examined in the hereditary cataractous ICR/f rat. These studies were carried out in a background diet of semi-purified, isoflavone-free AIN-76A with casein as its protein source. The amount of genistein for the experimental diets was standardized to its concentration (as genistein aglycone as well as simple and complex ?-glucoside conjugates) in the soy protein isolate supplement. Also tested was a high-dose genistein diet containing an 11-fold higher amount of genistein aglycone. The composition of each diet was verified by reverse-phase HPLC and blood plasma isoflavone concentrations were determined by LC-tandem mass spectrometry. The development of opacity in each lens was monitored and digitally recorded using slit-lamp examination over the course of the study. Each of the genistein-containing diets caused a significantly more rapid development of fibrous opacification in the anterior cortical region and development of apparent water clefts or vacuoles in the posterior subcapsular region than the AIN-76A control diet; however, the establishment of dense lens opacification was not significantly different between each of the diets. There was also no significant difference observed between the low-dose and high-dose genistein aglycone groups. These data suggest that genistein-containing dietary supplements accelerate the early stages of cataractogenesis in the male ICR/f rat, with no dose-dependent effects.
Calcium requirements of North American adolescents were set at 1300 mg/day based on data from white girls. Calcium requirements for Asian-American adolescents have not been studied. Using metabolic balance protocols and a range in calcium intakes, skeletal calcium retention was determined in Chinese-American adolescents. A sample of 29 adolescents, 15 boys aged 12 to 15 years and 14 girls aged 11 to 15 years, was studied twice on paired calcium intakes ranging between 629 to 1835 mg/day using a randomized-order crossover design. Calcium absorption and bone turnover rates using double-stable calcium isotope kinetic analysis on two calcium intakes per subject were measured and compared in boys and girls. Girls and boys had low habitual mean calcium intakes of 648 and 666 mg/day, respectively, and low mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of 19.1 and 22.2 ng/mL, respectively. True fractional calcium absorption varied inversely with calcium load. Boys had significantly higher bone turnover rate than girls at the same calcium intake. Calcium retention increased with calcium intake; calcium intakes to achieve maximal calcium retention were 1100 mg/day in boys and 970 mg/day in girls. Recommendations for calcium requirements should be lowered for Chinese-American adolescents.
Food insecurity, a condition of low or very low food security, is associated with decreased nutrient intake and poor health, which can lead to nutrient deficiency in children, including iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia.
The (12)C/(13)C abundance ratio in ethane in the atmosphere of Titan has been measured at 822 cm(-1) from high spectral resolution ground-based observations. The value, 89(8), coincides with the telluric standard and also agrees with the ratio seen in the outer planets. It is almost identical to the result for ethane on Titan found by the composite infrared spectrometer (CIRS) on Cassini. The (12)C/(13)C ratio for ethane is higher than the ratio measured in atmospheric methane by Cassini/Huygens GCMS, 82.3(1), representing an enrichment of (12)C in the ethane that might be explained by a kinetic isotope effect of approximately 1.1 in the formation of methyl radicals. If methane is being continuously resupplied to balance photochemical destruction, then we expect the isotopic composition in the ethane product to equilibrate at close to the same (12)C/(13)C ratio as that in the supply. The telluric value of the ratio in ethane then implies that the methane reservoir is primordial.
Urinary excretion of bone labels can be used to monitor bone resorption. Here we investigate the effects of dosing frequency on label incorporation of various sites when bone turnover was perturbed by ovariectomy. We compared tritiated tetracycline ((3)H-TC) and (45)Ca in two studies. Nine-month-old rats were given single or multiple injections of (3)H-TC and (45)Ca and sacrificed after 7 or 14 days. Six-month-old OVX rats were given (3)H-TC and (41)Ca tracers 1 or 3 months following ovariectomy (OVX + 1 mo or OVX + 3 mo, when bone turnover was higher or lower, respectively) and sacrificed 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, or 6 months postdose. Twenty-four-hour urine pools over 2-4 consecutive days as well as the proximal tibia, femur midshaft, lumbar vertebrae (L1-L4), and remaining skeleton were analyzed for (3)H, (45)Ca, and calcium content. Bone turnover as assessed by urinary (3)H-TC was greater in OVX + 1 mo compared to OVX + 3 mo rats up to 6 months postdose. (45)Ca labeling efficiency (% dose/g Ca) was significantly higher than for (3)H and labeling was higher in trabecular-rich than cortical-rich bone. This study affirms that a single administration of either (3)H-TC or (45)Ca is a useful approach to measuring bone turnover directly. The amount of label incorporation into bone was greater in bone sites that were more metabolically active and in all sites when closer vs farther from OVX.
Although thirst and hunger have historically motivated drinking and feeding, respectively, the high and increasing consumption of energy-yielding beverages and energy-diluted foods may have degraded the predictive value of these sensations on ingestive behavior. Our within subject (ie, multiple responses from the same individuals), observational (ie, free-living, with no intervention) study explored the relationships between thirst, hunger, eating, and drinking patterns in 50 weight-stable adults (39 women and 11 men aged 30+/-11 years with body mass index 26.3+/-5.9). Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were obtained for a consecutive 7-day period. Appetite ratings were recorded hourly, over the same time period, and correlated with hourly energy and fluid intake from food and beverages. Thirst ratings were not correlated with drinking (r=0.03) or energy intake (r=0.08) during the same hour over the 7-day period. Hunger ratings were significantly, albeit moderately, correlated with energy intake (r=0.30) (P<0.05), but not with drinking (r=0.04). On average, 75% of total fluid intake was consumed during periprandial events. Further, energy-yielding beverages were the main contributor to fluid intake during both periprandial and drink-only events. These data fail to reveal associations between either thirst or hunger and ingestion of energy-yielding beverages, or strong associations between hunger and eating or thirst and drinking. These data raise questions about the predictive power of appetitive sensations for ingestive behavior.
Recently, macrophages have been characterized as having an M1 or M2 phenotype based on receptor expression, cytokine and effector molecule production, and function. The effects of macrophage phenotype upon tissue remodeling following the implantation of a biomaterial are largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of a cellular component within an implanted extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffold upon macrophage phenotype, and to determine the relationship between macrophage phenotype and tissue remodeling. Partial-thickness defects in the abdominal wall musculature of Sprague-Dawley rats were repaired with autologous body wall tissue, acellular allogeneic rat body wall ECM, xenogeneic pig urinary bladder tissue, or acellular xenogeneic pig urinary bladder ECM. At 3, 7, 14, and 28 days the host tissue response was characterized using histologic, immunohistochemical, and RT-PCR methods. The acellular test articles were shown to elicit a predominantly M2 type response and resulted in constructive remodeling, while those containing a cellular component, even an autologous cellular component, elicited a predominantly M1 type response and resulted in deposition of dense connective tissue and/or scarring. We conclude that the presence of cellular material within an ECM scaffold modulates the phenotype of the macrophages participating in the host response following implantation, and that the phenotype of the macrophages participating in the host response appears to be related to tissue remodeling outcome.
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are given calcium carbonate to bind dietary phosphorus, reduce phosphorus retention, and prevent negative calcium balance; however, data are limited on calcium and phosphorus balance during CKD to support this. Here, we studied eight patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate 36 ml/min) who received a controlled diet with or without a calcium carbonate supplement (1500 mg/day calcium) during two 3-week balance periods in a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over design. All feces and urine were collected during weeks 2 and 3 of each balance period and fasting blood, and urine was collected at baseline and at the end of each week. Calcium kinetics were determined using oral and intravenous (45)calcium. Patients were found to be in neutral calcium and phosphorus balance while on the placebo. Calcium carbonate supplementation produced positive calcium balance, did not affect phosphorus balance, and produced only a modest reduction in urine phosphorus excretion compared with placebo. Calcium kinetics demonstrated positive net bone balance but less than overall calcium balance, suggesting soft-tissue deposition. Fasting blood and urine biochemistries of calcium and phosphate homeostasis were unaffected by calcium carbonate. Thus, the positive calcium balance produced by calcium carbonate treatment within 3 weeks cautions against its use as a phosphate binder in patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD, if these findings can be extrapolated to long-term therapy.
In the past decade, the proportion snacking has increased. Snack foods consumed are predominantly not nutritious foods. One potential venue to increase childrens diet quality is to offer healthy snack foods and we explored if shaped snack foods would lead to increased consumption.
Research suggests that changes in leucine oxidation (leuox) with feeding may reflect adult protein requirements. We evaluated this possibility by assessing the effects of age, sex, and different protein intakes on whole-body leucine kinetics and nitrogen balance. Thirty-four young (n=18, 22-46 years) and old (n=16, 63-81 years) men and women completed three 18-day trials with protein intakes of 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 g protein·kg body weight(-1)·d(-1). Fasting and fed-state leucine kinetics were quantified on day 12 of each trial using a primed, constant infusion of L-[1-13C]leucine. Protein requirement was estimated using classical nitrogen balance measurements and calculations. Leucine kinetics parameters were influenced by age and sex across all protein intakes. With feeding, leuox increased more in old vs. young adults. Independent of age, fasting and fed-state leuox were lower, and net leucine balance (fasting+fed-state) was higher in women vs. men. Among all subjects and protein intakes, nitrogen balance was correlated with fed-state leuox (r=0.39), fed-state leucine balance (r=0.60), net leucine balance (r=0.49) and the change in leuox from the fasting to fed state (r=0.49) (P<.05 for all results). At the highest protein intake, the change in leuox with feeding was inversely correlated with protein requirement (r=-0.39). These findings indicate that leucine kinetics, especially leuox, reflect nitrogen balance-based estimates of the need for dietary protein and generally support the view that protein requirement is comparable between young and old adults.
Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25 (OH) D] is common in healthy children particularly in blacks. However, serum 25 (OH) D concentrations for optimal bone turnover in children is unknown and few data exist that describe effects of increasing serum 25 (OH) D on bone turnover markers during puberty. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between serum 25 (OH) D and changes in serum 25 (OH) D and bone turnover in white and black pubertal adolescents. Bone turnover markers were measured in 318 healthy boys and girls from Georgia (34°N) and Indiana (40°N) who participated in a study of oral vitamin D(3) supplementation (0 to 4000 IU/d). Serum 25 (OH) D, osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, and urine N-telopeptide cross-links were measured at baseline and 12 weeks. Relationships among baseline 25 (OH) D and bone biomarkers, and between changes over 12 weeks were determined and tested for effects of race, sex, latitude, and baseline 25 (OH) D. Median 25 (OH) D was 27.6 ng/mL (n=318, range 10.1-46.0 ng/mL) at baseline and 34.5 ng/mL (n=302, range 9.7-95.1 ng/mL) at 12 weeks. Neither baseline nor change in 25 (OH) D over 12 weeks was associated with bone turnover. The lack of association was not affected by race, sex, latitude, or baseline serum 25 (OH) D. Serum 25 (OH) D in the range of 10-46 ng/mL appears to be sufficient for normal bone turnover in healthy black and white pubertal adolescents.
Our purpose in the current study was to examine whether children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comparison children, if adequately motivated, are able to purposefully match their teachers ratings of competence in multiple domains and whether any reductions in self-perceptual bias normalize self-views in relation to comparison childrens self-perceptions.
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